WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Fenología de la floración de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in Bahía Blanca city (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la floración de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de Bahía [...] Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in Bahía Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

2

Primer registro de Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae para Centroamérica First record of Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae in Central America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para Centroamérica Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae, se proporciona una detallada redescripción de la especie tal como existe en la región y se comentan aspectos del hábitat y fenología.Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae is recorded for the first time from Central America. A detailed redescription of the species, as it exists in the region, and aspects of its habitat and phenology are provided.

José L. Linares

2005-06-01

3

Primer registro de Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae) para Centroamérica / First record of Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae) in Central America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se registra por primera vez para Centroamérica Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae), se proporciona una detallada redescripción de la especie tal como existe en la región y se comentan aspectos del hábitat y fenología. [...] Abstract in english Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae) is recorded for the first time from Central America. A detailed redescription of the species, as it exists in the region, and aspects of its habitat and phenology are provided. [...

José L., Linares.

4

Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae) y Pilocarpus racemosus var. racemosus (Rutaceae), nuevos registros para la flora de Chiapas, México / Ulmus ismaelis (Ulmaceae) and Pilocarpus racemosus var. racemosus (Rutaceae), new records for the flora of Chiapas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se registran Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae) y Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. var. racemosus (Rutaceae) como nuevas contribuciones para la flora de Chiapas, el segundo se trata de un nuevo registro de género para el estado y de una variedad para Mesoamérica. La distribución de las especies en [...] fatiza la existencia de afinidades florísticas en los bosques del sur de México con los del Centro y Sudamérica. Abstract in english Ulmus ismaelis Todzia et Panero (Ulmaceae) and Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. var. racemosus (Rutaceae) are reported as new records for Chiapas; the latter is the first report for the genus in Chiapas and a variety for Mesoamerica. The geographical distribution of this species emphasizes the floristic r [...] elationship between the southern forests of Mexico and those of Central America.

Angelita, López-Cruz; Héctor, Gómez-Domínguez; Miguel Ángel, Pérez-Farrera; J. Anahí, Espinoza-Jiménez.

5

Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods might be identified to an infrageneric category, selected wood anatomical features of 21 extant species of Ulmus are summarized to evaluate whether any sections within the genus have distinctive anatomy. Porosity type in extant Ulmus is related to leaf longevity; extant evergreen species are diffuse porous and have relatively narrow rays. Other extant Ulmus species are deciduous and predominantly ring porous, only rarely semi-ring porous, with clustered latewood vessels that are tangentially arranged. Sometimes earlywood characteristics have systematic value and allow recognition of groups. However, in some species earlywood characteristics are variable, apparently being much affected by growing conditions. Eastern U.S. species belonging to Sections Chaetoptelea and Trichoptelea of Subgenus Oreoptelea consistently have thick-walled fibers, single rows of small-medium diameter earlywood vessels, and little difference between the diameters of the solitary earlywood vessels and latewood vessels. The late Eocene Ulmus woodii sp. nov. shares more features with this group than any other. Another of these late Post Eocene woods is referable to Ulmus danielii, a species previously known only from the Middle Eocene Clarno Formation. A third fossil wood type resembles diffuse porous Ulmus, but its lower preservational quality obscures some diagnostic features and precludes secure assignment.

Wheeler E A

2007-12-01

6

Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly Ulmus pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the extent of genetic diversity among 53 U. pumila accessions collected throughout the People's Republic of China. Using 23 microsatellite loci recently developed in the genus Ulmus, a total of 94 alleles were identified in 15 polymorphic and 4 monomorphic loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.9, with a range of 1-11 alleles. Gene diversity estimates per locus ranged from 0.08 to 0.87, and the non-exclusion probability for the 15 polymorphic loci combined was 0.7 x 10(-9). Nineteen region-specific alleles were identified, and regional gene diversity estimates were moderately high (0.48-0.57). The genetic relationships among accessions and regions were estimated by UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis. Both techniques discriminated all accessions and regions. Two microsatellite markers (UR175 + UR123 or Ulm-3) were sufficient to discriminate up to 99.7% of the accessions studied. This research provides useful information for DNA-based fingerprinting, breeding, ecological studies, and diversity assessment of elm germplasm. PMID:18545273

Zalapa, Juan E; Brunet, Johanne; Guries, Raymond P

2008-07-01

7

The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 ?M, 50 ?M and 90 ?M. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

?uki? Matilda

2014-01-01

8

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in suspension cultures of Ulmus pumila and U. campestris treated with spores of Ceratocystis ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell suspension cultures of a Ceratocystis ulmi-resistant (Ulmus pumila) and a -susceptible elm (U.campestris) were established from leaf callus tissue. Treatment of cultures with spores of C.ulmi induced a large increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase, only in the cells of the resistant species U.pumila with a maximum after 24 h. Inoculated U.pumila cells also excreted a red unidentified chemical into the culture medium. Neither responses were induced in inoculated U.campestris cultures. The results are discussed in relation to the development of the elm cell culture system as a model for studying the differential biochemical mechanisms of disease resistance in elms. PMID:24196299

Corchete, M P; Diez, J J; Valle, T

1993-12-01

9

Stem Weight Ratios of Siberian Elm (Ulmus Pumila L.) Grown as a Short Rotation Crop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) is a fast growing tree which has not been studied extensively for short rotation crop (SRC) purposes. Seedlings were planted in Madrid (Spain) in the year 2000 at a density of 1 plant/m{sup 2}. Trials were carried out in order to evaluate the biomass production in high-density plantations. The plantation was cut after the fourth growing season and evaluated for height, diameter, and dry weight. The same measurements were repeated for the sprouts of the 1st and 2nd year that followed. The mean biomass yield after 4 years was 101.6 g dw/m{sup 2} year-1; 269 g dw /m{sup 2} for 1-year-old sprouts and 480.4 g dw /m{sup 2} for 2-year-old sprouts. Correlations between height and basal diameter with dry weight were calculated for each year. There was a close correlation between the 4th year original plant weight and the 1-year-old sprouts but less than with the 2nd year. Water efficiency for biomass production was higher during the 2nd sprouting cycle.

Iriarte, Leyre; Fernandez, Jesus [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Produccion Vegetal

2006-07-15

10

Phenological responses of Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) to climate change in the temperate zone of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using Ulmus pumila (Siberian Elm) leaf unfolding and leaf fall phenological data from 46 stations in the temperate zone of China for the period 1986-2005, we detected linear trends in both start and end dates and length of the growing season. Moreover, we defined the optimum length period during which daily mean temperature affects the growing season start and end dates most markedly at each station in order to more precisely and rationally identify responses of the growing season to temperature. On average, the growing season start date advanced significantly at a rate of -4.0 days per decade, whereas the growing season end date was delayed significantly at a rate of 2.2 days per decade and the growing season length was prolonged significantly at a rate of 6.5 days per decade across the temperate zone of China. Thus, the growing season extension was induced mainly by the advancement of the start date. At individual stations, linear trends of the start date correlate negatively with linear trends of spring temperature during the optimum length period, namely, the quicker the spring temperature increased at a station, the quicker the start date advanced. With respect to growing season response to interannual temperature variation, a 1°C increase in spring temperature during the optimum length period may induce an advancement of 2.8 days in the start date of the growing season, whereas a 1°C increase in autumn temperature during the optimum length period may cause a delay of 2.1 days in the end date of the growing season, and a 1°C increase in annual mean temperature may result in a lengthening of the growing season of 9 days across the temperate zone of China. Therefore, the response of the start date to temperature is more sensitive than the response of the end date. At individual stations, the sensitivity of growing season response to temperature depends obviously on local thermal conditions, namely, either the negative response of the start date or the positive response of the end date and growing season length to temperature was stronger at warmer locations than at colder locations. Thus, future regional climate warming may enhance the sensitivity of plant phenological response to temperature, especially in colder regions. PMID:21805230

Chen, Xiaoqiu; Xu, Lin

2012-07-01

11

Seasonal changes in wood formation of Ulmus pumila and U. minor and its relation with Dutch elm disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elms containing narrow and scattered vessels have been reported to be more resistant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease pathogen) than elms with large and contiguous vessels. However, recent measurements in Ulmus pumila and U. minor showed a contrary trend. The pin method was applied to 4-yr-old branches of eight clones planted in Madrid. During 2002, radial growth increments and vessel diameters were measured monthly, and beetle trapping was undertaken weekly. U. minor formed larger vessels at the beginning of the season, coinciding with a peak of captured beetles, but, up to June 15, vessels were larger for U. pumila. The number of vessels per group, the transversal area per vessel group, and the mean theoretical hydraulic conductances were significantly higher for U. minor on most dates. Researchers should take into consideration the seasonal changes in vessel size. The results highlight that seasonal variation of vessel diameters and hydraulic parameters, in combination with beetle abundance, are the main factors that could explain the different susceptibility of both elm species to O. novo-ulmi. PMID:15869660

Solla, A; Martín, J A; Corral, P; Gil, L

2005-06-01

12

Correlation of resistance and H2O2 production in Ulmus pumila and Ulmus campestris cell suspension cultures inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Buissm. elicited the production of H2O2 in cell suspension cultures of the resistant species Ulmus pumila L. This response was not observed in suspensions of the susceptible elm U. campestris Mill. H2O2 production started after a lag time of 30-40 min following inoculation, peaked between 4 and 6 h and lasted up to 24 h. Treatment of the suspensions with exogenously added H2O2 did not cause accumulation of the sesquiterpene phytoalexins mansonones nor of the coumarin scopoletin. Spore germination and growth of O. novo-ulmi were significantly delayed with different amounts of H2O2 (0.1-1 mM). These results suggest that H2O2 production is an inducible defence response which may contribute to DED resistance by delaying the growth of the pathogen at the earliest stages of infection. Whether H2O2 is involved in other elm defence responses to the pathogen is presently unknown, but its production seems to be an independent event from phytoalexin formation. PMID:11299016

De Rafael, M. A.; Valle, T.; Babiano, M. J.; Corchete, P.

2001-04-01

13

Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to isolate and identify a potent inhibitory compound against nitric oxide (NO) production from the stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract registered a higher level of total phenolics (756.93 mg GAE/g) and also showed strong DPPH (IC50 at 5.6 ?g/mL) and ABTS (TEAC value 0.9703) radical scavenging activities than other fractions. Crude extract and its fractions significantly decreased nitrite accumulation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicating that they potentially inhibited the NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Based on higher inhibitory activity, the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and yielded seven fractions and all these fractions registered appreciable levels of inhibitory activity on NO production. The most effective fraction F1 was further purified and subjected to (1)H, (13)C-NMR and mass spectrometry analysis and the compound was identified as icariside E4. The results suggest that the U. pumila extract and the isolated compound icariside E4 effectively inhibited the NO production and may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. PMID:25313277

Joo, Taewoo; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

2014-11-01

14

American Elm (Ulmus americana).  

Science.gov (United States)

American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter. PMID:17033055

Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

2006-01-01

15

Allozyme Variation in Endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila  

Science.gov (United States)

Allozyme genetic variation in 12 populations of the endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila (Allegheny chinkapin), sampled across the natural range of the species in the United States, was evaluated using 11 loci from seven enzyme systems. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (Ps) was 72·7 %, the mean number of alleles per locus (As) was 1·9, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (APs) was 2·3, the effective number of alleles per locus (Aes) was 1·5 and the genetic diversity (Hes) was 0·296. At the population level, Pp = 49·2 %, Ap = 1·5, Aep = 1·4, APp = 2·1 and Hep = 0·21. Most of the allozyme variation (70 %) in C. pumila var. pumila occurred within populations. Wright’s gene flow rate [Nm(W)] was as low as 0·57. Population differentiation along the species range was not detected. Populations of C. pumila var. pumila in Florida had the most variable levels of genetic diversity, but populations in Virginia and Mississippi also showed high levels. Based on the results of this study, conservation management strategies are discussed. PMID:12829445

FU, YUQING; DANE, FENNY

2003-01-01

16

Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:23468900

Martín, Juan A; Witzell, Johanna; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Helander, Marjo; Sieber, Thomas N; Gil, Luis

2013-01-01

17

Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

Lee Hong Tnah

2014-06-01

18

Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina / Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats in the State of Santa Catarina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae), uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alter [...] ações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos. Abstract in english Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, [...] head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

Aldo, Gava; Joelma, Lucioli; Fernando Henrique, Furlan; Maurício Buss, Leal; Sandra Davi, Traverso.

19

Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

Aldo Gava

2010-03-01

20

91F0 Hartholzauenwälder mit Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior oder Fraxinus angustifolia (Ulmenion minoris)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Beschreibung und wertbestimmende Faktoren des Lebensraumtypes 91F0 Hartholzauenwälder. Dieser ist charakterisiert durch strukturreiche und gut wüchsige Eschen-Ulmen-Stieleichenwälder im Auenbereich von Flüssen von der planaren bis zur submontanen Stufe. Die periodisch überfluteten Auenwaldbereiche weisen i.d.R. einen höheren Anteil der Ulmenarten (Ulmus spec.) und des Feld-Ahorns (Acer campestre) auf. Allgemein wird die Baumschicht von der Stiel-Eiche (Quercus robur) beherrscht. Die Str...

Billetoft, Birgitte; Winter-huneck, Bru?nhild; Peterson, Jens; Schmidt, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

Aleksi? Jelena

2004-01-01

22

75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila  

Science.gov (United States)

...90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis AGENCY: Fish...90-day finding on a petition to list Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ozark chinquapin...of the species to determine if listing Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis is...

2010-06-01

23

Removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by Ulmus leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cr (VI) adsorption characteristics of Ulmus leaves (UL) and their ash were examined as a function of contact time, initial pH, and initial metal ion concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ on adsorption were studied. Maximum removal was achieved in the pH=7, contact time of 60 minutes and with initial Cr (VI) concentration of 2 mg/L. Because at pH ?6.5 ,precipitation of chromium may take place, optimum pH was selected at 6. Maxim...

F Gholami, A. H. Mahvi

2006-01-01

24

Micropropagation of mature wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Explants of mature vigorous donor trees of wych elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) that had not been previously exposed to Dutch elm disease were investigated for the influence of phytohormones and media on shoot multiplication rates and organogenic capacity. The regenerates were micropropagated from cultures that originated from 15-year-old progeny of plus trees. Two plus trees aged over 70 years showed recalcitrant responses. Thidiazuron in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) induced a significantly higher number of shoots per explant than the most optimal BAP treatment (5.88 vs. 3.05 shoots). Woody plant medium and Dubovský minimal medium had no significant effects on shoot formation and multiplication rates. All plantlets raised in vitro were phenotypically normal and successfully hardened to ex vitro conditions. Two experimental field plots with 3-year-old in vitro-propagated trees were established. PMID:14758503

Biroscíková, M; Spisáková, K; Lipták, S; Pichler, V; Durkovic, J

2004-04-01

25

Developmental stability of Iris pumila flower traits: A common garden experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I. pumila natural populations usually occur in two different habitat types: dune and forest. These I. pumila habitats differ in many abiotic environmental factors, but mostly in available light intensity and quality. The effects of different light intensity on the developmental stability of I. pumila floral traits were analyzed on clones taken from two different natural light habitat types that were raised in contrasting light treatments in experimental garden conditions (common garden experiment. As an indicator of developmental stability, we used two fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA1 and FA8a of three bilateral symmetric traits of I. pumila flower (FW-fall width, SW-standard width and STW- style branch width. In addition, statistically significant treatment x population interaction was observed for style width. According to the presented results, the observed FA patterns of particular traits did not reflect the whole organism buffering capacity under the given environmental conditions.

Miljkovi? Danijela

2012-01-01

26

Removal of chromium (VI from aqueous solution by Ulmus leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Cr (VI adsorption characteristics of Ulmus leaves (UL and their ash were examined as a function of contact time, initial pH, and initial metal ion concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ on adsorption were studied. Maximum removal was achieved in the pH=7, contact time of 60 minutes and with initial Cr (VI concentration of 2 mg/L. Because at pH ?6.5 ,precipitation of chromium may take place, optimum pH was selected at 6. Maximum adsorption rate values were found at the first 60 min at pH= 6. The effect of the adsorbent on COD removal from aqueous solution showed that 2g/L of adsorbent caused 130 and 75 mg /L increase in COD of deionized water in 60 min for UL and its ash, respectively. The chromium adsorption data obtained under the optimum condition were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Studies showed that the Langmuir adsorption model better fitted than Freundlich, with R2 >0.99. Also UL ash was more efficient than living leaves in removing chromium from aqueous solution.

F. Gholami, A. H. Mahvi, Gh. A. Omrani, Sh. Nazmara

2006-04-01

27

Allozyme variation in Ulmus species from France: analysis of differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper, the geographical structure of genetic variation in three French elm taxa is described using electrophoretic data. For three species, Ulmus laevis, U. glabra and U. minor, two kinds of analyses were performed. First, the genetic parameters (genetic diversity indices) of individuals sampled from naturally regenerating forest were compared to samples of cultivated ornamental trees. Secondly, when sample sizes were sufficient, the genetic parameters of trees sampled from different regions of France were compared to detect geographical differentiation. From these analyses, the ultimate aim was to offer recommendations concerning the conservation policies of the genetic resources of French elms. The heterozygosity of Ulmusxhollandica (the presumed hybrid between U. minor and U. glabra) was compared to its putative parent taxa to determine whether the hybrid harbours great levels of genetic variation. In spite of the ravaging effects of Dutch Elm disease in the past, all three species exhibit high levels of electrophoretic variation. The three species surveyed displayed similar levels of genetic diversity, proportions of polymorphic loci and levels of allelic diversity in trees harvested from naturally regenerated forests relative to cultivated ornamental trees. High levels of genetic diversity in U. minor within geographical regions of France were detected, with only moderate levels of genetic differentiation detected between regions. Ulmusxhollandica is not more heterozygous than either of its parent species, suggesting that extant representatives of this taxon are the result of past and ongoing backcrosses with the parental taxa. Ongoing efforts to preserve the genetic variation still present in French elms should take advantage of their high levels of electrophoretic variation and target genetically distinct, vegetatively reproducing genotypes in their natural environment. PMID:16397633

Machon, N; Lefranc, M; Bilger, I; Mazer, S J; Sarr, A

1997-01-01

28

Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.

Lim Bora

2013-06-01

29

Kretzschmaria deusta and the NorthWest European mid-Holocene Ulmus decline at Moel y Gerddi, North Wales, United Kingdom.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decline in Ulmus pollen frequencies that occurred ca. 5000 14C years ago before present (BP) is a key biostratigraphic marker horizon in northwest European pollen diagrams, although its causes are still a subject of debate. To investigate this event further, fungal spore analyses were carried out across the Ulmus decline at Moel y Gerddi, north Wales, United Kingdom. The Ulmus decline was in three phases, with a primary decline with low cereal and Rumex pollen records as the only agricult...

Innes, J. B.; Blackford, J. J.; Chambers, F. M.

2006-01-01

30

Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents  

Science.gov (United States)

Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

Manda, Vamshi K.; Dale, Olivia R.; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Khan, Shabana I.

2014-01-01

31

Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

VamshikrishnaManda

2014-08-01

32

Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

33

Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2012-01-01

34

Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

2011-01-01

35

Seasonal changes in the degree of symplasmic continuity between the cells of cambial region of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The presence of symplasmic isolation and symplasmic continuity which are functional aspects of cell-to-cell communication, had been studied in cambium of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor, with hope that uniqueness of this meristem, exemplified by its morphology and seasonal variations in its activity is also manifested in differences in the efficiency of communication between cambial cells during the year. The degree of symplasmic continuity was estimated by loading the f...

Katarzyna Soko?owska; Beata Zagórska-Marek

2007-01-01

36

On the activity of alpha-glucanphosphorylase in Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of the present study involves determination of the ?-glucanphosphorylase in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis, through dosing of the anorganic phosphorous, seed germination being performed in Petri plates, at room temperature, for 10 days, while taking over of the samples occurred at intervals of 24 hours. In the enzymatic extracts thus obtained, starch concentration was also determined, by the polarimetric method, while the concentration of total soluble proteins - necessary for the calculation of the specific phosphorolytic activity - was established by the Bradford method. In both graminaceae species, the enzymatic activity was highly reduced in the impregnated seed stage, after which it progressively increases, in parallels with the intensification of starch hydrolysis, for producing the energy and precursors necessary for various metabolic processes.

Gabriela Vasile

2008-08-01

37

Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005. PMID:20082444

Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

2010-01-15

38

Release of sperm clusters in spheres by the black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Anthozoa, Antipatharia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecund polyps from a bottlebrush-shaped colony of black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Brook 1889) from Ambon Island (Maluku Archipelago, Indonesia) were studied at the structural and ultrastructural levels. Five fragments, each 5 cm long and containing about 60 polyps, were cut from a single parental colony. The fragments underwent different treatments: two were fixed in 70% alcohol for species identification; the remaining three were reared in aerated aquaria and then processed for anatomic studies by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some polyps from one of these reared fragments displayed spheres of various sizes protruding from the mouth. Four hours after sampling, spheres settled on the bottom of the aquarium. Comparative analysis of the fecund polyps showed: (i) the differentiation of spermatocysts inside the transverse primary mesenteries that separate the lateral tentacles from one another; (ii) spermatocysts entering the gastric cavity after breakage of the mesentery wall and (iii) location of spermatocysts close to the basal part of the pharynx. Analysis of the largest spheres, both close to the external surface of the mouth and settled on the bottom of the small aerated aquaria, showed that they were irregularly bordered with residual mesentery tissue and contained clusters of spermatocysts. Gametes presented various phases of differentiation up to the final sperm, as it occurs in the spermatocysts developing inside the mesenteries of the fecund polyps. In consideration of the particular distribution of the colonies of C. pumila, which grow very far apart, the release of buoyant spheres is a particular modality of spawning which can be viewed as a strategy for successful fertilisation over long distances.

Gaino, E.; Scoccia, F.

2009-12-01

39

Exploring phenotypic floral integration in Iris pumila L.: A common-garden experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The angiosperm flower is a complex integrated phenotype, but within this structure there are partly independent units or modules. The interconnections among floral organ traits are hypothesized to be mostly generated by pollinatormediated selection. In this study, we explore whether floral dry mass per area (DMA in an insect-pollinated herb, Iris pumila, exhibits a modular correlation pattern as has been reported for some size-related traits. We found that the overall pattern of floral organ integration with regard to DMA was uneven in the offspring of Iris pumila derived from a sunexposed and a shaded natural population. Since principal component analysis (PCA showed that most of the eigenvalue variance was explained by the first two principal components (PCs, these PCs were considered as two floral modules. The greatest factor loadings on the first PC axis was that of the perianth and style arm DMA (PSDMA and perianth tube DMA (PTDMA,while on the second PC axis, the greatest factor loading was that of stamen DMA (STDMA. The results indicate that the function of the first module would be to attract a pollinating vector, while the second one would reflect male functions. Selection analyses revealed that the targets of phenotypic selection were both intra-floral integration and individual floral traits. Both PSDMA and PC1DMA were under strong linear selection, while PTDMA experienced direct stabilization selection. The level of integration in floral organ DMA expressed in the term of relative eigenvalue variance appeared to be rather low, as was documented for other angiosperm taxa. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173007

Tuci? Branka

2013-01-01

40

Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady / Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo va [...] lor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pectina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los [...] Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

Nelson, Loyola; Paula, Pavéz; Sergio, Lillo.

 
 
 
 
41

Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady / Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo va [...] lor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pectina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los [...] Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

Nelson, Loyola; Paula, Pavéz; Sergio, Lillo.

2011-12-01

42

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

2011-01-01

43

Airborne-pollen pool and mating pattern in a hybrid zone between Pinus pumila and P. parviflora var. pentaphylla.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive isolation barriers and the mating patterns among Pinus pumila, P. parviflora var. pentaphylla and their hybrids were examined by flowering phenology and genetic assays of three life stages: airborne-pollen grains, adults and seeds, in a hybrid zone on Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. Chloroplast DNA composition of the airborne-pollen was determined by single-pollen polymerase chain reaction. Mating patterns were analysed by estimating the molecular hybrid index of the seed parent, their seed embryos and pollen parents. The observation of flowering phenology showed that the flowering of P. pumila precedes that of P. parviflora var. pentaphylla by about 6 to 10 days within the same altitudinal ranges. Although this prezygotic isolation barrier is effective, the genetic assay of airborne-pollen showed that the two pine species, particularly P. pumila, still have chances to form F(1) hybrid seeds. Both parental species showed a strong assortative mating pattern; F(1) seeds were found in only 1.4% of seeds from P. pumila mother trees and not at all in P. parviflora var. pentaphylla. The assortative mating was concluded as the combined result of flowering time differentiation and cross-incompatibility. In contrast to the parental species, hybrids were fertilized evenly by the two parental species and themselves. The breakdown of prezygotic barriers (intermediate flowering phenology) and cross-incompatibility may account for the unselective mating. It is suggested that introgression is ongoing on Mount Apoi through backcrossing between hybrids and parental species, despite strong isolation barriers between the parental species. PMID:19120991

Ito, Megumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

2008-12-01

44

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

Ehsan Karimi

2011-05-01

45

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

Ehsan Karimi

2013-09-01

46

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-08-01

47

Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Rhamnus alaternus, R. fallax, R. intermedia and R. pumila.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantity of phenols, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were investigated in bark of Rhamnus alaternus L., R. fallax Boiss., R. intermedia Steud. et Hochst., and R. pumila Turra from natural stands in Croatia. The most abundant anthraquinones in the investigated extracts were chrysophanol in R. alaternus (3.14 mg/g), emodin in R. pumila (0.339 mg/g), and physcion in R. fallax (2.70 mg/g) and R. intermedia (0.285 mg/g). The species exhibiting the highest antioxidant activity were R. fallax and R. pumila. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extracts and antioxidant activity in some of the assays. All species showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum gypseum with minimal inhibitory concentrations equal to or below 2.500 mg/mL. The results indicate that the investigated Rhamnus species are a source of anthraquinones and other phenols, which act as multifunctional antioxidants with antimicrobial activity. PMID:23122067

Kosalec, I; Kremer, D; Locatelli, M; Epifano, F; Genovese, S; Carlucci, G; Randi?, M; Zovko Kon?i?, M

2013-01-15

48

Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed tree (Ulmus nigra).  

Science.gov (United States)

A bacterial strain, designated XIL07T, isolated from a decayed tree, Ulmus nigra, in Salamanca (Spain) produced abundant cellulases and xylanases. The micro-organism was Gram-positive, aerobic, coccoid and non-motile. Growth was observed on many carbohydrates, including cellulose and xylan as the sole carbon sources. No growth was observed with acetate, citrate, gluconate, inositol, malate or mannitol as carbon sources. The strain showed very weak catalase activity. HPLC analysis of menaquinones revealed two peaks: the main peak corresponded with MK-9(H4) and the smaller one with MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid found was anteiso-C15:0 (12-methyl tetradecanoic acid). Mycolic acids were absent. The polar lipids detected were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. Peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, L-Lys-D-Asp. The cell-wall sugars detected were galactose and rhamnose. The complete 16S rDNA sequence of strain XIL07T was obtained and phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbour-joining method indicated that this bacterium belongs to the high-G + C-content Gram-positive bacteria and that the closest related genera are Promicromonospora and Cellulosimicrobium. The DNA G + C content was 73 mol%. According to the data obtained in this work, this bacterium belongs to a new genus in the family Promicromonosporaceae and the name Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is strain XIL07T (=LMG 20990T =CECT 5975T). PMID:12656159

Rivas, Raúl; Sánchez, Manuel; Trujillo, Martha E; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquis; Velázquez, Encarna

2003-01-01

49

Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6±8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (? (female/female/day was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

S. E. Sadeghi

2007-10-01

50

Influence of a Ceratocystis ulmi Toxin on Water Relations of Elm (Ulmus americana).  

Science.gov (United States)

Water-soluble glycopeptides isolated from cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi have been reported to be toxins involved in Dutch elm disease. The influence of the glycopeptides on the water relations of Ulmus americana seedlings was tested by placing cut stems in glycopeptide preparations. After 4 hours in 200 micrograms per milliliter toxin the stem conductance of the seedlings was reduced by 79% and the leaf water potential was reduced by 3 bars to that at which the seedlings wilted, the stomata closed, and transpiration decreased. Decrease in stem conductance as the mode of action of the toxin was further confirmed by forcing toxin through the stem and petiole of elm and measuring the effects on stem conductance. High molecular weight dextrans were found to mimic the action of toxin on stem and petiole conductance, and their ability to do so was found to be correlated with their molecular weight. As low as 4 micrograms of toxin or dextrans were found to measurably decrease the stem and petiole conductance of elms. Disruption of the water-conducting system of elms and other plants by small quantities of high molecular weight compounds may be a factor in diseases with wilting symptoms. PMID:16659073

Van Alfen, N K; Turner, N C

1975-02-01

51

Metabolic distinction of Ulmus minor xylem tissues after inoculation with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch elm disease (DED) is the most devastating and widespread disease of elms. The pathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, spreads systemically causing xylem vessels blocking and cavitation, and ultimately resulting in the development of a wilt syndrome. Twig samples from susceptible and resistant Ulmus minor trees were harvested at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days post-inoculation (dpi) with O. novo-ulmi. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, in tandem with chemometrics, was used to monitor changes in wood chemistry as consequence of infection. Principal component analysis distinguished between spectra from inoculated and control elms, and from susceptible- and resistant-inoculated elms. By 30 dpi, infected xylem showed reduced relative levels of carbohydrates and enhanced relative levels of phenolic compounds, probably due to the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by fungal enzymes and the synthesis of host defence compounds. On 15 dpi, samples from resistant-inoculated elms showed higher levels of starch than samples from susceptible-inoculated elms, suggesting that availability of starch reserves could affect the tree's capacity for defensive responses. The results showed the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for analysing changes in the major components of elm xylem as consequence of infection by DED, and its potential for detecting metabolic profiles related to host resistance. PMID:16176827

Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gil, Luis

2005-10-01

52

Lead and nickel accumulation in Iris pumila: Consideration of its usefulness as a potential bioindicator in the natural protected area of Deliblato Sands, Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the suitability of the threatened species, Iris pumila L., as a possible bioindicator of traffic pollution in its natural habitats (mostly protected areas and natural reserves. We examined its potential to accumulate lead (Pb and nickel (Ni in polluted habitats, and the genetic variability for this capability, since it is an important facet of bioindicator suitability. We estimated the concentrations of Pb and Ni in the leaves of 17 I. pumila clones (genotypes grown in one of their natural habitats, the unpolluted semi-arid habitat of the protected Deliblato Sands Special Natural Reserve, and in the leaves of 18 Iris pumila full-sib families grown in an experimental plot in a heavily polluted urban location in Belgrade, Serbia. Comparison of the contrasting habitats by one-way ANOVA analysis showed that both Pb and Ni concentrations were significantly higher (six-fold in the I. pumila leaves collected from plants grown in the polluted urban habitat. Two-way ANOVA (randomized block design analysis performed on the full-sib families grown in the urban location failed to detect significant genetic variation for metal accumulation in I. pumila leaves. A significant block effect on the concentration of Ni in leaves was detected, indicating responsiveness to microenvironmental variability. These results suggest that I. pumila can serve as a good indicator of traffic pollution in protected areas. The response is stable since genetic variability of I. pumila populations does not appear to influence its role as an indicator greatly. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025: Evolution in heterogeneous environments: mechanisms of adaptation, biomonitoring and conservation of biodiversity

Miljkovi? Danijela

2014-01-01

53

Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

E.A. Petrova

2013-12-01

54

Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila(Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P.sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3,Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analysis.Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees.This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

E.A. Petrova

2008-09-01

55

Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

Zaharah Abdul Rahman

2011-12-01

56

Optimization and characterization of Tl(I) adsorption onto modified ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves were successfully used to remove Tl(I) from aqueous solution in a batch system. In order to improve the uptake capacity of sorbent, it was modified by various chemical agents such as NaOH, HNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, NaCl, NaHCO{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}. Among the modifiers, NaCl was the best. Equilibrium behavior of sorbent with Tl(I) was examined by the several isotherms. Considering modified U. carpinifolia equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 54.6 mg/g. The other isotherms such as: Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) models were also examined. The central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for optimization of biosorption process. An empirical model was given through using response surface methodology. Also its validation was recognized by using relevant statistical tests such as ANOVA. The optimum conditions of biosorption: pH, m (amount of sorbent) and C (initial concentration) were found to be 7.9, 11.4 g/L, and 8.8 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand thermodynamic parameters: {Delta}G, {Delta}H, and {Delta}S were evaluated: the obtained results show that biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Eventually, FT-IR analysis confirmed that the main functional groups of sorbent have been involved through the biosorption process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjarani, Neda [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S. Norollah [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-03-15

57

Alkenylresorcinols and cytotoxic activity of the constituents isolated from Labisia pumila.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-?-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-?-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC?? values ? 10 ?M), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one. PMID:22633846

Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil Ali; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Kneer, Ralf; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Stanslas, Johnson; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Honda, Toshio; Lajis, Nordin H

2012-08-01

58

Effects of Temperature, Light and Storage on Seed Germination of Ulmus glabra Huds. and U. laevis Pall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of temperature, light and storage on the germination of Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis seeds were studied. Germination tests were carried out under constant temperatures of 20°C and alternating temperatures of 30/20°C. Temperature significantly affected seed germination of U. glabra not stored, and seed germination was the highest at 30/20°C under dark or light. Temperature and light (0 or 8 h did not significantly affect germination of U. laevis seeds not stored. When seeds were stored for 2 years, seed germination of U. glabra and U. laevis was significantly affected by temperature and light (0, 8, 6 and 24 h. Two years storage of U. glabra seeds increased light demands for germination percentage, and the seeds could be stored at 4°C for 2 years without losing its viabilities when germinated at 30/20°C under light. Although germination percentage and germination rate of U. laevis seeds reduced after 2 years of storage, germination parameters were still quite high when seeds were germinated at 30/20°C under light.

Emrah Cicek

2006-01-01

59

Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-07-01

60

Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

Vuleta Ana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Impact of genet size and flowering stage on fruit set in Iris pumila L. clones in wild  

Science.gov (United States)

The interplay between vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction in clonal plants affects the fitness of individuals as well as the structure of genetic diversity. The relevance of studies of that interaction depends on how well chosen genotypes and environmental conditions reflect the real situation in natural populations. In order to analyze the relationship between genet size (and consequently its vegetative success) and fruit set (its female reproductive success) under undisturbed natural conditions I utilized 2916 ramets that bear hermaphrodite flowers on 137 naturally growing Iris pumila clones in a protected area of Deliblato Sand, Serbia. The number of flowers (i.e. flowering ramets) served as a fair estimator of genet size and the larger clones produced more fruits than the smaller ones. However, the smaller clones had significantly higher fruit to flower ratio compared to the larger ones and that difference was detectable in later flowering stages of a clone but not in the earlier ones. In the large clones, flowers that opened later had significantly lower fruit to flower ratio. Since the deleterious effect of geitonogamy on fruit set in I. pumila was documented by hand pollinations, the reduction of fruit to flower ratio in more abundant genets and in later flowering stages is most likely the result of increased geitonogamy. That reduction could lead to a different genetic structure in the seed bank compared to the structure in aboveground population, which can imply important ecological and micro-evolutionary consequences.

Tarasjev, Aleksej

2005-03-01

62

HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2011-08-01

63

Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2012-04-01

64

Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

Lyu Jeonghyeon

2013-06-01

65

Acerca de Lozanella enantiophylla (Ulmaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lozanella es un género con distribución neotropical con dos especies estrechamente relacionadas, que se encuentran desde México hasta Bolivia.  En Colombia solo se ha registrado Lozanella enantiophylla (Donn. Sm. Killip & Norton.  Esta especie es relativamente común en los bosques andinos perturbados entre 2.400 y 3.200 m de alt., y ha sido confundida a menudo con Boehmeria caudata Sw., a la cual es muy similar.

Franco Roselli Pillar

1992-09-01

66

Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

S.N. Goroshkevich

2013-12-01

67

Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberianstone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the lessproductive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structureshowed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with thespecies' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generativecycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo.The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiatedembryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the UpperAngara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however,it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine andSiberian stone pine species occurred.

S.N. Goroshkevich

2008-09-01

68

Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

69

Fungal colonization and host defense reactions in Ulmus americana callus cultures inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The host-pathogen interaction leading to Dutch elm disease was analyzed using histo- and cyto-chemical tests in an in vitro system. Friable and hard susceptible Ulmus americana callus cultures were inoculated with the highly aggressive pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Inoculated callus tissues were compared with water-treated callus tissues and studied with light microscopy (LM), transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). New aspects of this interaction are described. These include the histological observation, for the first time in plant callus cultures, of suberin with its typical lamellar structure in TEM and the intracellular presence of O. novo-ulmi. Expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene, monitored by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was correlated with the accumulation of suberin, phenols, and lignin in infected callus cultures. This study validates the potential use of the in vitro system for genomic analyses aimed at identifying genes expressed during the interaction in the Dutch elm disease pathosystem. PMID:19453222

Aoun, Mirella; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Bernier, Louis

2009-06-01

70

Regeneration of phenotypically normal English elm (Ulmus procera) plantlets following transformation with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A transformation system was developed for English elm (Ulmus procera Salisbury) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 pMP90 p35SGUS/INTRON, allowing for the transfer of foreign genes and regeneration of phenotypically normal elm plantlets. The PCR analysis indicated that both nptII and uidA genes were stably inserted in the plant genome. beta-Glucuronidase histochemical and fluorimetric assays revealed expression of the uidA gene in the shoots, leaves, stems and roots of regenerated transgenic plants. The DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed the presence of the uidA gene in regenerant plants. Factors influencing successful transformation and regeneration of elms included: identifying gene-transfer-proficient Agrobacterium strains for use with elms; developing an infection protocol allowing T-DNA transfer while retaining the ability to remove inciting bacteria; and identifying selection conditions to eliminate non-transformed material and choice of regeneration medium to allow shoot production. The potential utility of an effective elm transformation and regeneration system in the control of Dutch elm disease is discussed. PMID:11303580

Gartland, J S; McHugh, A T; Brasier, C M; Irvine, R J; Fenning, T M; Gartland, K M

2000-07-01

71

Seasonal changes in the degree of symplasmic continuity between the cells of cambial region of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of symplasmic isolation and symplasmic continuity which are functional aspects of cell-to-cell communication, had been studied in cambium of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor, with hope that uniqueness of this meristem, exemplified by its morphology and seasonal variations in its activity is also manifested in differences in the efficiency of communication between cambial cells during the year. The degree of symplasmic continuity was estimated by loading the fluorescent symplasmic tracer to the stem and following its distribution in a population of cambial cells observed on tangential, transverse and radial sections. In active cambium the tracer did not enter the rays. This suggested that the ray and fusiform cells, growing and dividing intensively at different rates were specifically isolated from each other. In the state of dormancy the tracer was present also in the rays implying continuity between the two types of cambial cells. Temporal restriction in tracer spreading from secondary xylem to cambial region was observed on transverse sections in both physiological states of the meristem. Higher degree of symplasmic isolation in active cambium is, most probably, associated with functional distinctiveness of ray and fusiform cells. We hypothesize further that the symplasmic continuity in dormant cambium results from the open conformation states of plasmodesmata, because the energy costs of these states are low. It is reasonable strategy when cambial cells do not divide and maintenance of their functional individuality is not necessary.

Katarzyna Soko?owska

2007-12-01

72

Seven Ulmus minor clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Spanish elm programme began in 1986 in response to the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease on natural elm stands and urban trees. Its main objectives were to conserve remaining genetic resources and select and breed tolerant native elm genotypes. After 27 years of work conducting susceptibility trials on thousands of elm genotypes, the first seven tolerant Ulmus minor trees are now being registered by the Spanish Environmental Administration. This paper presents the results of the susceptibility tests on these clones and their distinctive genetic, morphological and phenological features. In all susceptibility trials the commercial “Sapporo Autumn Gold” clone, which is highly tolerant to O. novo-ulmi, was used as a control. The registered clones were named “Ademuz”, “Dehesa de la Villa”, “Majadahonda”, “Toledo”, “Dehesa de Amaniel”, “Retiro” and “Fuente Umbría”. The most tolerant clone was “Dehesa de Amaniel”, as its wilting values were below 5% during the two consecutive inoculation trials performed in Madrid. “Fuente Umbría”, tested over four consecutive years in Guadalajara and Palencia, was the Spanish clone with the most reliable tolerance level to O. novo-ulmi. The “Ademuz” and “Majadahonda” clones had the highest ornamental scores and are promising trees for use in urban environments and tree breeding for ornamental quality. These two genotypes showed a later bud burst phenology than the other U. minor clones, demonstrating suitability to areas with late frost events. The Spanish programme aims to substantially increase the range of tolerant native elms through new selections and crossings to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of resistance.

Martín JA

2014-08-01

73

Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

2014-07-01

74

The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The spatial distribution patterns of two species of epiphytic hydrozoans, Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila, on the intertidal alga Ascophyllum nodosum were studied in adjacent wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas. Clava were more abundant on the wave-sheltered algae than on the wave-exposed fronds, and in both areas occupied the basal and middle sections of the algae. There was no difference in the abundance of Dynamena between the wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas, but in both area...

Gili, Josep Maria; Rossi, Sergio; Hughes, R. G.

2000-01-01

75

Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

Jones A Maxwell P

2012-05-01

76

Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200??mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900??mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200??mol/mol?+?light intensity at 225??mol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400??mol/mol CO2?+?900??mol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200??mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

77

Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

2012-06-01

78

Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL), sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC), ovariectomised (OVX) and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT), ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20) and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100). The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property. PMID:25195641

Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2014-01-01

79

Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

Nadia Mohd Effendy

2014-08-01

80

Chemical changes in Ulmus minor xylem tissue after salicylic acid or carvacrol treatments are associated with enhanced resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of endogenous plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) or essential oil component carvacrol (CA) in elms enhances tree resistance to the Dutch elm disease pathogen, although the effect of these compounds on tree metabolism is unknown. The chemical changes induced by SA or CA treatments in Ulmus minor were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of xylem tissues. Treatments consisted of fortnightly irrigating seedlings with water, SA or CA at 600 mg L?¹. The chemical composition of the xylem tissues sampled from treated trees was significantly altered depending on the treatment type. SA treatment induced an accumulation of the sinapyl alcohol, a precursor of lignin and other phenylpropanoid-derived products. CA treatment induced an accumulation of the methyl esters of palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Both treatments resulted in early bud burst and SA significantly reduced sapwood radial growth, possibly as a consequence of a trade-off between tree growth and tree defence. The enhanced resistance provided by these treatments is discussed. PMID:22910373

Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; García-Vallejo, María C; Gil, Luis

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gómez; Michael J., Wynne.

82

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gómez; Michael J., Wynne.

1015-10-01

83

Toponymic Data Helps to Reveal the Occurrence of Previously Unknown Populations of Wild Zamia pumila L. on Volcanic Substrates in South Central Puerto Rico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the Taínos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought. 

Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez

2013-01-01

84

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

2013-09-01

85

Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha?1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol?1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha?1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

86

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

Sandra Davi Traverso

2004-12-01

87

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos / Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a parti [...] r de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação. Abstract in english Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were obs [...] erved 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

Sandra Davi, Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro, Corrêa; Milene, Schmitz; Edson Moleta, Colodel; David, Driemeier.

88

Causes and consequences of exotic tree invasion in the Iberian peninsula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en el estudio de especies de árboles nativos y exóticos coexistentes en bosques de ribera del centro de la Península Ibérica y en bosques mésicos del noroeste peninsular. En el caso de los bosques de ribera del centro peninsular, las especies estudiadas fueron las nativas Fraxinus angustifolia, Populus alba y Ulmus minor y las exóticas Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. En los bosques del noroeste...

Gonza?lez Mun?oz, Noelia

2012-01-01

89

Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two elm taxa occur naturally in the Iberian Peninsula: the Field elm (Ulmus minor) and the Wych elm (U. glabra). In addition, a third taxon, the foreign Siberian elm (U. pumila), was probably introduced in the 16th century as an ornamental tree and has spread spontaneously throughout the Peninsula. The natural hybridization between U. minor and U. pumila produced new individuals whose morphological traits appear to be mixed. Ulmus pumila, as well as its hybrids, has a high resistance to Dutch elm disease (DED). For this reason, it is commonly used in breeding programmes. Extensive hybridization and the high mortality produced by the last DED epidemic have endangered the conservation of the native elm. In this study, isozyme analyses are used to characterize the taxa U. minor and U. pumila. Siberian elms from Spain and China are compared with the native U. minor. Siberian elm produces isozyme patterns that completely differentiate it from U. minor. Three loci are completely different between the species: 6Pgd2, Mdh1 and Prx2. Isozyme markers can also be used to distinguish native elms from the hybrids that have evolved for generations. PMID:11012718

Cogolludo-Agustín, M A; Agúndez, D; Gil, L

2000-08-01

90

Preliminary studies of gastroprotective effect of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent leaves (Ulmaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Celtis iguanaea leaves (CEE) was observed with experimental models such as ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers. Results obtained from indomethacin-induced ulcer showed the hexane fraction (HF) as the active fraction of CEE. This fraction inhibits the gastric acid secretion, increasing the gastric pH, decreasing the gastric acidity and total gastric contents. Neither the CEE nor the HF alters intestinal motility, thereby excluding a cholinergic antagonist mechanism. Further studies need to be conducted with HF in order to elucidate the active principle and the pharmacological mechanism involved. PMID:22712542

de Sousa, Fábio Borges; Martins, José Luís Rodrigues; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; do Couto, Renê Oliveira; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; Galdino, Pablinny Moreira; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves

2013-01-01

91

Development of Nuclear Microsatellites for the Arcto-Tertiary Tree Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae Using 454 Pyrosequencing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premise of the study: The current study aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers for the relict tree species , which is threatened in its natural range in the South Caucasus. Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library on the Roche FLX platform using the 454 Titanium kit produced 86,058 sequence reads, most of which contained short tandem repeats. Eighty microsatellite loci identified using the software package QDD version 1 were selected and tested for proper PCR amplification. Of these, 13 allowed proper amplification and were shown to be polymorphic among a sample of 25 Z. carpinifolia specimens from various geographic origins. Conclusions: The set of microsatellite markers will be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in Z. carpinifolia. They will allow for an examination of phylogeographic patterns as well as of population structure and gene flow within this species.

Elmira H. Maharramova

2014-02-01

92

Comparative study of rooting of leaf-bud and straight softwood elm cuttings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parallel propagation tests of nine elm taxa - 6 species (Ulmus americana L., U. chenmoui Cheng, U. japonica (R Sarg., U. laciniata (Tr Mayr, U. laevis Pall. and U. parvifolia Jacq, 2 clones (U. 'Regal', U. 'Sapporo Autumn Gold' and 1 hybrid (U. pumila x japonica, by leaf bud cuttings and standard straignt softwood showed the results which point to the possibility of wider application of leaf bud cuttings. In some elm taxa, leaf bud cuttings can be the main method of propagation, and it can be used as an additional method in other taxa, because the seasonal timing is extended compared to standard cuttings.

Grbi? Mihailo

2003-01-01

93

Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a chain of behavioral events that leads to advantageous host colonization and development by S. schevyrewi. PMID:20388298

Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

2010-04-01

94

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales [...] durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad. Abstract in english In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were [...] isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Natalia, Allegrucci; Lorena, Elíades; Ana María, Bucsinszky; Marta, Cabello; Angélica, Arambarri.

95

Evaluación de la actividad tóxica y antifúngica del extracto etéreo de la corteza de Celtis trinervia Lam (Ulmaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

A la fracción evaluada biológicarnente se encontró actividad toxica sobre Artemia salina mostrando una CL50 de 430 ppm y antifúngicas contra Fusarium oxysporum ssp dianthi en donde mostro CL50 de 0.25 mg/mL. La fracción evaluada del extracto etéreo de la corteza del rallo de Celtis trinervia Lam. Se identificaron sustancias de tipo terpénicas como santaleno, además se identificaron ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados de interés biológico, como el linoleico y oleico. Los compuestos aislados se identificaron can métodos físicos. químicos y espectroscópicos.

Torrenegra R. D.

2000-12-01

96

THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

I. Podkovyrov

2012-11-01

97

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

?uki? Matilda

2006-01-01

98

Identification of RAPD markers linked to a black leaf spot resistance gene in Chinese elm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Black leaf spot (Stegophora ulmea) is a common foliage disease on Chinese (Ulmus parvifolia) and Siberian elms (U. pumila), two species which have been widely used as sources of Dutch-elm disease-resistance genes for interspecific elm hybrids. A dominant gene controlling resistance to black leaf spot was identified in a population derived from self-pollination of a single U. parvifolia tree. Using RAPD markers, in combination with bulked segregant analysis, we have identified three markers linked to this resistance gene. A survey of Chinese-elm hybrids revealed that the same gene is likely to confer a high level of resistance to black leaf spot in interspecific elm hybrids, although other genetic factors may also be involved in the determination of a disease phenotype. PMID:24173064

Benet, H; Guries, R P; Boury, S; Smalley, E B

1995-06-01

99

[Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

2007-08-01

100

Protoplast isolation from Ulmus americana l. Pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Meiotic protoplasts of U. amerciana are potentially valuable for producing interspecific elm hybrids through protoplast fusion. Meiotic cells(pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores) were incubated in either a cellulase, hemicellylase and pectinase enzyme solution of a beta-1,3-glucanase (lainarinase) solution. Respective protoplast isolation frequencies for the three meiotic cell types were 100, 50, and 10%. Exclusion staining with 0.2% Evans blue and 0.1% methyl blue suggested protoplast viability. Some of the microspore protoplasts were vacuolated, which is an important condition for cell division. Although attempts of regenerating cell walls and inducing cell division were unsuccessful, these two problems may be superceded by protoplast fusion with more regenerative protoplasts.

Redenbaugh, M.K.; Westfall, R.D.; Karnosky, D.F.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P cold-acclimated cultures exposed to preculture medium with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin for 24 hr, application of PVS2 for 10 min, rapid cooling in LN, rapid rewarming, removal of cryoprotectants, and recovery on a medium supplemented with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the antioxidant melatonin for long-term storage of naturally resistant elm germplasm. PMID:24117864

Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

2013-11-01

102

The vegetation classification in coal mine overburden dump using canopy spectral reflectance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The canopy spectral characteristics of typical plants in the overburden of the Fuxin coal mine dump were measured and analyzed. The reflectance of Leymus chinensis was affected by the soil, with a slight shift from green (550 nm) to the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll and water absorption were not significant in the red (670 nm) and NIR bands, respectively. The reflectance curve trend for Artemisia lavandulaefolia was similar to those of Sophora japonica and Ulmus pumila, while the reflectance of S. japonica and U. pumila fluctuated in the NIR region (760-1200 nm). In contrast, the reflectance of A. lavandulaefolia fluctuated slightly around 930 nm and a significant peak appeared at 1127 nm. In addition, the spectral reflectance of S. japonica was lower than for the other species in the visible band (400-700 nm). However, it was higher than for L. chinensis in the NIR region (780-1200 nm). Three classifiers, the self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ), and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), were used to classify the vegetation and the results of all classifiers were compared based on total spectral reflectance data from 400 to 1200 nm. The PNN was the best classifier in terms of training and testing accuracy. The first difference reflectance was calculated, and the red edge parameter was able to classify the herbs (L. chinensis and A. lavandulaefolia) and the arbores (S. japonica and U. pumila) with an accuracy of 77 and 84%, respectively, although it did not perform as well for detail species. A mixing parameter matrix was built based on the sensitive wavelengths (550, 674, 810, 935, and 1125 nm), the vegetation indices (SAVI and NDGI), and the water absorption slope. High classification accuracy was obtained by applying the mixing parameter matrix. This method could be used for revegetation monitoring and in decision making.

Sun, H.; Li, M.Z.; Li, D.L. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

2011-01-15

103

Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacities of polyphenolic extracts from Annurca apple peel and flesh to inhibit the glucose and cholesterol uptake by HepG2 cells were evaluated, and compared with those of other conventional cultivars, such as Red Delicious (RD), Pink Lady (PL), Fuji (F) and Golden Delicious (GD). RD peels exhibited the best hypoglycaemic effects, while Annurca flesh appeared the most active in reducing cell cholesterol uptake among the cultivars tested. The influence of the apple polyphenolic extracts on the cell proliferation and oxidative stress was also evaluated. Particularly, RD, Annurca and PL peels decreased proliferation by a 62.5%, 48.0% and 37.5%, respectively, probably due to their prooxidant capacity. Conversely, flesh extracts appeared more protective of cells than peels: Annurca and RD, particularly, proved to be able of increasing proliferation by a 32.2% and 11.1%, respectively, probably due to their capacity of reducing cell physiological radical levels of a 33.3% and 19.9%, respectively. PMID:23692744

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Stiuso, Paola; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2013-10-15

104

Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

2007-09-30

105

Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent findings indicated antisickling activity of anthocyanins from plants used in the management of sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins extracts from Trema orientalis on sickle cell. So, Emmel, Itano and hypoxic induced sickle erythrocyte haemolysis bioassays were used to evaluate the influence of these extracts on haemoglobin S aggregation and sickle erythrocyte haemolysis. Anthocyanins extracts were found to possess antisickling activity. Indeed, the treated sickle erythrocyte indicated the re-appearance of the normal and classical biconcave form of red blood cells with a radius value of 3.50.2 m similar to that of normal erythrocytes values. The solubility of Deoxyhemoglobin S and the rate of inhibition of hypoxic induced haemolysis, increased upon treatment with anthocyanins extracts. Anthocyanins would cross the erythrocytes membrane for either interfering with intracellular polymerization hemoglobin S or to scavenge the free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or haemolysis.

D.D. Tshilanda

2011-01-01

106

Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos / Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urin [...] árias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos) foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico. Abstract in english The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infec [...] tions and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes) were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

R.R., Trevisan; C.P., Lima; C.M.S., Miyazaki; F.A., Pesci; C.B., Silva; B.C.K., Hirota; A.L.L., Lordello; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; S.M.W., Zanin.

107

Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trac ... (bittersweet family) Euonymus fortunei, Vitaceae (grape ... family) Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Rubiaceae (ma ...

108

Antifungal effect and reduction of Ulmus minor symptoms to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi by carvacrol and salicylic acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are still no effective means to control Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the vascular fungi Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi. Plant phenolics may provide a new strategy for DED control, given their known antifungal activity against pathogens and their involvement in plant defence mechanisms. The in vitro antifungal activity of salicylic acid, carvacrol, thymol, phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, and 2,5-xylenol against the DED pathogens was tested. Also, the protective effect of wa...

Marti?n, Juan A.; Solla, Alejandro; Witzell, Johanna; Gil, Luis; Garci?a-vallejo, Mari?a C.

2010-01-01

109

How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

2010-05-01

110

[Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

2012-03-01

111

In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:23993515

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2013-12-15

112

Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

2009-12-01

113

Dissipation behavior of propargite--an acaricide residues in soil, apple (Malus pumila) and tea (Camellia sinensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Propargite, recently introduced in India, is an effective acaricide on a large number of crops most of which are consumed by human beings directly or after processing. Therefore, it has become important to check the dissipation behavior of propargite in edible raw commodities, processed products and in the environment. In the present study, dissipation of residue of this acaricide in soil, apple fruit and tea (green tea leaves, manufactured tea, infusion and spent leaves) was studied. Analysis was carried out using high performance-liquid chromatography with UV detection system. The dissipation rate was found to vary with the nature of studied crop/sample. In soil, half-life ranged from 43 to 45 days, while in plant matrices (tea and apple) it ranged 1.66-2.61 days. The percent transfer of propargite residue from manufactured tea to infusion was 23.60-40.00; however, 35.71-53.20% of the residues remained stuck to the spent leaves. PMID:15621197

Kumar, Vipin; Sood, Chitra; Jaggi, Shivani; Ravindranath, S D; Bhardwaj, S P; Shanker, Adarsh

2005-02-01

114

Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

115

Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu, for the European Union (EU territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe is suspected to be underestimated, with high uncertainty since no systematic surveys are carried out. CPu has a host range restricted to Ulmaceae species, and especially to the genus Ulmus, with some variations in susceptibility to the disease. It is listed in Annex IAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. CPu is not expected to be affected by EU ecoclimatic conditions wherever its hosts are present and has the potential to establish largely within the EU territory. Two insect vectors, Macropsis glandacea and Philaenus spumarius, are widely distributed in Europe. The uncertainty about other potential vector species, in which the phytoplasma has been detected, is considered as high. There is a lack of data to fully assess the potential consequences of the disease, with regards to the susceptibility of European elm species and virulence of European CPu strains. Data are not sufficient to reach a conclusion on pest categorisation of CPu and a full risk assessment can be conducted but is unlikely to bring any additional value unless the key additional data gaps on distribution, insect vectors, elm species susceptibility and potential consequences of the pest are filled.

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

2014-07-01

116

Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ahmadi A, Kavosi MR, Soltanloo H. 2014. Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Biodiversitas 15: 46-50. Zelkova carpinifolia belongs to the Ulmaceae. It is the only species from Zelkova genus that has been distributed and is native to Iranian forests. This tree species is one of the valuable species that is comprised of endangered plants. Nevertheless, the most of reservoirs of this species have been faced to problems that fungal disease is one of the important and lethal disturbance. This study was conducted to identify the main disturbance which has been resulted in Z. carpinifolia decadence in Daland forest reservoir, North of Iran. The study has ensured that O. novo-ulmi is the fungal pathogen in this forest reservoir. It can be reminded that this pathogen had been previously found in Ulmus genus which has been created devastating event in these noteworthy reservoirs. Some symptoms which were observed in field comprising flagging and wilting of leaves. Bark beetle galleries and occlusion of xylem vessels were the other evidence of fungal disease. In light of laboratory results, the fungi colony was fluffy, light-colored and fast-growing. The different shapes of fungi growth like white fibrous and flower shape or dark petaloid shape were observed. Mean colony diameters of O. novo-ulmi were 3.72 ±0.16 mm/day in the dark at 20 °C. Simultaneously, Microscopic analysis of sexual and asexual systems of O. novo-ulmi using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Sporothix, Pesotum, yeast-like and Perithecium synanon morphology.

AKRAM AHMADI

2014-04-01

117

Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zelkova carpinifolia belongs to the Ulmaceae. It is the only species from Zelkova genus that has been distributed and is native to Iranian forests. This tree species is one of the valuable species that is comprised of endangered plants. Nevertheless, the most of reservoirs of this species have been faced to problems that fungal disease is one of the important and lethal disturbance. This study was conducted to identify the main disturbance which has been resulted in Z. carpinifolia decadence in Daland forest reservoir, North of Iran. The study has ensured that O. novo-ulmi is the fungal pathogen in this forest reservoir. It can be reminded that this pathogen had been previously found in Ulmus genus which has been created devastating event in these noteworthy reservoirs. Some symptoms which were observed in field comprising flagging and wilting of leaves. Bark beetle galleries and occlusion of xylem vessels were the other evidence of fungal disease. In light of laboratory results, the fungi colony was fluffy, light-colored and fast-growing. The different shapes of fungi growth like white fibrous and flower shape or dark petaloid shape were observed. Mean colony diameters of O. novo-ulmi were 3.72 ±0.16 mm/day in the dark at 20 °C. Simultaneously, Microscopic analysis of sexual and asexual systems of O. novo-ulmi using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Sporothix, Pesotum, yeast-like and Perithecium synanon morphology.

AKRAM AHMADI1,?,

2014-11-01

118

Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

119

GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment ... Station, New Haven, Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 ...

120

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bertholletia excelsa ) Butternut (Juglans cinerea ) Cashew (Anacardium occidentale ) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Chinquapin (Castanea pumila ) Filbert (hazelnut) (Corylus spp.) Hickory nut (Carya spp.) Macadamia...

2010-07-01

122

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Beech nut (Fagus spp.) Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa ) Butternut (Juglans cinerea ) Cashew (Anacardium occidentale ) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Chinquapin (Castanea pumila ) Filbert (hazelnut) (Corylus...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chinquapin (Castanea pumila ) Filbert (hazelnut) (Corylus spp.) Hickory nut (Carya spp.) Macadamia nut (bush nut) (Macadamia spp.) Pecan (Carya illinoensis ) Walnut, black and English (Persian) (Juglans...

2010-07-01

124

INTER-FAMILY VARIATION IN FIBRE DIMENSIONS OF SIX TROPICAL HARDWOODS IN RELATION TO PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fibre characteristics determine utilizationpotentials of timbers. Fibre dimensions influencewood pulpability, durability and physico-mechanicalproperties. Fibre length, width, lumen width and wallthickness of six tropical timbers from three families(Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae wereinvestigated from heartwood splinters (20×2×2mmdelignified in 1:1 glacial acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide [at 600C], teased out and stained. Fibrelengths range from 0.79mm for Holoptelea grandis(Ulmaceae to 1.88mm for Khaya ivorensis(Meliaceae similar to the mean (2mm for tropicalhardwoods and pulpable length (0.65-1.2mm. TheMeliaceae has moderately long fibres (1.61mm butmedium-sized for Ulmaceae (1.19mm andSterculiaceae (1.59mm. Cedrella odorata(Meliaceae has wide fibres (36.5?m and lumina(27.6?m, Celtis milbraedii (Ulmaceae has narrowfibres (17.49?m and lumen (8.97?m, all withinpulpable range (i.e., 9-40?m. Fibre wall thicknessranges from 3.31?m (for H. grandis to 5.49?m (forPterygota macrocarpa, Sterculiaceae and is withinpulpable range (2.90-5.15?m. Fibre walls forMeliaceae and Sterculiaceae are thick (>4?m butmedium (2-4?m for Ulmaceae. Runkel ratio of 2.65(for C. odorata to 3.9 (for C. milbraedii is greaterthan stipulated for pulping (1.25. However,Flexibility Coefficients (within 75-50 category andfibre dimensions for timbers from the three familiesindicate their pulping suitability. It is anticipated thewood and construction industries exploit their fibrecharacteristics for structural applications andengineering of fibre-based products.

Charles ANTWI-BOASIAKO

2012-06-01

125

7 CFR 319.37-2 - Prohibited articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...limited to: Lethal yellowing disease; Cadang-cadang disease. Ulmus spp. (elm...319.37-5(t) Canada Blueberry scorch carlavirus (strains... spp All A diversity of diseases including but not limited...

2010-01-01

126

POTENCIAL HÍDRICO XILEMÁTICO EN CUATRO ESPECIES ARBUSTIVAS NATIVAS DEL NORESTE DE MÉXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (¿) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área local...

Lez Rodru Edguez, Humberto Gonzu E.; Fa, Israel Cantu Silva; Roque Gonzalo Ramu00EDrez Lozano; Mez Meza, Marco Vinicio Gu F.; Marisela Pando Moreno; Ndez, Juan Manuel Lu F. Pez Hernu E.

2011-01-01

127

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Barth Ortrud M.

2004-01-01

128

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region. PMID:15334253

Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, Cíntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

2004-09-01

129

Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two coexisting species of African molossids the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumila, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumila and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate their habitat utilisation. The results confirmed that both of these species selected to forage over sugarcane fields instead of over the other habitats available in the area: savanna, riparian forest and urban areas. Foraging ranges were relatively large with C. pumila travelling on average a maximum of 4.2 km from the roost and M. condylurus covering 4.8 km. The mean activity areas ranged from 976 ha (Minimum convex polygon to 1319 ha (95% Kernel for C. pumila and from 1190 ha (MCP to 1437 ha (95% Kernel for M. condylurus. Interspecific differences in the mean activity area or maximum distance travelled were not found. The results of this study suggest that these species have a potential role as pest controlling agents over sugarcane fields.

Kristine Bohmann

2012-07-01

130

76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot  

Science.gov (United States)

...Endangered. 6/28/2011 12-Month Finding on a Notice of 12-month 76 FR 37706-37716 Petition to List petition finding, Castanea pumila var. Not warranted. ozarkensis as Threatened or Endangered. 6/29/2011 90-Day Finding on a Notice of...

2011-10-06

131

Environ: E00505 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Full Text Available E00505 Grinded paste of Ulmus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf Ulmi pasta Crude drug U ... mus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf (in time ... mud) left for several days to rot and ferment, sha ...

132

A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

Pedro C. Strikis

2009-09-01

133

A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) from Brazil / Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina), no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo) e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul). Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (P [...] sidium guajava, Myrtaceae), araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae). Abstract in english A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), in the southeast (State of São Paulo) and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul). It has been reared from fruits of [...] guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae), "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae).

Pedro C., Strikis; Maria Laura M., Lerena.

134

Anatomía de la madera de 20 especies de lianas del lote boscoso El Dorado-Tumeremo (estado Bolívar, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de la anatomía de la madera de 19 especies de lianas procedentes del estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Las especies estudiadas se agrupan en un total de 12 familias: Bignoniaceae (2, Caesalpiniaceae (2, Combretaceae (1, Dilleniaceae (2, Papilionaceae (3, Menispermaceae (3, Moraceae (1, Nyctaginaceae (1, Rhamnaceae (1, Sapindaceae (1, Ulmaceae (1, Verbenaceae. El material se preparo utilizando procedimientos convencionales de microtecnia y fue descrito de acuerdo a lo establecido por IAWA. Las características que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia en el material estudiado fueron la presencia de cristales (85 %, variantes cambiales (55 % y vasos de dos tamaños (50 %. Entre los tipos de variantes cambiales se encontró el desarrollo de cuñas floemáticas, floema concéntrico, floema disperso y masa xilemática compuesta. Se elaboró una clave dicotómica para la identificación de las especies estudiadas.This paper presents the wood anatomy of 19 species of lianes from Bolívar State, Venezuela. The species studied belong to 12 families: Bignoniaceae (2, Caesalpiniaceae (2, Combretaceae (1, Dilleniaceae (2, Papilionaceae (3, Menispermaceae (3, Moraceae (1, Nyctaginaceae (1, Rhamnaceae (1, Sapindaceae (1, Ulmaceae (1, Verbenaceae. The material was prepared using conventional microtechnique. Descriptions were realized according to rules of the IAWA. The features found with greatest frequency were crystals (85 %, cambial variants (55 % and two-sized vessels (50 %. The cambial variant types found were stems with furrowed xylem, concentric phloem, diffuse phloem and compound xylem cylinder. A dichotomous key for identification is presented.

Williams J León H

2009-12-01

135

A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) from Brazil / Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina), no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo) e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul). Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (P [...] sidium guajava, Myrtaceae), araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae). Abstract in english A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), in the southeast (State of São Paulo) and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul). It has been reared from fruits of [...] guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae), "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae).

Pedro C., Strikis; Maria Laura M., Lerena.

2009-09-01

136

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais [...] freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Atividades agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pol [...] len grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Ortrud M., Barth; Cíntia F., Barreto; Luciane G., Coelho; Cynthia F.P., Luz.

137

An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

2013-11-01

138

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

Matthew R. Thomas

2008-01-01

139

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio N [...] egro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul. Abstract in english Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by [...] having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

Matthew R., Thomas; Lúcia H. Rapp, Py-Daniel.

140

Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

Muhajir Hamid

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities...

Muhajir Hamid; Siti Pauliena Mohd Bohari; Mohd Saufi Bastami; Abdul Manaf Ali; Nik Musa`adah Mustapha; Khozirah Shari

2008-01-01

142

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria...

Thomas, Matthew R.; Rapp Py-daniel, Lu?cia H.

2008-01-01

143

Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43?, NO3?, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3?. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl?, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

Ewa Jab?o?ska

2012-03-01

144

Molecular evidence for an Asian origin and a unique westward migration of species in the genus Castanea via Europe to North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Castanea (Fagaceae) is widely distributed in the deciduous forests of the Northern Hemisphere. The striking similarity between the floras of eastern Asia and those of eastern North America and the difference in chestnut blight resistance among species has been of interest to botanists for a century. To infer the biogeographical history of the genus, the phylogeny of Castanea was estimated using DNA sequence data from different regions of the chloroplast genome. Sequencing results support the genus Castanea as a monophyletic group with Castanea crenata as basal. The three Chinese species form a strongly supported sister clade to the North American and European clade. A unique westward expansion of extant Castanea species is hypothesized with Castanea originating in eastern Asia, an initial diversification within Asia during the Eocene followed by intercontinental dispersion and divergence between the Chinese and the European/North American species during the middle Eocene and a split between the European and the North American species in the late Eocene. The differentiation within North America and China might have occurred in early or late Miocene. The North America species are supported as a clade with C. pumila var. ozarkensis, the Ozark chinkapin, as the basal lineage, sister to the group comprising C. pumila var. pumila, the Allegheny chinkapin, and Castanea dentata, the American chestnut. Morphological evolution of one nut per bur in the genus may have occurred independently on two continents. PMID:17098448

Lang, Ping; Dane, Fenny; Kubisiak, Thomas L; Huang, Hongwen

2007-04-01

145

Biological Method to Quantify Progressive Stages of Decay in Five Commercial Woods by Coriolus versicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (% were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority.

A.M. Olfat

2007-01-01

146

Biological method to quantify progressive stages of decay in five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053

Olfat, A M; Karimi, A N; Parsapajouh, D

2007-04-01

147

A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

2008-01-01

148

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

149

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

150

On the egg parasitoids of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae, an invasive pest species from Japan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present the parasitic Hymenoptera reared from Aproceros leucopodaTakeuchi, 1939 eggs and also we give notes regarding the different parasitoids of this invasive saw fly.Asecodes (Teleopterus erxias (Walker, 1848 was reared for the first time from the eggs of Aprocerosleucopoda. From unidentified eggs on Ulmus minor we also reared Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy,1785. From pupae of A. leucopodae emerged also few specimens of an ichneumonid wasp.

Emilian Pricop

2012-12-01

151

Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

Acatay, A.

1968-01-01

152

Lebensraumtyp 9180* Schlucht- und Hangmischwälder Tilio-Acerion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In diesem prioritären Lebensraumtyp sind Edellaubholz-Mischwälder vorrangig mit Berg-Ahorn (Acer pseudoplatanus), Gemeiner Esche (Fraxinus excelsior), Berg-Ulme (Ulmus glabra) und Winter-Linde (Tilia cordata) auf Sonderstandorten wie Schluchten, an Steilhängen sowie auf Hang- bzw. Blockschuttstandorten zusammengefasst worden. Sie sind sehr selten und in Sachsen-Anhalt weitestgehend auf den Bereich der unteren bis mittleren Berglagen des Harzes beschränkt. In den Gipskarstgebieten des Harz...

Billetoft, Birgitte; Winter-huneck, Bru?nhild; Peterson, Jens; Schmidt, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

153

Cambios químicos en el xilema de Olmus minor mill. inducidos por la aplicación de carvacrol y ácido salicílico: relación con la resistencia a ophiostoma novo-ulmi brasier.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ulmus minor es una especie forestal ampliamente distribuida por zonas templadas del hemisferio norte. Hoy en día sus poblaciones se encuentran amenazadas por la grafiosis, enfermedad vascular causada por el hongo Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Este hongo actúa extendiendo sus hifas por el interior de los vasos del xilema, lo que provoca su cavitación, conduciendo a un marchitamiento completo de la copa y, finalmente, a la muerte del árbol.

Anza Go?mez, Lucia

2010-01-01

154

Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the native trees Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia, respectively. Naturally senesced leaves of each species were collected and C:N ratio, N and lignin content assessed. We prepared 64 litter bags per sp...

Castro-diez, P.; Gonza?lez-mun?oz, N.; Alonso, A.; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

2009-01-01

155

Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro / Assessment of extinction risk of Urticineae from sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados o georreferenciamento e as análises de avaliação de risco de extinção seguindo os critérios e categorias da IUCN para 32 espécies de Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae e Moraceae) ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Materiais correspondentes a essas espé [...] cies foram examinados nos principais herbários brasileiros, sendo selecionados 2524 registros para a avaliação. Dentre as 32 espécies, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis e Phyllostylon brasiliense encontraram-se ameaçadas de extinção, já Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana e S. hilarii deixaram de ser consideradas ameaçadas de extinção pelo recente estudo. Os resultados apontaram, como localidades de importância conservacionista, os municípios de Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro e Saquarema. Abstract in english This paper conducted georeferencing and analyzes of extinction risk assessments following the criteria and categories from IUCN for 32 species of Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae) occurring in the sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Materials corresponding [...] to these species were examined in major Brazilian herbaria and 2524 records were selected for evaluation. Among the 32 species, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis and Phyllostylon brasiliense fall into endangered category, and Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana and S. hilarii were not considered threatened. The locations of conservation importance belong to the municipalities of Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro and Saquarema.

Leandro Cardoso, Pederneiras; Andrea Ferreira da, Costa; Jorge Pedro Pereira, Carauta; Sergio, Romaniuc Neto.

2014-03-01

156

Anatomía de la madera de 20 especies de lianas del lote boscoso El Dorado-Tumeremo (estado Bolívar, Venezuela)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de la anatomía de la madera de 19 especies de lianas procedentes del estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Las especies estudiadas se agrupan en un total de 12 familias: Bignoniaceae (2), Caesalpiniaceae (2), Combretaceae (1), Dilleniaceae (2), Papilionaceae (3), Menisper [...] maceae (3), Moraceae (1), Nyctaginaceae (1), Rhamnaceae (1), Sapindaceae (1), Ulmaceae (1), Verbenaceae. El material se preparo utilizando procedimientos convencionales de microtecnia y fue descrito de acuerdo a lo establecido por IAWA. Las características que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia en el material estudiado fueron la presencia de cristales (85 %), variantes cambiales (55 %) y vasos de dos tamaños (50 %). Entre los tipos de variantes cambiales se encontró el desarrollo de cuñas floemáticas, floema concéntrico, floema disperso y masa xilemática compuesta. Se elaboró una clave dicotómica para la identificación de las especies estudiadas. Abstract in english This paper presents the wood anatomy of 19 species of lianes from Bolívar State, Venezuela. The species studied belong to 12 families: Bignoniaceae (2), Caesalpiniaceae (2), Combretaceae (1), Dilleniaceae (2), Papilionaceae (3), Menispermaceae (3), Moraceae (1), Nyctaginaceae (1), Rhamnaceae (1), Sa [...] pindaceae (1), Ulmaceae (1), Verbenaceae. The material was prepared using conventional microtechnique. Descriptions were realized according to rules of the IAWA. The features found with greatest frequency were crystals (85 %), cambial variants (55 %) and two-sized vessels (50 %). The cambial variant types found were stems with furrowed xylem, concentric phloem, diffuse phloem and compound xylem cylinder. A dichotomous key for identification is presented.

Williams J, León H.

2009-12-01

157

Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

Wolfgang, Volkheimer; Martín G., Novara; Paula L., Narváez; Rosa A., Marquillas.

158

Enzimas proteolíticas presentes en el látex de Ficus punlila L. (Moraceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se detectó la presencia de actividad proteolítica en frutos de Ficus pumila L. (Ficus repens Hort.). El extracto crudo fue obtenido por clarificación del látex centrifugado a 16.000 x g durante 30 mn y ultracentifugando luego el sobrenadante a 100.000 x g durante una hora. La preparación enzimática cruda mostró elevada actividad proteolítica sobre caseína en presencia de cisteína 12 mM, pero la actividad fue inhibida por inhibidores tiol-específicos tales como HgCl2 y E-64, sugirie...

Perello?, Mario; Arribe?re, Mari?a Cecilia; Caffini, Ne?stor Oscar; Priolo Lufrano, Nora Silvia

2000-01-01

159

A New Record of Campylaspis fusiformis (Crustacea: Cumacea: Nannastacidae from Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study dealt with cumacean specimens collected from the shallow waters of the South Sea and East Sea, Korea. Campylaspis fusiformis Gamo, 1960 belonging to the family Nannastacidae is newly recorded to Korean fauna. This species resembles C. pumila and C. striata in having a similar body form and a pair of narrow lateral sulcuses on the carapace, but it is easily distinguished from them by the dactylus of the pereopod 2 which is more than 3.5 times the length of the propodus and bears many setae (about 20 on the surface. This species mainly occurs in the Korean and Japanese waters.

Chang-Mok Lee

2012-01-01

160

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

Bandana Devi

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ? 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ? 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ? 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ? 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86? 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83? 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ? 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91? 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ? 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

Bandana Devi

2013-07-01

162

L'analyse pollinique du plateau de Millevaches (Massif central, France) et de sites périphériques limousins et auvergnats : approche des paléoenvironnements, des systèmes agropastoraux et évolution des territoires ruraux.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La dynamique de la végétation du plateau de Millevaches présente de nombreuses particularités l'individualisant assez nettement du reste du Massif central. Les démarrages du noisetier (Corylus) et du chêne (Quercus) sont simultanés et datés de 9 120 ± 90 BP (soit [8551-8204] cal. BP). A l'Atlantique ancien, le noisetier constitue toujours l'essentiel de l'environnement végétal, accompagné du chêne, dont l'implantation ne progresse qu'étonnamment peu, et l'orme (Ulmus). Une réor...

Miras, Yannick

2004-01-01

163

The pathogen causing Dutch elm disease makes host trees attract insect vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals (the monoterpene (-)-beta-pinene and the sesquiterpenes (-)-alpha-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-delta-cadinene) from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that sesquiterpene emission is upregulated in elm trees inoculated with O. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manipulates host trees to enhance their apparency to foraging beetles, a strategy that increases the probability of transportation of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID:16271975

McLeod, Geoff; Gries, Regine; von Reuss, Stephan H; Rahe, James E; McIntosh, Rory; König, Wilfried A; Gries, Gerhard

2005-12-01

164

The influence of temperature and light on defoliation levels of elm by dutch elm disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The amount of defoliation of elm (Ulmus procera) caused by three Ophiostoma novoulmi Eurasian race isolates over 14 seasons of field trials was found to be strongly correlated with mean air temperature and mean number of sunshine hours over the 12-week period from inoculation to assessment, and with tree age. The coefficient of determination for the regression of percent defoliation on the environmental and tree factors was 0.76, P 7.5 h of sunshine) at all air temperatures or low light (Dutch elm disease symptoms and the implications for elm resistance breeding are discussed. PMID:18945072

Sutherland, M L; Pearson, S; Brasier, C M

1997-06-01

165

Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conocimiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA. The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

Gonzalo R Torres

2012-01-01

166

A NEW SPECIES OF CASTILLEJA (OROBANCHACEAE) FROM THE PÁRAMOS OF THE COLOMBIAN EASTERN CORDILLERA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLANTAGO RIGIDA (PLANTAGINACEAE) / Una especie nueva de Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) de los páramos de la cordillera Oriental de Colombia, con comentarios acerca de su asociación con Plantago rigida (Plantaginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, una especie de hierbas perennes pequeñas propias de páramos de Santander, Boyacá y Cundinamarca, en la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana, es descrita y detalladamente ilustrada con fotografías de la colección tipo. La especie nueva es morfológica- y ecoló [...] gicamente similar a C. nubigena, C. pumila y C. virgata, tres especies perennes de zonas altoandinas de Ecuador, Perú y norte de Chile y Argentina. Castilleja paramensis se distingue claramente de sus especies afines por el tamaño pequeño de los individuos, las hojas y las brácteas ancho-elípticas (las cuales son enteras a levemente 3-lobadas), el pedicelo extremadamente corto ( Abstract in english Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically si [...] milar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relatives by the small size of the individuals, the broadly elliptic leaves and bracts (which are entire to slightly trilobed), the short (

FAVIO, GONZÁLEZ; NATALIA, PABÓN-MORA.

167

A NEW SPECIES OF CASTILLEJA (OROBANCHACEAE) FROM THE PÁRAMOS OF THE COLOMBIAN EASTERN CORDILLERA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLANTAGO RIGIDA (PLANTAGINACEAE) / Una especie nueva de Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) de los páramos de la cordillera Oriental de Colombia, con comentarios acerca de su asociación con Plantago rigida (Plantaginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, una especie de hierbas perennes pequeñas propias de páramos de Santander, Boyacá y Cundinamarca, en la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana, es descrita y detalladamente ilustrada con fotografías de la colección tipo. La especie nueva es morfológica- y ecoló [...] gicamente similar a C. nubigena, C. pumila y C. virgata, tres especies perennes de zonas altoandinas de Ecuador, Perú y norte de Chile y Argentina. Castilleja paramensis se distingue claramente de sus especies afines por el tamaño pequeño de los individuos, las hojas y las brácteas ancho-elípticas (las cuales son enteras a levemente 3-lobadas), el pedicelo extremadamente corto ( Abstract in english Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically si [...] milar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relatives by the small size of the individuals, the broadly elliptic leaves and bracts (which are entire to slightly trilobed), the short (

FAVIO, GONZÁLEZ; NATALIA, PABÓN-MORA.

2013-12-01

168

Morphological and molecular systematics of Rocky Mountain alpine Laccaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alpine zone is comprised of habitats at elevations above treeline, and macromycetes play important ecological roles as decomposers and mycorrhizal symbionts here as elsewhere. Laccaria is an important group of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes widely used in experimental and applied research. A systematic study of alpine Laccaria species using morphological, cultural and molecular (ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer) data revealed five taxa in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone: L. laccata var. pallidifolia, L. nobilis (the first published report for arctic-alpine habitats), L. pumila, L. montana and L. pseudomontana (a newly described taxon similar to L. montana with more ellipsoidal, finely echinulate basidiospores). All occur in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado; however, only L. pumila and L. montana were found on the Beartooth Plateau in the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming. All are associated with dwarf and shrub Salix species, with L. laccata var. pallidifolia also associated with Dryas octopetala and Betula glandulosa. Maximum-parsimony phylogenetic analysis of rDNA-ITS sequences for 27 Laccaria accessions supports the morphological species delineations. PMID:16596948

Osmundson, Todd W; Cripps, Cathy L; Mueller, Gregory M

2005-01-01

169

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy as a new method for evaluating host resistance in the Dutch elm disease complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance of elms (Ulmus spp.) to the pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier depends on chemical and anatomical factors that confine the spread of the pathogen in the vascular system of the host. This study focused on detecting chemical differences in 4-year-old Ulmus minor Mill. seedlings before and after inoculation with a virulent O. novo-ulmi isolate. According to symptom development over 60 days, the trees were divided into resistant (0-33% wilting) and susceptible (67-100% wilting) groups. Histochemical tests and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis were performed on transverse sections of 2-year-old twigs, 2 days before and 40 days after inoculation. Although histochemical tests did not clearly discriminate susceptible from resistant elms, chemical differences between resistant, susceptible and control trees were detected by FT-IR. The average spectrum for resistant tree samples had higher absorbance peaks than the spectra from the susceptible and control samples, indicating increased formation of lignin and suberin. The roles of lignin and suberin in the resistance of the elms against O. novo-ulmi and the usefulness and sensitivity of the FT-IR technique for analyzing metabolic changes caused by pathogens in plants are discussed. PMID:16076781

Martín, J A; Solla, A; Woodward, S; Gil, L

2005-10-01

170

Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus? Ulmus? Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus? Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

171

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM {sup 14}C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h{sup {minus}1} embryo {sup {minus}1}) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. {sup 14}C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lancelata, U. Carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

Bao, X.; Ohlrogge, J.

1999-08-01

172

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM (14)C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h(-1) embryo(-1)) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. (14)C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids. PMID:10444089

Bao; Ohlrogge

1999-08-01

173

Supply of Fatty Acid Is One Limiting Factor in the Accumulation of Triacylglycerol in Developing Embryos1  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of 14C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mm 14C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of 14C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h?1 embryo?1) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mm decanoic acid. 14C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids. PMID:10444089

Bao, Xiaoming; Ohlrogge, John

1999-01-01

174

Climatic change causes abrupt changes in forest composition, inferred from a high-resolution pollen record, southwestern Quebec, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

A pollen profile from a lake with varved sediments sampled at continuous 10-year intervals and spanning the past 1000 years was analyzed to understand the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on forests in southwestern Quebec. Pollen assemblages were dominated by arboreal taxa, primarily Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Fagus. Between 990 and 1560 AD, pollen accumulation rates and percentages of hardwoods (Betula, Fagus, Acer, Ulmus, Tilia) and Tsuga were relatively high. At 1560 AD, PARs of many hardwood taxa (Fagus, Acer, Betula, Fraxinus, Ulmus) and Tsuga abruptly decreased, some remaining low for the remainder of the record (Tsuga, Fagus, Acer), but others increasing after 50 years (Betula, Fraxinus). An increase in non-arboreal pollen between 1810 and 2010 AD was caused by European settlement of the area. The transition in the pollen assemblages beginning at 1560 AD and a climate reconstruction based on these data shows an abrupt climate cooling had a significant impact on the pollen accumulation rates of the region within a couple of decades. A synthesis of this record with other high-resolution and well-dated pollen data from the conifer-hardwood forest of eastern North America shows consistent results across the whole area, indicating that very-high resolution pollen data can provide insight into multi-decadal climate variability and its impact on forest vegetation.

Paquette, Nathalie; Gajewski, Konrad

2013-09-01

175

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ? -amyrin, stigmasterol, ? -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

176

DETECCIÓN Y ABUNDANCIA DE ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO FRANKLINIELLA EN UNA ZONA PROTEGIDA DE SAN JOSÉ DE LAS LAJAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE MAYABEQUE, CUBA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un eco - sistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella , el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, lo que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch , con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor inciden - cia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch . Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood , Frankliniella insularis Franklin , Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura . Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae.

Carlos GONZ\\u00C1LEZ

2014-01-01

177

Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08?±?0.01 ?g/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 ?g/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

2012-02-01

178

The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions yielded considerable information about triglyceride compositions of the fats.The most interesting finding was withLaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2-29.8% trilaurin. A maximum of 19.9% trilaurin would be predicted by a 1, 2, 3-random, a 1, 3-random-2-random, or a 1-random-2-random-3-random distribution of the lauric acid(3). This indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobilis seed enzymes.Cuphea lanceolata seed fat also contained more simple triglyceride (tridecanoin) than would be predicted by the fatty acid distribution theories. PMID:17805764

Litchfield, C; Miller, E; Harlow, R D; Reiser, R

1967-07-01

179

Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of ?-irradiation 14,000-16,000 ?R/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of ?-irradiation 10,000-13,000 ?R/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of ?-irradiation 3,600-8,000 ?R/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of ?-irradiation of 60-200 ?R/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregationts yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic parts, remains of concrete constructions and debris; To fill up trenches on the slopes of the hills, make even soil surface; It is necessary to apply phyto-remediation technology to clear the hills from radiation pollution. Lichens developing on the outcrops accumulate Cs137 up to 54,000 Bq/kg. Coverage of their aggregations reaches 40-45 %. Mosses developing on fine earth in cracks of stones accumulate Cs137 up to 4,100 Bq/kg, Am241 - 1,830 Bq/kg, Eu152,154 - 211 Bq/kg. 4 For prevention of water and wind erosion it is necessary to sow in addition seeds of Caragana pumila, Spiraea hypericifolia, Artemisia frigida, Psathyrostachys juncea

180

Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

1988-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus. This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

Ghelardini L

2009-07-01

182

Stubble field plant communities of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The characteristics of communities found in unploughed stubble fields of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park and its agricultural buffer zone are presented in the paper. The association Echinochloo-Setarietum divided into a typical variant, the variant with Galinsoga parviflora, and the variant with Bidens tripartite, was the most frequently noted and floristically differentiated association. Patches of Digitarietum ischaemi were also frequently observed in stubble fields on the poorest habitats. Rarely, on fertile soils, small patches of floristically rich communities with Veronica agrestis were recorded. Periodically, excessively wet habitats were seldom occupied by the speciesrichest phytocoenoses of Centunculo-Anthoceretum punctati. Single patches of the community with Setaria pumila, the form with Aphanes arvensis, were observed only in the south-eastern part of the Park.

Teresa Skrajna

2010-12-01

183

On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

1999-01-01

184

Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

I.L. Rautenbach

1990-09-01

185

Comparative Analysis of Growth, Genome Size, Chromosome Numbers and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana and Three Cooccurring Species of the Brassicaceae from Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contrary to literature data Arabidopsis thaliana was rarely observed in Middle Asia during a collection trip in 2001. Instead, three other Brassicaceae species were frequently found at places where A. thaliana was expected. To reveal reasons for this frequency pattern, we studied chromosome numbers, genome sizes, phylogenetic relationships, developmental rates, and reproductive success of A. thaliana, Olimarabidopsis pumila, Arabis montbretiana, and Arabis auriculata from Uzbekistan in two temperature treatments. There are little but partially significant differences between phenotypes. All studied species have very small genomes. The 1Cx-values of different genotypes within the sampled species are correlated with altitude. Developmental rates are also correlated with 1Cx-values. In our growth experiments, Arabidopsis had high seed sterility at higher temperature, which might be one reason for the rarity of A. thaliana in Middle Asia.

Matthias H. Hoffmann

2010-01-01

186

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

Mehdi GHIYASI

2009-06-01

187

Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

188

Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                     &n

Dugand Armando

1968-09-01

189

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas / Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germ [...] inación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of w [...] eeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N., Zapata; M., Vargas; P., Medina.

2011-06-01

190

Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino / Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conoc [...] imiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA). Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis. Abstract in english The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of [...] high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA). The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

Gonzalo R, Torres; Liliana C, Lupo; Ana C, Sánchez; Karsten, Schittek.

191

The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator  

Science.gov (United States)

The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

Naidina, O. D.

2014-05-01

192

Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis, red apple (Mallus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, pear (Pyrus calleryana, golden apple (Mallus pumila, pawpaw (Carica papaya, pineapple (Ananas comosus and banana (Musa acuminate} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS, Nitric Oxide (NO and hydroxyl (OH radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3 were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

Anthony Jide Afolayan

2013-01-01

193

Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

Saxe, H

1994-01-01

194

Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

Žiki? V.

2013-01-01

195

Phylogeography: English elm is a 2,000-year-old Roman clone.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1970s ravaged European elm populations, killing more than 25 million trees in Britain alone; the greatest impact was on Ulmus procera, otherwise known as the English elm. Here we use molecular and historical information to show that this elm derives from a single clone that the Romans transported from Italy to the Iberian peninsula, and from there to Britain, for the purpose of supporting and training vines. Its highly efficient vegetative reproduction and its inability to set seeds have preserved this clone unaltered for 2,000 years as the core of the English elm population--and the preponderance of this susceptible variety may have favoured a rapid spread of the disease. PMID:15510138

Gil, Luis; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Soto, Alvaro; Cervera, M Teresa; Collada, Carmen

2004-10-28

196

Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Golub, Natalia V.; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

2013-01-01

197

Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:24455103

Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

2013-11-26

198

Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

199

Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with ?-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent

200

Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
201

Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

1995-03-01

202

Fitossociologia de remanescentes de floresta estacional decidual em Corumbá, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil / Phytosociological study on deciduous forest remnants near Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo foi realizado em quatro remanescentes próximos a cidade de Corumbá, MS (19º05'-19º20' S e 57º40'-57º55' W), com o objetivo de verificar a variação da composição florística e estrutura da floresta decídua em diferentes relevos e tipos de solo. Quatro remanescentes foram amostrados pelo métod [...] o de quadrantes. Três áreas foram amostradas com 20 pontos, e a quarta área foi amostrada com 50 pontos. Todas as árvores com circunferência à altura do peito > 9 cm foram amostradas. Na floresta estacional decidual aluvial foram amostradas 32 espécies, sendo as de maior valor de importância Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae) e Aspidosperma australe Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae). Nas duas áreas de floresta estacional decidual de terras baixas, foram amostradas 47 e 25 espécies, respectivamente, sendo Sebastiania discolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) e Phyllostylon rhamnoides (J. Poiss.) Taub. (Ulmaceae) as mais importantes em ambas. No remanescente de floresta estacional decidual submontana foram amostradas 24 espécies, sobressaindo-se Acosmium cardenasii H.S. Irwin & Arroyo (Fabaceae) como a mais importante. A família mais rica nas áreas estudadas foi Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, seguida por Euphorbiaceae, com seis espécies, e por Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae e Sapindaceae, com três espécies cada. As duas áreas de florestas de terras baixas mostraram-se muito similares, tanto na composição florística, como na estrutura. A floresta aluvial apresentou composição florística e estrutura mais distintas das demais áreas. Estes remanescentes de florestas estacionais deciduais apresentaram estrutura e composição florística peculiares, com elementos do chaco e da caatinga, merecendo a intensificação de estudos botânicos e ecológicos. Abstract in english A survey was made on four deciduous forest remnants in the town of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul (19º05'-19º20' S and 57º40'-57º55' W), aiming to verify the floristic and structure variation of deciduous forest remnants in different relief and types of soils. The four remnants were sampled th [...] rough the point quarter method. Three areas were sampled through 20 points and the fourth area was sampled through 50 points. All trees with circumference at breast height > 9 cm were sampled. In the alluvial deciduous forest, 32 species were sampled, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae) and Aspidosperma australe Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae) having the highest importance value indexes. In two areas of lowland deciduous forest 47 and 25 species were sampled, respectively; Sebastiania discolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllostylon rhamnoides (J. Poiss.) Taub. (Ulmaceae) being the most important in both. In the remnant of submontane deciduous forest 24 species were sampled, Acosmium cardenasii H.S. Irwin & Arroyo (Fabaceae) outstanding as the main species. The richest family was Fabaceae with 16 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with six species, and Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae and Sapindaceae with five species each. Both areas of lowland forests showed to be very similar in floristic composition as well as in structure. The alluvial forest presented the most distinct structure and floristic when compared to the other areas. These remnants of deciduous forests have peculiar structure and floristic composition, containing species of the Chaco and Caatinga Provinces that require extensive botanical and ecological studies.

Suzana Maria, Salis; Marta Pereira da, Silva; Patrícia Póvoa de, Mattos; João S. Vila da, Silva; Vali Joana, Pott; Arnildo, Pott.

203

Fitossociologia de remanescentes de floresta estacional decidual em Corumbá, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Phytosociological study on deciduous forest remnants near Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em quatro remanescentes próximos a cidade de Corumbá, MS (19º05'-19º20' S e 57º40'-57º55' W, com o objetivo de verificar a variação da composição florística e estrutura da floresta decídua em diferentes relevos e tipos de solo. Quatro remanescentes foram amostrados pelo método de quadrantes. Três áreas foram amostradas com 20 pontos, e a quarta área foi amostrada com 50 pontos. Todas as árvores com circunferência à altura do peito > 9 cm foram amostradas. Na floresta estacional decidual aluvial foram amostradas 32 espécies, sendo as de maior valor de importância Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae e Aspidosperma australe Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae. Nas duas áreas de floresta estacional decidual de terras baixas, foram amostradas 47 e 25 espécies, respectivamente, sendo Sebastiania discolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae e Phyllostylon rhamnoides (J. Poiss. Taub. (Ulmaceae as mais importantes em ambas. No remanescente de floresta estacional decidual submontana foram amostradas 24 espécies, sobressaindo-se Acosmium cardenasii H.S. Irwin & Arroyo (Fabaceae como a mais importante. A família mais rica nas áreas estudadas foi Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, seguida por Euphorbiaceae, com seis espécies, e por Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae e Sapindaceae, com três espécies cada. As duas áreas de florestas de terras baixas mostraram-se muito similares, tanto na composição florística, como na estrutura. A floresta aluvial apresentou composição florística e estrutura mais distintas das demais áreas. Estes remanescentes de florestas estacionais deciduais apresentaram estrutura e composição florística peculiares, com elementos do chaco e da caatinga, merecendo a intensificação de estudos botânicos e ecológicos.A survey was made on four deciduous forest remnants in the town of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul (19º05'-19º20' S and 57º40'-57º55' W, aiming to verify the floristic and structure variation of deciduous forest remnants in different relief and types of soils. The four remnants were sampled through the point quarter method. Three areas were sampled through 20 points and the fourth area was sampled through 50 points. All trees with circumference at breast height > 9 cm were sampled. In the alluvial deciduous forest, 32 species were sampled, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae and Aspidosperma australe Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae having the highest importance value indexes. In two areas of lowland deciduous forest 47 and 25 species were sampled, respectively; Sebastiania discolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae and Phyllostylon rhamnoides (J. Poiss. Taub. (Ulmaceae being the most important in both. In the remnant of submontane deciduous forest 24 species were sampled, Acosmium cardenasii H.S. Irwin & Arroyo (Fabaceae outstanding as the main species. The richest family was Fabaceae with 16 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae with six species, and Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae and Sapindaceae with five species each. Both areas of lowland forests showed to be very similar in floristic composition as well as in structure. The alluvial forest presented the most distinct structure and floristic when compared to the other areas. These remnants of deciduous forests have peculiar structure and floristic composition, containing species of the Chaco and Caatinga Provinces that require extensive botanical and ecological studies.

Suzana Maria Salis

2004-10-01

204

Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parki [...] nsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) i [...] s influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

Humberto, González Rodríguez; Israel, Cantú Silva; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Marco Vinicio, Gómez Meza; Marisela, Pando Moreno; Juan Manuel, López Hernández.

205

The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

Alicja Stach

2006-06-01

206

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

Italo Chiffelle

2011-06-01

207

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

208

Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts. PMID:18244941

Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

2008-04-01

209

POTENCIAL HÍDRICO XILEMÁTICO EN CUATRO ESPECIES ARBUSTIVAS NATIVAS DEL NORESTE DE MÉXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (¿ de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae, Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae y Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ¿ fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer y 14:00 h (mediodía. En el periodo más húmedo, el ¿ al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida a -0.90 MPa (P. texana; en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ¿ al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia. Al mediodía, P. texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa y menor (-3.38 MPa valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del ¿ al pre-amanecer. El ¿ del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ¿ al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ¿ al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía.

Humberto Gonz\\u00E1lez Rodr\\u00EDguez

2011-01-01

210

Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta  

Science.gov (United States)

The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2014-05-01

211

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

Tretiakova I.

2012-08-01

212

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

Tomislav, Curkovic; Jay, F. Brunner.

2007-03-01

213

Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

214

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil / Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental es [...] tá localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum) são novas referências para o estado do Pará. Abstract in english In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality an [...] d comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Sebastião, Maciel; Marcio Roberto, Pietrobom.

215

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental está localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum são novas referências para o estado do Pará.In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality and comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Sebastião Maciel

2010-03-01

216

Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

2010-09-01

217

Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de los aceites en las diferentes semillas varió del 9 al 16%. Todos los aceites mostraron un alto grado de insaturación con índices de iodo de 94 a 122 Kl/g. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron el oleico y linoleico. Todos los aceites crudos resultaron de buena calidad y comparables a los aceites convencionales como el de soya, maíz, girasol, colza y uña de gato. Así mismo, su calidad fue comparable a la de otros aceites de leguminosas de la misma región.

Ortega-Nieblas, M.

1996-06-01

218

Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

2014-04-01

219

Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show geographical patterns similar to those in North America, although Betula and Ericaceae are more important in pollen spectra in the Soviet Union. Picea pollen is less important and Pinus pollen is more widespread in the USSR. Deciduous pollen types such as Quercus, Tilia, and Ulmus are less important than in North America.

Peterson, G. M.

220

Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

 
 
 
 
221

Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos / Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones R [...] ío Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (3 [...] 00m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

M., Quattrocchio; J., Durango de Cabrera; C., Galli.

222

Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno. A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

M. Quattrocchio

2003-03-01

223

Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos / Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones R [...] ío Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (3 [...] 00m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

M., Quattrocchio; J., Durango de Cabrera; C., Galli.

2003-03-01

224

Relationship between the heat tolerance of photosynthesis and the thermal stability of rubisco activase in plants from contrasting thermal environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of net photosynthesis (Pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of Rubisco activase to maintain Rubisco in an active form. To examine this proposal, the temperature response of Pn, Rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. The temperature optimum of Rubisco activation was 10 degrees C higher in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) compared with the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), resembling the temperature response of Pn. Pn increased markedly with increasing internal CO(2) concentration in Antarctic hairgrass and creosote bush plants subjected to moderate heat stress even under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion (DeltaF/F(m)') and the maximum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) were more sensitive to temperature in Antarctic hairgrass and two other species endemic to cold regions (i.e. Lysipomia pumila and spinach [Spinacea oleracea]) compared with creosote bush and three species (i.e. jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum]) from warm regions. The temperature response of activity and the rate of catalytic inactivation of Rubisco from creosote bush and Antarctic hairgrass were similar, whereas the optimum for ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation by recombinant creosote bush, cotton, and tobacco activase was 8 degrees C to 10 degrees C higher than for Antarctic hairgrass and spinach activase. These results support a role for activase in limiting photosynthesis at high temperature. PMID:15084731

Salvucci, Michael E; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J

2004-04-01

225

Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010–2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevés were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevés were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic  variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In  herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

Krzysztof Domaradzki

2014-07-01

226

Asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones to chiral alcohols catalyzed by plants tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an important organic compound, chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many single enantiomer pharmaceuticals. Asymmetric reduction of the corresponding prochiral ketones to produce the chiral alcohols by biocatalysis is one of the most promising routes. Asymmetric reduction of different kinds of non-natural prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants tissue was studied in this work. Acetophenone, 4'-chloroacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate were chosen as the model substrates for simple ketone, halogen-containing aromatic ketone and beta-ketoesters, respectively. Apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), potato (Soanum tuberosum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were chosen as the biocatalysts. It was found that these kinds of prochiral ketoness could be reduced by these plants tissue with high enantioselectivity. Both R- and S-form configuration chiral alcohols could be obtained. The e.e. and chemical yield could reach about 98 and 80% respectively for acetophenone and 4'-chloroacetophenone reduction reaction with favorable plant tissue. And the e.e. and yield for ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate reduction reaction was about 91 and 45% respectively. PMID:18548304

Yang, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Rong; Yang, Gai; Wang, Yu; Li, Li-Zhen; Lv, Zao-Sheng; Yao, Man; Lai, Bin

2008-09-01

227

Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long chain (C{sub 16}-C{sub 18}) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple (Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly (Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

Goni, M.A.; Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-11-01

228

Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

1990-11-01

229

Weed communities of root crops in the Pamir Alai Mts, Tajikistan (Middle Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of weed vegetation conducted on root crops in Tajikistan (Middle Asia, one of the world cradles of weed flora. The main research was conducted in the Zeravshanian, southern Tajikistan and Hissar-Darvasian geobotanical regions in 2011. The study was based on 107 phytosociological relevés obtained in various geobotanical regions of the country. The collected material probably presents the majority of variations among the weed communities of root cultivations in the Middle Asia. As a result of numerical analyses, 7 associations were distinguished: Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi, Daturo stramonii-Hibiscetum trioni, Setario pumilae-Sorghetum halepensi, Galinsogo-Setarietum, Equiseto arvensi-Xanthietum italici, Portulacetum oleracei and Brassico campestris-Lamietum amplexicauli. The last mentioned is new to science. Additionally, one subassociation has been proposed (Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi kochietosum scopariae. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. The study shows that root-crop plantations with segetal vegetation may harbor a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some, which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. However, most of the recorded species are widespread weeds typical for the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian geobotanical provinces.

Sylwia Nowak

2013-06-01

230

Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

Lee, Jeom-Sook

2007-05-01

231

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

232

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

233

Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (?lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (?lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding po

Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

234

Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

2007-12-01

235

A revision of the genus Arenivaga (Rehn) (Blattodea, Corydiidae), with descriptions of new species and key to the males of the genus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cockroach genus Arenivaga is revised. Forty-eight Arenivaga species are recognized with nine previously known species and 39 described as new including the following: A. pagana sp. n., A. grandiscanyonensis sp. n., A. haringtoni sp. n., A. hopkinsorum sp. n., A. umbratilis sp. n., A. tenax sp. n., A. impensa sp. n., A. trypheros sp. n., A. darwini sp. n., A. nalepae sp. n., A. sequoia sp. n., A. mckittrickae sp. n., A. gaiophanes sp. n., A. belli sp. n., A. estelleae sp. n., A. delicata sp. n., A. mortisvallisensis sp. n., A. milleri sp. n., A. pratchetti sp. n., A. gumperzae sp. n., A. rothi sp. n., A. ricei sp. n., A. adamsi sp. n., A. nicklei sp. n., A. akanthikos sp. n., A. moctezuma sp. n., A. paradoxa sp. n., A. apaeninsula sp. n., A. hebardi sp. n., A. dnopheros sp. n., A. aquila sp. n., A. florilega sp. n., A. galeana sp. n., A. gurneyi sp. n., A. pumila sp. n., A. hypogaios sp. n., A. diaphana sp. n., A. nocturna sp. n., A. alichenas sp. n. All species are described or redescribed, major morphological features are illustrated, distributions are characterized, and the biology of the species is reviewed. A neotype series is designated for A. investigata Friauf & Edney. PMID:24624022

Hopkins, Heidi

2014-01-01

236

Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give no clear indication of post-depositional disturbance, although a possible short-lived hiatus occurs around 6500 cal.BP. The early pollen record from thermophilous trees could indicate that there may have been some downwash following sediment desiccation through wood peat layers deposited between c. 6500 and 10,000 cal. BP, but the overall biostratigraphy is consistent with other Danish small hollow records.

Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte

2012-01-01

237

Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen  

Science.gov (United States)

Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

238

Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

2012-01-01

239

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

240

Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex  

Science.gov (United States)

A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

2000-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

FARZAM TAVANKAR

2015-04-01

242

A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

2012-08-01

243

THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

OROIAN SILVIA

2012-12-01

244

CONTENIDO MINERAL Y DE CLOROFILA DE LA HEMIPARÁSITA Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC G. Don Y DE CUATRO DE SUS ÁRBOLES HOSPEDEROS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaron con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS. Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05, U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05 que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05 tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %.

J. Carlos Raya-P\\u00E9rez

2014-01-01

245

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang

2013-02-01

246

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in Northern Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed pattern would challenge the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records. The arctic regions may therefore not always be optimal for detecting past climate changes.

H. Seppä

2007-01-01

247

Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica, eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus, pino patula (Pinus patula, pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa, roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis,jaul (Al- nus acuminata, cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii y tirra (Ulmus mexicana. De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad «15% y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50% y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

Yorleny Badilla

2002-01-01

248

Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

L. Gurau

2010-03-01

249

Catechin-7-O-xyloside induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human non-small cell lung carcinoma H1299 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The medicinal plant Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has significant potential as a cancer chemoprevention agent. Catechin-7-O-xyloside (C7Ox) was purified from ultrafine U. davidiana var. japonica ethanol extract. In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of C7Ox in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line H1299. C7Ox treatment induced cell death and decreased plasma membrane integrity, an event typical of apoptosis. C7Ox-induced apoptosis was associated with the proteolytic activation of caspase-6, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. C7Ox also induced the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP. The suppression of CHOP expression significantly decreased C7Ox-induced cell death, LDH leakage and caspase-6 activation. Antitumor effects, evaluated based on protracted tumor regression, were observed when nude-mice bearing H1299 xenografts were treated with C7Ox. C7Ox-induced tumor regression was accompanied by enhanced expression of CHOP mRNA. Our data suggest that C7Ox can trigger mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and that ER stress is critical for C7Ox-induced apoptosis in H1299 NSCLC cells. PMID:24213951

Yoon, Jang Won; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Byeong Mo; Ahn, Joungjwa; Yang, Kyung Mi

2014-01-01

250

Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-06-01

251

Late Pleistocene Palaeoenvironments of the Southern Lake Agassiz Basin, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Macroscopic plant remains, pollen, insect and mollusc fossils recovered from a cut bank on the Red River in North Dakota, USA, provide evidence that an extensive wetland occupied the southern basin of Lake Agassiz from 10 230 to 9900 14C yr BP. Marsh-dwelling plants and invertebrates had colonised the surface of a prograding delta during the low-water Moorhead Phase of Lake Agassiz. A species of Salix (willow) was abundant along distributary channels, and stands of Populus tremuloides (aspen), Ulmus sp. (elm), Betula sp. (birch), and Picea sp. (spruce) grew on the better-drained sand bars and beach ridges. Most of the species of plants, insects, and molluscs represented as fossils are within their existing geographic ranges. Based on a few species with more northerly distributions, mean summer temperature may have been about 1-2°C lower than the present day. No change in species composition occurred in the transition from the Younger Dryas to Preboreal. At the time that the wetland existed, Lake Agassiz was draining either eastward to the North Atlantic Ocean or northwestward to the Arctic Ocean. The wetland was drowned during the Emerson Phase transgression that resulted in meltwater draining southward to the Gulf of Mexico after 9900 14C yr BP.

Yansa, Catherine H.; Ashworth, Allan C.

2005-03-01

252

Cerato-ulmin, a hydrophobin secreted by the causal agents of Dutch elm disease, is a parasitic fitness factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch elm disease is caused by the aggressive Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and the nonaggressive O. ulmi. Both secrete the protein cerato-ulmin (CU). To determine what role CU plays in the pathology of Dutch elm disease, we constructed a CU overexpression mutant of the nonaggressive O. ulmi H5. Stable integration of a single copy of the cu gene from the aggressive O. novo-ulmi into the genome of the nonaggressive isolate resulted in increased secretion of CU protein. Trials with American elm, Ulmus americana, suggested no alteration of virulence of this overexpressing transformant. Using aggressive and nonaggressive wild types, the cu overexpressing mutant, and our cu- mutant (Bowden et al., 1996), we have demonstrated that CU production is correlated with an altered phenotype and more hydrophobic and adherent yeast-like cells. Our results also demonstrate that CU has a role in protecting infectious propagules from desiccation. These biological roles for CU would affect transmission of Dutch elm disease, and we therefore propose that this hydrophobin acts as a parasitic fitness factor. PMID:9344630

Temple, B; Horgen, P A; Bernier, L; Hintz, W E

1997-08-01

253

Trap trees for elm bark beetles : Augmentation with pheromone baits and chlorpyrifos.  

Science.gov (United States)

European elm bark beetles,Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.), were strongly attracted to American elms,Ulmus americana L., baited with theS. multistriatus attractant, multilure, or killed by injection of the arboricide, cacodylic acid; a combination of the two treatments was most attractive. Comparisons of beetle catches on sticky bands affixed to the trees with samples of bark from the same trees showed that the number of beetles landing on cacodylic acid-treated trees was approximately 40 times greater than the number boring into them. Spraying the bark with the insecticide chlorpyrifos had no direct effect on attraction. No live bark beetle brood was found in trees that had been treated with cacodylic acid or chlorpyrifos, but trees that were only baited or left untreated (check) were attacked, killed, and colonized. We suggest that the contribution of the cacodylic acid trap tree technique to Dutch elm disease control will be enhanced by baiting treated trees with multilure and spraying their lower boles with 0.5% chlorpyrifos. This treatment will eliminate diseased and unwanted elms as potential breeding material and kill large numbers of elm bark beetles that might otherwise innoculate healthy elms with the Dutch elm disease fungus. PMID:24311092

Lanier, G N; Jones, A H

1985-01-01

254

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

255

Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

256

Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

257

Effects of larval host plant species on fecundity of the generalist insect herbivore Ennomos subsignarius (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignarius Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is an eruptive herbivore that feeds on numerous tree species in forests throughout its range. An unprecedented outbreak in an urban environment in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, caused severe levels of defoliation to a number of native and exotic hardwood tree species, some of which represent novel hosts for this insect. Increased insect performance on these novels hosts was hypothesized as having contributed to the outbreak. To assess this, percentage larval survival and pupal weight were measured for larvae reared on foliage from six different tree species in a no-choice laboratory bioassay. Adult longevity and fecundity (no. eggs laid per female) were assessed for laboratory-reared individuals, as well as for pupae collected from eight different host tree species from the field. A survey to assess feeding occurrence measured defoliation on eight tree species. During this urban outbreak, sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, a tree species not native to North America, experienced the highest levels of defoliation. Performance of E. subsignarius (pupal weight, female longevity, and fecundity) on this host was comparable with the known host of elm (Ulmus spp.). Despite the fact that E. subsignaria performed well on several introduced hosts, fecundity levels were much lower than previously published reports, suggesting that the current outbreak is not caused by increased fecundity on these novel hosts in contrast to the hypothesis. PMID:20146847

Ryall, K L

2010-02-01

258

Quantitative evaluation by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the chemical composition of decayed wood preserved in waterlogged conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on the assessment of lignin and holocellulose by means of ATR-FTIR analysis and multivariate PLS regression. The analysis was conducted on 59 samples coming from different excavations where wood had been preserved in waterlogged conditions. A range of results from different wood species (Alnus sp.p., Cupressus sempervirens, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sp.p., Quercus sp.p., Ulmus sp.p.), states of preservation, waterlogged environments, and burial times are presented. A calibration model was selected after comparing different reference data (samples extracted and not-extracted, and ash-rich and ash-free bases of calculation for the calibration values), and two different post-acquisition spectroscopic manipulations (both in terms of normalisation procedures and of spectral ranges used for the calibration). Results showed that the best models were different depending on which considered component (lignin or holocellulose) was measured and to which data set (softwood or hardwood) the samples belonged. It is shown that the predictive ability of the models is affected by high ash content (too contaminated samples had to be excluded in order to attain good results, because of excessive overlapping of bands related to the inorganic fraction) but not by the preliminary extraction of sample. Furthermore, the stability of best models is also demonstrated and a procedure of external validation carried out on an external set of samples confirmed the general validity of the identified models. PMID:25281067

Pizzo, Benedetto; Pecoraro, Elisa; Alves, Ana; Macchioni, Nicola; Rodrigues, José Carlos

2015-01-01

259

Nonvolatile chemical cues affect host-plant ranking by gravid Polygonia c-album females.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a multiple-choice test, the preference of egg-laying Polygonia c-album (comma butterfly) females was studied for oviposition on plants bearing surrogate leaves treated with crude methanol extracts obtained from leaves of seven host-plant species: Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, Ribes nigrum, Corylus avellana, and Betula pubescens. The ranking order of surrogate leaves treated with host-plant extracts corresponded well to that reported on natural foliage, except R. nigrum. Thus, host-plant choice in P. c-album seems to be highly dependent on chemical cues. Moreover, after two subsequent fractionations using reversed-phase chromatography the nonvolatile chemical cues residing in the most polar water-soluble fractions evidently provided sufficient information for egg-laying females to discriminate and rank between the samples of more and less preferred plants, since the ranking in these assays was similar to that for natural foliage or whole methanol extracts, while the physical traits of the surrogate leaves remained uniform. PMID:22486046

Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Murtazina, Rushana; Nylin, Sören; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2012-01-01

260

Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D, on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

H. Seyedoleslami

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture  

Science.gov (United States)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

2011-10-01

262

Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries. PMID:21061968

Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

2010-10-01

263

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

H. Seppä

2007-01-01

264

Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

2010-12-01

265

[Spatial pattern of forest biomass and its influencing factors in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province, China].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on field inventory data and vegetation index EVI (enhanced vegetation index), the spatial pattern of the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province was quantitatively analyzed. Using the spatial analysis and statistics tools in ArcGIS software, the impacts of climatic zone, elevation, slope, aspect and vegetation type on the spatial pattern of forest biomass were explored. The results showed that the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains was 350 Tg and spatially aggregated with great increasing potentials. Forest biomass density in the cold temperate humid zone (64.02 t x hm(-2)) was higher than that in the temperate humid zone (60.26 t x hm(-2)). The biomass density of each vegetation type was in the order of mixed coniferous forest (65.13 t x hm(-2)) > spruce-fir forest (63.92 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest (63.79 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest (61.97 t x hm(-2)) > Larix gmelinii forest (61.40 t x hm(-2)) > deciduous broadleaf forest (58.96 t x hm(-2)). With the increasing elevation and slope, the forest biomass density first decreased and then increased. The forest biomass density in the shady slopes was greater than that in the sunny slopes. The spatial pattern of forest biomass in the Great Xing' an Mountains exhibited a heterogeneous pattern due to the variation of climatic zone, vegetation type and topographical factor. This spatial heterogeneity needs to be accounted when evaluating forest biomass at regional scales. PMID:25011288

Wang, Xiao-Li; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Jiao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen; Wu, Hai-Feng

2014-04-01

266

Characteristics of Plant Distribution in the Reclaimed Dredging Area in Gwangyang Bay, Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to elucidate the mechanisms affecting plant distributions in the reclaimed dredging areain the Gwangyang steelworks, in the Gwangyang Bay, Korea, we examined soil characteristics and plant distributionsin four study sites and a control site in the study area. Desalination occurring along a gradient withincreasing elevation, resulting in decrease of soil pH, EC, P, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and salt and an increase in soilT-N, silt, clay contents. From site 1 (the lowest-elevation site to site 5 (the highest-elevation site, halophytesdecreased in abundance and nonhalophytes increased. The dominant species in each site were: Phragmitescommunis, Limonium tetragonum, and 12 additional species at site 1, Carex pumila, Suaeda japonica, and 15additional species at site 2, Spergularia marina, Scirpus planiculmis, and 22 additional species at site 3,Miscantus sinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, and 26 additional species at site 4 and Pinus thunberii, Rhododendronmucronulatum, and 39 additional species at site 5, which resembled a naturally-occurring P. thinbergii community.Cluster analysis of the vegetation data matrix grouped the 35 plots into 5 major groups, and cluster analysisusing the soil environment data matrix revealed 4 major groups. CCA of the floristic and environmental datamatrix showed a positive relationship of SAR, EC, Na, Cl, and Ca, which are related to salt, in the 1st axis and2nd axis, but negative relationships for altitude, organic contents, silt, and clay contents. Notably, plant speciesin the reclaimed dredging area that were separated along the 1st axis showed strong relationships with factorsthat related to salt. Long-term exposure to natural rainfall in the reclaimed dredging area changed the soilcharacteristics, such as salinity. This change in soil characteristics might alter the SAR, which affects plantsurvival strategies in a given habitat. These results strongly indicated that factors related to salt and elevationplay important roles in determining the overall plant distribution in the reclaimed dredging area.

Nam, Woong

2009-05-01

267

Bioreactor technology for herbal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

268

Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

K. Jindo

2014-08-01

269

Acaricidal properties of spinosad against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory bioassays were conducted to characterize the activity of the insecticide spinosad against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). T. urticae females and larvae were individually placed on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae), leaf disks treated with four rates of spinosad (25, 55, 121, and 266 ppm) and a water control. Significantly fewer T. urticae completed development on any spinosad rates (85%), whereas spinosad exhibited no significant effects on P. ulmi development; 72.5 and 83.1% of P. ulmi completed development on apple (Malus pumila P. Mill, Rosaceae) leaf disks treated with 75 ppm spinosad and the control, respectively. T. urticae adult females placed on spinosad-treated disks had significantly higher mortality and lower oviposition rates compared with the water control; no significant mortality effects were observed until 3 d after placing adults on leaf disks. In choice tests where half of a bean leaf was treated with 55 ppm spinosad transversally or longitudinally, T. urticae females were repelled by spinosad and largely oviposited and fed on nonspinosad treated areas. Spinosad did not affect the behavior of P. ulmi females. When T. urticae females were released on potted bean plants (two-leaf stage) in which leaves received spinosad sprays on the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces, or complete spinosad coverage on one or two of the leaves, mite population increase lagged significantly behind those released on control plants. These results indicate that spinosad has significant acaricidal effects against T. urticae but not P. ulmi. PMID:16813320

Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

2006-06-01

270

An alcohol acyl transferase from apple (cv. Royal Gala), MpAAT1, produces esters involved in apple fruit flavor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apple flavor is characterized by combinations of ester compounds, which increase markedly during fruit ripening. The final step in ester biosynthesis is catalyzed by alcohol acyl transferases (AATs) that use coenzyme A (CoA) donors together with alcohol acceptors as substrates. The gene MpAAT1, which produces a predicted protein containing features of other plant acyl transferases, was isolated from Malus pumila (cv. Royal Gala). The MpAAT1 gene is expressed in leaves, flowers and fruit of apple. The recombinant enzyme can utilize a range of alcohol substrates from short to medium straight chain (C3-C10), branched chain, aromatic and terpene alcohols. The enzyme can also utilize a range of short to medium chain CoAs. The binding of the alcohol substrate is rate limiting compared with the binding of the CoA substrate. Among different alcohol substrates there is more variation in turnover compared with K(m) values. MpAAT1 is capable of producing many esters found in Royal Gala fruit, including hexyl esters, butyl acetate and 2-methylbutyl acetate. Of these, MpAAT1 prefers to produce the hexyl esters of C3, C6 and C8 CoAs. For the acetate esters, however, MpAAT1 preference depends upon substrate concentration. At low concentrations of alcohol substrate the enzyme prefers utilizing the 2-methylbutanol over hexanol and butanol, while at high concentrations of substrate hexanol can be used at a greater rate than 2-methylbutanol and butanol. Such kinetic characteristics of AATs may therefore be another important factor in understanding how the distinct flavor profiles of different fruit are produced during ripening. PMID:15955071

Souleyre, Edwige J F; Greenwood, David R; Friel, Ellen N; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Newcomb, Richard D

2005-06-01

271

Analyses of expressed sequence tags from apple.  

Science.gov (United States)

The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop. PMID:16531485

Newcomb, Richard D; Crowhurst, Ross N; Gleave, Andrew P; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Allan, Andrew C; Beuning, Lesley L; Bowen, Judith H; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R; Janssen, Bart J; Laing, William A; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S; Snowden, Kimberley C; Souleyre, Edwige J F; Walton, Eric F; Yauk, Yar-Khing

2006-05-01

272

Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

2014-08-01

273

Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

A. Grootjans

2014-01-01

274

Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1-a novel symbiotic chlorophyte capable of growth on pure CO2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel chlorophyte Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 isolated from a White Sea hydroid Dynamena pumila was cultivated at CO2 levels from atmospheric (the 'low-CO2' conditions) to pure carbon dioxide (the 5, 20, and 100 % CO2 conditions) under high (480 ?E/(m(2) s) PAR) light. After 7 days of cultivation, the '100 % CO2' (but not 5 or 20 % CO2) cells possessed ca. four times higher chlorophyll content per dry weight (DW) unit than the low-CO2 culture. The rate of CO2 fixation under 100 % CO2 comprised ca. 1.5 L/day per L culture volume. After a lag period which depended on the CO2 level, biomass accumulation and volumetric fatty acid (FA) content of the Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 bubbled with CO2-enriched gas mixtures increased and was comparable to that of the culture continuously bubbled with air. Under the low-to-moderate CO2 conditions, the FA percentage of the algal cells increased (to 40 % DW) whereas under high-CO2 conditions, FA percentage did not exceed 15 % DW. A strong increase in oleate (18:1) proportion of total FA at the expense of linolenate (18:3) was recorded in the '100 % CO2' cells. Electron microscopy and pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence investigation revealed no damage to or significant downregulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in '100 % CO2' cells grown at the high-PAR irradiance. Possible mechanisms of high-CO2 tolerance of Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 are discussed in view of its symbiotic origin and possible application for CO2 biomitigation. PMID:24807746

Solovchenko, Alexei; Gorelova, Olga; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Chivkunova, Olga; Baulina, Olga; Lobakova, Elena

2014-10-01

275

Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties. PMID:23959013

Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

2013-01-01

276

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa / Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oli [...] gonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCC [...] IGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.

Regiane F., Travensolo; Luciane P., Ciapina; Eliana G. M., Lemos.

2005-04-01

277

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD in grapes (Vitis vinifera. The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3' using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3' which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus, citrus (Citrus spp., coffee (Coffea arabica, elm (Ulmus americana, mulberry (Morus rubra, oak (Quercus rubra, periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus, plums (Prunus salicina and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD em videira (Vitis vinifera. Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3' utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3', que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus, citros (Citrus spp., café (Coffea arabica, olmo (Ulmus americana, amora (Morus rubra, carvalho (Quercus rubra, vinca (Catharantus roseus, ameixa (Prunus salicina e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira.

Regiane F. Travensolo

2005-04-01

278

Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central / Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizad [...] a, naturalizada, invasora), abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural), y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes. Abstract in english In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader), abu [...] ndance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration) and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

Pablo I, Becerra.

279

Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizada, naturalizada, invasora, abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural, y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes.In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader, abundance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

Pablo I Becerra

2006-12-01

280

Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central / Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizad [...] a, naturalizada, invasora), abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural), y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes. Abstract in english In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader), abu [...] ndance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration) and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

Pablo I, Becerra.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado [...] determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the [...] extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Misael, Chinchilla-Carmona; Olga Marta, Guerrero Bermúdez; Giselle, Tamayo-Castillo; Ana, Sittenfeld Appel; Alberto, Jiménez-Somarribas; Idalia, Valerio-Campos.

2008-06-01

282

Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in southern of SCS are mainly 21-117 grains/g. Pollen concentration of the northern is nearly 10 times more than in the southern SCS. This is because most pollen types is transported from the north by the Pearl River and rivers in Taiwan, only Trilete-spore is not transported by the above rivers, it may be transported by rivers from Hainan Island and summer monsoon forced marine current. 3. Pollen from surface water of the South China Sea 5 samples were collected from surface water of the South China Sea. It was found that the 1st sample has most abundant of Algae, because it is located in the entrance of Hanjiang River. Pollen grains in the sample number 4 are rare; this is probably because that it is located on the boundary current of the northern part of the South China Sea. 4. Comparison of pollen from air, ocean surface water, surface sediments Pollen and spore in air contain mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores. Ocean surface water contain mainly the Dicranopteris dichotoma , Polypodiales and other Trilete-spores, with pollen of aquatic plants Alismataceae occurring, excluding Pinus pollen. Pollen in the surface sediments are mainly Trilete-spores, Pinus and herbaceous, and may be a combination of annual pollen characteristics. Acknowledgments This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants NSFC 41176049).

Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

2013-12-01

283

A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

2013-01-01

284

Environmental changes of Northern Anatolia/Black Sea region during the Eemian and the Holocene: pollen and dinocyst records from sediment cores 22-GC3/8  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the knowledge about regional climate development in the Eastern Mediterranean, the DFG-Project "Dynamics of Mid-latitude / Mediterranean climate during the last 150 ka: Black Sea / Northern Anatolian Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (DynNAP) was established. For this goal, marine cores 22-GC3 and 22-GC8 from SE Black Sea cover the last 140 kyr BP and were studied by high resolution analysis of pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These records were used to reconstruct vegetation of Northern Anatolia and hydrological changes of the SE Black Sea during the Holocene and the last interglacial. Age-control of the time series is based on shell oxygen isotopes (ostracods, bivalve) correlated to the isotope records of Uranium series dated stalagmites from Solufar Cave, NW Anatolia. The results show a dominance of steppe vegetation during glacial periods and the spreading of oak steppe forest during the deglaciation periods. The interglacial periods are characterized by the development of more humid forest vegetation (Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus/Zelkova, Ostrya). During both interglacial periods, the Holocene and the Eemian, a Mediterranean - Black Sea reconnection took place, inducing transition from freshwater/brackish to more marine conditions. Patterns of vegetation and hydrological changes during interglacials were not identical during both interglacials. During the Eemian, the submediterranean Ostrya-type dominated during the first half of the interglacial, indicating warm summers, whereas more humid Fagus-Carpinus forests dominated in the second half. During the Holocene, the dominance of Pinus in pollen record indicates generally cooler conditions than in the Eemian. An increase of anthropogenic indicators such as Plantago lanceolata-type, Rumex, Juglans in the late Holocene suggests elevated human activities in Northern Anatolia. Sea-surface temperature and salinity of the Black Sea achieved significant higher values in the Eemian compared to the Holocene, suggesting a higher Mediterranean inflow into the basin.

Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge; Fleitmann, Dominik; Behling, Hermann

2013-04-01

285

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

286

Could canopy forests survive agricultural colonization in the Polabi lowland (Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Polabi lowland is one of the most important agricultural areas in Central Europe. Since the Neolithic Age, agriculture has prevented full expansion of the mixed deciduous forest. We studied the succession of molluscan assemblages and/or fossil pollen in this area to answer the question as to how long the canopy forest could survive ongoing human impact. Environments suitable for the fossilization of these two fossil types differ, and the joint occurrence of both is rare. However, the 0.75 m deep profile of alluvial loams and clays situated in the irregularly inundated floodplain area of the Dubanka stream yielded material rich in both mollusc shells and pollen. Very rich molluscan assemblages occur only in a 45 cm thick layer, which was dated using the AMS radiocarbon method to the Bronze Age (1796 - 1258 BC. The molluscan assemblages consist of continuously occurring rare deciduous woodland species (such as Discus perspectivus, Platyla polita, Cochlodina orthostoma, Ruthenica filograna and species of relict wetlands (e.g. Perpolita petronella, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, Vallonia enniensis. Pollen analyses also suggest the presence of wetland assemblages, with a huge proportion of alder in the central part of the succession followed by willow. The deciduous forests consist of elm (Ulmus, oak (Quercus, lime tree (Tilia, maple (Acer and hazel (Corylus. Pollen grains of spruce (Picea, white fir (Abies and beech (Fagus confirm the late Holocene age of the profile. These results provide evidence of a woodland and wetland mosaic which still covered this landscape during the Bronze Age, in contrast with the present-day monotonous open lowland.

B?ízová E

2011-06-01

287

Leaf Anatomical Acclimation of Six Tree Species to Low Soil Water Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether plant adaptation to soil water stress is related to their anatomical change is important to ecophysiological research. The leaf anatomical changes of six coexisting tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd Sarg. and Quercus mongolica Fisch. from a typical community of the mixed coniferous and broadleaved Korean pine forest in Northeast China acclimated to Relative Soil Water Content (RSWC of 100, 50 and 30% was studied. Results indicate a decrease in stomatal density for F. mandshurica, J. mandshurica and T. amurensis under RSWC of 30%, while the stomatal density of P. amurense increased. The cuticle thickness of F. mandshurica, Q. mongolica, P. amurense and J. mandshurica increased significantly under RSWC of 30%; however, a decrease in cuticle thickness was found for T. amurensis and U. japonica under RSWC of 50%. At RSWC of 30%, a decrease in the diameter of the main vein was found in F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica while an increase was seen in P. amurense and Q. mongolica. Under low RSWC, the average length of epidermal hair for Q. mongolica, J. mandshurica and U. japonica increased significantly, but it decreased significantly for T. amurensis and P. amurense. The palisade layer of leaves of F. mandshurica, P. amurense, T. amurensis increased significantly under low RSWC. The thickness of spongy layer of leaves of F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica increased significantly under low RSWC, but the thickness of spongy layer of Q. mongolica and P. amurense decreased significantly. The thickness of upper and lower epidermis did not change significantly for all tree species studied under low RSWC. These anatomical changes may have relation with leaf transpiration, but depend on species. Species anatomical divergence under drought may relate to their functional divergence.

Xiongwen Chen

2005-01-01

288

Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

Randolph H. Wynne

2012-02-01

289

Responses of floodplain forest species to spatially condensed gradients: a test of the flood-shade tolerance tradeoff hypothesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous work in southeastern US floodplains led to the hypothesis that a tradeoff between flood and shade tolerance underlies species-specific responses to flooding and light, which drive forest regeneration. In systems where community turnover can occur with small-scale environmental changes, testing this hypothesis requires recognizing that turnover of species along the two gradients can be large relative to the spatial distances involved. We test the tradeoff hypothesis in an old-growth bottomland hardwood forest by (1) comparing shade and moisture profiles of woody juveniles versus random points and (2) using individual-based sampling of woody juveniles to model probability of occurrence in response to distance-to-water table and canopy openness gradients. We found that juveniles of all species combined occupied a similar range of distance-to-water table compared to measurements taken at random points, but average canopy openness above seedlings was significantly higher than at random points. On average, shade-tolerant species, with the exception of Acer rubrum, were found in shaded areas that were also drier, whereas less shade-tolerant taxa, plus A. rubrum, were found in wetter, more open areas, suggesting a tradeoff between flood and shade tolerance. Predictive models of species occurrence, which incorporate the availability of canopy and microtopographic conditions, indicated that three taxa (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Quercus spp., and Ulmus americana) had patterns consistent with a flood-shade tolerance tradeoff. In contrast, Asimina triloba, Celtis laevigata, and Liquidambar styraciflua had positive responses when the joint stresses of flooding and shade were diminished. A. rubrum appeared to be the most tolerant to both stresses. Our work not only lends support to the flood-shade tradeoff hypothesis but also indicates that a more general model is needed that includes a "flood-shade release" component. We also suggest that responses to small-scale gradients should not be overlooked, particularly in systems where the gradients are ecologically steep. PMID:16187107

Battaglia, L L; Sharitz, R R

2006-02-01

290

Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Schuster, W.S.; Hutnik, R.J.

1987-07-01

291

Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle. PMID:22804757

Ivens, A B F; Kronauer, D J C; Pen, I; Weissing, F J; Boomsma, J J

2012-09-01

292

Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

2013-01-01

293

Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp. and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi. Genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification, cloning and characterization of a few genes that contribute to parasitic fitness in the pathogens. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput methods, such as expressed sequence tag analysis, have been used for measuring gene expression and identifying subsets of elm genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of O. novo-ulmi. These analyses have also helped identify genes that were differentially expressed in DED fungi grown under defined experimental conditions. Until recently, however, functional analysis of the DED fungi was hampered by the lack of protocols for efficient gene knockout and by the unavailability of a full genome sequence. While the selective inactivation of Ophiostoma genes by insertional mutagenesis remains a challenge, an alternative approach based on RNA interference is now available for down-regulating the expression of targeted genes. In 2013, the genome sequences of O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi were publicly released. The ongoing annotation of these genomes should spark a new wave of interest in the DED pathosystem, as it should lead to the formal identification of genes modulating parasitic fitness. A better understanding of DED, however, also requires that omic approaches are applied to the study of the other biotic components of this pathosystem.

Bernier L

2014-08-01

294

Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch elm disease (DED) is a destructive vascular wilt disease of elm ( Ulmus) trees caused by the introduced Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In Europe, this DED pathogen is transmitted by elm bark beetles in the genus Scolytus. These insects carry phoretic mites to new, suitable habitats. The aim of this study was to record and quantify conidia and ascospores of O. novo-ulmi on phoretic mites on the three elm bark beetle species Scolytus multistriatus, Scolytus pygmaeus, and Scolytus scolytus. Spores of O. novo-ulmi were found on four of the ten mite species phoretic on Scolytus spp. These included Elattoma fraxini, Proctolaelaps scolyti, Pseudotarsonemoides eccoptogasteri, and Tarsonemus crassus. All four species had spores attached externally to their body surfaces. However, T. crassus carried most spores within its sporothecae, two paired pocket-like structures adapted for fungal transmission. Individuals of Pr. scolyti also had O. novo-ulmi conidia and ascospores frequently in their digestive system, where they may remain viable. While E. fraxini and P. eccoptogasteri rarely had spores attached to their bodies, large portions of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus carried significant numbers of conidia and/or ascospores of O. novo-ulmi. P. scolyti and T. crassus, which likely are fungivores, may thus contribute to the transmission of O. novo-ulmi, by increasing the spore loads of individual Scolytus beetles during their maturation feeding on twigs of healthy elm trees, enhancing the chance for successful infection with the pathogen. Only S. scolytus, which is the most efficient vector of O. novo-ulmi in Europe, carried high numbers of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus, in contrast to S. multistriatus and S. pygmaeus, which are known as less efficient vectors. The high efficiency of S. scolytus in spreading Dutch elm disease may be partly due to its association with these two mites and the hyperphoretic spores of O. novo-ulmi they carry.

Moser, John C.; Konrad, Heino; Blomquist, Stacy R.; Kirisits, Thomas

2010-02-01

295

Establishment of invasive and non-invasive reporter systems to investigate American elm-Ophiostoma novo-ulmi interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by ascomycete fungi in the Ophiostoma genus, is the most devastating disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees. Cerato ulmin (CU), a hydrophobin secreted by the fungus, has been implicated in the development of DED, but its role in fungal pathogenicity and virulence remains uncertain and controversial. Here, we describe reporter systems based on the CU promoter and three reporter proteins (GFP, GUS and LUC), developed as research tools for quantitative and qualitative studies of DED in vitro, in vivo and in planta. A strain of the aggressive species Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was transformed with the reporter constructs using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the fungal transformants, namely M75-GFP, M75-GUS and M75-LUC, were examined for mitotic stability after repeated subcultures. The intensity of GFP fluorescence was strong in M75-GFP spores and hyphae, allowing microscopic investigations of spore structure, fungal morphogenesis and fungal development. The interaction of M75-GFP and U. americana callus cells was explored with scanning laser confocal microscopy facilitating qualitative studies on fungal strategies for the invasion and penetration of elm cells. M75-GUS was generated to provide an invasive, yet quantitative approach to study fungal-plant interactions in vitro and in planta. The generation of M75-LUC transformants was aimed at providing a non-destructive quantitative approach to study the role of CU in vivo. The sensitivity, low background signal and linearity of LUC assays all predict a very reliable approach to investigate and re-test previously claimed roles of this CU in fungal pathogenicity. These reporter systems provide new tools to investigate plant-pathogen interactions in this complex pathosystem and may aid in better understanding the development of DED. PMID:25139300

Sherif, S; Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Saxena, P K

2014-10-01

296

Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought. PMID:23053227

Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F

2013-04-01

297

Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant. Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species. PMID:21842417

González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

2011-10-01

298

Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part II. Xylan removal by dilute hydrochloric acid prehydrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was made of the kinetics of xylan hemicellulose removal with 0.10 M HCl at 120 degrees C from quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), American elm (Ulmus americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), and southern red oak (Quercus falcata). The mathematical model developed in Part I to describe the kinetics of xylan removal by water prehydrolysis of these species could be used to model xylan removal with dilute hydrochloric acid. Xylan removal could thus be modelled as the sum of two parallel first-order reactions - one fast and one slow. However, unlike the case with water prehydrolysis where the rate constants for the fast and slow reaction processes could be correlated with each other, they could not be correlated for HCl prehydrolysis. Instead, these constant values determined for each species clustered about average values for all the species as a whole. A single set of parameters determined from a nonlinear least squares fit of the experimental prehydrolysis data for all the species as a whole to the model could be used to describe the course of xylan removal from all the species. The fact that one set of parameters could be used suggests that the same reactions are taking place on prehydrolysis and the chemical structure and physical morphology of the xylan hemicellulose were essentially the same in the species studied and probably in all temperate hardwood species. The model thus provides a good approximation of xylan removal from any temperate hardwood with dilute hydrochloric acid at the reaction conditions studied. 20 references.

Connor, A.H.; Libkie, K.; Springer, E.L.

1986-06-01

299

Seasonal variations in habitat selection and spatial distribution of wild boar (Sus Scrofa) in the Camargue, Southern France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal habitat selection and use by wild boars were studied in relation to major vegetation cover types and flooded areas, on a sampling area of 1047 ha. Six habitat types were delineated: "sansouire" (local name), "enganes" (local name), halophytic grasslands, scrub grasslands, deep and shallow marshes, fallow or cultivated farmlands. Once a season in 1982, this sampling area was systematically examined and mapped for wild boar signs left in the following places : bedding places, farrowing nests, wallows, rubbing trees and rooting sites. Marshes are the most frequently used areas throughout the year since all activities can be conducted there. Scrub grasslands, although less common, are also important, because of scrubs of Phillyrea angustifolia used for resting and dense groves of Ulmus campestris used for rubbing. Rooting activity, predominantly done in marshes, is also conducted in all types of grasslands (even cultivated) during the winter, and in farmlands during the summer. In the sampling area, seasonal variations in the counts of activity signs as well as in the number of wild boar sightings suggest correlated variations of density. The estimated autumn to spring density is higher (2.5-2.9 animals/km2) than the summer one (0.6 animals/km2). These seasonal variations are explained by spatial adjustments according to environmental conditions. In the early warm season, drying out of marshes and soils in the study area leads to emigration of part of population onto neighbouring grounds where agricultural crops are available. Return movements are presumably causally related to different factors : onset of the rains, hunting disturbance and harvest of crops. Fluctuations of environmental factors require a flexible strategy of habitat utilization. We propose a model for the organization of wild boar populations, which would be formed by "nuclei" presenting environment-dependent densities. PMID:24925011

Dardaillon, M

1986-09-01

300

UDN glycoprotein regulates activities of manganese-superoxide dismutase, activator protein-1, and nuclear factor-kappaB stimulated by reactive oxygen radicals in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HCT-116 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116-kDa) isolated from Ulmus davidiana Nakai, which has been used to heal inflammatory diseases in Korean herbal medicine. We found that UDN glycoprotein has strong scavenging effect on the production of intracellular superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxides (H(2)O(2)), and nitric oxide (NO) without any cytotoxicity, and that the glycoprotein also selectively normalizes the aberrant activation of manganese-superoxide dismutases (Mn-SOD) activity in lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-treated cancerous human colon epithelial cells (HCT-116 cells). The results obtained from electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and Western blot analysis showed that UDN glycoprotein blocks the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and attenuates the activities of NF-kappaB subunits (p50 and p65), and AP-1 subunits (c-Jun and c-Fos), respectively. To further verify the anti-inflammatory effect of UDN glycoprotein, we investigated the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) in LPS-treated HCT-116 cells, using Western blot analysis and gelatin zymographic assay. Results in this study indicated that 200mug/ml of UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the activations of iNOS, COX-2, and MMP-9. Therefore, UDN glycoprotein, a natural antioxidant, is a potential modulator of inflammatory signal pathways in LPS-treated HCT-116 cells. PMID:17459574

Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stage. PMID:17868752

Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

2007-12-01

302

Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752

Youn, H J; Noh, J W

2001-04-19

303

Vegetation and climate in the Miocene deposits of southern side of the Büyük Menderes Graben, ?ahinali-2 core, SW Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lower-Middle Miocene succession from the ?ahinali coalfield (SW Turkey was analyzed to reconstruct climate and vegetation. The sediments mainly represent a lacustrine facies and consist of a mudstone-marl dominated succession, including limited coarse-grained clastics. Results of microfloral and published macrofloral records have been considered. The main vegetation types were mixed mesophytic forest dominated by evergreen Quercus and coniferous forest consisting mainly of indeterminate Pinaceae, Pinus and Cupressaceae. In this belt riparian vegetation incorporates high proportions of Alnus, and less amounts of deciduous Salix, Ulmus, Pterocarya, Carya, Platanus, Zelkova and Liquidambar. Herbaceous components in the pollen spectra are in low frequencies, and consist of Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedra, Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also three local pollen zones can be recognized based on the changes in relative abundances of palynomorphs. The micro- and published macrofloral records have been subjected to the Coexistence Approach method to obtain the palaeoclimate. Mean annual temperature is estimated to be over 14 °C and mean annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm. In combination with other climate parameters (temperatures of warmest and coldest months, precipitation of the wettest, driest and warmest months, the data indicate very stable warm-temperate with high annual precipitation. Results of the Coexistence Approach using both sporomorph and leaf datasets are good in agreement, implying internal consistency in the method. Compared with modern meteorological records, surroundings of the Büyük Menderes Graben had similar temperature and higher precipitation during the Early–Middle Miocene. This study contributes to an understanding of the Miocene vegetation and climate evolution in southeastern Mediterranean area.

Akkiraz M S

2011-11-01

304

Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

2004-03-01

305

Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter  

Science.gov (United States)

We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

2014-04-01

306

Seasonal contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system as a key piece to understand the coupling between primary production in the photic layer and the transfer mechanisms of the organic material from the photic zone. Between April 2004 and January 2005, five campaigns were carried out in the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) covering the most representative oceanographic conditions for this region. Measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll- a (chl a), phaeopigments (phaeo), and identification of phytoplankton species were performed on the water column samples and on the organic material collected in sediment traps. The POC fluxes measured by the sediment traps presented no seasonal variation along the studied period ranging around a mean annual value of 1085±365 mg m -2 d -1, in the upper range of the previously reported values for other coastal systems. The fact that higher POC fluxes were registered during autumn and winter, when primary production rates were at their minimum levels points to a dominant contribution of organic carbon from resuspended sediments on the trap collected material. On the contrary, fluxes of living phytoplankton carbon (C phyto) and chl a clearly presented a seasonal trend with maximum values during summer upwelling (546 mg m -2 d -1 and 22 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively) and minimum values during winter (22 mg m -2 d -1 and 0.1 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively). The contribution of C phyto to the vertical flux of POC ranged between 2% and 49% in response to the pelagic phytoplankton community structure. Higher values of C phyto fluxes were registered under upwelling conditions which favour the dominance of large chain-forming diatoms ( Asterionellopsis glacialis and Detonula pumila) that were rapidly transferred to the sediments. By contrast, C phyto fluxes decreased during the summer stratification associated with a pelagic phytoplankton community dominated by single-cell diatoms and flagellates. Minimal C phyto fluxes were observed during the winter mixing conditions, when the presence of the benthic specie Paralia sulcata in the water column also points toward strong sediment resuspension.

Zúñiga, D.; Alonso-Pérez, F.; Castro, C. G.; Arbones, B.; Figueiras, F. G.

2011-04-01

307

Short Rotation Forestry (SFR in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

Antonio Sergio De Franchi

2010-12-01

308

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

Brauer Gerhard

2007-02-01

309

Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Bia?owie?a National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park.

Janusz B. Fali?ski

1997-03-01

310

Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Ophiostoma spp. and the genetic basis of virulence, we have constructed an expressed sequence tag (EST library using total RNA extracted from the yeast-like growth phase of O. novo-ulmi (isolate H327. Results A total of 4,386 readable EST sequences were annotated by determining their closest matches to known or theoretical sequences in public databases by BLASTX analysis. Searches matched 2,093 sequences to entries found in Genbank, including 1,761 matches with known proteins and 332 matches with unknown (hypothetical/predicted proteins. Known proteins included a collection of 880 unique transcripts which were categorized to obtain a functional profile of the transcriptome and to evaluate physiological function. These assignments yielded 20 primary functional categories (FunCat, the largest including Metabolism (FunCat 01, 20.28% of total, Sub-cellular localization (70, 10.23%, Protein synthesis (12, 10.14%, Transcription (11, 8.27%, Biogenesis of cellular components (42, 8.15%, Cellular transport, facilitation and routes (20, 6.08%, Classification unresolved (98, 5.80%, Cell rescue, defence and virulence (32, 5.31% and the unclassified category, or known sequences of unknown metabolic function (99, 7.5%. A list of specific transcripts of interest was compiled to initiate an evaluation of their impact upon strain virulence in subsequent studies. Conclusions This is the first large-scale study of the O. novo-ulmi transcriptome. The expression profile obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of this species will facilitate a multigenic approach to gene expression studies to assess their role in the determination of pathogenicity for this species. The identification and evaluation of gene targets in such studies will be a prerequisite to the development of biological control strategies for this pathogen.

Breuil Colette

2011-08-01

311

Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: “Commelin” (relatively susceptible and “Lobel” (relatively resistant. In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with “Columella”, “Sapporo Autumn Gold”’ and “Rebella” being highly resistant and significantly different from “Lobel” and “Regal”, “Urban”, “Belgica”, “Den Haag” and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to “Commelin”. The non-released clones performed comparable to “Lobel’”or even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.

Buiteveld J

2014-08-01

312

Holocene climate variability in south-western France  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (43°22'765N, 2°16'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

2012-04-01

313

From the Allerød to the mid-Holocene: palynological evidence from the south basin of the Caspian Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen and dinoflagellate cysts have been analysed in a core from the south basin of the Caspian Sea, providing a picture of respectively past vegetation and water salinity for the Late Pleistocene to middle Holocene. A relatively sharp lithological change at 0.86 m depth reflects a shift from detrital silts to carbonates-rich fine silts. From this depth upwards, a Holocene chronology is built based on ten radiocarbon dates on ostracod shells and bulk carbonates. From the vegetation point of view, the Late Pleistocene deserts and steppes were partially replaced in the most sheltered areas by an open woodland with Pinus, Juniperus-Hippophae-Elaeagnus and even Alnus-Quercus-Pterocarya and Fraxinus, related to the Allerød palynozone. This was interrupted by the Younger Dryas palynozone when Artemisia reaches a maximum in a first instance followed by a very dry phase with only a slight return of Pinus and Quercus and the rare presence of Ulmus-Zelkova. From 11.5 to 8.4 cal. ka BP, an open landscape dominated by shrubs such as Ephedra and progressively increasing Quercus appeared. The final spread of diverse evergreen and deciduous trees is delayed and occurs after 8.4 cal. ka BP. It is suggested that this delay is caused by an arid climate in the Early Holocene linked to high insolation and perhaps to a lake effect. The dinocyst assemblages fluctuate between slightly brackish (Pyxidinopsis psilata and Spiniferites cruciformis, 7 psu and lower) and more brackish (Impagidinium caspienense, ?13 psu). In the Lateglacial (Khvalynian highstand), the assemblages remained dominated by relative low salinity taxa. A late and brief increase of salinity occurred prior to 11.2 cal. ka BP associated with the Mangyshlak lowstand. It is suggested that it was caused by a brief drop in meltwater flow from both the north and the southeast (Uzboy) and a likely evaporation increase. This lowstand occurs quasi at the same time as the end of a longer lowstand in the Black Sea. The freshest waters are then inferred as having occurred between 8.4 and ?4.4 cal. ka BP, linked to a connection with the Amu Darya and the melting glaciers on the Pamir Mountains. The Caspian Sea is a sensitive environment, easily perturbed by global climatic changes, such as the Allerød and Holocene warming, and the Lateglacial and Younger Dryas cooling, as well as by regional changes in its hydrography, such as shifts in the Eurasian meltwater and the Volga and Amu Darya inflows.

Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Tudryn, Alina; Chalié, Françoise; López-Merino, Lourdes; Gasse, Françoise

2013-10-01

314

An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs.

Büchel Kerstin

2012-06-01

315

Subglacial carbonate precipitates on central Baffin Island, Arctic Canada may constrain basal conditions for the Foxe sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive, widespread carbonate deposits on gneissic bedrock have recently been discovered around the Barnes Ice Cap, central Baffin Island. Deposits range from conglomeratic crack-fillings ?5 cm thick to laminated, striated films plastered on bedrock surfaces, often in the lee of obstacles. A single outcrop of these carbonates was first described by Andrews et al. (1972, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 9, 233-238) and was interpreted as an early Tertiary limestone based on the presence of warm-climate palynomorphs including Liriodendron (tulip tree), Ulmus (elm), and Taxodium (cypress). However, recent fieldwork in the region has demonstrated that these carbonates are far more ubiquitous than previously thought and found on both glacially-polished bedrock surfaces and till boulders that melted out in recent decades from Laurentide ice at the base of the Barnes Ice Cap. In many cases, these carbonates exhibit the characteristic morphologies of subglacial carbonates (flutes, furrows, and striations parallel to the direction of ice flow, columnar spicules, and tufa-dam-like forms). A few deposits include angular sands, gravels, and pebbles. The nearest carbonate bedrock is Paleozoic limestone flooring Foxe Basin 130 km west of the Barnes Ice Cap summit. While subglacial carbonate deposits have been documented adjacent to retreating mountain and outlet glaciers and in areas previously covered by Pleistocene ice sheets, few localities are distant from carbonate bedrock. Thus, the carbon required for carbonate deposition in the Barnes region was either (1) derived from Paleozoic limestone and dissolved in subglacial water that was subject to long-distance transport, or (2) there was sufficient trapped atmospheric CO2 in the ice to yield alkaline basal meltwater which hydrolyzed calcium-bearing silicates in the local bedrock. Given the volume of carbonate deposited at some sites, we find the latter model unlikely. If the former model is applicable, these carbonates will provide considerable insight into subglacial processes beneath the Foxe sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and possibly constrain the former ice thicknesses above these sites. Quantitative x-ray diffraction defines the mineralogy of both the carbonate and clastic components. Carbon and strontium isotopes in the carbonate precipitates, Foxe Basin Paleozoic bedrock, and local bedrock should define the source of the carbon and calcium in the deposits. Oxygen isotopes of Barnes Ice Cap Laurentide ice and the carbonates provide a unique opportunity to compare the isotopic composition of subglacial carbonates with the isotopic composition of the actual ice sheet under which they were precipitated.

Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.

2009-12-01

316

Palynology of latest Neogene (Middle Miocene to late Pliocene) strata in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Palynology of Miocene and Pliocene formations in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia reveals a significant representation of exotic pollen interspersed in pollen assemblages that are otherwise comparable to those from the modern vegetation of the Mid-Alantic coastal plain region. The late Tertiary arboreal pollen (AP) assemblages are dominated by oak, hickory, pine, birch and alder with minor amounts of mid- and southern coastal tree taxa, as well as minor spruce and hemlock and a trace of fir. Nonarboreal pollen (NAP) include grass, sedge, composite and aquatic taxa. Exotic pollen in these assemblages represent plants now foreign to this region. They may be placed in three categories. First, there are extinct forms, such as Labrapollis, Plicatopollis, and Multiporopollenites, that can be traced from the Cretaceous or Early Tertiary into the Late Tertiary. The second group includes forms, such as Podocarpus, Engelhardtia, Pterocarya, Ephedra, Eucommia, Ulmus-Zelkova, Glyptostrobus, Palmae, and Cyathea, that are not found in this region today and not found in early Pleistocene sediments in the eastern United States. Many of these taxa are subtropical or greatly restricted in geographic range. A third group of exotics, mainly Cyrilla, Planera, Gordonia, Jussiaea, and Sapotacaea, including Minusops, are generally found south of the study area or have their northern limit here at this time. The lack of the extinct or distant exotics in early to mid-Pleistocene sediments in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain and the last appearance of Pterocarya, as the last exotic taxon in the early Pleistocene of western Europe, support the stratigraphic assignment of the Pliocene units. The number of exotic taxa diminish markedly between the Miocene pollen assemblages and those of the Late Pliocene. Climatic fluctuations characterize the Late Tertiary environments. The Miocene, for example, incorporates a warming trend between the upper, middle Miocene and the Manokin beds and the late Miocene of the Pokomoke beds. The late Miocene was probably somewhat warner than the present climate in the Delmarva region. This trend is based on the presence of colder climate indicators, mainly spruce and hemlock, in the Manokin pollen record. The two distinct pollen assemblages constitute two pollen zones. Similarly, the Pliocene pollen record also shows a warming trend. The pollen zone of the Yorktown Formation of the early Pliocene age contains the colder climate indicators spruce and hemlock. The Beaverdam and Walston formation of late Pliocene age contain pollen assemblages that reflect climatic conditions warmer than the present time.

Sirkin, L.; Owens, J. P.

1998-01-01

317

Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?  

Science.gov (United States)

To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

2014-07-01

318

Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs. Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall. selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED. Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill. selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual maturity and exchange pollen with elms in the neighborhood, hence contributing new genotypes that will be submitted to natural selection and provide fuel for ongoing adaptation processes. Initiatives assembling a large consortium of stakeholders, including habitat conservationists and hedge re-constructors, are needed to trigger new conservation projects.

Collin E

2014-08-01

319

The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

2010-05-01

320

Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil / Composición y conservación de Orchidaceae en un inselberg en el bosque Atlántico brasileño y sus relaciones florísticas con áreas del este de Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La Mata Atlántica brasileña presenta altos niveles de riqueza y endemismo de varios grupos taxonómicos. Los inselbergs de la Mata Atlántica de Brasil son, en su mayoría, desconocidos en cuanto a su composición florística. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron hacer un análisis comparativo de las espe [...] cies de Orchidaceae en el Macizo de Itaoca, un inselberg ubicado en la región norte del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con otros sitios en el este de Brasil, y discutir la distribución geográfica, las relaciones florísticas y el estado de conservación de las especies de orquídeas presentes en los inselbergs. La composición florística de la zona de estudio se comparó con otras 24 localidades en el este de Brasil (13 de las cuales son inselbergs) y la influencia de los tipos de vegetación aledaña en la composición de la flora de Orchidaceae en los inselbergs. En Macizo de Itaoca registramos 18 especies de 17 géneros. La mayor similitud florística fue con la Pedra da Botelha (0,43), en Espírito Santo. Al parecer, los tipos de vegetación aledaña ejercen poca influencia sobre la flora de los inselbergs. Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the [...] Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Alexandre, Soares Pessanha; Luiz, Menini Neto; Rafaela, Campostrini Forzza; Marcelo, Nascimento.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil / Composición y conservación de Orchidaceae en un inselberg en el bosque Atlántico brasileño y sus relaciones florísticas con áreas del este de Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La Mata Atlántica brasileña presenta altos niveles de riqueza y endemismo de varios grupos taxonómicos. Los inselbergs de la Mata Atlántica de Brasil son, en su mayoría, desconocidos en cuanto a su composición florística. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron hacer un análisis comparativo de las espe [...] cies de Orchidaceae en el Macizo de Itaoca, un inselberg ubicado en la región norte del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con otros sitios en el este de Brasil, y discutir la distribución geográfica, las relaciones florísticas y el estado de conservación de las especies de orquídeas presentes en los inselbergs. La composición florística de la zona de estudio se comparó con otras 24 localidades en el este de Brasil (13 de las cuales son inselbergs) y la influencia de los tipos de vegetación aledaña en la composición de la flora de Orchidaceae en los inselbergs. En Macizo de Itaoca registramos 18 especies de 17 géneros. La mayor similitud florística fue con la Pedra da Botelha (0,43), en Espírito Santo. Al parecer, los tipos de vegetación aledaña ejercen poca influencia sobre la flora de los inselbergs. Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the [...] Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Alexandre, Soares Pessanha; Luiz, Menini Neto; Rafaela, Campostrini Forzza; Marcelo, Nascimento.

322

Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae (Pyrus sp., Prunus sp., etc.), Tilia sp. (Linden), Morus sp. (mulberry), Taxus baccata (yew), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas etc.), Labiata (Lavandula sp.), Cannabaceae (Humulus sp. etc.), Liliaceae (Lilium sp.), Echium sp. (viper's bugloss). The most abundant taxa, detected in the highest quantities (grains/m3 air), by order of counting were as follows: holm-oak, olive, grasses, Plantago and Parietaria. With the data obtained we have established a pollen calendar for Salamanca and report the period in which each type of pollen is found along the years and the periods with the highest airborne concentrations of such pollens. The diversity and the spectrum of the pollen in the city of Salamanca correspond to the typical plant communities found on the dehesas (large ranges of grasslands) of Castile, where Salamanca is located, although the wind directions and the peculiar climatic characteristics of the area govern the peaks of maximum presence of the different taxa. As examples, in the case of olive, which is cultivated at some distance from the city, its maximum presence coincides with south-westerly winds; in the case of grasses, the peaks of maximum counts coincide with a sharp rise in mean temperature, close to or higher than 20 degrees C and between five and six weeks after rainfall equal to or greater than 5 L/m2. PMID:9885728

Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

1998-01-01

323

Vegetation, climate and environment variability at Spicer Pond, Indiana, during the Holocene  

Science.gov (United States)

Many paleoclimate studies have shown that the midcontinent of North America experienced a warmer and drier-than-present climate during the early and middle Holocene and relatively humid climate during the late Holocene with several megadroughts. In response to this climate variability, Holocene vegetation changes in the Great Lake forests are broadly composed of two shifts: the moving northward and retreating of ecotone between mixed forest and deciduous forest - mainly composed of Quercus and Pinus, and the east-western gradient in prairie composition developed between 7,000 and 5,000 years BP. Superimposed on these ecotonal shifts are the range shifts of individual taxa and episodic declines in abundance of individual tree taxa, which appear to be linked to hydroclimatic variability (e.g. Fagus decline centering around 1,000 years B.P., Booth and Jackson, 2003). Most Holocene paleoecological research has been carried out in the northern Great Lakes states (MI, MN, WI) and the Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the south-central Great Lakes (IN, OH) remains relatively unknown. This study focuses on climate and vegetation changes during the Holocene at Spicer Pond in Indiana (41°44'52" N, 86°31'19" W, 237 m elevation), which is a kettle lake located in New Carlisle, north of Indiana, near the southeastern edge of Michigan. This study reports loss-on-ignition, pollen, and charcoal analyses to reconstruct the vegetation, climate and environment at Spicer Pond. Loss-on-ignition data indicate seven shifts of sharp increase of mineral and decrease of organic carbon that separately happened at about 300 years B.P., 1,800 years B.P., 2,800 years B.P., 5,000 years B.P., 6,700 years B.P., 8,000 years B.P. and 11,000 years B.P. during the Holocene. The most recent LOI peak is believed to be linked to changes sedimentation rates caused by Euroamerican land use. The cause of these Holocene peaks in mineral content at Spicer Pond is not yet known, and we have several working hypothesis: 1) the LOI variability is a signal of local to regional droughts, with fast responses recorded in the pollen and charcoal; 2) the LOI variability is a signal of aridity, but vegetation response times were slow enough that significant time lags will be recorded between the LOI variations and pollen record; and 3) the LOI variability is not caused by aridity but local shifts in sediment , and the pollen or the charcoal record will be stable during the Holocene or will show changes that do not correspond to the LOI changes. Initial pollen counts indicate that the main pollen types in Spicer Pond are Acer (maple), Fagus (beech) Quercus (oak) and Ulmus (elm). Acer abundances were stable during the Early Holocene with slight changes, but there were increases of Fagus around 1,500 years B.P. and 2,500 years B.P. with declines of Quercus. These changes seem to correspond to LOI shifts around 1,800 years B.P. and 2,800 years B.P. Further time-series analyses will be done after counting all pollen records in the sediment during the Holocene. Charcoal analyses are underway.

Wang, Y.; Gill, J. L.; Alhambra, D.; Hernandez, S.; Kohrs, K.; Marsicek, J.; Williams, J. W.

2012-12-01

324

Vegetation Change through Glacial-Interglacial Cycles: A Long Pollen Sequence Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

A core recovered from a thick sedimentary sequence in the Ioannina basin, on the western flank of the Pindus Mountain Range, northwest Greece, presents the opportunity to observe multiple changes in vegetational communities at one locality through a series of glacial-interglacial Quaternary cycles. The Ioannina 249 record adds to the knowledge of vegetation history of areas of increased topographical variability and precipitation of the western Balkans and provides a complete stratigraphical record that can be compared with that of other long terrestrial sequences and with the marine record. Pollen analytical results are presented as percentages and concentrations, the former providing information on the composition and structure of vegetation, while the latter is considered here to be a reliable indication of vegetation density when changes differing by an order of magnitude are documented. The record shows an hierarchical order of variation in the response of vegetation to environmental change. Higher order of magnitude changes are alternations between forest and open vegetation communities, a reflection of major climatic shifts from interglacial to glacial modes. Superimposed on these oscillations is a lower order variability associated with vegetation changes within interglacial and glacial periods. During forest periods a succession is recorded with Quercus and Ulmus/Zelkova expanding early, followed by Carpinus betulus and also Ostrya carpinifolia/Carpinus orientalis, and finally Abies often accompanied by Fagus. Although individual periods may be characterized by dominance of one or more taxa, the underlying pattern of differential expansion is usually distinct and consistent. Nine forested intervals are distinguished and are assigned local names to facilitate long-distance comparisons and correlations. During open vegetation periods a series of changes is also observed from transitional steppe-forest or forest-steppe vegetation, through grassland steppe communities, culminating in a discontinuous desert-steppe vegetation. In addition to the two ends of the spectrum (forest and desert-steppe), attention is drawn to the intermediate phases representing `average' Quaternary conditions. The Ioannina record is correlated with that of other long sequences from Europe and variation in the response of vegetation with site characteristics is considered. A strategy for long-distance correlations relying on the primary structure of vegetation and relative stratigraphical position of individual periods is described. The last interglacial period followed by two interstadials is recorded in much the same fashion in all records. Correlation of earlier periods was also in general agreement although only two continuous records that extend beyond the last interglacial are at present available for comparison. To minimize elements of circularity, similarities in the behaviour of individual taxa during particular periods are not part of the correlation criteria so that if their chronostratigraphical equivalence is independently corroborated their significance can be examined. On this basis, the importance of Carpinus betulus and the almost complete absence of Fagus on a subcontinental scale during the last interglacial are noted. Possible effects of climate, competition and disease are discussed. Cross-correlation with the deep-sea oxygen isotope record provides a tentative chronology for the Ioannina record. Based on this, the sequence down to a depth of 162.75 m is considered to represent a record of approximately the past 423 000 years. Aspects of land-sea correlations are discussed in the light of the Ioannina 249 record and the importance of long sequences in the development of European Quaternary stratigraphy is emphasized.

Tzedakis, P. C.

1994-09-01

325

The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: By estimations of scientific biogeochemists and geochemists hollow of the Issyk Kul is a natural uranium biogeochemical province. However uranium ores consists other microelements. In the given uranium region the biogeochemistry of uranium, etc. microelements are studied poorly. Considering the social and economic and ecological importance of subregion of Issyk-Kul for republic and value of uranium for alive organisms, we have aim - to research biogeochemistry of uranium in territory hollow of Issyk Kul. Uranium waste is located in 2,5 km to the east from inhabited settlement, but natural factors (rains, underground waters, landslips) are dangerous for ecology of Issyk Kul lake and the nearest settlements. But after closing of mining combine of the Kadji-Say a lot of not conserving radioactive-industrial waste in coastal of Dzhili-Bulak, underwent intensive destruction, carry of its part to a exit of natural boundary. The reason was frequent storm rains. For 40 years there was an intensive raising a coastal part in area of industry zone. It was made by formation of terraces in highest natural boundaries of Dzhil-Bulak. On the kept terraces it is possible to meet here and there the radioactive-industrial waste, combined by ashed material mixed up with gravel material. The part of radioactive ashes achieved to Issyk Kul Lake, but it is not so important, because that is makes a drop in the sea for Issyk Kul Lake (we shall remind, that in the lake contains abouall remind, that in the lake contains about 100 thousand tons of uranium). By radiometric shooting turn out that a level of radiation in hollow of the Issyk-Kul and in around territory of the Kadji-Sai settlement is low and about from 15 up to 47 nZv/hour. In province of E-circumflexadji-Say and around territory the soil and covered ground are characterized by the various contents of uranium -from 0,1x10-6 g/g to 35,0x10-6 g/g. The analysis of 20 samples of soils and ground has shown, that on the uranium deposit in the upper horizon of a covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm, except of some technogenic territories