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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina/ Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total (more) de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the content and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM (more) ) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

Bakker, María L.; Alvarado, Patricia I.

2006-07-01

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Ulmus americana (Ulmaceae) is a polyploid complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Exotic diseases are threatening many North American tree species, and management of diseases requires understanding the biology of the host as well as the pathogen. Ulmus americana is a widespread dominant tree of eastern North America that has been widely planted as an ornamental and shade tree. Populations of the species have suffered heavy mortality from Dutch elm disease, caused by an introduced fungus. Ulmus americana is generally reported to be tetraploid, but the discovery of triploid trees in cultivation suggested that lower ploidy levels may exist in the wild, so the species was surveyed for nuclear DNA content. METHODS: Ploidy level was estimated by flow cytometry for 81 individuals from wild populations of U. americana from throughout the range of the species and for four cultivated trees of interest. KEY RESULTS: Most specimens were tetraploid, as previously reported for the species, but 21% of the wild trees sampled were diploid, a ploidy level not previously confirmed for the species. Tetraploids are found throughout the range of the species. Diploids are most common on the Atlantic coastal plain, Cumberland Plateau, and in southern Ohio, but isolated diploids were also found in central Texas, Oklahoma, and eastern Missouri. Diploids and tetraploids grew in proximity in several areas, but no wild triploids were found in the course of this survey. CONCLUSIONS: The species is genetically heterogeneous, but further research is needed to understand the origin and relations of the different ploidy levels. Understanding the ploidy situation in U. americana will be important in the search for further genotypes that are resistant to Dutch elm disease.

Whittemore AT; Olsen RT

2011-04-01

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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia(Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila(Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus Americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

María L. Bakker; Patricia I. Alvarado

2006-01-01

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[Leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Ulmus pumila-Robinia pseudocacia mixed forests].  

Science.gov (United States)

A field experiment was conducted to study the leaf N, P, and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in pure Ulmus pumila forest, pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest, and U. pumila-R. pseudoacacia mixed forests [1:1 (1B1C), 1:2 (1B2C), and 2:1 (2B1C)] in different growth periods. From May to September, the plant leaf N and P contents in pure and mixed forests all presented a decreasing trend. By the end of growth period, the leaf N content of U. pumila and the P content of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C were obviously higher than those in pure forests. In the mixed forests, the chlorophyll content of U. pumila was obviously higher than that of R. pseudoacacia, and the chlorophyll content of U. pumila in 1B2C reached the highest in July. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia in mixed forests was higher than that in pure forests, and the Pn of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C reached the highest (18.54 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) in July. The transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of R. pseudoacacia in mixed forests were higher than those in pure forests, and the Tr and Gs in mixed forests were in the order of 1B2C>1B1C>2B1C. In September, the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (phi(PS II)) of U. pumila in mixed forests was obviously higher than that in pure forest. The photochemical quenching coefficients (q(P)) of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia in pure and mixed forests had no significant difference, but the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of the two tree species in 1B2C was significantly lower than that in corresponding pure forests. It was suggested that mixed planting U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia could significantly improve the leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic capacity of the two tree species, and the optimum mixed ratio of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia was 1:2. PMID:21265142

Qin, Juan; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

2010-09-01

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[Leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Ulmus pumila-Robinia pseudocacia mixed forests].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was conducted to study the leaf N, P, and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in pure Ulmus pumila forest, pure Robinia pseudoacacia forest, and U. pumila-R. pseudoacacia mixed forests [1:1 (1B1C), 1:2 (1B2C), and 2:1 (2B1C)] in different growth periods. From May to September, the plant leaf N and P contents in pure and mixed forests all presented a decreasing trend. By the end of growth period, the leaf N content of U. pumila and the P content of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C were obviously higher than those in pure forests. In the mixed forests, the chlorophyll content of U. pumila was obviously higher than that of R. pseudoacacia, and the chlorophyll content of U. pumila in 1B2C reached the highest in July. The photosynthetic rate (Pn) of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia in mixed forests was higher than that in pure forests, and the Pn of R. pseudoacacia in 1B2C reached the highest (18.54 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1)) in July. The transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of R. pseudoacacia in mixed forests were higher than those in pure forests, and the Tr and Gs in mixed forests were in the order of 1B2C>1B1C>2B1C. In September, the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (phi(PS II)) of U. pumila in mixed forests was obviously higher than that in pure forest. The photochemical quenching coefficients (q(P)) of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia in pure and mixed forests had no significant difference, but the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of the two tree species in 1B2C was significantly lower than that in corresponding pure forests. It was suggested that mixed planting U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia could significantly improve the leaf nutrient contents and photosynthetic capacity of the two tree species, and the optimum mixed ratio of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia was 1:2.

Qin J; Shangguan ZP

2010-09-01

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New triterpenoids isolated from the root bark of Ulmus pumila L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three new triterpenoids, 1-3, were isolated from the dried root bark of Ulmus pumila. Along with the three new compounds, six known triterpenoids, epifriedelanol (4), friedelin (5), oleanolic acid (6), maslinic acid (7), camaldulenic acid (8), and arjunolic acid (9) were also isolated. The structures of new compounds were established as ulmudiol (bauer-7-ene-1alpha,3beta-diol, 1), dehydroulmudiol [bauer-7,9(11)-diene-1alpha,3beta-diol, 2], and ulmuestone [3alpha-hydroxy-11alpha-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy)benzoyloxybauer-1-one, 3], on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of these compounds are also reported.

Wang D; Xia M; Cui Z

2006-06-01

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New triterpenoids isolated from the root bark of Ulmus pumila L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new triterpenoids, 1-3, were isolated from the dried root bark of Ulmus pumila. Along with the three new compounds, six known triterpenoids, epifriedelanol (4), friedelin (5), oleanolic acid (6), maslinic acid (7), camaldulenic acid (8), and arjunolic acid (9) were also isolated. The structures of new compounds were established as ulmudiol (bauer-7-ene-1alpha,3beta-diol, 1), dehydroulmudiol [bauer-7,9(11)-diene-1alpha,3beta-diol, 2], and ulmuestone [3alpha-hydroxy-11alpha-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy)benzoyloxybauer-1-one, 3], on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of these compounds are also reported. PMID:16755042

Wang, Dong; Xia, Mingyu; Cui, Zheng

2006-06-01

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Ecophysiological and Growth Responses of Elm, Ulmus pumila, to Different Water Tables  

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Full Text Available The relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and underground water table need to be studied because a huge number of trees died in arid and semi-arid area during recent years for the decreasing water table due to increasing water consumption. In this study, the water table was represented by the distance from soil surface to water surface. Study on the effect of water tables on the ecophysiological characteristics and growth of Ulmus pumila saplings was conducted by a short-term experiment. Saplings at water tables of -5 (under water), 3, 9, 15 and 22 cm were abbreviated as U-5, U3, U9, U15 and U22. Present results indicated that water table did affect the ecophysiological and growth response of U. pumila. All U-5 died after one week. U9 and U15 had higher net photosynthesis rates than those of U3 and U22. The diurnal mean transpiration rate of U3 was significantly lower than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. The diurnal mean stomatal resistance of U3 was significantly higher than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. U22 had the highest increment in main root length and there was good correlation between water level and main root length. U15 had the highest increment in stem height. Maintaining proper water table would result in higher net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, plant height and root length, but relative lower transpiration rate for U. pumila saplings. These results would have implications for water management at arid and semi-arid area for vegetation survival and regeneration. Seedlings and saplings should not be submerged for a long time during irrigating. Ecophysiological measurements can indicate the underground water table. Maintaining proper underground water table at arid and semi-arid area would be helpful to the growth of plant species and vegetation.

Xiongwen Chen

2005-01-01

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Stem Weight Ratios of Siberian Elm (Ulmus Pumila L.) Grown as a Short Rotation Crop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) is a fast growing tree which has not been studied extensively for short rotation crop (SRC) purposes. Seedlings were planted in Madrid (Spain) in the year 2000 at a density of 1 plant/m{sup 2}. Trials were carried out in order to evaluate the biomass production in high-density plantations. The plantation was cut after the fourth growing season and evaluated for height, diameter, and dry weight. The same measurements were repeated for the sprouts of the 1st and 2nd year that followed. The mean biomass yield after 4 years was 101.6 g dw/m{sup 2} year-1; 269 g dw /m{sup 2} for 1-year-old sprouts and 480.4 g dw /m{sup 2} for 2-year-old sprouts. Correlations between height and basal diameter with dry weight were calculated for each year. There was a close correlation between the 4th year original plant weight and the 1-year-old sprouts but less than with the 2nd year. Water efficiency for biomass production was higher during the 2nd sprouting cycle.

Iriarte, Leyre; Fernandez, Jesus [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Produccion Vegetal

2006-07-15

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Effects of groundwater decline on photosynthetic characteristics and stress tolerance of Ulmus pumila in Hunshandake Sandy Land, China  

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Full Text Available Aims Ulmus pumila, a widespread tree in the semiarid ecosystems of northern China, forms sparse woodlands in Hunshandake Sandy Land. However, the population of U. pumila has been declining in recent years because of a lowered water table, mainly caused by increased human water consumption. Our objective was to clarify the relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and the water table in order to provide information for protection of the species.Methods Saplings of U. pumila were planted in pots with simulated water tables at 1, 2, 3 and 4 m depth (U1, U2, U3 and U4, respectively). The impacts of water tables on the photosynthetic characteristics and stress tolerence of U. pumila were determined by analyzing photosynthetic light and CO2 curves, pigments, predawn water potential, soluble sugar and proline.Important findings Both the utilization efficiency of strong and weak light by U. pumila and the maximum photosynthetic rate decreased with lowered water table. Compared to U1, the light saturation point, apparent quantum yield and dark respiration rate of U2, U3 and U4 were significantly decreased successively (p < 0.05). The maximum net photosynthetic rate of U4 ((8.98 ± 0.08) ?mol·m–2·s–1) was reduced by 16.9% compared to U1 ((10.81 ± 0.28) ?mol·m–2·s–1). Light energy conversion efficiency of U. pumila also declined with lowered water table. Compared to U1, the photorespiratory rate, maximum RuBP saturated rate of carboxylation, maximum rate of electron transport and rate of triose-phosphate utilization decreased (p < 0.05) and CO2 compensation point increased in the order of U2 < U3 < U4 (p < 0.05). The soluble sugar and proline contents significantly increased (p < 0.05) with lowered water table, i.e. U1 < U2 < U3 < U4, indicating that the lowered water table induced the greater stress. Therefore, groundwater decline resulted in drought stress and down-graded photosynthetic ability. This implies that the decrease in U. pumila population might be caused by the lowered water table and that maintaining proper underground water table in Hunshandake Sandy Land is helpful to the sustainability of the sparse woodland ecosystem.

SU Hua; LI Yong-Geng; SU Ben-Ying; SUN Jian-Xin

2012-01-01

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Analysis of soil CO2 efflux in Populus and Ulmus pumila planting shelterbelts in arid region, China  

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Full Text Available Aims Our objective was to examine the effects of temperature, soil water content and photosynthesis on soil respiration in Populus and Ulmus pumila planting shelterbelts in China’s Junngar Basin.Methods Soil respiration was measured during the growing seasons in 2005 and 2006 using an automated CO2 efflux system (LI-8100). Air temperature (at 50 cm in height) and soil temperature (every 5 cm from 0 to 50 cm depth) were monitored at three points adjacent to the chamber using a digital thermometer (WMY-01C, Huachen Medical Instrument Inc., Shanghai, China) at each site. Gravimetric soil moisture at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths at three points were measured using the oven-drying method at 105 °C for 48 h.Important findings Soil respiration displayed irregular fluctuation of daytime pattern and significant single-peaked curve of seasonal pattern in the two woodlands. Seasonally, soil respiration was characterized by a maximum in July or August and a minimum in October or May, following the change of soil temperature. The rate of soil respiration was significantly higher in Populus woodland than that in U. pumila woodland with mean rates of 3.71 and 1.82 ?mol CO2·m–2·s–1 in two growing seasons, respectively. Soil respiration was significantly correlated with temperature in exponential equation, but uncorrelated with soil water content in the two woodlands. Soil temperature at 50 and 30 cm depths could explain 78.5% and 64.4% of seasonal variations of soil respiration in Populus woodland and U. pumila woodland, respectively, which confirms the common explanation by temperature and soil water content. The difference in soil respiration between the woodlands was influenced by growth state of trees, photosynthesis and soil salinity. Our results suggested that there was significant seasonalvariation of soil respiration in oasis shelterbelts in the arid region and soil temperature was the main regulating factor.

ZHANG Li-Hua; CHEN Ya-Ning; ZHAO Rui-Feng; LI Wei-Hong; XIE Zhong-Kui

2010-01-01

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Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance prevents thrombus formation through antiplatelet activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (Ulmaceae) has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of edema, mastitis, gastric cancer and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ulmus macrocarpa extract (UME) on thrombus formation in vivo, platelet activation ex vivo and fibrinolytic activity in vitro. To identify the antithrombotic activity of UME in vivo, we used an arterial thrombosis model. UME delayed the occlusion time by 13.4 and 13.9 min at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. UME significantly inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), respectively, but did not affect the coagulation times following activated partial thromboplastin and prothrombin activation. Therefore, to investigate the antiplatelet effect of UME, the effect of UME on collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro was examined. UME exhibited antiplatelet aggregation activity, induced by ADP and collagen. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic activity of UMEwas investigated. The results showed that UME significantly increased fibrinolysis at 1,000 mg/ml. In conclusion, the results suggested that UME may significantly inhibit artery thrombus formation in vivo, potentially due to antiplatelet activity, and also exhibits potential as a clot?dissolving agent for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23846328

Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Jin; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Myung, Chang-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2013-07-10

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Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Reduces Presence of Xylem Endophytic Fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

Martin, Juan A.; Witzell, Johanna; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Helander, Marjo; Sieber, Thomas N.; Gil, Luis

2013-01-01

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ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF LABISIA PUMILA EXTRACT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a process of extracting the leaves of Labisia pumila with water into a free flowing powder using accelerated solvent system and drying. The invention also relates to the immunopotentiating effects of the extract against stress. The extract has effects on fatigue, hypoxia time, potentiation of swimming endurance, bod weight, weight of the thymus and spleen and levels of CD244+ NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, expression of ThI cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma, corticosterone, glutathione, alanine aminotransferase and lipid peroxidation levels.

BANI SARANG; PANDEY ANJALI; KOUR KIRANJEET; CHAUHAN PRASHANT SINGH; CHAUDAN BAL KRISHAN; SHARMA NEELAM; SINGH KULDEEP; KOUL SURRINDER; GUPTA BISHAN DUTT; SANGWAN PAYARELAL; GUPTA DEVENDER KUMAR; LAL SHANKAR; MANICKAVASAGAR RAJENDRAN

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LABISIA PUMILA EXTRACTS FOR REDUCING THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is disclosed a standardised aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, as a herbal medicine or as a botanical drug, that can reduce the risk or progression of cardiovascular diseases. This extract addresses factors that influence pathophysiological changes associated with insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and aging.

WAN MOHAMUD WAN NAZAIMOON

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A study on nutritive composition of Blastophaga pumilae Hill  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article mainly dealt with the nutrient contents in Blastophaga pumilae Hill for the first time. The result showed that it contained protein 18.31%, total hydrolyzed amino acids 18.13%, crude oil 7.63%, total flavonoides 2.78%, vitamin E 49.61mg/100g. Contents of mineral elemants were rich.

Chen Youling; Wu Wenshan; Fang Yulin; Jiang Jianping

1999-01-01

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Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

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The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study  

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This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Me...

Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin

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Effect of Water Extract of Labisia pumila Var Alata on Aorta of Ovariectomized Sprague Dawley Rats  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila var alata, locally known Kacip Fatimah, is a traditional herb used by Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as to increase a woman's libido. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Labisia pumila consumption on maintaining the integrity of the aortic wall in ovariectomized rats. Thirty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats, 6 months old, were used in the experiment. Rats were divided into Normal (NOR) and ovariectomized (OVXC, KF and ERT) groups. Body weight was checked and recorded monthly. After four months, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and tissue samples from the aorta were collected for histological studies. Results showed that water extract of Labisia pumila-treatment maintained the elastic lamellae architecture of the ovariectomized rat aortae in a manner comparable to that of the normal rats. Results implied a possible role for Labisia pumila in modulating postmenopausal cardiovascular risks.

Ayida Al-Wahaibi; W.M. Wan Nazaimoon; W.N. Norsyam; H.S. Farihah; A.L. Azian

2008-01-01

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Developmental stability of Iris pumila flower traits: A common garden experiment  

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Full Text Available I. pumila natural populations usually occur in two different habitat types: dune and forest. These I. pumila habitats differ in many abiotic environmental factors, but mostly in available light intensity and quality. The effects of different light intensity on the developmental stability of I. pumila floral traits were analyzed on clones taken from two different natural light habitat types that were raised in contrasting light treatments in experimental garden conditions (common garden experiment). As an indicator of developmental stability, we used two fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA1 and FA8a) of three bilateral symmetric traits of I. pumila flower (FW-fall width, SW-standard width and STW- style branch width). In addition, statistically significant treatment x population interaction was observed for style width. According to the presented results, the observed FA patterns of particular traits did not reflect the whole organism buffering capacity under the given environmental conditions.

Miljkovi? Danijela

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

2010-02-05

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[Characteristics of gene pools of three Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel populations at the range margins].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic variation of Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel was characterized in three marginal populations in southwestern, southern and eastern parts of the natural species range (Transbaikalia, Primorye, Kamchatka) using isozyme analysis. Analysis involving 16 isozyme loci encoding ten enzyme systems was conducted. Our results confirm that P. pumila is among the most polymorphic species in the family Pinus. Three marginal populations exhibited high genetic variation (P95 = 68.8%, Ho = 0.247, He = 0.291). Populations heterogeneity and significantly high level of divergence in coniferous (F(ST) = 0.050, D(N) = 0.044) reflect their genetic originality. In summary, it was shown that the level of genetic variation characteristic for P. pumila in other parts of the not only is reproduced in the populations examined but even is close to maximum there.

Nakonechnaia OV; Kholina AB; Koren' OG; Jane?ek V; Kohutka A; Gebauer R; Zhuravlev IuN

2010-12-01

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[Characteristics of gene pools of three Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel populations at the range margins].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variation of Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel was characterized in three marginal populations in southwestern, southern and eastern parts of the natural species range (Transbaikalia, Primorye, Kamchatka) using isozyme analysis. Analysis involving 16 isozyme loci encoding ten enzyme systems was conducted. Our results confirm that P. pumila is among the most polymorphic species in the family Pinus. Three marginal populations exhibited high genetic variation (P95 = 68.8%, Ho = 0.247, He = 0.291). Populations heterogeneity and significantly high level of divergence in coniferous (F(ST) = 0.050, D(N) = 0.044) reflect their genetic originality. In summary, it was shown that the level of genetic variation characteristic for P. pumila in other parts of the not only is reproduced in the populations examined but even is close to maximum there. PMID:21434414

Nakonechnaia, O V; Kholina, A B; Koren', O G; Jane?ek, V; Kohutka, A; Gebauer, R; Zhuravlev, Iu N

2010-12-01

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Stages of flower bud development in Iris pumila and between-habitat morphological differences  

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Full Text Available Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity and between-population differentiation in flower morphometric traits of Iris pumila in response to environmental variability between natural shade and exposed habitats. Since these habitats differed in flowering times as well, in this work we investigated at which stages of flower bud development differences between open and shaded habitats start to appear. Our analysis detected several groups of trait development patterns through the I. pumila bud development in two contrasting habitats, with stem length being the most suitable trait for application in further analyses of so-called “shade avoidance syndrome”.

Bariši?-Klisari? Nataša; Miljkovi? Danijela; Avramov S.; Živkovi? U.; Tarasjev A.

2012-01-01

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Potential Role of Labisia pumila in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), also called Kacip Fatimah, is a herbal medicine that has been widely used in South East Asian communities mainly for women’s health. The extensive use of this plant has led to many speculations and studies on its phytoestrogenic properties. This review highlights the studies that involved Labisia pumila, which include phytochemical profiling and its safety. In addition, we also look into its use as an alternative to hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women, and its role in cardiovascular protection and osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to highlight the potential benefits of this plant in promoting advantageous health properties.

Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Azidah Abdul Kadir

2013-01-01

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Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.  

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Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae), commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

Jasreet Kaur

2012-01-01

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Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol?1) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g?1 DW) and pumila (25 µg·g?1 DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Ehsan Karimi

2012-01-01

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Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae) on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions  

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Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites) were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR) and net reproductive rate (R0) (famale/female/generation) were equal (61.6±8.7). Intrinsic rate of increase (rm), mean generation time (T) and doubling time of the population (t) were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (?) (female/female/day) was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was very low (0.00672), because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days), low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days) and long mean generation time (612.5 days).

A. Mazaheri; B. Hatami; J. Khajehali; S. E. Sadeghi

2007-01-01

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Free radical scavenging and total phenolic contents from methanolic extracts of Ulmus davidiana  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A methanolic (MeOH) extract of Ulmus davidiana was analyzed for antioxidant activity using model systems, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical (^?OH) scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic content. The MeOH extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the tested model systems. Among fractions using several solvents, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble fraction, which exhibited strong antioxidant activity, was further purified by silica-gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The (-)-Catechin (1) and (-)-catechin-7-O-@b-d-apiofuranoside (2) were isolated as the active principles. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals, with IC"5"0 values of 6.37+/-0.02@mM and 6.41+/-0.03@mM, respectively, and strong activity on ^?OH radicals at 10@mg/ml, with 53.65+/-0.01% and 52.56+/-0.01% inhibition. U. davidiana extracts may be exploited as biopreservatives in food applications as well as for health supplements of functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

Jung MeeJung; Heo Seong-Il; Wang Myeong-Hyeon

2008-05-01

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MINERALS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Labisia pumila var. alata OF SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS  

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Full Text Available In this study, relationships between physic-chemical, mineral and antioxidant properties of water-soluble extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata are proposed. A wide range of analytical parameters were studied including physic-chemical viz., proximate composition, yield, pH, total solid, total acidity, solubility; minerals content (Ca, Fe, and Zn) and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, and Pb); total phenolic content (TPC), tannin content, gallic acid (GA) content, and free scavenging activity of DPPH (EC50). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA). Based on PCA analysis, TPC, GA content, moisture content, crude protein, and zinc content were found to have a significant positive correlation (r close to 1) to antioxidant activity. Cluster analysis (CA) resulted in four groups of L.pumila (LP). These results provide useful data about the relationships and chemical patterns in LP leaves.

Ade Chandra Iwansyah; Mashitah M Yusoff

2012-01-01

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Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

2010-01-01

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The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9?mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280?mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values.

Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2012-01-01

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The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9?mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280?mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values.

Abdul Kadir A; Nik Hussain NH; Wan Bebakar WM; Mohd DM; Wan Mohammad WM; Hassan II; Shukor N; Kamaruddin NA; Wan Mohamud WN

2012-01-01

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Genetic and physiological data suggest demographic and adaptive responses in complex interactions between populations of figs (Ficus pumila) and their pollinating wasps (Wiebesia pumilae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study interactions between host figs and their pollinating wasps and the influence of climatic change on their genetic structures, we sequenced cytoplasmic and nuclear genes and genotyped nuclear microsatellite loci from two varieties of Ficus pumila, the widespread creeping fig and endemic jelly fig, and from their pollinating wasps, Wiebesia pumilae, found in Taiwan and on nearby offshore islands. Great divergence in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) with no genetic admixture in nuclear markers indicated that creeping- and jelly-fig wasps are genetically distinct. Compared with creeping-fig wasps, jelly-fig wasps also showed better resistance under cold (20 °C) than warm (25 and 30 °C) conditions in a survival test, indicating their adaptation to a cold environment, which may have facilitated population expansion during the ice age as shown by a nuclear intron and 10 microsatellite loci. An excess of amino acid divergence and a pattern of too many rare mtCOI variants of jelly-fig wasps as revealed by computer simulations and neutrality tests implied the effect of positive selection, which we hypothesize was associated with the cold-adaptation process. Chloroplast DNA of the two fig plants was completely segregated, with signs of genetic admixture in nuclear markers. As creeping- and jelly-fig wasps can pollinate creeping figs, occasional gene flow between the two figs is thus possible. Therefore, it is suggested that pollinating wasps may be playing an active role in driving introgression between different types of host fig.

Wang HY; Hsieh CH; Huang CG; Kong SW; Chang HC; Lee HH; Wang WK; Chen SL; Tzeng HY; Wu WJ

2013-07-01

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Effects of Temperature, Light and Storage on Seed Germination of Ulmus glabra Huds. and U. laevis Pall  

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Full Text Available The effects of temperature, light and storage on the germination of Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis seeds were studied. Germination tests were carried out under constant temperatures of 20°C and alternating temperatures of 30/20°C. Temperature significantly affected seed germination of U. glabra not stored, and seed germination was the highest at 30/20°C under dark or light. Temperature and light (0 or 8 h) did not significantly affect germination of U. laevis seeds not stored. When seeds were stored for 2 years, seed germination of U. glabra and U. laevis was significantly affected by temperature and light (0, 8, 6 and 24 h). Two years storage of U. glabra seeds increased light demands for germination percentage, and the seeds could be stored at 4°C for 2 years without losing its viabilities when germinated at 30/20°C under light. Although germination percentage and germination rate of U. laevis seeds reduced after 2 years of storage, germination parameters were still quite high when seeds were germinated at 30/20°C under light.

Emrah Cicek; Fahrettin Tilki

2006-01-01

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Genetic and physiological data suggest demographic and adaptive responses in complex interactions between populations of figs (Ficus pumila) and their pollinating wasps (Wiebesia pumilae).  

Science.gov (United States)

To study interactions between host figs and their pollinating wasps and the influence of climatic change on their genetic structures, we sequenced cytoplasmic and nuclear genes and genotyped nuclear microsatellite loci from two varieties of Ficus pumila, the widespread creeping fig and endemic jelly fig, and from their pollinating wasps, Wiebesia pumilae, found in Taiwan and on nearby offshore islands. Great divergence in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) with no genetic admixture in nuclear markers indicated that creeping- and jelly-fig wasps are genetically distinct. Compared with creeping-fig wasps, jelly-fig wasps also showed better resistance under cold (20 °C) than warm (25 and 30 °C) conditions in a survival test, indicating their adaptation to a cold environment, which may have facilitated population expansion during the ice age as shown by a nuclear intron and 10 microsatellite loci. An excess of amino acid divergence and a pattern of too many rare mtCOI variants of jelly-fig wasps as revealed by computer simulations and neutrality tests implied the effect of positive selection, which we hypothesize was associated with the cold-adaptation process. Chloroplast DNA of the two fig plants was completely segregated, with signs of genetic admixture in nuclear markers. As creeping- and jelly-fig wasps can pollinate creeping figs, occasional gene flow between the two figs is thus possible. Therefore, it is suggested that pollinating wasps may be playing an active role in driving introgression between different types of host fig. PMID:23841862

Wang, Hurng-Yi; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Kong, Siu-Wah; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Lee, Ho-Huei; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Chen, Shih-Lun; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jer

2013-07-01

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First Record of a Hyalid Species, Protohyale pumila (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalidae), from Korea  

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Full Text Available A hyalid amphipod, Protohyale pumila (Hiwatari and Kajihara, 1981), collected from Jeju Island is reported for the first time in the Korean fauna. The species is characterized by the presence of a short apical spine on the palp article 4 of maxilliped, a distinctly large and blunt cusp on the propodus of male gnathopod 1, and a distal truncate process on the palm of male gnathopod 2. Herein, the present species is described and illustrated. Korean hyalid amphipods now are composed of four species belonging to three genera. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Marine Arthropod Depository Bank of Korea, Seoul National University.

Myung-Hwa Shin; Won Kim

2012-01-01

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Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis  

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Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, es...

Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

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Pre-dispersal Seed Predation by a Granivorous Bird, the Masked Grosbeak (Eophona personata), in Two Bird-dispersed Ulmaceae Species  

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Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird, the masked grosbeak (Eophona personata,Fringillidae), was investigated in two bird-dispersed trees, Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera (Ulmaceae).The objectives of this study were to 1) measure direct damage of predation by grosbeaks on plant crops, 2)reveal the temporal pattern of predation within each tree species and its causal factors, and 3) test whetherforaging grosbeaks hinder foraging of frugivorous birds, thereby indirectly impacting the reproduction of both treespecies. A substantial amount of fruit and seed crop was consumed by grosbeaks (24.3% in Celtis; 55.5% inAphananthe), and only 17.7% (Celtis) and 16.7% (Aphananthe) were removed by frugivorous birds. At the studysite, the grosbeak population size fluctuated greatly during the fruiting seasons of both plant species. As forCeltis, predated seed density also fluctuated temporally, and the local population size of grosbeaks was responsiblefor predated seed density. In Aphananthe, predation was not fully explained by grosbeak populationsor plant phenology, but its peak coincided with that of grosbeak population. These results suggest that predispersalseed predation by granivorous birds can have large negative impacts on the bird-dispersed plants.Changes in local population size of granivorous birds can influence predatation and can affect reproductivesuccess of the bird-dispersed plants available to the birds.

Tetsuro Yoshikawa; Kihachiro Kikuzawa

2009-01-01

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Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the bone-protective mechanism of LPva by measuring the expressions of several factors involved in bone formative and resorptive activities namely Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2). METHODS: Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin(R)) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via daily oral gavages at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 mug/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized and the gene expressions of BMP-2, OPG, RANKL and MCSF in the femoral bones were measured using a branch - DNA technique. RESULTS: The RANKL gene expression was increased while the OPG and BMP-2 gene expressions were reduced in the OVXC group compared to the SHAM group. There were no significant changes in the MCSF gene expressions among the groups. Treatment with either LPva or ERT was able to prevent these ovariectomy-induced changes in the gene expressions in ovariectomized rats with similar efficacy. CONCLUSION: LPva may protect bone against estrogen deficiency-induced changes by regulating the RANKL, OPG and BMP-2 gene expressions.

Fathilah SN; Mohamed N; Muhammad N; Mohamed IN; Soelaiman IN; Shuid AN

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Release of sperm clusters in spheres by the black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Anthozoa, Antipatharia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecund polyps from a bottlebrush-shaped colony of black coral Cupressopathes pumila (Brook 1889) from Ambon Island (Maluku Archipelago, Indonesia) were studied at the structural and ultrastructural levels. Five fragments, each 5 cm long and containing about 60 polyps, were cut from a single parental colony. The fragments underwent different treatments: two were fixed in 70% alcohol for species identification; the remaining three were reared in aerated aquaria and then processed for anatomic studies by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some polyps from one of these reared fragments displayed spheres of various sizes protruding from the mouth. Four hours after sampling, spheres settled on the bottom of the aquarium. Comparative analysis of the fecund polyps showed: (i) the differentiation of spermatocysts inside the transverse primary mesenteries that separate the lateral tentacles from one another; (ii) spermatocysts entering the gastric cavity after breakage of the mesentery wall and (iii) location of spermatocysts close to the basal part of the pharynx. Analysis of the largest spheres, both close to the external surface of the mouth and settled on the bottom of the small aerated aquaria, showed that they were irregularly bordered with residual mesentery tissue and contained clusters of spermatocysts. Gametes presented various phases of differentiation up to the final sperm, as it occurs in the spermatocysts developing inside the mesenteries of the fecund polyps. In consideration of the particular distribution of the colonies of C. pumila, which grow very far apart, the release of buoyant spheres is a particular modality of spawning which can be viewed as a strategy for successful fertilisation over long distances.

Gaino, E.; Scoccia, F.

2009-12-01

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Exploring phenotypic floral integration in Iris pumila L.: A common-garden experiment  

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Full Text Available The angiosperm flower is a complex integrated phenotype, but within this structure there are partly independent units or modules. The interconnections among floral organ traits are hypothesized to be mostly generated by pollinatormediated selection. In this study, we explore whether floral dry mass per area (DMA) in an insect-pollinated herb, Iris pumila, exhibits a modular correlation pattern as has been reported for some size-related traits. We found that the overall pattern of floral organ integration with regard to DMA was uneven in the offspring of Iris pumila derived from a sunexposed and a shaded natural population. Since principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the eigenvalue variance was explained by the first two principal components (PCs), these PCs were considered as two floral modules. The greatest factor loadings on the first PC axis was that of the perianth and style arm DMA (PSDMA) and perianth tube DMA (PTDMA),while on the second PC axis, the greatest factor loading was that of stamen DMA (STDMA). The results indicate that the function of the first module would be to attract a pollinating vector, while the second one would reflect male functions. Selection analyses revealed that the targets of phenotypic selection were both intra-floral integration and individual floral traits. Both PSDMA and PC1DMA were under strong linear selection, while PTDMA experienced direct stabilization selection. The level of integration in floral organ DMA expressed in the term of relative eigenvalue variance appeared to be rather low, as was documented for other angiosperm taxa. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173007

Tuci? Branka; Vuleta Ana; Manitaševi?-Jovanovi? Sanja

2013-01-01

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Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples/ Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo valor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pe (more) ctina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic c (more) haracteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

Loyola, Nelson; Pavéz, Paula; Lillo, Sergio

2011-12-01

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Essential oil content of some Pinus and Cedrus species. [Pinus sibirica, P. pumila, P. Koraiensis, and Cedrus libani  

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Over 30 different terpenes and their oxidized derivations and related compounds were identified in essential oils from the needles and bark of annual shoots of P. sibirica, P. pumila and P. Koraiensis collected from plantations in Lipetsk province (Russia) and natural stands of P. cembra in Ivanco-Frankovsk province (Ukraine). Only alfa-pinene (69% of bark oil) and n-heptane (90% of needle oil) were present in Cedrus libani shoots from the Yalta area.

Kolesnikova, R.D.; Chernodubov, A.L.; Deryuzhkin, R.I.

1980-01-01

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Ontogeny of flower parts on naturally growing Iris pumila clones: implications for population differentiation and phenotypic plasticity studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability and population differentiation of flower morphometric traits on dwarf bearded iris Iris pumila. Also, study of I. pumila flowering phenology revealed significant impact of habitat type as well as population differentiation for flowering time. Since the flowering time can influence other flower traits, we performed this analysis of flower morphometric traits in three time points during the flower bud ontogenic development in two habitat types (open vs. shaded). Analysis revealed that for most of the traits greater trait values were recorded for open habitat but only on latter time points. For most of the analyzed traits direction of differences in bud stage was the opposite to the direction of differences in mature flower stage detected in previous studies. However, length of the stem, a trait that showed the greatest variability between habitats and populations and therefore greatest genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity, was significantly greater in the samples from the late flowering shaded habitat in all time samples, indicating that in case of this trait different mechanisms were involved. Those findings have implications for design of the future studies on I. pumila.

Klisari? NB; Avramov S; Miljkovi? D; Zivkovi? U; Tarasjev A

2012-04-01

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Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

Ibrahim MH; Jaafar HZ; Karimi E; Ghasemzadeh A

2013-01-01

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Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2013-09-05

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Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore  

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Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila(Pall.) Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin) by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P.sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3,Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analysis.Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees.This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

E.A. Petrova; S.N. Goroshkevich; Y.S. Belokon; D.V. Politov

2008-01-01

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Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana)  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

Jones A Maxwell P; Chattopadhyay Abhishek; Shukla Mukund; Zo? Jerzy; Saxena Praveen K

2012-01-01

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Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L.) was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. RESULTS: This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27) in controls to 65.3% (±4.60). Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59) by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

Jones AM; Chattopadhyay A; Shukla M; Zo? J; Saxena PK

2012-01-01

51

Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.  

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Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols) and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

Vuleta Ana; Manitaševi?-Jovanovi? Sanja; Tuci? Branka

2011-01-01

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Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

Hawa Z. E. Jaafar; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri

2012-01-01

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Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

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The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila  

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Publicación online disponible en: http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/index.php , The spatial distribution patterns of two species of epiphytic hydrozoans, Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila, on the intertidal alga Ascophyllum nodosum were studied in adjacent wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas. Clava w...

Gili, Josep María; Rossi, Sergio; Hughes, R. G.

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Mutants of Ficus pumila produced by ion beam irradiation with an improved ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric nitrogen dioxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Production of novel mutants with a high ability to mitigate pollutants is important for phytoremediation. We investigated the use of ion beam irradiation to produce mutants of Ficus pumila L. with an improved ability to mitigate atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2). More than 25,000 shoot explants were irradiated with an ion beam (12C5+, 12C6+, or 4He2+), from which 263 independent plant lines were obtained. The plants were analyzed for NO2 uptake by fumigation with 1 ppm 15N-labeled NO2 for 8 h in light, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. The mean NO2 uptake values of each of the 263 lines differed over a 110-fold range. Propagation was attempted using cuttings from 44 lines showing the greatest NO2 uptake; in total, 15 lines were propagated. Two of the 15 lines showed a mean NO2 uptake 1.7- to 1.8-fold greater than that of the wild-type. This increase in NO2 uptake was heritable in both lines; their progenies showed a significantly greater ability to take up and assimilate NO2 than did the wild-type. RAPD analysis demonstrated DNA variation between the progeny plants and the wild type, suggesting that the progeny were true mutants. These mutants of F. pumila may prove useful in mitigating atmospheric NO2.

Takahashi M; Kohama S; Shigeto J; Hase Y; Tanaka A; Morikawa H

2012-03-01

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Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2012-01-01

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Suppression of camptothecin biosynthetic genes results in metabolic modification of secondary products in hairy roots of Ophiorrhiza pumila.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Camptothecin is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid that exhibits anti-tumor activity. In Ophiorrhiza pumila, production of camptothecin and its related alkaloids was high in the hairy roots, but not in the cell suspension culture derived from hairy roots. To identify the intermediates in camptothecin biosynthesis, expression of genes encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and secologanin synthase (SLS), the two enzymes catalyzing the early steps in camptothecin biosynthesis, were suppressed in the hairy roots of O. pumila by RNA interference (RNAi), and metabolite changes were investigated. In most TDC- and SLS-suppressed lines, accumulation of camptothecin and related alkaloids, strictosidine, strictosamide, pumiloside, and deoxypumiloside was reduced. The accumulation levels of secologanin exhibited a strong negative correlation with the expression level of TDC, and that of loganin exhibited a negative correlation with the expression level of SLS. Some hairy root-specific chromatographic peaks detected by liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR-MS) exhibited positive or negative correlation with TDC expression, suggesting their possible involvement in camptothecin biosynthesis.

Asano T; Kobayashi K; Kashihara E; Sudo H; Sasaki R; Iijima Y; Aoki K; Shibata D; Saito K; Yamazaki M

2013-07-01

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Coupling deep transcriptome analysis with untargeted metabolic profiling in Ophiorrhiza pumila to further the understanding of the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer alkaloid camptothecin and anthraquinones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Rubiaceae species, Ophiorrhiza pumila, accumulates camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid with a potent DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, as well as anthraquinones that are derived from the combination of the isochorismate and hemiterpenoid pathways. The biosynthesis of these secondary products is active in O. pumila hairy roots yet very low in cell suspension culture. Deep transcriptome analysis was conducted in O. pumila hairy roots and cell suspension cultures using the Illumina platform, yielding a total of 2 Gb of sequence for each sample. We generated a hybrid transcriptome assembly of O. pumila using the Illumina-derived short read sequences and conventional Sanger-derived expressed sequence tag clones derived from a full-length cDNA library constructed using RNA from hairy roots. Among 35,608 non-redundant unigenes, 3,649 were preferentially expressed in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin were identified; specifically, genes involved in post-strictosamide biosynthetic events and genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid. Untargeted metabolomic analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) indicated that most of the proposed intermediates in the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway accumulated in hairy roots in a preferential manner compared with cell suspension culture. In addition, a number of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid preferentially accumulated in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. These results suggest that deep transcriptome and metabolome data sets can facilitate the identification of genes and intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of secondary products including camptothecin in O. pumila.

Yamazaki M; Mochida K; Asano T; Nakabayashi R; Chiba M; Udomson N; Yamazaki Y; Goodenowe DB; Sankawa U; Yoshida T; Toyoda A; Totoki Y; Sakaki Y; Góngora-Castillo E; Buell CR; Sakurai T; Saito K

2013-05-01

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Coupling deep transcriptome analysis with untargeted metabolic profiling in Ophiorrhiza pumila to further the understanding of the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer alkaloid camptothecin and anthraquinones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rubiaceae species, Ophiorrhiza pumila, accumulates camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid with a potent DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, as well as anthraquinones that are derived from the combination of the isochorismate and hemiterpenoid pathways. The biosynthesis of these secondary products is active in O. pumila hairy roots yet very low in cell suspension culture. Deep transcriptome analysis was conducted in O. pumila hairy roots and cell suspension cultures using the Illumina platform, yielding a total of 2 Gb of sequence for each sample. We generated a hybrid transcriptome assembly of O. pumila using the Illumina-derived short read sequences and conventional Sanger-derived expressed sequence tag clones derived from a full-length cDNA library constructed using RNA from hairy roots. Among 35,608 non-redundant unigenes, 3,649 were preferentially expressed in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin were identified; specifically, genes involved in post-strictosamide biosynthetic events and genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid. Untargeted metabolomic analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) indicated that most of the proposed intermediates in the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway accumulated in hairy roots in a preferential manner compared with cell suspension culture. In addition, a number of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid preferentially accumulated in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. These results suggest that deep transcriptome and metabolome data sets can facilitate the identification of genes and intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of secondary products including camptothecin in O. pumila. PMID:23503598

Yamazaki, Mami; Mochida, Keiichi; Asano, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Chiba, Motoaki; Udomson, Nirin; Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Goodenowe, Dayan B; Sankawa, Ushio; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Toyoda, Atsushi; Totoki, Yasushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Buell, C Robin; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

2013-03-15

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Thermal dependence of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in foliage of Iris pumila L.  

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Full Text Available Thermal dependence of the enzymes SOD, CAT, and POD was investigated in leaves of Iris pumila plants inhabiting two contrasting light environments, a sun-exposed dune site and a woodland understory. At the same assay temperature, both the specific activity and the activation energy of SOD and CAT were higher in plants inhabiting vegetation shade than in those experiencing full sunlight. Conversely, the temperature optima for the two enzymes did not differ between alternative radiation environments. The specific activity of POD increased with temperature increase, and was always greater in plants growing under full sunlight than in those from vegetation shade. The activation energy of POD was higher than that of SOD or CAT, being lower in sun-than in shade-exposed plants.

Vuleta Ana; Tuci? Branka

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Pattern of plasticity to irradiance levels and genotypic correlations between structural and physiological leaf traits in Iris pumila  

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Full Text Available Plasticity to irradiance and genotypic correlations between structural and physiological leaf traits in Iris pumila were investigated in an experiment conducted at a sun-exposed dune habitat in the Deliblato Sands. A sample of six native, genetically different clones were covered with a neutral screen which transmitted ~35% of daylight, so that one clone-half of each clone experienced reduced sunlight, while the other one full sunlight. LMA, stomatal density, ?leaf, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were determined in unshaded and shaded leaves of the same clone. It was found that the plasticity index, PIv was higher for physiological than for structural traits. Genotypic correlations between trait pairs were high, but rarely significant, in contrast to the correlation matrices which were significantly different between unshaded and shaded leaves.

Vuleta Ana; Manitaševi?-Jovanovi? Sanja; Tuci? Branka

2011-01-01

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Linking Hsp90 function to micro-environmental and stochastic variation in floralorgans of Iris pumila L.  

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Full Text Available Hsp90 is an environmentally responsive molecular chaperone that was found to play a key role in buffering against genetic and non-genetic perturbations in the model organisms Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Here we analyzed the buffering capacity of Hsp90 against two kinds of non-genetic factors - stochastic noise and micro-environmental varia­tion of floral organ traits in naturally growing Iris pumila plants. We found no statistical association between the endog­enous level of Hsp90 and the floral organ radial symmetry produced by stochastic developmental noise. Conversely, floral organ plasticity in response to micro-environmental variation tended to be greater with decrease in Hsp90b isoform expression.

Tuci? Branka; Manitaševi? S.; Vuleta A.; Mati? Gordana

2008-01-01

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Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Hawa Z. E. Jaafar; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

2012-01-01

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Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research  

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Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population). Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

Tarasjev A.; Avramov S.; Miljkovi? Danijela

2012-01-01

65

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

2013-09-01

66

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

Gavio B; Reyes-Gómez VP; Wynne MJ

2013-09-01

67

Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50?mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1?mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100??g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10??M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

Gu, Harvest F.; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Manneras-Holm, Louise; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2013-01-01

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Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50?mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1?mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100? ? g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10? ? M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

Mansor F; Gu HF; Ostenson CG; Mannerås-Holm L; Stener-Victorin E; Wan Mohamud WN

2013-01-01

69

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle  

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Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

2004-01-01

70

Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level  

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Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2) and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha?1) for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol?1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds), which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha?1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) under such condition.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2011-01-01

71

Inhibitory effects of cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by Labisia pumila extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Labisa pumila (LP), popularly known with its local name, Kacip Fatimah, is a well known herb grown in Indochina and Southeast Asia and is traditionally used to regain energy after giving birth in women. The propensity of LP to cause drug-herb interaction via cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system has not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effects of various LP extracts (aqueous, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane) on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Probe substrate-based high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were established for CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 whereas a fluorescence-based enzyme assay was established for CYP2C8. The metabolite formations were examined after incubation of probe substrate with respective CYP isoform in the present or absent of LP extracts. The inhibitory effect of LP was characterized with kinetic parameters IC(50) and K(i) values. RESULTS: LP extracts showed differential effect of CYP activities with the order of inhibitory potency as follows: dichloromethane>hexane>ethanol>aqueous. This differential effect was only observed in CYP2C isoforms but not CYP3A4. Both the hexane and DCM extracts exhibited moderate to potent inhibition towards CYP2C activities in different modes including non-competitive, competive and mixed-type. The DCM effect was notably strong for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 showing K(i) values of below 1 ?g/ml. The selectivity of LP for CYP2C isoforms rather than CYP3A4 may be attributed to the presence of relatively small, lipophilic yet slightly polar compounds within the LP extracts. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study revealed that phytoconstituents contained in LP, particularly in hexane and dichloromethane extracts, were able to selectively inhibit CYP2C isoforms. The inactivation was characterized by low K(i) values, in particular, in CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. These in vitro data indicate that LB preparations contain constituents that can potently inhibit CYP2C activities and suggest that this herb should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo.

Pan Y; Tiong KH; Abd-Rashid BA; Ismail Z; Ismail R; Mak JW; Ong CE

2012-09-01

72

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Natalia Allegrucci; Lorena Elíades; Ana María Bucsinszky; Marta Cabello; Angélica Arambarri

2007-01-01

73

THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION  

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Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

I. Podkovyrov; T. Konotopskay

2012-01-01

74

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

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Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored), leaves shape (jaggy) and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L.) and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.) Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth.) where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

?uki? Matilda; Grbi? Mihailo; Sko?aji? Dragana; ?unisijevi? Danijela

2006-01-01

75

Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

1993-09-02

76

[Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration. PMID:17974233

Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

2007-08-01

77

Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of siberian elm in response to drought stress: increased stomatal pore depth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf stomatal characteristics of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) were investigated by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. On the basis of average annual precipitations, two types of tree specimens were collected from Korea, China, and Mongolia: (1) trees under normal environmental conditions and (2) trees under arid conditions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed oval-shaped stomata on the lower surface, and they were ca. 20 ?m in width. In-lens secondary electron imaging showed differences in electron density and stomatal pore depth between the two types. According to the line profile analysis by white light scanning interferometry, stomata under arid conditions appeared to have higher levels of the stomatal pore depth than ones under normal conditions. Focused ion beam-field emission electron microscopy supported the increased stomatal pore depth with the increasing drought stress gradient. These results suggest that complementary microscopy can be employed to unravel the adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Siberian elm in response to drought stress.

Park GE; Kim KW; Lee DK; Hyun JO

2013-08-01

78

The vegetation classification in coal mine overburden dump using canopy spectral reflectance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The canopy spectral characteristics of typical plants in the overburden of the Fuxin coal mine dump were measured and analyzed. The reflectance of Leymus chinensis was affected by the soil, with a slight shift from green (550nm) to the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll and water absorption were not significant in the red (670nm) and NIR bands, respectively. The reflectance curve trend for Artemisia lavandulaefolia was similar to those of Sophora japonica and Ulmus pumila, while the reflectance of S. japonica and U. pumila fluctuated in the NIR region (760-1200nm), especially with greater water absorption around 930 and 1120nm. In contrast, the reflectance of A. lavandulaefolia fluctuated slightly around 930nm and a significant peak appeared at 1127nm. In addition, the spectral reflectance of S. japonica was lower than for the other species in the visible band (400-700nm). However, it was higher than for L. chinensis in the NIR region (780-1200nm). Three classifiers, the self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ), and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), were used to classify the vegetation and the results of all classifiers were compared based on total spectral reflectance data from 400 to 1200nm. The PNN was the best classifier in terms of training and testing accuracy. The first difference reflectance was calculated, and the red edge parameter was able to classify the herbs (L. chinensis and A. lavandulaefolia) and the arbores (S. japonica and U. pumila) with an accuracy of 77 and 84%, respectively, although it did not perform as well for detail species. A mixing parameter matrix was built based on the sensitive wavelengths (550, 674, 810, 935, and 1125nm), the vegetation indices (SAVI and NDGI), and the water absorption slope. High classification accuracy was obtained by applying the mixing parameter matrix. This method could be used for revegetation monitoring and in decision making.

Sun Hong; Li Minzan; Li Daoliang

2011-01-01

79

The vegetation classification in coal mine overburden dump using canopy spectral reflectance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The canopy spectral characteristics of typical plants in the overburden of the Fuxin coal mine dump were measured and analyzed. The reflectance of Leymus chinensis was affected by the soil, with a slight shift from green (550 nm) to the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll and water absorption were not significant in the red (670 nm) and NIR bands, respectively. The reflectance curve trend for Artemisia lavandulaefolia was similar to those of Sophora japonica and Ulmus pumila, while the reflectance of S. japonica and U. pumila fluctuated in the NIR region (760-1200 nm). In contrast, the reflectance of A. lavandulaefolia fluctuated slightly around 930 nm and a significant peak appeared at 1127 nm. In addition, the spectral reflectance of S. japonica was lower than for the other species in the visible band (400-700 nm). However, it was higher than for L. chinensis in the NIR region (780-1200 nm). Three classifiers, the self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ), and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), were used to classify the vegetation and the results of all classifiers were compared based on total spectral reflectance data from 400 to 1200 nm. The PNN was the best classifier in terms of training and testing accuracy. The first difference reflectance was calculated, and the red edge parameter was able to classify the herbs (L. chinensis and A. lavandulaefolia) and the arbores (S. japonica and U. pumila) with an accuracy of 77 and 84%, respectively, although it did not perform as well for detail species. A mixing parameter matrix was built based on the sensitive wavelengths (550, 674, 810, 935, and 1125 nm), the vegetation indices (SAVI and NDGI), and the water absorption slope. High classification accuracy was obtained by applying the mixing parameter matrix. This method could be used for revegetation monitoring and in decision making.

Sun, H.; Li, M.Z.; Li, D.L. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

2011-01-15

80

Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

2007-07-12

 
 
 
 
81

Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

Lans C; Turner N; Khan T; Brauer G

2007-09-01

82

Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacities of polyphenolic extracts from Annurca apple peel and flesh to inhibit the glucose and cholesterol uptake by HepG2 cells were evaluated, and compared with those of other conventional cultivars, such as Red Delicious (RD), Pink Lady (PL), Fuji (F) and Golden Delicious (GD). RD peels exhibited the best hypoglycaemic effects, while Annurca flesh appeared the most active in reducing cell cholesterol uptake among the cultivars tested. The influence of the apple polyphenolic extracts on the cell proliferation and oxidative stress was also evaluated. Particularly, RD, Annurca and PL peels decreased proliferation by a 62.5%, 48.0% and 37.5%, respectively, probably due to their prooxidant capacity. Conversely, flesh extracts appeared more protective of cells than peels: Annurca and RD, particularly, proved to be able of increasing proliferation by a 32.2% and 11.1%, respectively, probably due to their capacity of reducing cell physiological radical levels of a 33.3% and 19.9%, respectively. PMID:23692744

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Stiuso, Paola; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2012-11-12

83

Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The capacities of polyphenolic extracts from Annurca apple peel and flesh to inhibit the glucose and cholesterol uptake by HepG2 cells were evaluated, and compared with those of other conventional cultivars, such as Red Delicious (RD), Pink Lady (PL), Fuji (F) and Golden Delicious (GD). RD peels exhibited the best hypoglycaemic effects, while Annurca flesh appeared the most active in reducing cell cholesterol uptake among the cultivars tested. The influence of the apple polyphenolic extracts on the cell proliferation and oxidative stress was also evaluated. Particularly, RD, Annurca and PL peels decreased proliferation by a 62.5%, 48.0% and 37.5%, respectively, probably due to their prooxidant capacity. Conversely, flesh extracts appeared more protective of cells than peels: Annurca and RD, particularly, proved to be able of increasing proliferation by a 32.2% and 11.1%, respectively, probably due to their capacity of reducing cell physiological radical levels of a 33.3% and 19.9%, respectively.

Tenore GC; Campiglia P; Stiuso P; Ritieni A; Novellino E

2013-10-01

84

Additional insights on the ecology of the relic tree Zelkova sicula di Pasquale, Garfi et Quezel (Ulmaceae) after the finding of a new population  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In early autumn 2009 a new population of Zelkova sicula, a very threatened tree species endemic to Sicily, has been found some 17km east from the first and unique population previously known. The abiotic (slope, rock and stone outcrop cover, environmental stress, etc.) and biotic (plant species composition, vegetation mean height, total cover, etc.) features of 30 plots selected within the two populations were investigated in order to contribute at clarifying the actual and potential eco-geographic range of this species. Data analysis showed that the floristic differences among the sampled plots mostly relate to the rather high micro-habitat amplitude of the target species and the tree size. As in both populations Z. sicula appears to currently prefer hollow trails (“thalwegs” in hydrogeological terminology), the assumption may be confirmed that in the past it probably was more widespread in fresher and more humid environments. This hypothesis appears to be sound if we consider the ecological requirements of all the existing Zelkova species.

Garfì G; Carimi F; Pasta S; Rühl J; Trigila S

2011-05-01

85

Genetic variation of relic tree species: the case of Mediterranean Zelkova abelicea (Lam.) Boisser and Z. sicula Di Pasquale, Garfi and Quezel (Ulmaceae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two European species belong to the genus Zelkova: Z. abelicea Boisser, endemic to the island of Crete, and Z. sicula Di Pasquale, Garfì and Quézel, endemic to Sicily. Nuclear DNA markers (ISSR and AFLP) were analysed in the two species. Results showed genetic variation within the Z. abelicea population but not within the Z. sicula population. This species, existing as a unique population, revealed to be represented by a unique genotype, which is not present in the Z. abelicea sampling, thus indicating that an extreme reduction of genetic variability characterises Z. sicula. Based on this result, we can assume that agamic propagation is the reproductive strategy of this species in its present environment, unfavourable to the development of regular and functional flowering structures. The priorities for conservation programs are discussed in the light of the different genetic resources represented by the two taxa.

Fineschi S; Cozzolino S; Migliaccio M; Vendramin GG

2004-08-01

86

Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos/ Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urinárias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de (more) Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos) foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico. Abstract in english The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infections and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis (more) iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes) were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

Trevisan, R.R.; Lima, C.P.; Miyazaki, C.M.S.; Pesci, F.A.; Silva, C.B.; Hirota, B.C.K.; Lordello, A.L.L.; Miguel, O.G.; Miguel, M.D.; Zanin, S.M.W.

2012-01-01

87

[Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition.

Li Q; Liu ZW; Du LZ

2012-03-01

88

How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

2010-05-01

89

In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels.

Tenore GC; Campiglia P; Ritieni A; Novellino E

2013-12-01

90

Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

1994-01-01

91

In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:23993515

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2013-06-20

92

Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

2009-12-01

93

Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards.

Singh SB; Mukherjee I; Maisnam J; Kumar P; Gopal M; Kulshrestha G

2009-12-01

94

Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of siberian elm in response to drought stress: increased stomatal pore depth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf stomatal characteristics of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) were investigated by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. On the basis of average annual precipitations, two types of tree specimens were collected from Korea, China, and Mongolia: (1) trees under normal environmental conditions and (2) trees under arid conditions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed oval-shaped stomata on the lower surface, and they were ca. 20 ?m in width. In-lens secondary electron imaging showed differences in electron density and stomatal pore depth between the two types. According to the line profile analysis by white light scanning interferometry, stomata under arid conditions appeared to have higher levels of the stomatal pore depth than ones under normal conditions. Focused ion beam-field emission electron microscopy supported the increased stomatal pore depth with the increasing drought stress gradient. These results suggest that complementary microscopy can be employed to unravel the adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Siberian elm in response to drought stress. PMID:23920201

Park, Go Eun; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Don Koo; Hyun, Jung Oh

2013-08-01

95

Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm.

1984-01-01

96

Tree species selection in limestone mountain of eastern Anhui province  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the physiological and ecological characters of main species within family of Ulmaceae and the soil type and climatic conditions in Mt. Lanya, the suitability of tree species there were studied. The results showed that Pteroceltis tatarinowii, Zelkova schneideriana, Acea mono and Koelreuteria paniculata, etc. in family ulmaceae were the best species.

Fu Songling

1999-01-01

97

Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis), red apple (Mallus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), pear (Pyrus calleryana), golden apple (Mallus pumila), pawpaw (Carica papaya...

Sunday Oyewole Oyedemi; Sunday Arowosegbe; Anthony Jide Afolayan

98

75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...proposed rule to designate critical habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia). We also...

2010-05-18

99

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C(-1), respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai J; Wang H; Ge Q

2013-06-01

100

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Regional unified model-based leaf unfolding prediction from 1960 to 2009 across northern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using first leaf unfolding data of Salix matsudana, Populus simonii, Ulmus pumila, and Prunus armeniaca, and daily mean temperature data during the 1981-2005 period at 136 stations in northern China, we fitted unified forcing and chilling phenology models and selected optimum models for each species at each station. Then, we examined performances of each optimum local species-specific model in predicting leaf unfolding dates at all external stations within the corresponding climate region and selected 16 local species-specific models with maximum effective predictions as the regional unified models in different climate regions. Furthermore, we validated the regional unified models using leaf unfolding and daily mean temperature data beyond the time period of model fitting. Finally, we substituted gridded daily mean temperature data into the regional unified models, and reconstructed spatial patterns of leaf unfolding dates of the four tree species across northern China during 1960-2009. At local scales, the unified forcing model shows higher simulation efficiency at 83% of data sets, whereas the unified chilling model indicates higher simulation efficiency at 17% of data sets. Thus, winter temperature increase so far has not yet significantly influenced dormancy and consequent leaf development of deciduous trees in most parts of northern China. Spatial and temporal validation confirmed capability and reliability of regional unified species-specific models in predicting leaf unfolding dates in northern China. Reconstructed leaf unfolding dates of the four tree species show significant advancements by 1.4-1.6 days per decade during 1960-2009 across northern China, which are stronger for the earlier than the later leaf unfolding species. Our findings suggest that the principal characteristics of plant phenology and phenological responses to climate change at regional scales can be captured by phenological and climatic data sets at a few representative locations.

Xu L; Chen X

2013-04-01

102

Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the botanical garden in Beijing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory (BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden (BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni, and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index (MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes: strongly accumulated (SA or grade I), moderately accumulated (MA or grade II), intermediately accumulated (IA or grade III), and weakly accumulated (WA or grade IV). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza tomentosa. PMID:16295909

Liu, Yan-Ju; Ding, Hui; Zhu, Yong-guan

2005-01-01

103

Evaluation of trees and shrubs for oil sands reclamation: field trial results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project was initiated to select suitable tree and shrub species for use in revegetating spoils and tailings resulting from oil sand mining in Alberta. As part of this program, three field trials were established to test one or more provenances (seed sources) of promising native and exotic woody species. The trial site was prepared to simulate an oil sands reclamation situation. Overburden and peat were hauled to the site from Syncrude's mining lease and incorporated in native sand. The resulting soil was alkaline (pH 7.5), non-saline, and low in available N, P, and K, with no fertilizers added. All species were outplanted as one- or two-year-old container stock. All seed used to rear the native species was collected from local populations. Survival rates were high for most species. Girdling damage by small mammals was almost nonexistent, probably because of fine-mesh fencing installed around the test site. Populus Northwest and P. Tristis number1 were the tallest and fastest growing species. Among the native species, Pinus banksiana was the tallest and fastest growing. Several other species also performed well and may be suitable for oil sands reclamation, such as caragana, spruces, and Populus Brooks number6. Some gave mediocre or inconsistent performances, including birches, Populus Walker, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. The remaining species were failures and may not be adapted to the test site environment, including Alnus tenuifolia/crispa, Populus tremuloides, Rosa woodsii, willows, and Ulmus pumila. The few significant differences found among provenances for any of the native species suggests that genotypic differences were small among the populations tested. 10 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.

1987-01-01

104

Effects of different grassland restoration approaches on soil properties in the southeastern Horqin sandy land, northern China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the semi-arid Horqin sandy grassland, continuous grazing has led to decreased ground cover. The bare land surface is then directly exposed to strong wind erosion, leading to desertification. Different restoration approaches have been used to recover these desertified sandy grasslands. This study compared soil properties subjected to different grassland restoration approaches, i.e., three restoration treatments and an unrestored control: FG, grassland enclosed by sheltering forest (Populus×beijingensis); MG, artificially sparse Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica grassland; UG, artificially sparse Ulmus pumila grassland; CK, desertified grassland. Soil samples were taken from depths of 0–20cm, and physical (i.e., bulk density, particle size distribution, waterholding capacity, total porosity), chemical (i.e., pH, soil organic matter, total N, total P, total K, available N, available P, available K, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable Na+, exchangeable K+), and biological (i.e., microbial biomass carbon, substrate richness index, Shannon's diversity index) properties were selected as soil indicators. The three different approaches to grassland restoration were confirmed to alleviate wind erosion and enhance sand surface stabilization, as well as improve soil physicochemical and biological properties, in comparison with unrestored control. Soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in two types of artificial sparsely forested grassland were significantly better than those in grassland enclosed by shelter forest; however, there was no significant difference between the two types of artificial sparsely forested grassland. These results suggest that an artificial sparsely forested grassland restoration approach may be more effective at restoring the poor and arid soils of desertified sandy grasslands, such as the Horqin sandy land.

Yuan J; Ouyang Z; Zheng H; Xu W

2012-10-01

105

Patterns and drivers of vegetation degradation in Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims Overgrazing is a key factor driving grassland degradation in arid and semiarid regions. In this study, we explored how spatial and temporal patterns of grassland degradation were linked to vegetation sensitivity and socioeconomic drivers in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia, China.Methods We categorized grassland degradation by species composition and community characteristics by comparing a 1980’s vegetation map with data from field surveys done in 1984 and 2004 across the Xilin River Basin. Five types of grasslands were distinguished: non-degraded, slightly degraded, moderately degraded, heavily degraded,and extremely degraded. We also classified two additional types of grasslands based on their conditions 20 years ago: salinized and restored grasslands.Important findings The distribution of degraded grasslands exhibited an obvious spatial pattern across the Xilin River Basin. In general, the degree of grassland degradation increased from upstream in the southeast to downstream in the northwest of the basin. Moderately degraded grasslands were distributed mostly in the southeast, andheavily degraded and salinized grasslands were located in areas close to the river and over much of the Hunshandak sandland. Extremely degraded grasslands were distributed throughout the northern part of the basin where ecosystems were more vulnerable to over grazing. Non-degraded and slightly degraded grasslands were scattered patchily across the basin. In contrast, some abandoned farmlands and fenced pastures rested from grazing showed restoration over the past two decades. Grassland degradation in the basin also showed vegetation-type specific characteristics. About 43% of the shrubland was slightly degraded. More than 50% of Festuca ovina and Ulmus pumila dominated grasslands were moderately degraded, and half of the Stipa baicalensis and Bromus inermis dominated grasslands were heavily degraded. For both Stipa krylovii and Caragana microphylla dominated grasslands, more than 50% of the total areas were extremely degraded. For Leymus chinensis grassland, only small part of the total area had been degraded. Based on our analysis, overgrazing is the most important socioeconomic factor driving grassland degradation in the Xilin River Basin. The grassland degradation was positively correlated with increasing stocking rate from the 1970’s to 2004. Other factors, such as shifts in the density of villages and network of roads, were also attributed to the widespread grassland degradation in the Xilin River Basin.

JIANG Ye; BI Xiao-Li; HUANG Jian-Hui; BAI Yong-Fei

2010-01-01

106

76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mesa mint (Pogogyne nudiuscula; endangered), Otay tarplant (Deinandra conjugens; threatened), San Diego ambrosia (Ambrosia pumila; endangered), San Diego button-celery (Eryngium aristulatum var. parishii; endangered), San...

2011-02-04

107

Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes  

Science.gov (United States)

In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

108

Camptothecin production by in vitro cultures and plant regeneration in Ophiorrhiza species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Camptothecin derivatives are clinically used for the treatment of various human cancers. These derivatives are semi-synthesized from camptothecin which is isolated from the extracts of Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. For the feasible production of camptothecin, the protocols for the tissue cultures of Ophiorrhiza species, O. pumila, O. liukiuensis and O. kuroiwai, have been established. The established aseptic plants and hairy roots produced camptothecin, and O. pumila hairy roots accumulated highest amount of camptothecin. Furthermore, we have established methods of plant regeneration from O. pumila hairy roots. PMID:19521857

Asano, Takashi; Sudo, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

2009-01-01

109

Camptothecin production by in vitro cultures and plant regeneration in Ophiorrhiza species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Camptothecin derivatives are clinically used for the treatment of various human cancers. These derivatives are semi-synthesized from camptothecin which is isolated from the extracts of Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. For the feasible production of camptothecin, the protocols for the tissue cultures of Ophiorrhiza species, O. pumila, O. liukiuensis and O. kuroiwai, have been established. The established aseptic plants and hairy roots produced camptothecin, and O. pumila hairy roots accumulated highest amount of camptothecin. Furthermore, we have established methods of plant regeneration from O. pumila hairy roots.

Asano T; Sudo H; Yamazaki M; Saito K

2009-01-01

110

77 FR 51042 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...g.) (Cushenbury oxytheca) Acmispon dendroideus var. traskiae (=Lotus d. subsp. t.) (San Clemente Island broom) Allium munzii (Munz's onion) Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) Arctostaphylos glandulosa subsp. crassifolia (Del Mar...

2012-08-23

111

Product: 704 - Pollens - Trees, Acacia Acacia longifolia  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... tomentosa. The Myrica genus is found in the order of Myricaceae. ... pumila, and Myrica pusilla. The Morella genus is Myricaceae family. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/allergenics

112

[Host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from northwest and central Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventy four species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) were reared from forty eight host plants found into Yungas, Chaco and Prepuna phytogeografical provinces. The host plants belong Anacardiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae, Cactaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Juglandaceae, Leguminosae sensu lato (Caesalpinaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae), Loranthaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae, Ulmaceae and Vitaceae. Some species of Cerambycidae and their host plants show similar distribution patterns: from northeastern Brazil through Paraguay and reach the Argentina at both sides of the Chaco Provine: at the east, along the river systems through Buenos Aires, and the at the west into forests of the Yungas Province or into North Sierra Chaco, a probably relictual community. Others species are restricted to the South America area of Prosopis, that comprise the Chaco, Monte and Espinal biogeographical provinces, and live in host plants of chaquenian lineage mainly Leguminosae sensu lato and Ulmaceae.

Di Iorio OR

1997-03-01

113

Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina): aspectos Morfológicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae. Abstract in english Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia): morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

Forcone, Alicia; Ruppel, Silvina

2012-06-01

114

Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina): aspectos Morfológicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae.Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia): morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

Alicia Forcone; Silvina Ruppel

2012-01-01

115

A pliocene flora from the Gantang formation of Yuanmou Basin, Yunnan Province, SW China and its paleoclimate significance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present paper a preliminary result is reported of the study on leaf and pollen flora from the Pliocene Gantang Formation near the Wanpu Village of Yuanmou Basin, Yunna Province, SW China. The leaf flora contains 35 species and 24 genera of families. All leaf fossils are identified to angiosperm except one genus of Taxodiaceae (? Taiwania). Ulmaceae, Betulaceae and Leguminosae are the predominant families of the leaf flora both in species diversity and specimen quantity. Other important families are Salicaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae. Present in small number are the families of Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Myricaceae, Rhamnaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Ericaceae, Typhaceae, Graminosae. Pollen and spores are rich in the Wanpu flora with 97 types of 72 genera belonging to 44 families. The most aboundant families are Ulmaceae, Gramineae, Pinaceae (generally 20%-30% of total spores and pollen for each family) and the monolete spores of Pylopdiaceae (5%-10%). Angiosperm pollen, most of them are of Ulmaceae and Graminosae (over 10% respectively), occupies 50%-60% of the total. Juglandaceae, Fagaceae, Hamamelidaceae and Pteridaceae are common families, amounting to 1%-10% individually. Some pollen types probably related to xerophyte shrubs, e.g. Elaeagnus, Chenopodiaceae, have also been found in different quantities. The pollen flora also contains a number of subtropical evergreen forest elements of southern China, e.g. Lithocarpus/Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Symplocos, Reveesia, Alangium, etc.

Liu Gengwu; Li Daiyun; Huang Fei; Fu Qilong

2002-01-01

116

Genetic diversity of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii).  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate genetic relationships using qualitative and/or quantitative differentiation of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.) and to acquire basic data for the conservation and utilization of the species, aroma components in ripe fruit of M. sieversii obtained from 30 seedlings at Mohe, Gongliu County, Xinjiang Autonomic Region, China, and in ripe fruit of 4 M. pumila cultivars ('Ralls', 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji') were analyzed using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the values of similarity coefficient concerning volatile types between the two species were in accordance with the evolution of M. pumila cultivars (forms), and that M. sieversii seedlings showed considerable genetic variations in these aspects: the total content of volatile components, the classes and contents of each compound classes, the segregation ratio, and content of main components. The results showed significant difference among seedlings and wide genetic diversity within the populations. Comparison of the volatile components in M. sieversii with those in M. pumila cultivars showed that the common compounds whose number were larger than five with the contents over 0.04 mg/L simultaneously between M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars belonged to esters, alcohols, aldehydes or ketones. This suggests fundamental identity in main volatile components of M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars. The results above sustained the conclusion "M. sieversii is probably the ancestor of M. pumila". However, there were 48 compounds present in M. pumila that were not detected in M. sieversii, including 6 character impact components (i.e., propyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-methyl-1-butanol acetate, pentyl acetate, 3-furanmethanol, and benzene acetaldehyde). This suggested that in the domestication of M. pumila, introgression of other apple species, except for M. sieversii, by interspecies hybridization was possible. There were 177 compounds in total belonging to 11 classes detected in 30 M. sieversii seedlings, including esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, benzene ramifications, terpenes, heterocycles, hydrocarbon derivates, acetals, and lactones. Among them, acetals and lactones were not detected in M. pumila cultivars, 90 compounds were unique to M. sieversii, and 7 components (1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, 1-hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-octen-1-ol, ethyl octanoate, and damascenone) belonged to character impact odors. Thus, the potential of M. sieversii in "utilization conservation" is enormous as a rare germplasm on genetic improvement of M. pumila cultivars. PMID:17469789

Chen, Xuesen; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Zhang, Chunyu

2007-02-01

117

[Host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in the northeast of Argentina].  

Science.gov (United States)

New host plants and localities are recorded for 84 species of Cerambycidae of Chaco Province (Chaquenian Dominion) and Paranaense Province (Amazonian Dominion) in northeastern Argentina and Brazil. Host plants belong to Anacardiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Capparidaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae and Ulmaceae. First records for Argentina and host plants: Compsocerus barbicornis Serville 1834, Desmiphora lenkoi (Lane 1959), Neocompsa serrana (Martins 1962) and Trachysomus dromedarius (Voet 1778). First host plants records of rare or uncommon Argentine species of Cerambycidae are Methia tubuliventris Gounelle 1913, Paraleptidea femorata Gounelle 1913 and Oncideres pepotinga Martins 1981. PMID:9404521

González, O E; Di Iorio, O R

1997-03-01

118

[Host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in the northeast of Argentina  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New host plants and localities are recorded for 84 species of Cerambycidae of Chaco Province (Chaquenian Dominion) and Paranaense Province (Amazonian Dominion) in northeastern Argentina and Brazil. Host plants belong to Anacardiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Capparidaceae, Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae and Ulmaceae. First records for Argentina and host plants: Compsocerus barbicornis Serville 1834, Desmiphora lenkoi (Lane 1959), Neocompsa serrana (Martins 1962) and Trachysomus dromedarius (Voet 1778). First host plants records of rare or uncommon Argentine species of Cerambycidae are Methia tubuliventris Gounelle 1913, Paraleptidea femorata Gounelle 1913 and Oncideres pepotinga Martins 1981.

González OE; Di Iorio OR

1997-03-01

119

Metabolite profiling of alkaloids and strictosidine synthase activity in camptothecin producing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Camptothecin derivatives are clinically used anti-neoplastic alkaloids that biogenetically belong to monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. Camptothecin-related alkaloids from the methanol extracts of Ophiorrhiza pumila, Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida plants were profiled and identified using a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with on-line photodiode array detection and electrospray-ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. A natural 10-glycosyloxy camptothecin, chaboside, was accumulated in tissues of O. pumila but not in C. acuminata and N. foetida. Anthraquinones regarded as phytoalexins were present in the extracts of hairy roots and calli but not in the differentiated plants of O. pumila. These findings demonstrated a remarkable difference in the constituents between the differentiated plants and the hairy roots or calli tissues. The activity of strictosidine synthase, a key enzyme of camptothecin biosynthesis, was detected in the protein extracts of stems and roots of O. pumila, being correlated with the pattern of strictosidine synthase mRNA expression. PMID:12620359

Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Urano, Akiko; Sudo, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Yamazaki, Mami; Aimi, Norio; Saito, Kazuki

2003-02-01

120

Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two coexisting species of African molossids the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumila, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumila and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate their habitat utilisation. The results confirmed that both of these species selected to forage over sugarcane fields instead of over the other habitats available in the area: savanna, riparian forest and urban areas. Foraging ranges were relatively large with C. pumila travelling on average a maximum of 4.2 km from the roost and M. condylurus covering 4.8 km. The mean activity areas ranged from 976 ha (Minimum convex polygon) to 1319 ha (95% Kernel) for C. pumila and from 1190 ha (MCP) to 1437 ha (95% Kernel) for M. condylurus. Interspecific differences in the mean activity area or maximum distance travelled were not found. The results of this study suggest that these species have a potential role as pest controlling agents over sugarcane fields.

Christina Lehmkuhl Noer; Torben Dabelsteen; Kristine Bohmann; Ara Monadjem

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A taxonomic review of Eucalantica (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) with descriptions of six new species  

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The New World genus Eucalantica is reviewed with descriptions of six new species: E. costaricae Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. ehecatlella Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. ikarosella Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. powelli Sohn, sp. n., and E. pumila Sohn, sp. n., all five from Costa Rica; E. vaquero Sohn, sp. ...

Jay Sohn; Kenji Nishida

122

 

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is disclosed a standardised aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, as a herbal medicine or as a botanical drug, that can reduce the risk or progression of cardiovascular diseases. This extract addresses factors that influence pathophysiological changes associated with insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and aging.

WAN MOHAMUD WAN NAZAIMOON

123

The effect of storage of canned juices on content of the metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sn, Al, Cd, Sb and Ni.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increase in concentration of iron, copper, zinc, lead, antimony, aluminium, cadmium, tin and nickel over a 2 year's time of juices of peach (prunus persica), pear (pyrus communis), apricot (prunus vulgaris) and apple (malus pumila) was determined. The results show a considerable increase in Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Sn with time, while the change in Al, Cd, Ni and Sb is negligible.

Arvanitoyannis I

1990-01-01

124

Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks/ Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) e Malus pumila (M9) depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1) e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1). Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor (more) feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA), ácido giberélico (GA3), cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%), originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1), principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais. Abstract in english The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium (more) composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1), mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%). Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.

Dantas, Adriana Cibele de Mesquita; Boneti, José Itamar; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

2006-06-01

125

Cytotoxic activity of selected West Indian medicinal plants against a human leukaemia cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and solvent fractions of Spermacoce verticillata, Ficus pumila and Flemingia strobilifera against a MT-4 human leukaemia cancer cell line. METHODS: Crude extracts of dried leaves of S verticillata, F pumila and F strobilifera were made by exhaustive methanol extraction, fractions were obtained from sequential extraction of the crude extract using solvents of increasing polarity. Dose responses corresponding to cell survival following 72-hour exposure to the extracts were determined using a leukaemia cancer cell line (MT-4). Cell viability was assessed using the MTT[3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay reading absorbances at 570 nm. Comparisons were made with controls and cell survival, in each sample well, was determined based on the ratio of the absorbance of the sample to the control. RESULTS: Crude extracts of S verticillata, F pumila and F strobilifera displayed cytotoxicity and the IC50 values were 89 microg/ml, 131 microg/ml and 81 microg/ml, respectively. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of the crude extracts of S verticillata and F strobilifera showed potent cytotoxic activity but the highest cytotoxic activity was found in the chloroform and butanol fractions of F pumila with IC50 values of 23 microg/ml and 26 microg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: The crude extracts of S verticillata, F pumila and F strobilifera were shown to be cytotoxic to the leukaemia cell line, MT-4 and IC50 values were determined. Fractionation of the crude extracts by solvent-solvent extraction enabled determination of the active fractions and their IC50 values. We propose that cytotoxic activity may be due to antioxidant compounds previously isolated from these plants.

Ramcharan G; Clement YN; Maxwell AR

2010-12-01

126

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Ativida (more) des agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environme (more) ntal studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Barth, Ortrud M.; Barreto, Cíntia F.; Coelho, Luciane G.; Luz, Cynthia F.P.

2004-09-01

127

A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) from Brazil/ Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) do Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina), no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo) e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul). Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae), araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cerej (more) a (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae). Abstract in english A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), in the southeast (State of São Paulo) and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul). It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae), "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpi (more) ghiaceae), cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae).

Strikis, Pedro C.; Lerena, Maria Laura M.

2009-09-01

128

Biological Method to Quantify Progressive Stages of Decay in Five Commercial Woods by Coriolus versicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority.

A.M. Olfat; A.N. Karimi; D. Parsapajouh

2007-01-01

129

Biological method to quantify progressive stages of decay in five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053

Olfat, A M; Karimi, A N; Parsapajouh, D

2007-04-01

130

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

2010-01-01

131

SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS  

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Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

S. BRULLO; G. SPAMPINATO

1999-01-01

132

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

133

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spin (more) ulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul. Abstract in english Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small (more) species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

Thomas, Matthew R.; Py-Daniel, Lúcia H. Rapp

2008-01-01

134

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

Matthew R. Thomas; Lúcia H. Rapp Py-Daniel

2008-01-01

135

Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Biofilm Formation by Plant Metabolite ?-Viniferin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pathogenic biofilms are associated with persistent infection due to their high resistances to diverse antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects plants, animals, and humans and is a major cause of nosocomial diseases in patients with cystic fibrosis. In the present study, the antibiofilm abilities of 522 plant extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 were examined. Three Carex plant extracts at a concentration of 200 ?g/mL inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by more than 80% without affecting planktonic cell growth. In the most active extract of Carex pumila, resveratrol dimer ?-viniferin was one of main antibiofilm compounds against P. aeruginosa. Interestingly, ?-viniferin at 10 ?g/mL inhibited the biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 98%. Although Carex extracts and trans-resveratrol are known to possess antimicrobial activity, this study is the first to report that C. pumila extract and ?-viniferin have antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli O157:H7.

Cho HS; Lee JH; Ryu SY; Joo SW; Cho MH; Lee J

2013-07-01

136

Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

137

Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland  

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Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43?, NO3?, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3?. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl?, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

Ewa Jab?o?ska; Stanis?aw K?osowski

2012-01-01

138

Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) on Puerto Rico: asymmetric genetic differentiation and the hypothesis of multiple introductions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: This study of Zamia in Puerto Rico is the most intensive population genetics investigation of a cycad to date in terms of number of markers, and one of few microsatellite DNA studies of plants from the highly critical Caribbean biodiversity hotspot. Three distinctive Zamia taxa occur on the island: Z. erosa on the north coast, and Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila, both in the south. Their relationships are largely unknown. We tested three hypotheses about their genetic diversity, including the possibility of multiple introductions. METHODS: We used 31 microsatellite loci across 10 populations and analyzed the data with AMOVA, Bayesian clustering, and ABC coalescent modeling. KEY RESULTS: Puerto Rican zamias exhibit an amalgam of patterns of genetic differentiation that have been reported for cycads. Overall, the taxa are slightly inbred, with high infra-populational variation and little evidence of recent bottlenecks. Zamia erosa exhibits a more than threefold greater degree of population differentiation than the other two taxa. Admixture is evident only between Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila. Zamia portoricensis is inferred to be the youngest taxon on the island, on the basis of estimates of coalescence time and effective population size. A selective sweep may be underway in a small population of Z. erosa in a saline environment. CONCLUSIONS: Zamia erosa may represent an independent introduction into Puerto Rico; Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila fit a scenario of allopatric speciation. This will be explored further in the context of genetic analysis across the entire Caribbean region.

Meerow AW; Francisco-Ortega J; Calonje M; Griffith MP; Ayala-Silva T; Stevenson DW; Nakamura K

2012-11-01

139

The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kva?ek & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Ku?lin (Bohemia).

Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

2009-02-01

140

Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina)/ Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identificadas hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentar (more) ios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundan (more) t evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Novara, Martín G.; Narváez, Paula L.; Marquillas, Rosa A.

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B. cereus in foods.

Jun H; Kim J; Bang J; Kim H; Beuchat LR; Ryu JH

2013-01-01

142

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1) and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1) biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1) and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1) in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1) in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1) in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1). Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1) and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1) was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

Bandana Devi; D.R. Bhardwaj; Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; N.K. Gupta; C.L.Thakur

2013-01-01

143

The state of monumental trees in ?widnica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work analyses the condition of forty nine trees in ?widnica (in the Lower Silesian Voivodship). The listed trees in this town belong to eighteen species, half of which are native and half foreign to our flora. The vast majority are angiosperms. The majority of the listed trees at ?widnica are English Oak (Quercus robur), the rarest examples include Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum), White Mulberry (Morus alba), False Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and Dutch Elm (Ulmus ×hollandica). The majority (59.2%) of the trees are in good health, while 22.4% require urgent arboricultural work.

EL?BIETA GO??BEK

2010-01-01

144

Fertiliser compositions for specific bonsai plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (NPK) fertiliser composition (I) for bonsai plants comprises an aqueous solution containing N, P and K in respective proportions (as elements) of a, b and c, where a = 1, b = 0./3-4.2 and c = 0.6-3. (I) is applied to the following plants: Carmona, Celtis, Crassula, Ficus, Ligustrum, Murraya, Podocarpus, Punica-Bougainvillea, Rhododendron, Sageretia, Serissa, Ulmus, Zantoxyllum, Acer-Zelkova, Carpinus-Fagus, Chaemaecyparis, Cotoneaster-Pyracantha, Juniperus chinensis, Juniperus rigida-meleze, Malus-prunus and Pinus gingko.

DEVAUX PIERRE

145

PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMI?OARA  

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Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus) between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

A. Faur; Nicoleta Ianovici; A. Sinitean

2003-01-01

146

REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE/ REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaultheria es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con a (more) mplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaultheria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa a (more) mong species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

Teillier, Sebastián; Escobar, Felipe

2013-01-01

147

A New Record of Campylaspis fusiformis (Crustacea: Cumacea: Nannastacidae) from Korea  

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Full Text Available This study dealt with cumacean specimens collected from the shallow waters of the South Sea and East Sea, Korea. Campylaspis fusiformis Gamo, 1960 belonging to the family Nannastacidae is newly recorded to Korean fauna. This species resembles C. pumila and C. striata in having a similar body form and a pair of narrow lateral sulcuses on the carapace, but it is easily distinguished from them by the dactylus of the pereopod 2 which is more than 3.5 times the length of the propodus and bears many setae (about 20) on the surface. This species mainly occurs in the Korean and Japanese waters.

Chang-Mok Lee; Soon-Sang Hong; Kyung-Sook Lee

2012-01-01

148

Control of phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola using medicinal plant methanolic extracts  

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Full Text Available The antifungal activity of forty nine medicinal plants belonging to different families was tested in vitro on phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola. In which methanolic extracts of forty two plants exhibited varying degrees of inhibition activity against C. graminicola. The results revealed that extract of Terminalia chebula was highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. graminicola at 75µg/50µL. The following six plants Acalypha indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Gyanandropsis gyanandra, Suaeda maritime, Tephrosia pumila and Tinospora cordifolia did not exhibit antifungal activity.

Varaprasad Bobbarala, Prasanthkumar K Vinila Duggirala, Somasekhar Penumajji

2009-01-01

149

Control of phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola using medicinal plant methanolic extracts  

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Full Text Available The antifungal activity of forty nine medicinal plants belonging to different families was tested in vitro on phytopathogenic fungusColletotrichum graminicola. In which methanolic extracts of forty two plants exhibited varying degrees of inhibition activity against C.graminicola. The results revealed that extract of Terminalia chebula was highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of C. graminicola at 75µg/50µL. The following six plants Acalypha indica, Eichhornia crassipes, Gyanandropsis gyanandra, Suaeda maritime, Tephrosia pumila and Tinospora cordifolia did not exhibit antifungal activity.

1*Varaprasad Bobbarala, 2Prasanthkumar Katikala, 1Vinila Duggirala, 4Somasekhar Penumajji

2009-01-01

150

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM {sup 14}C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h{sup {minus}1} embryo {sup {minus}1}) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. {sup 14}C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lancelata, U. Carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

Bao, X.; Ohlrogge, J.

1999-08-01

151

MANUFACTURING METHOD AND THAT EXTRACT OF THE EXTRACT WHICH DOES THE PYLORA JAPONICA WITH THE PRINCIPAL INGREDIENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An extract mainly including Pylora Japonica is provided to show excellent effect on itch caused by mosquito bite and grass toxin without side effects when applied to skin, thereby treating itch of children with weak skin. A method for preparing an extract comprising Pylora Japonica as a main ingredient comprises the steps of: (a) after adding 9-10 wt.% of Pylora Japonica, 1.8-2.2 wt.% of bamboo salt, 2.8-3 wt.% of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica and 0.9-1.1 wt.% of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis to 85-88 wt.% of water, heating it at a temperature of 100-120 deg.C for 300-360 minutes with putting 500ml of water therein for every 60 minutes after boiling to obtain a liquid phase extract (b) purifying the extract two to three times and (c) packing the purified product in an air-tight package. An extract comprises 9-10 wt.% of Pylora Japonica, 1.8-2.2 wt.% of bamboo salt, 2.8-3 wt.% of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, 0.9-1.1 wt.% of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis and 85-88 wt.% of water.

I MYEONG U

152

Tree and stand-scale factors affecting richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in deciduous woodland key habitats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conservation and sustainable forestry are essential in a multi-functional landscape. In this respect, ecological studies on epiphytes are needed to determine abiotic and biotic factors associated with high diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate relative sensitivity of conservation targets (epiphytic bryophytes and lichens) in relation to contrasting environmental variables (tree species, tree diameter at breast height, bark crevice depth, pH, tree inclination, pH, forest stand age, area and type) in boreo-nemoral forests. The study was conducted in Latvian 34 woodland key habitat (WKH) boreo-nemoral forest stands. Generalized linear mixed models and canonical correspondence analysis showed that tree species and tree bark pH were the most important variables explaining epiphytic bryophyte and lichen composition and richness (total, Red-listed, WKH indicator species). Forest stand level factors, such as stand size and habitat type, had only minor influence on epiphytic species composition and richness. The results of the present study indicate a need to maintain the diversity of tree species and large trees, particularly Acer platanoides, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus tremula, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis in conservation of epiphytic bryophyte and lichen communities in the future.

Mežaka A; Br?melis G; Piter?ns A

2012-11-01

153

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM (14)C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h(-1) embryo(-1)) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. (14)C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

Bao X; Ohlrogge J

1999-08-01

154

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM (14)C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h(-1) embryo(-1)) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. (14)C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids. PMID:10444089

Bao; Ohlrogge

1999-08-01

155

Supply of Fatty Acid Is One Limiting Factor in the Accumulation of Triacylglycerol in Developing Embryos1  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of 14C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mm 14C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of 14C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h?1 embryo?1) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mm decanoic acid. 14C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

Bao, Xiaoming; Ohlrogge, John

1999-01-01

156

Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods.

Savidge RA

1988-12-01

157

Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods. PMID:14972810

Savidge, R A

1988-12-01

158

Climatic change causes abrupt changes in forest composition, inferred from a high-resolution pollen record, southwestern Quebec, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

A pollen profile from a lake with varved sediments sampled at continuous 10-year intervals and spanning the past 1000 years was analyzed to understand the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on forests in southwestern Quebec. Pollen assemblages were dominated by arboreal taxa, primarily Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Fagus. Between 990 and 1560 AD, pollen accumulation rates and percentages of hardwoods (Betula, Fagus, Acer, Ulmus, Tilia) and Tsuga were relatively high. At 1560 AD, PARs of many hardwood taxa (Fagus, Acer, Betula, Fraxinus, Ulmus) and Tsuga abruptly decreased, some remaining low for the remainder of the record (Tsuga, Fagus, Acer), but others increasing after 50 years (Betula, Fraxinus). An increase in non-arboreal pollen between 1810 and 2010 AD was caused by European settlement of the area. The transition in the pollen assemblages beginning at 1560 AD and a climate reconstruction based on these data shows an abrupt climate cooling had a significant impact on the pollen accumulation rates of the region within a couple of decades. A synthesis of this record with other high-resolution and well-dated pollen data from the conifer-hardwood forest of eastern North America shows consistent results across the whole area, indicating that very-high resolution pollen data can provide insight into multi-decadal climate variability and its impact on forest vegetation.

Paquette, Nathalie; Gajewski, Konrad

2013-09-01

159

[Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES), this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased, while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbutifolia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. arbutifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity. PMID:23479860

Li, Xiao-Na; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Yu

2012-12-01

160

Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the partitioning of genetic variance in peripheral and central populations may shed more light on the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on population genetic structure and, thereby, improve attempts to conserve genetic diversity. We analysed genetic structure of peripheral and central populations of three insect-pollinated violets (Viola elatior, Viola pumila, Viola stagnina) to evaluate to what extent these patterns can be explained by gene flow and genetic drift. Amplified fragment length polymorphism was used to analyse 930 individuals of 50 populations. Consistent with theoretical predictions, peripheral populations were smaller and more isolated, differentiation was stronger, and genetic diversity and gene flow lower in peripheral populations of V. pumila and V. stagnina. In V. elatior, probably historic fragmentation effects linked to its specific habitat type were superimposed on the plant geographic (peripheral-central) patterns, resulting in lower relative importance of gene flow in central populations. Genetic variation between regions (3-6%), among (30-37%) and within populations (60-64%) was significant. Peripheral populations lacked markers that were rare and localized in central populations. Loss of widespread markers in peripheral V. stagnina populations indicated genetic erosion. Autocorrelation within populations was statistically significant up to a distance of 10-20 m. Higher average genetic similarity in peripheral populations than in central ones indicated higher local gene flow, probably owing to management practices. Peripheral populations contributed significantly to genetic variation and contained unique markers, which made them valuable for the conservation of genetic diversity.

Eckstein RL; O'neill RA; Danihelka J; Otte A; Köhler W

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the partitioning of genetic variance in peripheral and central populations may shed more light on the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on population genetic structure and, thereby, improve attempts to conserve genetic diversity. We analysed genetic structure of peripheral and central populations of three insect-pollinated violets (Viola elatior, Viola pumila, Viola stagnina) to evaluate to what extent these patterns can be explained by gene flow and genetic drift. Amplified fragment length polymorphism was used to analyse 930 individuals of 50 populations. Consistent with theoretical predictions, peripheral populations were smaller and more isolated, differentiation was stronger, and genetic diversity and gene flow lower in peripheral populations of V. pumila and V. stagnina. In V. elatior, probably historic fragmentation effects linked to its specific habitat type were superimposed on the plant geographic (peripheral-central) patterns, resulting in lower relative importance of gene flow in central populations. Genetic variation between regions (3-6%), among (30-37%) and within populations (60-64%) was significant. Peripheral populations lacked markers that were rare and localized in central populations. Loss of widespread markers in peripheral V. stagnina populations indicated genetic erosion. Autocorrelation within populations was statistically significant up to a distance of 10-20 m. Higher average genetic similarity in peripheral populations than in central ones indicated higher local gene flow, probably owing to management practices. Peripheral populations contributed significantly to genetic variation and contained unique markers, which made them valuable for the conservation of genetic diversity. PMID:16842412

Eckstein, R L; O'neill, R A; Danihelka, J; Otte, A; Köhler, W

2006-08-01

162

Camptothecin: therapeutic potential and biotechnology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives have been received considerable attention recently. Two semi-synthetic derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, are currently prescribed as anticancer drugs. Several more are now in clinical trial. CPT is produced in many plants belonging to unrelated orders of angiosperms. At present, CPT supplied for pharmaceutical use is extracted from the plants, Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. Several efforts have been made to sustain a stable production of CPT by in vitro cell cultures of C. acuminata, N. foetida and Ophiorrhiza pumila. Recent report showed that plants are not the only sources that produce CPT. CPT was reported to be produced from the endophytic fungus isolated from the inner bark of N. foetida. The hairy root cultures of C. acuminata and O. pumila produce and secrete CPT into the medium in large quantities. These reports suggest the possibility to develop large-scale production of CPT. In addition, recent advance in the cloning and characterization of biosynthetic enzymes involved in CPT biosynthetic pathway provides valuable information for developing genetically engineered CPT-producing plants. PMID:17691988

Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Asano, Takashi; Sudo, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

2007-08-01

163

THE SIDE EFFECTS OF KACIP FATIMAH EXTRACT ON LIVER AND KIDNEY OF WHITE RATS  

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Full Text Available In Malaysia, most traditional practitioner would recommend Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) for the treatment of flatulent, dysentery and post-partum herbs. Although some herbs contain hazardous compound that might be harmful to the host system, Kacip Fatimah is known to be safe for human consumption. This study was conducted to determine the side effects of petroleum-ether extract of Labisia pumila var. alata on liver and kidney of white rats. Thirty-six female Albino Winstar were equally divided into four groups. Group A was set as the control untreated group, while Group B, C and D were subjected to subcutaneous injection of the extract at 0.1 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml and 0.025 mg/ml respectively. Three animals from each group were euthanized at days 1. 3 and 7 post-treatment. Samples of liver and kidney were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formalin overnight before being processed for histology. Liver impairment was indicated by the development of hydrophic degeneration in sinusoid area as early as day I post treatment. The lesion progress more severe on day 3 and 7. Inflammatory of the renal tubules were also observed during the development of lesion in the liver. Glomerulonephritis and nephrosis of the kidney were observed until day 7. This abnormality in the liver and kidney tissue suggested the presence of toxin compound from Kacip Fatimah.

A. W. M. EFFENDY, J. SITI-NUR TAHIRA, Z. M. HUSSIN.; M. ZAMRI-SAAD

2006-01-01

164

Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

2006-01-01

165

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

Adinortey MB; Galyuon IK; Asamoah NO

2013-01-01

166

Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem II of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drought stress can induce closure of stomata, thus leading to photoinhibition. The effects of prolonged severe drought under natural growing conditions on photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) in drought-tolerant tree species are unclear. In spring 2010, southwestern China confronted severe drought that lasted several months. Using three dominant evergreen species, Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis philippensis Bl. (Ulmaceae) and Pistacia weinmannifolia J. Poisson ex Franch. (Anacardiaceae) that are native to a tropical limestone forest, we investigated the influence of this stress on PSI and PSII activities as well as light energy distribution in the PSII and P700 redox state. By the end of the drought period, predawn leaf water potential (?(pd)) largely declined in each species, especially in C. sumatranus. Photosystem I activity strongly decreased in the three species, especially in C. sumatranus which showed a decrease of 65%. The maximum quantum yield of PSII after dark adaptation remained stable in P. weinmannifolia and C. philippensis but significantly decreased in C. sumatranus. Light response curves indicated that both linear electron flow and non-photochemical quenching were severely inhibited in C. sumatranus along with disappearance of CEF, resulting in deleterious excess light energy in PSII. We conclude that PSI is more sensitive than PSII to prolonged severe drought in these three drought-tolerant species, and CEF is essential for photoprotection in them. PMID:23329334

Huang, Wei; Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang

2013-01-17

167

The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions yielded considerable information about triglyceride compositions of the fats.The most interesting finding was withLaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2-29.8% trilaurin. A maximum of 19.9% trilaurin would be predicted by a 1, 2, 3-random, a 1, 3-random-2-random, or a 1-random-2-random-3-random distribution of the lauric acid(3). This indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobilis seed enzymes.Cuphea lanceolata seed fat also contained more simple triglyceride (tridecanoin) than would be predicted by the fatty acid distribution theories. PMID:17805764

Litchfield, C; Miller, E; Harlow, R D; Reiser, R

1967-07-01

168

Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem II of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drought stress can induce closure of stomata, thus leading to photoinhibition. The effects of prolonged severe drought under natural growing conditions on photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) in drought-tolerant tree species are unclear. In spring 2010, southwestern China confronted severe drought that lasted several months. Using three dominant evergreen species, Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis philippensis Bl. (Ulmaceae) and Pistacia weinmannifolia J. Poisson ex Franch. (Anacardiaceae) that are native to a tropical limestone forest, we investigated the influence of this stress on PSI and PSII activities as well as light energy distribution in the PSII and P700 redox state. By the end of the drought period, predawn leaf water potential (?(pd)) largely declined in each species, especially in C. sumatranus. Photosystem I activity strongly decreased in the three species, especially in C. sumatranus which showed a decrease of 65%. The maximum quantum yield of PSII after dark adaptation remained stable in P. weinmannifolia and C. philippensis but significantly decreased in C. sumatranus. Light response curves indicated that both linear electron flow and non-photochemical quenching were severely inhibited in C. sumatranus along with disappearance of CEF, resulting in deleterious excess light energy in PSII. We conclude that PSI is more sensitive than PSII to prolonged severe drought in these three drought-tolerant species, and CEF is essential for photoprotection in them.

Huang W; Fu PL; Jiang YJ; Zhang JL; Zhang SB; Hu H; Cao KF

2013-02-01

169

Long-term CO2 enrichment of a forest ecosystem: implications for forest regeneration and succession.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition and successional status of a forest affect carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity, yet it remains unclear whether elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will impact rates and trajectories of forest succession. We examined how CO2 enrichment (+200 microL CO2/L air differential) affects forest succession through growth and survivorship of tree seedlings, as part of the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in North Carolina, USA. We planted 2352 seedlings of 14 species in the low light forest understory and determined effects of elevated CO2 on individual plant growth, survival, and total sample biomass accumulation, an integrator of plant growth and survivorship over time, for six years. We used a hierarchical Bayes framework to accommodate the uncertainty associated with the availability of light and the variability in growth among individual plants. We found that most species did not exhibit strong responses to CO2. Ulmus alata (+21%), Quercus alba (+9.5%), and nitrogen-fixing Robinia pseudoacacia (+230%) exhibited greater mean annual relative growth rates under elevated CO2 than under ambient conditions. The effects of CO2 were small relative to variability within populations; however, some species grew better under low light conditions when exposed to elevated CO2 than they did under ambient conditions. These species include shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Liquidambar styraciflua, intermediate-tolerant Quercus velutina, and shade-tolerant Acer barbatum, A. rubrum, Prunus serotina, Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis. Contrary to our expectation, shade-intolerant trees did not survive better with CO2 enrichment, and population-scale responses to CO2 were influenced by survival probabilities in low light. CO2 enrichment did not increase rates of sample biomass accumulation for most species, but it did stimulate biomass growth of shade-tolerant taxa, particularly Acer barbatum and Ulmus alata. Our data suggest a small CO2 fertilization effect on tree productivity, and the possibility of reduced carbon accumulation rates relative to today's forests due to changes in species composition. PMID:17555228

Mohan, Jacqueline E; Clark, James S; Schlesinger, William H

2007-06-01

170

O sítio da Idade do Bronze de Via Neruda em Sesto Fiorentino (Florença, Itália): exploração dos recursos arbóreos.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico de Via Neruda, localizado em Sesto Fiorentino (Florença, Itália) e datado da Idade do Bronze, apresentava uma quantidade de macro restos vegetais, entre os quais muitos carvões e alguns lenhos, que são o objeto do presente trabalho. Entre os carvões, alguns foram considerados como estando relacionados com estruturas ligadas à ocupação humana. O objetivo do presente trabalho é perceber quais os conhecimentos e o uso dado ao lenho por esta comunidade humana da Idade do Bronze. As análises antracológicas dos carvões e lenhos indicam a existência de uma floresta sub-húmida de planície. Os resultados obtidos e a sua comparação com outros estudos sugerem a selecção de Ulmus, Quercus e Fraxinus pelas suas características, sendo que Sorbus, Acer, Prunus e Populus possivelmente foram utilizados sobretudo pela sua disponibilidade no entorno do sítio arqueológico.Palavras-chave: Carvões, Lenhos, Recursos arbóreos, Ambiente, Idade do Bronze.AbstractThe archaeological site of Via Neruda, located in Sesto Fiorentino (Florence, Italy) and dated to the Bronze Age, had a number of macro plant remains, including many wood and charcoal, which are the object of this work. Among the charcoals, some were considered to be related to structures associated with human occupation. The aim of this study is to understand the knowledge and uses of wood by this Bronze Age human community. Anthracological analyses of charcoals and wood indicate the existence of a sub-humid lowland forest. The results and their comparison with other studies suggest the selection of Ulmus, Quercus and Fraxinus due to their characteristics, and Sorbus, Acer, Prunus and Populus were possibly used primarily by their availability in the vicinity of the archaeological site.Key words: Charcoal, Wood, Arboreal resources, Environment, Bronze Age.ResumenEl yacimiento arqueológico de la Edad del Bronce de Via Neruda, situado en Sesto Fiorentino (Florencia, Italia), ha proporcionado un gran número de macro restos vegetales, incluyendo carbones y maderas, que son el objeto de este trabajo. Entre los carbones, algunos se consideraron relacionados con estructuras asociadas a la ocupación humana. El objetivo de este estudio es comprender el conocimiento y el uso de la madera por esta comunidad humana de la Edad de Bronce. Los análisis antracológicos de los carbones y maderas indican la existencia de un bosque de tierras bajas subhúmedas. Los resultados y su comparación con otros estudios sugieren la selección de Ulmus, Quercus y Fraxinus por sus características, y Sorbus, Acer, Prunus y Populus posiblemente fueron utilizados principalmente por su disponibilidad en las inmediaciones de la zona arqueológica.Palabras clave: Carbones, Madera, Recursos arbóreos, Ambiente, Edad del Bronce.

Ginevra Coradeschi

2013-01-01

171

Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research  

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Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.) have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED). Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus). This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

Ghelardini L; Santini A

2009-01-01

172

Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of ?-irradiation 14,000-16,000 ?R/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of ?-irradiation 10,000-13,000 ?R/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of ?-irradiation 3,600-8,000 ?R/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of ?-irradiation of 60-200 ?R/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic parts, remains of concrete constructions and debris; To fill up trenches on the slopes of the hills, make even soil surface; It is necessary to apply phyto-remediation technology to clear the hills from radiation pollution. Lichens developing on the outcrops accumulate Cs137 up to 54,000 Bq/kg. Coverage of their aggregations reaches 40-45 %. Mosses developing on fine earth in cracks of stones accumulate Cs137 up to 4,100 Bq/kg, Am241 - 1,830 Bq/kg, Eu152,154 - 211 Bq/kg. 4 For prevention of water and wind erosion it is necessary to sow in addition seeds of Caragana pumila, Spiraea hypericifolia, Artemisia frigida, Psathyrostachys juncea.

2003-01-01

173

Liberomyces gen. nov. with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf trees (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two species, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both species have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear.

Pazoutová S; Srutka P; Holusa J; Chudícková M; Kubátová A; Kolarík M

2012-01-01

174

ELM RICE CAKE SOUP WHICH IS USEFUL FOR TREATMENT OF PEPTIC ULCER DISEASES, DUODENAL ULCERS, GASTRIC ULCERS, EDEMA AND REDUCES INSOMNIA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Rice cake soup using elm powder obtained by mixing powder of elm(Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica Nakai), rice flour and salt, extruding the mixture into rice cake form and then boiling the rice cake with water is provided. It is effective for treatment of peptic ulcer diseases, duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, edema and reducing insomnia when taken for long periods of time. CONSTITUTION: Leaves of an elm tree are roasted for 10 to 20min, cooled, roasted for 2hr and then ground. Thereafter, 30% by weight of the elm leaf powder is mixed with 68% by weight of rice flour and 2% by weight of salt, steamed in an earthenware steamer, extruded into rice cake form and then boiled with water.

PACK PYOUNG IL

175

Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae) was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak). In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade) mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

Mihajlovi? Ljubodrag

2007-01-01

176

Influence of moisture, temperature, leaf, maturity, and host genotype on infection of elms by Stegophora ulmea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of environmental and host factors on the initiation and development of black spot disease on both resistant and susceptible elm clones was investigated. Optimum disease development occurred when plants were exposed to 100% relative humidity at 16 C for 24 hr following inoculation with 106 spores per milliliter of conidial suspension. Low temperatures (12- 16 C) resulted in increased disease incidence in moderately susceptible clones but did not have a significant effect on a highly susceptible clone of Ulmus laevis. Temperature did not influence the type (sporulating vs nonsporulating) of lesion present. Young, growing leaves were most susceptible; no lesions were found on leaves below the third internode from the growing tip. Repeatability estimates were high (0.88- 0.91), which suggests a high heritability for clonal response to S. ulmea and a good potential for breeding and selection for resistance.

McGranahan GH; Smalley EG

1984-11-01

177

Thai plants from Doi Tung: brine shrimp lethality, antioxidative activity and combination effect with L-ascorbic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methanolic extracts of 18 Thai plants from Doi Tung, the north of Thailand, were examined for brine shrimp lethality and antioxidative activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In brine shrimp lethality, the highly toxic plant extracts were Mitrephora wangii (LC(50) 14.8?µg?mL(-1)) and Hydrocotyle javanica (LC(50) 13.3?µg?mL(-1)). The extracts of Sageretia cordifolia, Ulmus lancaefolia and Acer chiangdaoense exhibited highly antioxidative activities with IC(50) values of 6.7, 8.1 and 9.8?µg?mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the extracts of S. cordifolia, U. lancaefolia and A. chiangdaoense have shown slightly synergistic effects (combination index; CI?

Tanamatayarat P; Sotanaphun U; Poobrasert O

2012-01-01

178

Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 × 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH.

Spier L; van Dobben H; van Dort K

2010-12-01

179

Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-12-15

180

Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)  

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Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens). During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae), Gelis agilis (Fabricius) and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae), Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae), Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius) (Eupelmidae) and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker) (Chalcididae). Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen) (Diptera). All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae) are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

Žiki? V.; Stankovi? S.S.; Petrovi? A.; Ili?-Miloševi? Marijana; Achterberg Van Kees

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

182

Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with ?-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent

2009-01-01

183

Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

2009-01-01

184

Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

185

Liberomyces gen. nov. with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf trees (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two species, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both species have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear. PMID:21937729

Pazoutová, Sylvie; Srutka, Petr; Holusa, Jaroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Kubátová, Alena; Kolarík, Miroslav

2011-09-21

186

Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization.

Stahl U; Banas A; Stymne S

1995-03-01

187

Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

1995-03-01

188

Lichens of the Knyszynska Forest (NE Poland).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the Knyszy?ska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves.

Czeczuga B; Lengiewicz I

2001-01-01

189

Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions.

Haack RA; Hérard F; Sun J; Turgeon JJ

2010-01-01

190

Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

2010-01-01

191

VEGETABLE GLYCERO-HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT-BASED COSMETIC COMPOSITION MEANT TO PROTECT AND REGENERATE THE HAIR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a cosmetic composition obtained from fresh vegetable substances of embryo origin meant to protect and regenerate the hair. According to the invention, the composition comprises 0.15...0.30 parts by weight of coenzyme Q10 and 3.0...5.0 parts by weight of glycero-hydro-alcoholic extract from fresh buds of Populus nigra L., 3.0...5.0 parts by weight of a glycero-hydro-alcoholic extract from fresh buds of Betula pubescens Ehrh., 3.0...5.0 parts by weight of a glycero-hydro-alcoholic extract from fresh buds of Ulmus campestris L., 3.0....5.0 parts by weight of a glycero-hydro-alcoholic extract from fresh buds of Aesculus hippocastanum L., 3.0...5.0 parts by weight of a glycero-hydro-alcoholic extract from fresh sprouts of Rosmarinus officinalis L., included in a conditioner base.

MANEA STEFAN; RAICIU ANCA DANIELA; VATAFU MARIANA

192

The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

Alicja Stach; Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch; Alicja Zientarska

2006-01-01

193

Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.

2007-12-01

194

Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II  

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Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966), relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L.) Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth.) Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq.) Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq.) Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd.) Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke.) Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth.) Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                    

Dugand Armando

1968-01-01

195

A taxonomic review of Eucalantica Busck (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) with descriptions of six new species  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The New World genus Eucalantica Busck, 1904 is reviewed. It comprises seven species, six of which are described as new: Eucalantica costaricae Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica ehecatlella Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica icarusella Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica powelli Sohn, sp. n., and Eucalantica pumila Sohn, sp. n., all five from Costa Rica; Eucalantica vaquero Sohn, sp. n. from southern USA and Mexico. The type species, Eucalantica polita (Walsingham, 1881), is redescribed and a lectotype and two paralectotypes are designated. Illustrations and keys based on the forewing patterns and the genitalia of each sex are provided. Our review suggests that there remains an undiscovered high diversity of Eucalantica in the tropical highlands of Central America.

Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Nishida, Kenji

2011-01-01

196

A taxonomic review of Eucalantica Busck (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) with descriptions of six new species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The New World genus Eucalantica Busck, 1904 is reviewed. It comprises seven species, six of which are described as new: Eucalantica costaricae Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica ehecatlella Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica icarusella Sohn & Nishida, sp. n., Eucalantica powelli Sohn, sp. n., and Eucalantica pumila Sohn, sp. n., all five from Costa Rica; Eucalantica vaquero Sohn, sp. n. from southern USA and Mexico. The type species, Eucalantica polita (Walsingham, 1881), is redescribed and a lectotype and two paralectotypes are designated. Illustrations and keys based on the forewing patterns and the genitalia of each sex are provided. Our review suggests that there remains an undiscovered high diversity of Eucalantica in the tropical highlands of Central America.

Sohn JC; Nishida K

2011-01-01

197

A taxonomic review of Eucalantica (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) with descriptions of six new species  

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Full Text Available The New World genus Eucalantica is reviewed with descriptions of six new species: E. costaricae Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. ehecatlella Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. ikarosella Sohn et Nishida, sp. n., E. powelli Sohn, sp. n., and E. pumila Sohn, sp. n., all five from Costa Rica; E. vaquero Sohn, sp. n. from southern USA and Mexico. The type species, E. polita (Walsingham), is redescribed and its lectotype and two paralectotypes are designated. The variations of forewing pattern in E. polita, are compared to other congeners and diagnosed to minimize possible confusion. Illustrations and keys of the adults and the genitalia of each sex, where available, are provided for all seven species of the genus. Our review suggests possibly high diversity of Eucalantica in the tropical highlands of Central America and predicts more new species to be discovered by further inventories.

Jay Sohn; Kenji Nishida

2011-01-01

198

Comparative Analysis of Growth, Genome Size, Chromosome Numbers and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana and Three Cooccurring Species of the Brassicaceae from Uzbekistan  

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Full Text Available Contrary to literature data Arabidopsis thaliana was rarely observed in Middle Asia during a collection trip in 2001. Instead, three other Brassicaceae species were frequently found at places where A. thaliana was expected. To reveal reasons for this frequency pattern, we studied chromosome numbers, genome sizes, phylogenetic relationships, developmental rates, and reproductive success of A. thaliana, Olimarabidopsis pumila, Arabis montbretiana, and Arabis auriculata from Uzbekistan in two temperature treatments. There are little but partially significant differences between phenotypes. All studied species have very small genomes. The 1Cx-values of different genotypes within the sampled species are correlated with altitude. Developmental rates are also correlated with 1Cx-values. In our growth experiments, Arabidopsis had high seed sterility at higher temperature, which might be one reason for the rarity of A. thaliana in Middle Asia.

Matthias H. Hoffmann; Heike Schmuths; Christina Koch; Armin Meister; Reinhard M. Fritsch

2010-01-01

199

University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur CronquistÂs classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant families are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

Carr, Gerald D.

200

Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae) at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season  

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Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar) during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008). The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae) and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae) in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello; Dárius Pukenis Tubelis

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Investigation of dietary important components in selected red fleshed apples by GC-MS and LC-MS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three red-fleshed apple cultivars (Malus 'Geneva': GFV-03, Hungarian hybrid: GFV-04, Malus pumila Niedwetzkyana: GFV-05) were investigated for their chemical composition by sHS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analytical techniques. In cultivars GFV-03 and GFV-05 sesquiterpene ?-farnesene were dominant while the alphatic esters were present mostly in traces. In GFV-04 - the new disease resistant advanced selection of the Hungarian apple breeding program - hexanol and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were present in larger amounts while the amount of ?-farnesene was lower than the other two cultivars. Using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS four phenolic acid derivatives, four anthocyanins, six flavonoids of quercetin derivatives and two dihydrochalcone phloretin glycosides were identified or characterized among the detected sixteen phenolic compounds.

Balázs A; Tóth M; Blazics B; Héthelyi É; Szarka S; Ficsor E; Ficzek G; Lemberkovics É; Blázovics A

2012-12-01

202

Investigation of dietary important components in selected red fleshed apples by GC-MS and LC-MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three red-fleshed apple cultivars (Malus 'Geneva': GFV-03, Hungarian hybrid: GFV-04, Malus pumila Niedwetzkyana: GFV-05) were investigated for their chemical composition by sHS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analytical techniques. In cultivars GFV-03 and GFV-05 sesquiterpene ?-farnesene were dominant while the alphatic esters were present mostly in traces. In GFV-04 - the new disease resistant advanced selection of the Hungarian apple breeding program - hexanol and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were present in larger amounts while the amount of ?-farnesene was lower than the other two cultivars. Using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS four phenolic acid derivatives, four anthocyanins, six flavonoids of quercetin derivatives and two dihydrochalcone phloretin glycosides were identified or characterized among the detected sixteen phenolic compounds. PMID:22565146

Balázs, Andrea; Tóth, Magdolna; Blazics, Balázs; Héthelyi, Éva; Szarka, Szabolcs; Ficsor, Emese; Ficzek, Gitta; Lemberkovics, Éva; Blázovics, Anna

2012-05-01

203

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

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Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), hazelnut (C. maxima) and apple Malus pumila) were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%), hazelnut (49 and 36%), and Apple (43 and 31.5%), respectively.

Mehdi TAJBAKHSH; Manuchehr KORKAN; Mehdi GHIYASI

2009-01-01

204

Wind-repellent collateral-flow-activating pain-relieving method of Herba Androsacis Umbellatae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a wind-dispelling meridian-dredging pain-stopping Androsace umbellata medicine, prepared of Androsace umbellate, Caragana sinica (Buc'hoz) Rehd, Gossampinus malabarica ( DC.)Merr, Caulis clematidis armandii, Desmldium gyrans ( L.) DC, Callicarpa bodinieri Levl, Ceratostigma Root, Ficus martini Levl.et Vant, Esanqi, China root greenbrier], Acer sinense Pax, Desmodium caudatum (Thunb.)DC, Ficus pumila LCommon Jointfir Stem, and alcohol(concentration 35-75úÑ) in a certain weight proportion these drugs cooperate to be able to have reliable curative effect on rheumatic arthrosis, traumatic stasis, traumatic injury, traumatic hemorrhage, rheumatic arthritis, soft tissue injury, etc and it is an ideal specific medicine four curing traumatic injury and rheumatic joint diseases.

WANG HAOGUI

205

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N. Zapata; M. Vargas; P. Medina

2011-01-01

206

Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats  

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Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

I.L Rautenbach; M.B Fenton; A.C Kemp; S.J van Jaarsveld

1990-01-01

207

Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats  

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Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

I.L. Rautenbach; M.B. Fenton; A.C. Kemp; S.J. van Jaarsveld

1990-01-01

208

On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

1999-01-01

209

Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia)  

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Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain). The most frequent species (more than 75% sites) were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%), Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%), Petasina unidentata (25 sites), Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites), Alinda biplicata (23 sites), and Clausilia pumila (21 sites). The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous), hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian), euryecious species (16%), semi-steppe (8%) and open-country species (5%).

Tomáš ?ejka; Juraj ?a?aný; Libor Dvo?ák

2012-01-01

210

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas/ Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg (more) L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract (more) on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

Zapata, N.; Vargas, M.; Medina, P.

2011-06-01

211

Current vegetation dynamics of the “forest-mountain tundra” ecotones of Lake Baikal coastal ranges  

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Full Text Available During last decades, new trends appeared in the ecotones of the upper boundary of forests at the ridges surroundingLakeBaikal(Khamar-Daban and Baikal’sky Ridge): ones to advance of wood species (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Larix dahurica Lawson) out of timber stands into the area of subgoltsy with Pinus pumila (Pallas) Regel. up to mountain tundras. In average, this is from 100 to 200 - 300 meters (maximum up to500 m) in linear distance from the margin of dense timber stand. A burst of forests renewal occurred in 1989-1995, it resulted probably from a high productivity of the seeds of wood species due to warmer winters in 1980ies-1990ies which favoured the formation of favourable climate-edaphic conditions for the development of forest communities above the forests boundary on the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal.

Alexander Sizykh; Victor Voronin

2013-01-01

212

Camptothecin, over four decades of surprising findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Camptothecin (CPT) is a modified monoterpene indole alkaloid produced by Camptotheca acuminata (Nyssaceae), Nothapodytes foetida, Pyrenacantha klaineana, Merrilliodendron megacarpum (Icacinaceae), Ophiorrhiza pumila (Rubiaceae), Ervatamia heyneana (Apocynaceae) and Mostuea brunonis (Gelsemiaceae), species belonging to unrelated orders of angiosperms. From the distribution of CPT and other secondary metabolites, it has been postulated that the genes encoding enzymes involved in their biosynthesis evolved early during evolution. These genes were presumably not lost during evolution but might have been "switched off" during a certain period of time and "switched on" again at some later point. The CPT derivatives, irinotecan and topotecan, are used throughout the world for the treatment of various cancers, and over a dozen more CPT analogues are currently at various stages of clinical development. The worldwide market size of irinotecan/topotecan in 2002 was estimated at about $750 million and at $1 billion by 2003. In spite of the rapid growth of the market, CPT is still harvested by extraction from bark and seeds of C. acuminata and N. foetida. All parts of C. acuminata contain some CPT, although the highest level is found in young leaves (approximately 4-5 mg g(-1) dry weight), approximately 50% higher than in seeds and 250% higher than in bark. The development of hairy root cultures of O. pumila and C. acuminata, and the cloning and characterization of genes encoding key enzymes of the pathway leading to CPT formation in plants has opened new possibilities to propose alternative and more sustainable production systems for this important alkaloid. PMID:15474560

Lorence, Argelia; Nessler, Craig L

2004-10-01

213

Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis), red apple (Mallus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), pear (Pyrus calleryana), golden apple (Mallus pumila), pawpaw (Carica papaya), pineapple (Ananas comosus) and banana (Musa acuminate)} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), Nitric Oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3) were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

Sunday Oyewole Oyedemi; Sunday Arowosegbe; Anthony Jide Afolayan

2013-01-01

214

Contrasting genetic responses to population fragmentation in a coevolving fig and fig wasp across a mainland-island archipelago.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interacting species of pollinator-host systems, especially the obligate ones, are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, due to the nature of mutual dependence. Comparative studies of genetic structure can provide insights into how habitat fragmentation contributes to patterns of genetic divergence among populations of the interacting species. In this study, we used microsatellites to analyse genetic variation in Chinese populations of a typical mutualistic system - Ficus pumila and its obligate pollinator Wiebesia sp. 1 - in a naturally fragmented landscape. The plants and wasps showed discordant patterns of genetic variation and geographical divergence. There was no significant positive relationship in genetic diversity between the two species. Significant isolation-by-distance (IBD) patterns occurred across the populations of F. pumila and Wiebesia sp. 1 as whole, and IBD also occurred among island populations of the wasps, but not the plants. However, there was no significant positive relationship in genetic differentiation between them. The pollinator populations had significantly lower genetic variation in small habitat patches than in larger patches, and three island pollinator populations showed evidence of a recent bottleneck event. No effects of patch size or genetic bottlenecks were evident in the plant populations. Collectively, the results indicate that, in more fragmented habitats, the pollinators, but not the plants, have experienced reduced genetic variation. The contrasting patterns have multiple potential causes, including differences in longevity and hence number of generations experiencing fragmentation; different dispersal patterns, with the host's genes dispersed as seeds as well as a result of pollen dispersal via the pollinator; asymmetrical responses to fluctuations in partner populations; and co-existence of a rare second pollinating wasp on some islands. These results indicate that strongly interdependent species may respond in markedly different ways to habitat fragmentation.

Liu M; Zhang J; Chen Y; Compton SG; Chen XY

2013-09-01

215

Late Quaternary palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological reconstruction in the Gutaiului Mountains, northwest Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrofossil, pollen, lithostratigraphy, mineral magnetic measurements (SIRM and magnetic susceptibility), loss-on-ignition, and AMS radiocarbon dating on sediments from two former crater lakes, situated at moderate altitudes in the Gutaiului Mountains of northwest Romania, allow reconstruction of Late Quaternary climate and environment. Shrubs and herbs with steppe and montane affinities along with stands of Betula and Pinus, colonised the surroundings of the sites prior to 14 700 cal. yr BP and the inferred climatic conditions were cold and dry. The gradual transition to open Pinus-Betula forests, slightly higher lake water temperatures, and higher lake productivity, indicate more stable environmental conditions between 14 700 and 14 100 cal. yr BP. This development was interrupted by cooler and drier climatic conditions between 14 100 and 13 800 cal. yr BP, as inferred from a reduction of open forests to patches, or stands, of Pinus, Betula, Larix, Salix and Populus. The expansion of a denser boreal forest, dominated by Picea, but including Pinus, Larix, Betula, Salix, and Ulmus started at 13 800 cal. yr BP, although the forest density seems to have been reduced between 13400 and 13200cal.yrBP. Air temperature and moisture availability gradually increased, but a change towards drier conditions is seen at 13400cal.yrBP. A distinct decrease in temperature and humidity between 12900 and 11500cal.yrBP led to a return of open vegetation, with patches of Betula, Larix, Salix, Pinus and Alnus and individuals of Picea. Macrofossils and pollen of aquatic plants indicate rising lake water temperatures and increased aquatic productivity already by ca. 11800cal.yrBP, 300 years earlier than documented by the terrestrial plant communities. At the onset of the Holocene, 11500cal.yrBP, forests dominated by Betula, Pinus and Larix expanded and were followed by dense Ulmus forests with Picea, Betula and Pinus at 11250cal.yrBP. Larix pollen was not found, but macrofossil evidence indicates that Larix was an important forest constituent at the onset of the Holocene. Moister conditions were followed by a dry period starting about 10600cal.yrBP, which was more pronounced between 8600 and 8200cal.yrBP, as inferred from aquatic macrofossils. The maximum expansion of Tilia, Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer between 10700 and 8600cal.yrBP may reflect a more continental climate. A drier and/or cooler climate could have been responsible for the late expansion (10300cal.yrBP) and late maximum (9300cal.yrBP) of Corylus. Increased water stress, and possibly cooler conditions around 8600cal.yrBP, may have caused a reduction of Ulmus, Tilia, Quercus and Fraxinus. After 8200cal.yrBP moisture increased and the forests included Picea, Tilia, Quercus and Fraxinus. Copyright

Feurdean, Angelica; Bennike, Ole

2004-12-01

216

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations/ Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después d (more) e aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, (more) a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

Curkovic, Tomislav; F. Brunner, Jay

2007-03-01

217

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula

Tomislav Curkovic; Jay F. Brunner

2007-01-01

218

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

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Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651) for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM) and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination) allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

Tretiakova I.; E. Voroshilova; A. Ivanitskya; D. Shuvaev; M. Park

2012-01-01

219

As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) do Brasil The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) from Brazil  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran) que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações.This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran). In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

Paulo H Labiak; Jefferson Prado

2005-01-01

220

As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) do Brasil/ The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner) A (more) .R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran) que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações. Abstract in english This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organ (more) ensis (Gardner) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran). In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

Labiak, Paulo H; Prado, Jefferson

2005-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos/ Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de (more) lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis be (more) tween Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

Quattrocchio, M.; Durango de Cabrera, J.; Galli, C.

2003-03-01

222

Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

M. Quattrocchio; J. Durango de Cabrera; C. Galli

2003-01-01

223

Radiosensitivity and recovery of tree crowns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crown mortality was observed on 13 tree species in a gamma-irradiated forest community located near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations at the end of the first (1973) and second (1974) postirradiation growing seasons are presented for each species. Crown mortality was most severe during 1973 for Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Populus tremuloides, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. For some species, however, crown mortality was most severe during 1974. These were Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Tilia americana, and possibly Fraxinus americana and F. nigra. These differences in year of primary response are explained on the basis of bud differentiation and mortality. The most resistant species were A. saccharum, O. virginiana, and Populus tremuloides, and the most sensitive were T. americana and U. americana. Others were intermediate in sensitivity. Taken collectively, exposures less than 2 or 3 kr did not seriously affect crowns of most species, whereas exposures exceeding about 40 kr were lethal to the crowns of all tree species. The observed zonation of tree mortality closely approximated predictions published by others except for underestimating the resistance of A. saccharum and overestimating the resistance of T. americana, F. americana, and Prunus serotina. Not surprisingly, the tree stratum of the northern forest community was found to be more radiosensitive than lichen, grassland, or herbaceous communities in other irradiation studies

1977-01-01

224

Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.). The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

M.C. Timar; L. Gurau; M. Cionca; M. Porojan

2010-01-01

225

Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen  

Science.gov (United States)

Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

226

Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina.

Refojo N; Perrotta D; Brudny M; Abrantes R; Hevia AI; Davel G

2009-03-01

227

Branch girdling by Oncideres cingulata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and relative host quality of persimmon, hickory, and elm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female Oncideres cingulata (Say) girdle living branches of deciduous trees with their mandibles and lay eggs in the freshly killed host. Girdled branches of American elm, Ulmus americana ; bitternut hickory, Carya cordiformis ; persimmon, Diospyros virginiana ; and shagbark hickory, Carya ovata, were collected in Missouri and examined. Branches from persimmon and elm were divided into 2 categories : (1) persimmon and virgin persimmon (branches from trees that had not been previously girdled) ; and (2) elm and elm stub (branches that had the terminal section girdled during the previous year). Substantially more O. cingulata eggs were laid in shagbark hickory, persimmon, and virgin persimmon branches than in elm branches. O. cingulata was the most snccessful in persimmon, virgin persimmon, and elm branches with 80.3-82.2% of the eggs developing into adults ; successful development in bitternut hickory was only 48.1%. Females and males from virgin persimmon branches were substantially larger than beetles from other hosts. The smallest females emerged from bitternut hickory and elm. The ratio of females to males emerging from girdled branches did not differ by host. The data suggest that the relative host quality for development of O. cingulata from the best to the poorest host is virgin persimmon > persimmon > elm stub > shagbark hickory > bitternut hickory > elm.

Rice ME

1995-07-01

228

Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller), life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D), on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

M. Khalili Mahani; H. Seyedoleslami; B. Hatami

2004-01-01

229

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10°) but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang; Zhensheng Liu; Liwei Teng

2013-01-01

230

Pollen from Lake Sedmo Rilsko reveals southeast European postglacial vegetation in the highest mountain area of the Balkans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A lacustrine sequence from Lake Sedmo Rilsko (altitude 2095 m) in the northwest of Rila Mountain, Bulgaria, was analysed on the basis of 84 pollen spectra and three 14C accelerator mass spectrometry dates. The lower part of the sequence (413–530 cm) corresponds to the Late-glacial. Three phases, two stadial and one interstadial, are characterized by the dominance of mountain–steppe herb vegetation composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae, with single trees of Pinus and shrub land of Juniperus and Ephedra. The identification of pollen grains of Abies, Quercus robur-type, Corylus, Acer, Fagus and other mesophilous trees suggests that they survived the harsh Late-glacial conditions in refuges below an altitude of 1000 m, where moisture was sufficient for their growth. In the early Holocene period, Betula forests at high altitudes and, below them, closed deciduous forests with Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus and Corylus, occurred from 11800 until approx. 6700 cal. BP. The formation of the coniferous belt dominated by Pinus sylvestris, Pinus peuce and Abies alba lasted from between 6700 and 5000 cal. BP. The forest dynamics in the Subboreal and the Subatlantic ended with the invasion of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies after approx. 4500 and 3300 cal. BP, respectively. Indications of anthropogenic activities, expansion of agriculture in the lowland foothills, and livestock grazing in the mountain meadows and pastures, are clearly evident from the pollen diagram from 2400 cal. BP onwards.

Bozilova ED; Tonkov SB

2000-11-01

231

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

Lee MW; Hur H; Chang KC; Lee TS; Ka KH; Jankovsky L

2008-12-01

232

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-31

233

Effects of larval host plant species on fecundity of the generalist insect herbivore Ennomos subsignarius (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignarius Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is an eruptive herbivore that feeds on numerous tree species in forests throughout its range. An unprecedented outbreak in an urban environment in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, caused severe levels of defoliation to a number of native and exotic hardwood tree species, some of which represent novel hosts for this insect. Increased insect performance on these novels hosts was hypothesized as having contributed to the outbreak. To assess this, percentage larval survival and pupal weight were measured for larvae reared on foliage from six different tree species in a no-choice laboratory bioassay. Adult longevity and fecundity (no. eggs laid per female) were assessed for laboratory-reared individuals, as well as for pupae collected from eight different host tree species from the field. A survey to assess feeding occurrence measured defoliation on eight tree species. During this urban outbreak, sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, a tree species not native to North America, experienced the highest levels of defoliation. Performance of E. subsignarius (pupal weight, female longevity, and fecundity) on this host was comparable with the known host of elm (Ulmus spp.). Despite the fact that E. subsignaria performed well on several introduced hosts, fecundity levels were much lower than previously published reports, suggesting that the current outbreak is not caused by increased fecundity on these novel hosts in contrast to the hypothesis.

Ryall KL

2010-02-01

234

Effects of larval host plant species on fecundity of the generalist insect herbivore Ennomos subsignarius (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignarius Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is an eruptive herbivore that feeds on numerous tree species in forests throughout its range. An unprecedented outbreak in an urban environment in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, caused severe levels of defoliation to a number of native and exotic hardwood tree species, some of which represent novel hosts for this insect. Increased insect performance on these novels hosts was hypothesized as having contributed to the outbreak. To assess this, percentage larval survival and pupal weight were measured for larvae reared on foliage from six different tree species in a no-choice laboratory bioassay. Adult longevity and fecundity (no. eggs laid per female) were assessed for laboratory-reared individuals, as well as for pupae collected from eight different host tree species from the field. A survey to assess feeding occurrence measured defoliation on eight tree species. During this urban outbreak, sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, a tree species not native to North America, experienced the highest levels of defoliation. Performance of E. subsignarius (pupal weight, female longevity, and fecundity) on this host was comparable with the known host of elm (Ulmus spp.). Despite the fact that E. subsignaria performed well on several introduced hosts, fecundity levels were much lower than previously published reports, suggesting that the current outbreak is not caused by increased fecundity on these novel hosts in contrast to the hypothesis. PMID:20146847

Ryall, K L

2010-02-01

235

Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

2006-01-01

236

Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Tör?csik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

2011-12-01

237

Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1995-06-01

238

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

Seppä, H.; Birks, H. J. B.; Giesecke, T.; Hammarlund, D.; Alenius, T.; Antonsson, K.; Bjune, A. E.; Heikkilä, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Telford, R. J.; Veski, S.

2007-05-01

239

Yields of minirotation closely spaced hardwoods in temperate regions: review and appraisal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Published data are reviewed on the yields of ovendry stems and branches (S and B) with bark, and the mean annual increments (denoted MAISB) obtained fro 1 to 5-year old closely planted Platanus occidentalis, Populus spp., Ulmus parvifolia, and Alnus rubra, growing in north temperate regions. Data were discounted when the heights of sample trees inside experimental plots exceeded four times their distance from the edges of the plots. With the exception of 4 year yields of intensively cultured poplars in Wisconsin, all published yield data fell close to, or below, the response surface described empirically by the equation the square root of t/ha equals 1.19 plus 1.46 (age in years) plus 0.328 (log 1,000 tree/hectare). The ''working maximum'' MAISB of 4 to 5 year old minirotations forests in much of the temperate zone seems to be 10-12 ton/hectare/year, no greater than the MAISB of some Populus plantations grown over rotations of 11-26 years. However, 10-30 percent greater yields have been recorded at ages 1-5 following coppicing, and MAISB values probably continue to increase after age 5.

Cannell, M.G.R.; Smith, R.I.

1980-09-01

240

THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk.) Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941) Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9); the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale).

OROIAN SILVIA; COTOAR? IONELA

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Detection and identification of European stone fruit yellows and other phytoplasmas in wild plants in the surroundings of apricot chlorotic leaf roll-affected orchards in southern France.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between 1994 and 1998 a field study was conducted to identify plant hosts of the European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma in two apricot growing regions in southern and southwestern France where the incidence of apricot chlorotic leaf roll was high. A total of 431 samples from 51 different plant species were tested for the presence of phytoplasmas by PCR using universal and ESFY-specific primers. ESFY phytoplasma was detected in six different wild growing Prunus species exhibiting typical ESFY symptoms as well as in symptomless dog rose bushes (Rosa canina), ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) and a declining hackberry (Celtis australis). The possible role of these plant species in the spread of ESFY phytoplasma is discussed. PCR-RFLP analysis of ribosomal DNA amplified with the universal primers was carried out to characterize the other phytoplasmas found. Thus, elm yellows phytoplasma, alder yellows phytoplasma and rubus stunt phytoplasma were detected in declining European field elm trees (Ulmus carpinifolia Gled), in declining European alder trees (Alnus glutinosa) and in proliferating Rubus spp. respectively. The presence of rubus stunt phytoplasma in great mallow (Malva sylvestris) and dog rose was demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, the stolbur phytoplasma was detected in proliferating field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) and a previously undescribed phytoplasma type was detected in red dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). According to the 16S rDNA-RFLP pattern this new phytoplasma belongs to the stolbur phytoplasmas group.

Jarausch W; Jarausch-Wehrheim B; Danet JL; Broquaire JM; Dosba F; Saillard C; Garnier M

2001-02-01

242

Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo.

Pérez-Badia R; Vaquero C; Sardinero S; Galán C; García-Mozo H

2010-12-01

243

Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant. Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

González-Muñoz N; Castro-Díez P; Fierro-Brunnenmeister N

2011-10-01

244

Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture  

Science.gov (United States)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

2011-10-01

245

Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica), eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus), pino patula (Pinus patula), pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa), roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis),jaul (Al- nus acuminata), cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii) y tirra (Ulmus mexicana). De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad «15%) y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50%) y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

Yorleny Badilla; Olman Murillo; Gennan Obando

2002-01-01

246

Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

247

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

H. Seppä; H. J. B. Birks; T. Giesecke; D. Hammarlund; T. Alenius; K. Antonsson; A. E. Bjune; M. Heikkilä; G. M. MacDonald; A. E. K. Ojala; R. J. Telford; S. Veski

2007-01-01

248

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in Northern Europe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed pattern would challenge the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records. The arctic regions may therefore not always be optimal for detecting past climate changes.

H. Seppä; H. J. B. Birks; T. Giesecke; D. Hammarlund; T. Alenius; K. Antonsson; A. E. Bjune; M. Heikkilä; G. M. MacDonald; A. E. K. Ojala; R. J. Telford; S. Veski

2007-01-01

249

Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex  

Science.gov (United States)

A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

2000-03-01

250

Winter feeding leads to a shifted phenology in the browntail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea on the evergreen strawberry tree Arbutus unedo  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1 The browntail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea is a highly polyphagous univoltine forest pest. Although its young larvae usually overwinter in diapause from early autumn to the beginning of spring, winter larval feeding has been reported when this species feeds on the evergreen woody shrub strawberry tree Arbutus unedo. 2 The present study investigated life-history traits of four populations of E. chrysorrhoea feeding on A. unedo, including phenology of the different life stages, larval feeding activity and diapause incidence. By modelling the relationship between larval size and host plant leaf persistence, elevation and mean annual temperature, we also studied larval development in ten populations of this species sampled from a range of geographical locations in Spain, from both A. unedo and deciduous hosts. 3 The results obtained revealed that on A. unedo, E. chrysorrhoea phenology has shifted: from October to March, A. unedo larvae doubled their size, whereas, on deciduous Ulmus minor and Quercus faginea, larval size did not change. General linear models demonstrated that such differences were not related to environmental variables. We also found that on A. unedo larval feeding was arrested for 2 months, with this period representing a true diapause. 4 The results obtained in the present study suggest that E. chrysorrhoea populations are phenologically adapted to their local host plants, and that the presence of foliage is a key element in the phenological shift reported on A. unedo. These results may have implications with respect to the formation of E. chrysorrhoea host races.

Frago Enric; Guara Miguel; Pujade-Villar Juli; Selfa Jesús

2010-11-01

251

Biosorption of Fe from Aqueous Solutions by Syringa Vulgaris Tree Leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ulmus Syringa Vulgaris tree leaves, which are abundant in Iran, were evaluated for removal of Fe From aqueous solution. Maximum biosorption capacities for Syringa Vulgaris were measured as 155.42 mg/g for Fe. For sorbent the most effective pH range was 4–6 for Fe. Metal ion biosorption was increased as the ratio of metal solution to the biomass quantity decreased. Conversely, Biosorption/g biosorbent was decreased as the quantity of biomass increased. The biosorption of metal ion was increased by increasing of the initial metal concentration. The equilibrium data for Fe best fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The sorbent could be regenerated by using 0.02 mol L-1 HCl during the repetition biosorption–desorption cycles. Biosorption of Fe was investigated in the presence of Na, K, Mg and Cations. The results from these studies show a novel way for using Syringa Vulgaris tree leaves to remove Fe from metal-polluted water.

Niazi A.; Mahmoudzadeh S.; Najafi V.

2011-01-01

252

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegeta (more) tion types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Zhang, Mingming; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei

2013-02-01

253

Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and Clostridium species in living trees. [Eastern Cottonwood; Block Poplar; American Elm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. (Refs. 38).

Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.

1981-09-01

254

Induction of apoptosis by sarijang, a bamboo salt sauce, in U937 human leukemia cells through the activation of caspases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sarijang is a bamboo salt soy sauce, containing extracts of Rhynchosia nulubilis, sulfur-fed duck, dried bark of Ulmus davidiana and Allium sativum, which has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of sarijang have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of sarijang in an in vitro U937 human leukemia cell model. Treatment with sarijang resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition of the cells, coupled with the characteristic morphological features of apoptosis. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of the U937 cells by sarijang exhibited a correlation with the upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4), the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including survivin and cellular IAP (cIAP)-1, and the cleavage of Bid. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of sarijang also induced the activation of caspases (caspase-3, -8 and -9), accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, ?-catenin and phospholipase C-?1. However, the apoptosis induced by sarijang was significantly inhibited by z-VED-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, which demonstrated the importance of caspases in the process. These results suggested that sarijang may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of U937 human leukemia cells. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in sarijang.

Choi EA; Park C; Han MH; Lee JH; Kim GY; Choi BT; Choi YH

2013-08-01

255

Induction of apoptosis by sarijang, a bamboo salt sauce, in U937 human leukemia cells through the activation of caspases  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarijang is a bamboo salt soy sauce, containing extracts of Rhynchosia nulubilis, sulfur-fed duck, dried bark of Ulmus davidiana and Allium sativum, which has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of sarijang have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of sarijang in an in vitro U937 human leukemia cell model. Treatment with sarijang resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition of the cells, coupled with the characteristic morphological features of apoptosis. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of the U937 cells by sarijang exhibited a correlation with the upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4), the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including survivin and cellular IAP (cIAP)-1, and the cleavage of Bid. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of sarijang also induced the activation of caspases (caspase-3, -8 and -9), accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, ?-catenin and phospholipase C-?1. However, the apoptosis induced by sarijang was significantly inhibited by z-VED-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, which demonstrated the importance of caspases in the process. These results suggested that sarijang may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of U937 human leukemia cells. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in sarijang.

CHOI, EUN-A; PARK, CHEOL; HAN, MIN-HO; LEE, JUN HYUK; KIM, GI-YOUNG; CHOI, BYUNG TAE; CHOI, YUNG HYUN

2013-01-01

256

Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

Jantan I; Harun NH; Septama AW; Murad S; Mesaik MA

2011-04-01

257

Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

2010-12-25

258

Mutations in topoisomerase I as a self-resistance mechanism coevolved with the production of the anticancer alkaloid camptothecin in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants produce a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. The self-resistance mechanism to these toxic metabolites in the producing plants, however, remains unclear. The plant-derived anticancer alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) induces cell death by targeting DNA topoisomerase I (Top1), the enzyme that catalyzes changes in DNA topology. We found that CPT-producing plants, including Camptotheca acuminata, Ophiorrhiza pumila, and Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis, have Top1s with point mutations that confer resistance to CPT, suggesting the effect of an endogenous toxic metabolite on the evolution of the target cellular component. Three amino acid substitutions that contribute to CPT resistance were identified: Asn421Lys, Leu530Ile, and Asn722Ser (numbered according to human Top1). The substitution at position 722 is identical to that found in CPT-resistant human cancer cells. The other mutations have not been found to date in CPT-resistant human cancer cells; this predicts the possibility of occurrence of these mutations in CPT-resistant human cancer patients in the future. Furthermore, comparative analysis of Top1s of CPT-producing and nonproducing plants suggested that the former were partially primed for CPT resistance before CPT biosynthesis evolved. Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism of self-resistance to endogenously produced toxic compounds and the possibility of adaptive coevolution between the CPT production system and its target Top1 in the producing plants. PMID:18443285

Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

2008-04-28

259

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

Gao L; Xu H; Bi H; Xi W; Bao B; Wang X; Bi C; Chang Y

2013-01-01

260

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-07-25

 
 
 
 
261

Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

2007-12-01

262

Winter food habits of sable (Martes zibellina) in Daxinganling Mountains, China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors collected 223 sable sacts in study areas in Daxinganling Mountains in three winters from 1991 to 1993(82 scats in 1991, 89 in 1992, 52 in 1993). Results indicate that winter foods of sables are mainly small mammals (54.1%), berries and pine nuts (32.4%), birds (12.5%) and ants (1.0%). Sables select grey red-backed voles (Clethrionomys rufocanus) and northern red-backed voles (C. rutilus) as main food items in 7 prey species of small mammalls. The nexts are arctic hares (Lepus timidus) and dormant Eutamias sibircus. For birds, sables hunt hazel grouses (Tetrastes bonasia)(8.1%), Eurarian jays (Garrulus glandarius)(0.7%), major tits (Parus major)(0.5%)etc. There are 2.2% scats contain egg shell sigments of small birds. Plant food items of sable are berries of Vaccinium vitis-ideae (20.9%) and pine unts of Pinus pumila(8.8%). Ants are found in scats also (1.0%). There is not difference for frequencies of food items of sables among years (P>0.05). The authors also find that sable precate capercaille (Tetrao parvirostris). Although capture rate of C. rutilus (79.4%) is higher than that of C. rufocanus (2.9%), food habits results indicate that sables prefer C. rufocanus with larger body to C. rutilus, and avoid eating shrews (Sorex caecutiens) with musky odors.

Xu Li; Jiang Zhaowen; Ma Yiqing; Jin Ailian; Wang Yongqing; Buskirk S W

1996-01-01

263

Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity), B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community), C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community), D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community), E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community).

Lee, Jeom-Sook; Byung-Sun Ihm; Du Sung Cho; Jong-Wook Kim

2007-01-01

264

Physiological dissection of blue and red light regulation of apical dominance and branching in M9 apple rootstock growing in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of the interaction of red light (R) with blue light (B), applied to shoots of M9 apple (Malus pumila paradisiaca Schmid) rootstock, on the regulation of stem growth, apical dominance and branching. These results are compared with the active form of phytochromes (PHYs) under monochromatic and dichromatic light treatments. The inhibition of internode elongation was determined by PHY photoequilibrium, with the additional effect of B, by means of a separate photoreceptor. The development of phytomers appeared to be primarily due to the active form of PHY, with a marginal effect from B. Shoot growth, which combines internode elongation and development of the phytomer, was highest under R and lowest under B and far red light (FR), showing the largely positive role of PHY photoequilibrium. Under FR, reduced stem elongation was due to the very small number of phytomers formed. Apical dominance was inhibited, while branching was increased under R, corresponding to the highest values of PHY photoequilibrium determined. Apical dominance was increased and branching was reduced by B, indicating a complex interaction between PHY and B receptor. In the shoot cluster system, photomorphogenic behavior was dependent on the time of exposure to the different light qualities. The information gained from the study will be helpful in improving the set up of in vitro growth light conditions, and in providing useful insights into research of the development of the woody plant canopy, an important factor in ecological plant communities. PMID:18423933

Muleo, Rosario; Morini, Stefano

2008-06-20

265

Plant communities of cultivated fields of the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu mesoregion. Part 5. Root crop communities of light soils  

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Full Text Available This present paper, focused on root crop communities of light soils, is a part of the wide range characteristics of segetal communities of the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu (Podlasie Bug River Gorge) mesoregion. On the basis of 160 phytosociological relevés made according to the Braun-Blanquet method, phytocenoses representing the Panico-Setarion alliance were distinguished. Most often, patches of the association Echinochloo-Setarietum were recorded in the study area. Heterogeneous habitat conditions affect its floristic diversity. Two subassociations of the phytocenosis, divided according to the species composition into 9 lower syntaxa, were identified on light soils. The following subassociations were distinguished: Echinochloo-Setarietum setarietosum glaucae in a typical variant and a variant with Juncus bufonius, both with subvariants with Digitaria ischaemum, as well as a typical variant of Echinochloo-Setarietum typicum, a variant with Juncus bufonius and a subvariant with Oxalis stricta in the typical and wet variant. Another association found in root crops on light soils of the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu mesoregion is Digitarietum ischaemi. Its patches were observed in cultivations on light, acidic, poor soils. The characteristic feature of this community is the occurrence of numerous acidophilous species. In habitat conditions typical for the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu mesoregion, Digitarietum ischaemi is differentiated into the typical and wet variant. Quite frequent patches of the Setaria pumila-Setaria viridis community were noted in intermediate habitat conditions, between those characteristic for Digitarietum ischaemi and Echinochloo-Setarietum.

Zofia Rzymowska; Janina Skrzyczy?ska

2007-01-01

266

Biomass of shrub - dominated wetlands in Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aboveground-shrub biomass was estimated in 34 shrub-dominated wetlands in northern Minnesota, representing a range of stocking. Salix was dominant in most wetlands, although a few were dominated by Alnus rugosa and Betula pumila. Shrub biomass ranged from 0.5 to 71.5 Mg/ha with an arithmetic mean of 11.2 Mg/ha. Biomass was distributed lognormally among the wetlands, with a geometric mean of 6.9 Mg/ha. Biomass estimates within wetlands had high uncertainty (10 to 85 percent of the mean) because of both clumpy distribution and large differences in size of shrubs. Eighty percent of the stands were on organic soils (Histosols), with two-thirds on minerotrophic and the remainder on weakly minerotrophic peatlands. Relationships of biomass to basal area and age were statistically significant. Differences in biomass were compared among wetlands grouped by soil or water chemistry. Stand age was a statistically significant covariate, but almost no significant differences in biomass were found among groups based on either criteria. Biomass of the shrubs in these wetlands was about four-fold greater than shrub biomass in mature forests in the area, but only slightly more than 5 percent of total biomass in those forests. These natural stands can be considered to set minimum boundary conditions for biomass production from wetlands. 20 references.

Connolly-McCarthy, B.J.; Grigal, D.F.

1985-12-01

267

First lake record of Holocene climate and vegetation change of the Northern Kuril Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of Pernatoe Lake sediments in the south of Paramushir Island has enabled us to obtain the first continuous pollen record of climate and vegetation changes in the north of the Kurile archipelago during the Holocene. Series of radiocarbon datings of between 10 000 ± 40 and 2180 ± 40 years ago are evidence that the beginning of sediments accumulation, found after borehole development, is related to the Early Holocene. Diatom analysis has shown several stages in the lake development: raised bog on the border of the Pleistocene and Holocene, lagoon formation resulting from the sea level rise over 9-6 ky, and freshwater lake formation 6 ky and up to the present. Climate warming during the period attributed to the boreal and Atlantic periods of the Holocene is reflected by the dominance of Pinus pumila and Alnus serrulata assemblages in vegetation cover. Wide dune fields were formed in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific shores of Paramushir Island 5-4 ky. Strengthening of atmogenic processes is related to cooling of the climate and drying of some areas of the underwater slope.

Lozhkin, A. V.; Anderson, P. M.; Goryachev, N. A.; Minyuk, P. S.; Pakhomov, A. Yu.; Solomatkina, T. B.; Cherepanova, M. V.

2010-02-01

268

Weed communities of root crops in the Pamir Alai Mts, Tajikistan (Middle Asia)  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of weed vegetation conducted on root crops in Tajikistan (Middle Asia), one of the world cradles of weed flora. The main research was conducted in the Zeravshanian, southern Tajikistan and Hissar-Darvasian geobotanical regions in 2011. The study was based on 107 phytosociological relevés obtained in various geobotanical regions of the country. The collected material probably presents the majority of variations among the weed communities of root cultivations in the Middle Asia. As a result of numerical analyses, 7 associations were distinguished: Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi, Daturo stramonii-Hibiscetum trioni, Setario pumilae-Sorghetum halepensi, Galinsogo-Setarietum, Equiseto arvensi-Xanthietum italici, Portulacetum oleracei and Brassico campestris-Lamietum amplexicauli. The last mentioned is new to science. Additionally, one subassociation has been proposed (Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi kochietosum scopariae). The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. The study shows that root-crop plantations with segetal vegetation may harbor a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some, which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. However, most of the recorded species are widespread weeds typical for the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian geobotanical provinces.

Sylwia Nowak; Arkadiusz S. Nowak

2013-01-01

269

Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

2012-02-02

270

Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action.

Coenye T; Brackman G; Rigole P; De Witte E; Honraet K; Rossel B; Nelis HJ

2012-03-01

271

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm) and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm) and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05). Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2006-01-01

272

Zero methane emission bogs: extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

• Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxygen demand is exceeded by oxygen released from roots. Here, we tested whether these conditions occur in bogs dominated by cushion plants. • Root-methane interactions were studied by comparing methane emissions, stock and oxygen availability in depth profiles below lawns of either cushion plants or Sphagnum mosses in Patagonia. • Cushion plants, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis, formed extensive root systems up to 120 cm in depth. The cold soil (< 10°C) and highly decomposed peat resulted in low microbial activity and oxygen consumption. In cushion plant lawns, high soil oxygen coincided with high root densities, but methane emissions were absent. In Sphagnum lawns, methane emissions were substantial. High methane concentrations were only found in soils without cushion plant roots. • This first methane study in Patagonian bog vegetation reveals lower emissions than expected. We conclude that cushion plants are capable of reducing methane emission on an ecosystem scale by thorough soil and methane oxidation.

Fritz C; Pancotto VA; Elzenga JT; Visser EJ; Grootjans AP; Pol A; Iturraspe R; Roelofs JG; Smolders AJ

2011-04-01

273

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

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Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall) of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September). Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

E. Mosbacher; C. Williams

2009-01-01

274

Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Qu?bec  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi ? rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population.

Belair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Benoit, D. L.; Fournier, Y.

2007-01-01

275

Relationship between the heat tolerance of photosynthesis and the thermal stability of rubisco activase in plants from contrasting thermal environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of net photosynthesis (Pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of Rubisco activase to maintain Rubisco in an active form. To examine this proposal, the temperature response of Pn, Rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. The temperature optimum of Rubisco activation was 10 degrees C higher in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) compared with the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), resembling the temperature response of Pn. Pn increased markedly with increasing internal CO(2) concentration in Antarctic hairgrass and creosote bush plants subjected to moderate heat stress even under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion (DeltaF/F(m)') and the maximum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) were more sensitive to temperature in Antarctic hairgrass and two other species endemic to cold regions (i.e. Lysipomia pumila and spinach [Spinacea oleracea]) compared with creosote bush and three species (i.e. jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum]) from warm regions. The temperature response of activity and the rate of catalytic inactivation of Rubisco from creosote bush and Antarctic hairgrass were similar, whereas the optimum for ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation by recombinant creosote bush, cotton, and tobacco activase was 8 degrees C to 10 degrees C higher than for Antarctic hairgrass and spinach activase. These results support a role for activase in limiting photosynthesis at high temperature. PMID:15084731

Salvucci, Michael E; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J

2004-04-01

276

Relationship between the Heat Tolerance of Photosynthesis and the Thermal Stability of Rubisco Activase in Plants from Contrasting Thermal Environments1  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of net photosynthesis (Pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of Rubisco activase to maintain Rubisco in an active form. To examine this proposal, the temperature response of Pn, Rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. The temperature optimum of Rubisco activation was 10°C higher in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) compared with the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), resembling the temperature response of Pn. Pn increased markedly with increasing internal CO2 concentration in Antarctic hairgrass and creosote bush plants subjected to moderate heat stress even under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion (?F/Fm?) and the maximum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were more sensitive to temperature in Antarctic hairgrass and two other species endemic to cold regions (i.e. Lysipomia pumila and spinach [Spinacea oleracea]) compared with creosote bush and three species (i.e. jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum]) from warm regions. The temperature response of activity and the rate of catalytic inactivation of Rubisco from creosote bush and Antarctic hairgrass were similar, whereas the optimum for ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation by recombinant creosote bush, cotton, and tobacco activase was 8°C to 10°C higher than for Antarctic hairgrass and spinach activase. These results support a role for activase in limiting photosynthesis at high temperature.

Salvucci, Michael E.; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J.

2004-01-01

277

Relationship between the heat tolerance of photosynthesis and the thermal stability of rubisco activase in plants from contrasting thermal environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inhibition of net photosynthesis (Pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of Rubisco activase to maintain Rubisco in an active form. To examine this proposal, the temperature response of Pn, Rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. The temperature optimum of Rubisco activation was 10 degrees C higher in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) compared with the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), resembling the temperature response of Pn. Pn increased markedly with increasing internal CO(2) concentration in Antarctic hairgrass and creosote bush plants subjected to moderate heat stress even under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion (DeltaF/F(m)') and the maximum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) were more sensitive to temperature in Antarctic hairgrass and two other species endemic to cold regions (i.e. Lysipomia pumila and spinach [Spinacea oleracea]) compared with creosote bush and three species (i.e. jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum]) from warm regions. The temperature response of activity and the rate of catalytic inactivation of Rubisco from creosote bush and Antarctic hairgrass were similar, whereas the optimum for ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation by recombinant creosote bush, cotton, and tobacco activase was 8 degrees C to 10 degrees C higher than for Antarctic hairgrass and spinach activase. These results support a role for activase in limiting photosynthesis at high temperature.

Salvucci ME; Crafts-Brandner SJ

2004-04-01

278

Species association among predaceous and phytophagous apple mites (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tetranychidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predator-predator, predator-prey, and prey-prey associations among nine species of mites were studied in a plot of 100 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus pumila Miller) trees from 1990 to 1997. In 1990, seven-year-old trees were inoculated with Panonychus ulmi (Koch), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) or both, and sprayed with azinphosmethyl (alone or plus endosulfan), or nothing. The species Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eotetranychus sp., Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) were already present or immigrated into plots, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Tvphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were introduced. Yule's V association index was used to measure positive, neutral, or negative interspecific associations for each species pair, because of its robustness with spatially autocorrelated data. We found that pesticide and release treatments did not greatly affect the association results, but there were strong seasonal differences. Predator-predator associations were the strongest and most consistent, showing negative associations in the early and mid seasons, and neutral ones in late season. Negative associations of T pyri with other predators were the strongest, which is consistent with evidence that this mite can detect other predators on a leaf. Predatorprey seasonal associations were mixed, with some positive and others negative, with most significant associations occurring in the mid season. One prey-prey interaction was positive, again in mid season, most likely because of similar habitat preferences.

Slone DH; Croft BA

2001-01-01

279

Species association among predaceous and phytophagous apple mites (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tetranychidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Predator-predator, predator-prey, and prey-prey associations among nine species of mites were studied in a plot of 100 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus pumila Miller) trees from 1990 to 1997. In 1990, seven-year-old trees were inoculated with Panonychus ulmi (Koch), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) or both, and sprayed with azinphosmethyl (alone or plus endosulfan), or nothing. The species Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eotetranychus sp., Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) were already present or immigrated into plots, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Tvphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were introduced. Yule's V association index was used to measure positive, neutral, or negative interspecific associations for each species pair, because of its robustness with spatially autocorrelated data. We found that pesticide and release treatments did not greatly affect the association results, but there were strong seasonal differences. Predator-predator associations were the strongest and most consistent, showing negative associations in the early and mid seasons, and neutral ones in late season. Negative associations of T pyri with other predators were the strongest, which is consistent with evidence that this mite can detect other predators on a leaf. Predatorprey seasonal associations were mixed, with some positive and others negative, with most significant associations occurring in the mid season. One prey-prey interaction was positive, again in mid season, most likely because of similar habitat preferences. PMID:11513362

Slone, D H; Croft, B A

2001-01-01

280

Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’) grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1): I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

Sylwia Andruszczak; Piotr Kraska; Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe; Edward Pa?ys

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.)  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Che?m. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus) and naked (Cacko) oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

Sylwia Andruszczak; Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe; Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2010-01-01

282

Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition  

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Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

Markus P. Eichhorn

2010-01-01

283

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira.

Regiane F. Travensolo; Luciane P. Ciapina; Eliana G. M. Lemos

2005-01-01

284

Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizada, naturalizada, invasora), abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural), y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes.In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader), abundance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration) and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

Pablo I Becerra

2006-01-01

285

Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México/ Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmentos óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástic (more) a asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, which was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro (more) Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironment ofthe Pátzcuaro lake during l

Robles-Camacho, Jasinto; Corona-Chávez, Pedro; Morales-Gámez, Miguel; Guzmán, Ana Fabiola; Polaco, Óscar J.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Oliveros-Morales, Arturo

2010-12-01

286

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa/ Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min (more) and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fr (more) agment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.

Travensolo, Regiane F.; Ciapina, Luciane P.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.

2005-04-01

287

The influence of aridity and fire on holocene prairie communities in the eastern Prairie Peninsula.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of climate and fire in the development, maintenance, and species composition of prairie in the eastern axis of the tallgrass Prairie Peninsula intrigued early North American ecologists. However, evaluation of the long-standing hypotheses about the region's environmental history has been hampered by the scarcity of paleorecords. We conducted multiproxy analyses on early and middle Holocene sediments from two Illinois, USA, lakes to assess long-term climatic, vegetational, and fire variability in the region. Sediment mineral composition, carbonate delta18O, ostracode assemblages, and diatom assemblages were integrated to infer fluctuations in moisture availability. Pollen and charcoal delta13C were used to reconstruct vegetation composition, and charcoal influx was used to reconstruct fire. Results indicate that fire-sensitive trees (e.g., Ulmus, Ostrya, Fraxinus, and Acer saccharum) declined and prairie taxa expanded with increased aridity from 10,000 yr BP to 8500 yr BP. Between approximately 8500 yr BP and approximately 6200 yr BP, aridity declined, and prairie coexisted with fire-sensitive and fire-tolerant (e.g., Quercus and Carya) trees. After approximately 6200 yr BP, prairie taxa became dominant, although aridity was not more severe than it was around 8500 yr BP. Along with aridity, fire appears to have played an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prairie communities in the eastern Prairie Peninsula, consistent with the speculations of the early ecologists. Comparison of our data with results from elsewhere in the North American midcontinent indicates that spatial heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of climatic and vegetational variations on millennial time scales.

Nelson DM; Hu FS; Grimm EC; Curry BB; Slate JE

2006-10-01

288

The influence of aridity and fire on holocene prairie communities in the eastern Prairie Peninsula.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of climate and fire in the development, maintenance, and species composition of prairie in the eastern axis of the tallgrass Prairie Peninsula intrigued early North American ecologists. However, evaluation of the long-standing hypotheses about the region's environmental history has been hampered by the scarcity of paleorecords. We conducted multiproxy analyses on early and middle Holocene sediments from two Illinois, USA, lakes to assess long-term climatic, vegetational, and fire variability in the region. Sediment mineral composition, carbonate delta18O, ostracode assemblages, and diatom assemblages were integrated to infer fluctuations in moisture availability. Pollen and charcoal delta13C were used to reconstruct vegetation composition, and charcoal influx was used to reconstruct fire. Results indicate that fire-sensitive trees (e.g., Ulmus, Ostrya, Fraxinus, and Acer saccharum) declined and prairie taxa expanded with increased aridity from 10,000 yr BP to 8500 yr BP. Between approximately 8500 yr BP and approximately 6200 yr BP, aridity declined, and prairie coexisted with fire-sensitive and fire-tolerant (e.g., Quercus and Carya) trees. After approximately 6200 yr BP, prairie taxa became dominant, although aridity was not more severe than it was around 8500 yr BP. Along with aridity, fire appears to have played an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prairie communities in the eastern Prairie Peninsula, consistent with the speculations of the early ecologists. Comparison of our data with results from elsewhere in the North American midcontinent indicates that spatial heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of climatic and vegetational variations on millennial time scales. PMID:17089661

Nelson, David M; Hu, Feng Sheng; Grimm, Eric C; Curry, B Brandon; Slate, Jennifer E

2006-10-01

289

Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought.

Kukowski KR; Schwinning S; Schwartz BF

2013-04-01

290

Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm.

Anulewicz AC; McCullough DG; Cappaert DL; Poland TM

2008-02-01

291

Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm. PMID:18348815

Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

2008-02-01

292

Survival of three tree species on old reclaimed surface mines in Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientists of the USDA Forest Service transplanted four tree species in 1946 into overburden near Georgetown and Dundee, OH. Black locust ({ital Robinia pseudoacacia} L.) had good initial survival on both sites but died in later years due to locust borers ({ital Megacyllene robiniae}). Survival and growth of remaining white ash ({ital Fraxinus americana} L.), white pine ({ital Pinus strobus}L.), and yellow-poplar ({ital Lirideondron tulipifera}L.) were determined and soil properties examined on both sites in 1992. Minesoil bulk density in Georgetown leveled areas was similar to unleveled areas in 1992. Minespoil pH was 7.7 and no nutrient deficiencies were found. White ash had the best survival after 46 yr. White pine survival averaged 22% at Georgetown and 14% at Dundee. Yellow-poplar had poor survival on Georgetown leveled areas, 21% survival on Georgetown unleveled areas, and 17% survival at Dundee. Volume for yellow-poplar ranged from 39 m{sup 3}/ha on the Georgetown leveled area to 350 m{sup 3}/ha on unleveled areas. Volumes roughly paralled survival for white pine and yellow-poplar. Thirteen volunteer tree species were identified and averaged 20% total tree basal area across the three areas. Mapal ({ital Acer}sp.) and elm ({ital Ulmus}sp.) were two common volunteer trees. After 46 yr, these areas support a closed canopy of commercially valuable trees, providing soil stabilization, potential economic returns, and wildlife habitat. Eastern US surface mine reclamation should emphasize tree planting and forests as postmining land uses. White ash is recommended on leveled or unleveled sites with alkaline or acidic minesoils. 39 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Zeleznik, J.D.; Skousen, J.G. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry

1996-11-01

293

Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Schuster, W.S.; Hutnik, R.J.

1987-07-01

294

Environmental changes of Northern Anatolia/Black Sea region during the Eemian and the Holocene: pollen and dinocyst records from sediment cores 22-GC3/8  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the knowledge about regional climate development in the Eastern Mediterranean, the DFG-Project "Dynamics of Mid-latitude / Mediterranean climate during the last 150 ka: Black Sea / Northern Anatolian Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions" (DynNAP) was established. For this goal, marine cores 22-GC3 and 22-GC8 from SE Black Sea cover the last 140 kyr BP and were studied by high resolution analysis of pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. These records were used to reconstruct vegetation of Northern Anatolia and hydrological changes of the SE Black Sea during the Holocene and the last interglacial. Age-control of the time series is based on shell oxygen isotopes (ostracods, bivalve) correlated to the isotope records of Uranium series dated stalagmites from Solufar Cave, NW Anatolia. The results show a dominance of steppe vegetation during glacial periods and the spreading of oak steppe forest during the deglaciation periods. The interglacial periods are characterized by the development of more humid forest vegetation (Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Ulmus/Zelkova, Ostrya). During both interglacial periods, the Holocene and the Eemian, a Mediterranean - Black Sea reconnection took place, inducing transition from freshwater/brackish to more marine conditions. Patterns of vegetation and hydrological changes during interglacials were not identical during both interglacials. During the Eemian, the submediterranean Ostrya-type dominated during the first half of the interglacial, indicating warm summers, whereas more humid Fagus-Carpinus forests dominated in the second half. During the Holocene, the dominance of Pinus in pollen record indicates generally cooler conditions than in the Eemian. An increase of anthropogenic indicators such as Plantago lanceolata-type, Rumex, Juglans in the late Holocene suggests elevated human activities in Northern Anatolia. Sea-surface temperature and salinity of the Black Sea achieved significant higher values in the Eemian compared to the Holocene, suggesting a higher Mediterranean inflow into the basin.

Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Arz, Helge; Fleitmann, Dominik; Behling, Hermann

2013-04-01

295

RICE SNACK BAR WITH OLBYEOSSAL AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bar-shaped snack with early rice and its preparation method are provided to enable anyone to eat the snack conveniently and produce processed foods using early rice. A bar-shaped snack with early rice is prepared by the steps of: adding 10~25wt.pt. of a food additive to early rice microwave-treated at 600~800W for 1~3min, based on 100wt.pt. of the early rice forming the early rice into a bar shape and hardening the bar-shaped snack at -30~-10 DEG C. The food additive comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of starch syrup, oligosaccharide, gelatin, and marshmallow. The bar-shaped snack is further coated with 5~20wt.pt. of a coating liquid comprising an anti-cavity substance (and a functional substance), based on 100wt.pt. of the snack. The anti-cavity substance comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, palatinose, mannitol, maltitol, a sugar alcohol solution of inositol or quercitol, a licorice root extract, a green tea leaf extract, a grapefruit seed extract, and a propolis extract. The functional substance comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of an Oolong tea extract, an Akebia quinata extract, a cinnamon extract, a Coptis chinensis extract, an Aralia elata extract, an Ulmus davidiana var. japonica extract, a gulfweed extract, an aloe extract, a mugwort extract, a chlorella extract, a black tea extract, a red ginseng extract, a ginseng extract, a Lycium chinense extract, a Torilis japonica extract, and an Astragalus membranaceus extract.

PARK JONG DAE; LEE HYUN YU; KUM JUN SEOK; KIM DONG CHUL; KIM OUI WOUNG; KIM HOON; KIM SUNG SOO; HONG SEOK IN; CHOI BONG KYU; JEONG SO YOUNG

296

Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition.

Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

2013-10-01

297

Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To explore the composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest, 600 25 m2 (5 m×5 m) seedling quadrats were set up in a 25-ha plot of the forest in Changbai Mountain. All seedlings in these quadrats were tagged, measured and identified to species. Based on three seedling censuses between 2006 and 2008, we analyzed species composition, spatial distribution, and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings. A total of 21 tree species were recorded in these quadrats, which was consistent with the composition of trees with ?1 cm diameter at breast height. There was no significant interannual difference on species composition, but great variations among different seedling subplots. There were 11,959 tree seedlings recorded in three censuses, of which Fraxinus mandshurica and Tilia amurensis comprised of 72.75%. The seedling numbers of F. mandshurica, T. amurensis, and Pinus koraiensis varied greatly among three censuses, while the numbers of other species varied little. Recruit seedlings of 15 species were recorded in three censuses, of which 10 species (T. amurensis, F. mandshurica, P. koraiensis and so on) were found every year. The numbers of recruit seedlings showed great interannual variations among different species and quadrats. Compared spatial distribution of tree seedlings with their seeds andlarge trees, we found that there were significant differences on individual numbers among different species. For T. amurensis, F. mandshurica, Acer mono, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum, their seeds and seedlings could be found in the entire 25-ha plot. For Ulmus japonica and Maackia amurensis, the distributions of their seedlingswere inconsistent with their seeds and large trees. For T. mandshurica and Malus baccata, with fewer seeds, seedlings, and large trees, the distributions of seedlings were consistent with these of their seeds and large trees.

Jian Zhang; Buhang Li; Xuejiao Bai; Zuoqiang Yuan; Xugao Wang; Ji Ye; Zhanqing Hao

2009-01-01

298

Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning  

Science.gov (United States)

Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M. D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L. A.; Greenan, C. M.; Schilling, K.

2007-01-01

299

Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

Perea R; Venturas M; Gil L

2013-01-01

300

Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89), dbh (R2 = 0.82), crown diameter (R2 = 0.90), and biomass (R2 = 0.67) using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora) than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63) and coniferous (R2 = 0.45) taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67). The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

Rupesh Shrestha; Randolph H. Wynne

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Normalizing effect of plant-originated glycoprotein (116 kDa) on G0/G1 arrest in cadmium chloride-induced primary cultured mouse myelocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cadmium chloride is a well-known carcinogenic and immunotoxic metal chemical, which is commonly found in cigarette smoke and industrial effluent and which is able to cause cell cycle arrest in various cell lines. This study demonstrated that glycoprotein (116 kDa) isolated from Ulmus Davidiana Nakai (UDN) is able to normalize cell cycle arrest caused by cadmium chloride (10 ?M, for indicated treatment time in the each experiment) in primary cultured mouse myelocytes. To assess cell cycle arrest, the parameters that are related to the cell cycle evaluated included cytotoxicity, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, the activities of cell cycle-related proteins (p53, p21, and p27), and cyclin D1/cell cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) using immunoblot analysis and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. The results in this study showed that UDN glycoprotein (50 ?g/ml) inhibits the cytotoxicity, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization brought about by cadmium chloride. With regard to cell cycle-related proteins, UDN glycoprotein (50 ?g/ml) significantly suppressed the expression of p53, p21, and p27, whereas it enhanced activity of cyclin D1/CDK4. Taken together, these findings suggest that UDN glycoprotein (50 ?g/ml) significantly normalizes arrest of G(0)/G(1) in the cell cycle. Thus, UDN glycoprotein appears to be one compound derived from natural products that is able normalize the calcium chloride-mediated arrest of cell cycle (G(0)/G(1)) in immune cells.

Lee J; Lim KT

2011-02-01

302

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

303

Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752

Youn, H J; Noh, J W

2001-04-19

304

Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts.

Youn HJ; Noh JW

2001-04-01

305

Holocene paleoenviroments of northwest Iowa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the biotic, sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave, 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. the biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyte macrofossils, and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11,000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by medic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tila americana, Ostyra virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus {approx} 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates the oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. 83 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

Baker, R.G. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bettis, E.A. III [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Iowa City, IA (United States); Schwert, D.P. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

306

A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard SØrensen, Malene

2013-01-01

307

A giant tree stand in the West Carpathians--An exception or a relic of formerly widespread mountain European forests?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Europe, remnants of formerly widespread natural mixed forests are rare. We analyzed an exceptionally tall tree stand with a very high wood volume in Hron?okovský grú? reserve, covering 55.2ha in Slovenské Rudohorie Mountains in central Slovakia (48°43'N and 19°35'E) between 730 and 1050m a.s.l. We compared our data to other natural stands to see if the growing stock and tree height were higher in Hron?okovský grú?. Fifty-four circular plots of 0.05ha each and spaced at 100mx100m distance sampled the entire reserve. Within each plot, live and dead trees were measured. Number, basal area and volume of live trees and volume of CWD were calculated. Moreover, measurements of the tallest trees were conducted in the whole reserve area. Total volume of live trees and CWD in the studied reserve was 1030m³ per hectare. It is the second highest value ever recorded in an area of several hectares or larger in European forests. The feature that makes the stand in Hron?okovský grú? a unique one is the height of trees. In the whole reserve, about 600 trees exceeded the height of 45m. Individuals of three deciduous species (Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus glabra) are the tallest ones found in unmanaged forests in the whole Europe. Those of Fagus sylvatica reached height near the maximum value ever recorded. In Europe, stands of average total live and dead wood volume above 1000m³ ha?¹ with numerous trees above 40m tall were probably very rare even several centuries ago, when virgin forests were widespread. Most likely, they were confined to rather small mountain areas, where rich soils supporting high stand productivity occurred along with wind-protected slopes, where natural disturbances were rare and stand turnover rate was low.

Holeksa Jan; Saniga Milan; Szwagrzyk Jerzy; Czerniak Magdalena; Staszy?ska Katarzyna; Kapusta Pawe?

2009-03-01

308

Leaf Anatomical Acclimation of Six Tree Species to Low Soil Water Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whether plant adaptation to soil water stress is related to their anatomical change is important to ecophysiological research. The leaf anatomical changes of six coexisting tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd) Sarg. and Quercus mongolica Fisch.) from a typical community of the mixed coniferous and broadleaved Korean pine forest in Northeast China acclimated to Relative Soil Water Content (RSWC) of 100, 50 and 30% was studied. Results indicate a decrease in stomatal density for F. mandshurica, J. mandshurica and T. amurensis under RSWC of 30%, while the stomatal density of P. amurense increased. The cuticle thickness of F. mandshurica, Q. mongolica, P. amurense and J. mandshurica increased significantly under RSWC of 30%; however, a decrease in cuticle thickness was found for T. amurensis and U. japonica under RSWC of 50%. At RSWC of 30%, a decrease in the diameter of the main vein was found in F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica while an increase was seen in P. amurense and Q. mongolica. Under low RSWC, the average length of epidermal hair for Q. mongolica, J. mandshurica and U. japonica increased significantly, but it decreased significantly for T. amurensis and P. amurense. The palisade layer of leaves of F. mandshurica, P. amurense, T. amurensis increased significantly under low RSWC. The thickness of spongy layer of leaves of F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica increased significantly under low RSWC, but the thickness of spongy layer of Q. mongolica and P. amurense decreased significantly. The thickness of upper and lower epidermis did not change significantly for all tree species studied under low RSWC. These anatomical changes may have relation with leaf transpiration, but depend on species. Species anatomical divergence under drought may relate to their functional divergence.

Xiongwen Chen; JieWen

2005-01-01

309

Dynamics of Salix caprea L. populations during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broadleaved forest communities degenerated through strong pressure from large herbivores. Relief of this pressure led to regeneration, in particular of Salix caprea and other light/seeded pioneer trees: Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. This regeneration proceeded following conservation protection of degenerate stands in a nature reserve and later in Bialowieza National Park. The emergence and development of the Salix caprea population proceeded following the expansion of Picea abies, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on the broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand after the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915). The species also appeared abundantly in old, at the time unforested, clearings and felled areas. Here, S. caprea developed large populations with certain trees in good condition, with a growth form typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50/60 years old at the time of death, although some individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the Salix population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots with marked trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of S. caprea from the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the last 4-9 years of their life. The development of populations of permanent constituents of the forest, notably Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra, under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the absence of a new generation of pioneer trees points to the end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park 30 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

Falinski, J.B. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Bialowieza Geobotanical Station

1998-02-01

310

Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

Musa N; Andersson K; Burman J; Andersson F; Hedenström E; Jansson N; Paltto H; Westerberg L; Winde I; Larsson MC; Bergman KO; Milberg P

2013-01-01

311

Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids 'Groeneveld' and 'Dodoens' which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. METHODS: Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of 'Groeneveld' and 'Dodoens' grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. KEY RESULTS: 'Dodoens' had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. 'Groeneveld' had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. CONCLUSIONS: Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas exchange traits in the infected plants of 'Dodoens' were unaffected by the DED fungus. 'Dodoens' proved to be a valuable elm germplasm for further breeding strategies.

Durkovic J; Canová I; Lagana R; Kucerová V; Moravcík M; Priwitzer T; Urban J; Dvorák M; Krajnáková J

2013-02-01

312

Recent Changes in the Riparian Forest of a Large Regulated Mediterranean River: Implications for Management  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the floodplain forests of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined at patch and landscape scales along a three-step chronosequence defined according to the extent of flow regulation-induced hydrogeomorphic changes, with the ultimate purpose of producing baseline information to guide through management and restoration plans. At patch scale, a total of 6,891 stems within 39 plots were registered for species, diameter and health status. The stem density, size class distribution, canopy dieback and mortality were further compared by means of non-parametric tests. At landscape scale, the temporal evolution of the area occupied by forest stands of different ages in the floodplain along the chronosequence was evaluated using four sets of aerial photographs dated in 1927, 1957, 1981 and 2003. The within-patch structure of pioneer forests (Populus nigra, Salix alba and Tamarix spp.), but the area occupied by these forest types has progressively decreased (up to 37%) since the intensification of river regulation (ca. 1957). In contrast, non-pioneer forests (>25-30 years old) were characterized by declining and sparse P. nigra- S. alba- Tamarix spp. stands, where late-seral species such as Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia were frequent, but only as small-size stems. At landscape scale, these type of senescent forests have doubled their surface after river regulation was intensified. Populus alba only appeared in the oldest plots recorded (colonized before 1957), suggesting sexual regeneration failure during the last five decades, but usually as healthy and dense stands. Based on these findings, measures principally aimed at recovering some hydrogeomorphic dynamism are recommended to guarantee the self-sustainability of the floodplain forest ecosystem.

González, Eduardo; González-Sanchis, María; Cabezas, Álvaro; Comín, Francisco A.; Muller, Etienne

2010-04-01

313

Recent changes in the riparian forest of a large regulated Mediterranean river: implications for management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure of the floodplain forests of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined at patch and landscape scales along a three-step chronosequence defined according to the extent of flow regulation-induced hydrogeomorphic changes, with the ultimate purpose of producing baseline information to guide through management and restoration plans. At patch scale, a total of 6,891 stems within 39 plots were registered for species, diameter and health status. The stem density, size class distribution, canopy dieback and mortality were further compared by means of non-parametric tests. At landscape scale, the temporal evolution of the area occupied by forest stands of different ages in the floodplain along the chronosequence was evaluated using four sets of aerial photographs dated in 1927, 1957, 1981 and 2003. The within-patch structure of pioneer forests (<25-30 years old) was characterized by dense and healthy populations of pioneer species (Populus nigra, Salix alba and Tamarix spp.), but the area occupied by these forest types has progressively decreased (up to 37%) since the intensification of river regulation (ca. 1957). In contrast, non-pioneer forests (>25-30 years old) were characterized by declining and sparse P. nigra-S. alba-Tamarix spp. stands, where late-seral species such as Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia were frequent, but only as small-size stems. At landscape scale, these type of senescent forests have doubled their surface after river regulation was intensified. Populus alba only appeared in the oldest plots recorded (colonized before 1957), suggesting sexual regeneration failure during the last five decades, but usually as healthy and dense stands. Based on these findings, measures principally aimed at recovering some hydrogeomorphic dynamism are recommended to guarantee the self-sustainability of the floodplain forest ecosystem.

González E; González-Sanchis M; Cabezas A; Comín FA; Muller E

2010-04-01

314

Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

2004-03-01

315

Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

Freitas H; Prasad MN; Pratas J

2004-03-01

316

Fluctuación diaria del fitoplancton en la capa superficial del océano durante la primavera de 1997 en el norte de Chile (20°18´S): II. Composición específica y abundancia celular/ Daily fluctuation of phytoplankton in the upper layer of the ocean during the spring of 1997 in the north of Chile (20°18´S): II. Specific composition and cellular abundance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analiza la respuesta de la comunidad microfitoplanctónica a los cambios en la estructura física y química producidos por un evento de surgencia sobre una escala diaria. La época en la cual se realizó el estudio coincidió con la presencia de ?El Niño? 1997-1998, pero los resultados no evidenciaron una condición anómala asociada a dicho evento. Los valores del índice de surgencia permitieron dividir el período de estudio en dos fases, la primera, entre el 26 (more) de agosto y el 7 de septiembre, cuando las magnitudes de los eventos estuvieron centradas en los 1.000 m³s-1, y la segunda entre el 9 y el 17 de septiembre, cuando los valores superaron los 2.000 m³s-1. La estructura comunitaria del microfitoplancton estuvo fuertemente acoplada a las fluctuaciones físicas y químicas ocasionadas por la variabilidad de los eventos de surgencia. Durante la primera fase hubo una predominancia absoluta de Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle, la cual contribuyó con un 82,8% al total de las abundancias celulares, resultando en una comunidad con un carácter monoespecífico. La declinación y desaparición de T. subtilis estuvieron relacionadas con un cambio en las condiciones oceanográficas de la capa superficial, producido por la intensificación de la surgencia. En la segunda fase, la diversidad se incrementó en directa relación con un cambio en la componente específica de la comunidad fitoplanctónica, que condujo a la dominancia de Detonula pumila (Cleve) Grunow y Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve. La salinidad resultó ser la variable que influyó significativamente la estructura comunitaria observada Abstract in english The response of the microphytoplanktonic community to the physical and chemical changes during an upwelling event is analyzed on a daily scale. The study coincided with the ?El Niño? 1997-1998 presence, but the results did not show the anomalous condition associated with this event. The Upwelling Index values allowed us to divide the study period in two phases, the first one, from August 26 to September 7, when the events magnitudes were about 1,000 m³s-1, and the sec (more) ond from September 9 through 17, when the values were higher than 2,000 m³s-1. The microphytoplanktonic community structure was strongly coupled with the physical and chemical fluctuations caused by the variability of the upwelling events. During the first phase, Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle was absolutely dominant, contributing 82.8% to the total cellular abundance, resulting in a community with a monospecific character. The decline and disappearance of T. subtilis was related to a change in the oceanographic conditions of the superficial layer, produced by the change in the upwelling intensity. In the second phase, the diversity increased in direct relation to a change in the specific composition of the microphytoplanktonic community, which led to Detonula pumila and Leptocylindrus danicus dominance. Salinity was the variable that significantly affected the observed community structure

Santander, Edgardo; Herrera, Liliana; Merino, Carlos

2003-07-01

317

Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM (more) min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

2013-01-01

318

Susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus pumila Mill.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) diet. Neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. For a long-term laboratory colony, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. For a colony established from Calhoun Co., IL, in 2007, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.37 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. LC50 values of these insecticides did not differ significantly for either colony when progeny of insects reared on lima bean diet were tested. We observed no consistent evidence of pyrethroid resistance in the Calhoun colony after laboratory culture for 21-23 generations. We described the dose-response relationship for esfenvalerate applied topically in 1 microl of acetone to male moths from the long-term laboratory colony and estimated the LD99 to be 0.022 microg per moth. Application of 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate per moth to approximately 600 male moths from two putatively susceptible populations resulted in mean survivorship approximately equal to the expected level of 1.0%. Application of the same dose to 374 field-captured moths from two Calhoun Co. orchards with histories of pyrethroid use resulted in mean survivorship of 9.4 and 82%. We propose that 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate in 1 microl of acetone can be used as a diagnostic dose for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in oriental ruit moth in the field.

Jones MM; Robertson JL; Weinzierl RA

2011-06-01

319

Susceptibility of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two pyrethroids and a proposed diagnostic dose of esfenvalerate for field detection of resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory colonies of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus pumila Mill.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) diet. Neonates were placed on wheat germ diet containing a range of concentrations of esfenvalerate or lambda-cyhalothrin; mortality was assessed after 96 h. For a long-term laboratory colony, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.35 and 0.12 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. For a colony established from Calhoun Co., IL, in 2007, LC50 values of esfenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin were 0.37 and 0.10 ppm, respectively, for progeny of insects reared on apples. LC50 values of these insecticides did not differ significantly for either colony when progeny of insects reared on lima bean diet were tested. We observed no consistent evidence of pyrethroid resistance in the Calhoun colony after laboratory culture for 21-23 generations. We described the dose-response relationship for esfenvalerate applied topically in 1 microl of acetone to male moths from the long-term laboratory colony and estimated the LD99 to be 0.022 microg per moth. Application of 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate per moth to approximately 600 male moths from two putatively susceptible populations resulted in mean survivorship approximately equal to the expected level of 1.0%. Application of the same dose to 374 field-captured moths from two Calhoun Co. orchards with histories of pyrethroid use resulted in mean survivorship of 9.4 and 82%. We propose that 0.022 microg of esfenvalerate in 1 microl of acetone can be used as a diagnostic dose for monitoring pyrethroid resistance in oriental ruit moth in the field. PMID:21735926

Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

2011-06-01

320

Littoral diatoms as indicators of recent water and sediment contamination by metals in lakes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the response of benthic diatoms to recent metal contamination in littoral cores collected at 25 sites in 11 lakes situated at different distances from a smelter in the Rouyn-Noranda mining region (Quebec). Diatom response was described in terms of density, diversity, and taxonomic composition of the entire assemblages and as abundance of individual indicator taxa. Metal concentrations were measured in sediment and in the overlying water (as total dissolved and as free-ions). Sediment metal contamination was significantly higher in lakes located <10 km from the smelters than in lakes farther away. Such difference was not significant when metal concentrations in the overlying water were considered. Metal contamination did not affect diatom density, which indeed was highest in the most contaminated lake. Diversity (either measured as number of taxa or as Shannon and evenness indices) was instead significantly higher in lakes close to the smelter than elsewhere. Redundancy analysis indicated that diatom composition changed along a gradient in alkalinity (CO?) and one in sediment metal contamination (Cd, Hg, Cu). We identified three diatom taxa (Fragilaria construens var. venter, F. construens var. pumila, and Brachysira vitrea) that increased in relative and absolute abundance with metal contamination. Benthic diatom responses at the community (density, diversity, assemblage composition) and population levels (abundance of selected benthic taxa) were stronger to the sediment metal contamination than to the contamination of overlying water. Comparisons with available literature indicated that, for monitoring recent sediment contamination, diatoms in littoral sediments are preferable to invertebrates that mostly respond to overlying water. Diatoms in littoral cores are therefore unique as tools for monitoring recent contamination of lake sediments.

Cattaneo A; Couillard Y; Wunsam S; Fortin C

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
321

Characteristics of Plant Distribution in the Reclaimed Dredging Area in Gwangyang Bay, Korea  

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Full Text Available In order to elucidate the mechanisms affecting plant distributions in the reclaimed dredging areain the Gwangyang steelworks, in the Gwangyang Bay, Korea, we examined soil characteristics and plant distributionsin four study sites and a control site in the study area. Desalination occurring along a gradient withincreasing elevation, resulting in decrease of soil pH, EC, P, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and salt and an increase in soilT-N, silt, clay contents. From site 1 (the lowest-elevation site) to site 5 (the highest-elevation site), halophytesdecreased in abundance and nonhalophytes increased. The dominant species in each site were: Phragmitescommunis, Limonium tetragonum, and 12 additional species at site 1, Carex pumila, Suaeda japonica, and 15additional species at site 2, Spergularia marina, Scirpus planiculmis, and 22 additional species at site 3,Miscantus sinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, and 26 additional species at site 4 and Pinus thunberii, Rhododendronmucronulatum, and 39 additional species at site 5, which resembled a naturally-occurring P. thinbergii community.Cluster analysis of the vegetation data matrix grouped the 35 plots into 5 major groups, and cluster analysisusing the soil environment data matrix revealed 4 major groups. CCA of the floristic and environmental datamatrix showed a positive relationship of SAR, EC, Na, Cl, and Ca, which are related to salt, in the 1st axis and2nd axis, but negative relationships for altitude, organic contents, silt, and clay contents. Notably, plant speciesin the reclaimed dredging area that were separated along the 1st axis showed strong relationships with factorsthat related to salt. Long-term exposure to natural rainfall in the reclaimed dredging area changed the soilcharacteristics, such as salinity. This change in soil characteristics might alter the SAR, which affects plantsurvival strategies in a given habitat. These results strongly indicated that factors related to salt and elevationplay important roles in determining the overall plant distribution in the reclaimed dredging area.

Nam, Woong; Young-Se Kwak; Deok-Beom Lee; Sang-Suk Lee

2009-01-01

322

Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties. PMID:23959013

Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

2013-01-01

323

Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

Villa-Ruano N; Zurita-Vásquez GG; Pacheco-Hernández Y; Betancourt-Jiménez MG; Cruz-Durán R; Duque-Bautista H

2013-01-01

324

METHOD OF ADAPTING NON-HALOPHYTES TO HALOPHYTES USING SOIL AMELIORATION COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of adapting non-halophytes to halophytes by growing non-halophytes with a mixture of a soil amendment and soil in salt-affected land to enable growth at high salt concentration is provided which improves the variety of the non-halophytes and is useful for improvement of environment conservation in the salt-affected land. Non-halophytes seeds are pretreated with a mixture of charcoal and zeolite for 20 to 30hr and pre-cultivated on a planting mat containing culture soil comprising 10 to 30% by weight of sandy sol with a salt concentration of 10 to 35% and 10 to 30% by weight of a soil amendment. The soil amendment comprises: 30 to 80% by weight of organic fertilizer containing 25 to 35% by weight of organic matter, 1 to 2% by weight of nitrogen, 0.1 to 0.5% by weight of potassium, 0.1 to 1.0% by weight of phosphoric acid and 2.5% by weight of calcium and 0.001 to 10.0% by weight of zeolite. The non-halophyte is selected from: i) Phragmites communis, Zizania latifolia, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Zoysia sinica, Setaria viridis, Avena fatua, Echinochloa hispidula, Calamagrostis epigeios, Phacelurus latifolius, Ischaemum anthephoroides, Elymus sibiricus and Phragmites japonica from Poaceae ii) Artemisia capillaris, Sonchus asper, Bidens bipinnata, Ixeris repens, Coreopsis Drummondii, Aster koraiensis, Aster yomena, Rudbeckia and Chrysanthemum burbankii from Asteraceae iii) Rumex crispus and Persicaria filiforme from Polygonaceae iv) Typha orientalis from Typhaceae v) Suaeda japonica, Suaeda Asparagoides, Suaeda maritima, Atriplex subcordata from Chenopodiaceae Limonium tetragonum from Plumbaginaceae vii) Carex pumila from Cyperaceae viii) Rorippa indica and Lepidium apetalum from Cruciferae ix) Aeschynomene indica and Lotus corniculatus from leguminosae x) Oenothera odorata from Onagraceae xi) Lythrum salicaria from Lythraceae and Silene armeria and Dianthus chinensis from Caryophyllaceae.

OH KYONG JIN; LEE JAE GUK; LEE DAE HEE; LEE YOUNG HEE

325

Bioreactor technology for herbal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

2010-01-01

326

Riego parcial de la raíz en manzano `golden delicious´ en un mbiente semi-árido  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El agua para riego es un recurso limitado y costoso en la producción de manzano (Malus pumila Mill.) en las regiones semi-áridas del mundo, como en la región Norte de México donde se cultivan 44 mil hectáreas. Se ha demostrado que el riego parcial de la raíz (RPR) es una técnica que ahorra agua en manzano cultivado en regiones húmedas, pero en climas semi-áridos aún no se evalúa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto del RPR sobre el rendimiento y calidad de fruto del manzano ?Golden Delicious? cultivado en un clima semi-árido donde la demanda evapotranspiratoria del cultivo es mayor que en un ambiente húmedo. Los tratamientos fueron: riego completo (RC, testigo) y RPR; en éste se aplicó 50 % del RC, pues el riego se alternó del lado húmedo al seco del sistema radical cada 8 d o cuando el contenido del agua en el suelo alcanzó un umbral de abatimiento. En general, el rendimiento y componentes del rendimiento fueron estadísticamente iguales en ambos tratamientos, pero la eficiencia en el uso del agua fue significativamente mejorada en 70 % con el RPR en relación al RC. El RPR ahorró 44 % del agua. El peso medio, la firmeza y la concentración de sólidos solubles totales del fruto fueron estadísticamente iguales entre tratamientos. La concentración de la materia seca del fruto fue significativamente mayor en árboles con RPR que en aquéllos con RC. El RPR necesita ser validado en otros cultivares de manzano y ambientes agro-ecológicos antes de que esta técnica sea comercialmente difundida.

Jorge A. Zegbe-Domu00EDnguez; Alfonso Serna-Pu00E9rez; u00C1ngel G. Bravo-Lozano

2006-01-01

327

The effect of intercropping on weed infestation of a spring barley crop cultivated in monoculture  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the years 2005-2007 in the Bezek Experimental Farm near the city of Che?m, Poland, on heavy mixed rendzina soil. The effect of intercropping, using red clover (cv. Dajana) and white clover (cv. Astra), on weed infestation of a spring barley crop was studied. The species composition of weeds in the spring barley crop changed to a small extent under the influence of the application of clover intercropping, whereas the population size of particular species showed large fluctuations. In the spring barley crop with the red clover intercrop, Sonchus arvensis occurred in greatest numbers among dicotyledonous weed species. In the barley crop with white clover and without intercrop, Viola arvensis and Sonchus arvensis were the dominant dicotyledonous species. Setaria pumila was the dominant monocotyledonous species in all the treatments. Intercropping using red and white clover clearly limited the growth and development of weeds. The red clover intercrop in the spring barley crop better reduced the infestation with dicotyledonous weeds and also significantly reduced the number of monocotyledonous weeds and the total number of weeds, whereas the white clover intercrop limited only the number of monocotyledonous weeds. The application of the herbicide Chwastox Extra 300 SL significantly reduced the fresh weight of weeds found in the spring barley crop. The presence of the intercrop resulted in different total numbers of weeds in particular treatments. Intercropping distinctly limited the occurrence of the following weed species: Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Melandrium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Veronica arvensis and Medicago lupulina. The investigated intercrop species also reduced the biomass of weeds. The application of the herbicide did not differentiate the number of monocotyledonous weeds, which resulted from the application of Chwastox Extra 300 SL that controls only dicotyledonous species.

Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe; Piotr Kraska; Edward Pa?ys

2009-01-01

328

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya ac (more) tividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extract (more) s were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Sittenfeld Appel, Ana; Jiménez-Somarribas, Alberto; Valerio-Campos, Idalia

2008-06-01

329

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Misael Chinchilla-Carmona; Olga Marta Guerrero Bermúdez; Giselle Tamayo-Castillo; Ana Sittenfeld Appel; Alberto Jiménez-Somarribas; Idalia Valerio-Campos

2008-01-01

330

The Physics of Pollen and Spore Rebound from Plant Surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of particle rebound from plant surfaces has been examined. Particle rebound is a component of net deposition; the other components are reentrainment and impingement. I carried out several sets of wind tunnel experiments to examine the nature of rebound, reentrainment and impingement. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out on the data. A simple computer model was created to predict particle deposition in wind tunnel conditions. My work confirms that rebound is an important process in the wind tunnel, and implies the existence of a process I call 'rebound/reentrainment'. I tested several major hypotheses. The first was that biological materials exhibit the same physical rebound characteristics as artificial materials. The second was that particles rebound in a manner predicted by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. The third was that rebound is a dominant component of net deposition. The fourth was that surface characteristics may seriously influence rebound. I carried out my experiments in a low-speed wind tunnel. For surfaces I used glass and the leaves of tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Coleus (Coleus blumeii) and American elm (Ulmus americana). For particles I used glass microbeads, lycopodium spores (Lycopodium spp.), and ragweed pollen (Ambrosia trifida). Four main sets of experiments were carried out. I examined rebound, as a function of particle speed, of particles impinging upon leaf surfaces, reentrainment of spores and pollen as a function of wind speed and time, net deposition, as a function of wind speed, and adhesion of pollen and spores to the leaf surfaces. From these experiments I concluded that in general, pollen and spore rebound can be described well by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. Particle differences are far more significant than surface differences in the rebound process. I postulate the existence of rebound/reentrainment when particles impinge on surfaces with tangential fluid flow present. Particles will bounce initially, be drawn back to the surface, but if the fluid flow is sufficiently strong, the particles will be reentrained. Rebound processes, if they are defined to include rebound and rebound/reentrainment, are generally more important than reentrainment in limiting net deposition. I used experimental and theoretical work to form a simple net deposition model for large particles in wind tunnel flow. Further development of similar models is necessary for more accurate results, and for linkage to macroscale deposition and transport models.

Paw U, Kyaw Tha

1980-12-01

331

An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs.

Büchel Kerstin; McDowell Eric; Nelson Will; Descour Anne; Gershenzon Jonathan; Hilker Monika; Soderlund Carol; Gang David R; Fenning Trevor; Meiners Torsten

2012-01-01

332

Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

2012-11-01

333

Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality) of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter). Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa), Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis) were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing). Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima) were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants). Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row). Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

Antonio Sergio De Franchi; Luigi Todaro; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Nicola Moretti; Stella Lovelli

2010-01-01

334

Short Rotation Forestry (SFR) in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality) of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter). Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa), Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis) were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing). Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima) were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants). Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row). Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

Antonio Sergio De Franchi; Todaro Luigi; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Nicola Moretti; Stella Lovelli

2010-01-01

335

The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy  

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Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

2010-05-01

336

Variable conductivity and embolism in roots and branches of four contrasting tree species and their impacts on whole-plant hydraulic performance under future atmospheric CO? concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anatomical and physiological acclimation to water stress of the tree hydraulic system involves trade-offs between maintenance of stomatal conductance and loss of hydraulic conductivity, with short-term impacts on photosynthesis and long-term consequences to survival and growth. Here, we study the role of variations in root and branch maximum hydraulic specific conductivity (k(s-max)) under high and low soil moisture in determining whole-tree hydraulic conductance (K(tree)) and in mediating stomatal control of gas exchange in four contrasting tree species growing under ambient and elevated CO? (CO?(a) and CO?(e)). We hypothesized that K(tree) would adjust to CO?(e) through an increase in root and branch k(s-max) in response to anatomical adjustments. However, physiological changes observed under CO?(e) were not clearly related to structural change in the xylem of any of the species. The only large effect of CO?(e) occurred in branches of Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Cornus florida L. where an increase in k(s-max) and a decrease in xylem resistance to embolism (-P??) were measured. Across species, embolism in roots explained the loss of K(tree) and therefore indirectly constituted a hydraulic signal involved in stomatal regulation and in the reduction of G(s-ref), the sap-flux-scaled mean canopy stomatal conductance at a reference vapour pressure deficit of 1 kPa. Across roots and branches, the increase in k(s-max) was associated with a decrease in -P??, a consequence of structural acclimation such as larger conduits, lower pit resistance and lower wood density. Across species, treatment-induced changes in K(tree) translated to similar variation in G(s-ref). However, the relationship between G(s-ref) and K(tree) under CO?(a) was steeper than under CO?(e), indicating that CO?(e) trees have lower G(s-ref) at a given K(tree) than CO?(a) trees. Under high soil moisture, CO?(e) greatly reduced G(s-ref). Under low soil moisture, CO?(e) reduced G(s-ref) of only L. styraciflua and Ulmus alata. In some species, higher xylem dysfunction under CO?(e) might impact tree performance in a future climate when increased evaporative demand could cause a greater loss of hydraulic function. The results contributed to our knowledge of the physiological and anatomical mechanisms underpinning the responses of tree species to drought and more generally to global change.

Domec JC; Schäfer K; Oren R; Kim HS; McCarthy HR

2010-08-01

337

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

Lans Cheryl; Turner Nancy; Khan Tonya; Brauer Gerhard; Boepple Willi

2007-01-01

338

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. METHODS: In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. RESULTS: There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production. Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. CONCLUSION: Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

Lans C; Turner N; Khan T; Brauer G; Boepple W

2007-01-01

339

Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China  

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Full Text Available The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) ?1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed “J” type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed “J” and “L” distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed “J”, and “L” distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm ? DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a diameter class I (P < 0.05). Overall, the impact of the topographic gradient on species distribution decreased significantly as DBH class increased.

Lina Xu; Guangze Jin

2012-01-01

340

Effects of simulated submergence on seed germination of four common annual herbs in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China  

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Full Text Available Aims Flooding disturbance can change the species composition of plant communities. Field investigation showed that annual herbs were an important part of the natural vegetation of the water-level-fluctuating zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir, but there are few studies on the effects of flooding on annual plants. Annual, which reproduce from seeds, usually grow fast and can rapidly rehabilitate areas. Our objective is to determine the effects of water submergence on the germination of seeds of annuals, with regard to possible use of annual plants in vegetation restoration of WLFZ in the Three Gorges area.Methods Seeds of four annuals, Echinochloa crusgali, Setaria pumila, Digitaria sanguinalis and Arthraxon hispidus, were collected in autumn 2008 in Wushan County of Chongqing Municipality. Seeds for control (CK) were kept in envelopes; seeds for water submergence treatments were buried in soil in plastic containers and water was poured into the containers to maintain a water layer on the soil surface. We used six different durations of water submergence, 30, 75, 115, 155, 195 and 240 days, to match water level operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir. After treatments ended, seeds were separated from soil by water flushing and filtering with gauze. The treated seeds were incubated in pots filled with soil watered daily. Three replicates of 50 seeds per sample were used for each treatment. Germinated seeds were counted daily until the end of germination.Important findings Water submergence significantly affected seed germination rate and germination course of all four annuals. Germination rates first increased and then decreased with increased duration of submergence. Germination rates with short-time submergence treatments were significantly higher than CK. Submergence can break seed dormancy and increase the rate of seed germination. Submergence also accelerated the course of germination. Short-time submergence treatments increased germination indices significantly greater than in CK, and the germination periods were shorter, but long-time submergence had little effect on the course of seed germination. Overall, the germination rates of all treatments of all annuals were > 40%. Therefore, these four annuals are useful in vegetation restoration of WLFZ in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

WANG Xin; GAO Xian-Ming

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

Antanaviciute Laima; Fernández-Fernández Felicidad; Jansen Johannes; Banchi Elisa; Evans Katherine M; Viola Roberto; Velasco Riccardo; Dunwell Jim M; Troggio Michela; Sargent Daniel J

2012-01-01

342

Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. RESULTS: Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2%) were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8%) were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers) mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the 'Golden Delicious' pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. CONCLUSIONS: We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the 'Golden Delicious' reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

Antanaviciute L; Fernández-Fernández F; Jansen J; Banchi E; Evans KM; Viola R; Velasco R; Dunwell JM; Troggio M; Sargent DJ

2012-01-01

343

Lateglacial-Holocene Environment History, Kazakhstan  

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Kazakhstan is located in central Asia between Caspian Sea and Tiang-Shang Mountains. Few well dated holocene sequences from the forest-steppe and steppe belt of Kazakhstan provided information about the vegetation and climate history. Mokhovoe mire was studied in the watershed of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. That's the most thick peat mire in northern Kazakhstan. Sedimentation in the Mokhovoe sequence started ca. 7800 BP. At that time regional vegetation was represented by steppes and birch-poplar forests. Pine penetrated in the Tobol region likely between 6500 and 6000 BP. Pine grew on sand terraces of Tobol River together with birch. At 3000-2900 BP Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus grew in north-west Kazakhstan.The general structure of vegetation was the same as at 6500-6000 BP. At 1900-1500 BP climate became less continental and pine forests with pure pine canopy expanded on sandy terraces of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. Soon after 1500 BP broad-leaved trees were extinct from the regional forests. Pashennoe lake is located in Karkaralinsk mountains in the most elevated part in the south-east part of the Kazakhstan lowhills. Dry grass-wormwood and wormwood steppes were spread in the region at 10500-8200 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in protected parts in intermountain valleys of Karkaralinsk mountains. Salix and Betula also occurred in valleys. Between 8000 and 6000 BP forest vegetation in Karkaralinsk mountains was represented by birch forests. Pine penetrated to Karkaralinsk mountains between 6000 and 5500 BP, but it didn't formed large forests. At the same time the maximal spread of Alnus glutinosa was reconstructed. The general structure of regional vegetation was stable up to. At 1500 BP pure pine forests expanded over Karkaralinsk mountains and around Pashennoe lake. Few lakes were investigated in Borovoe mountains in south of Kokchetav region of Kazakhstan. In early Holocene birch forests dominated in regional vegetation. Pine expanded in Borovoe at ca 7000 BP. Pine forests have been dominating in regional vegetation since 5300-5200 BP. The section of lake-bog sediment of Ozerki mire in the Irtysh river valley represents the history of vegetation and climate in southern margin of the West Siberian Lowland since 14,000 BP. Dry cold steppes grew in the Irtysh valley at 14,000 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in the Irtysh valley together with Betula and Salix. Climate became slightly warmer between 12,000 and 9500 BP. After 9500 BP Picea was extinct in the Irtysh valley and regional vegetation was represented by dry steppes and birch forests with willows near streams and lakes. At 6300-6200 BP pine penetrated to the Irtysh valley around Ozerki. Pure pine forests have been dominating in the Ozerki region since 5500 BP and the general structure of regional vegetation is very similar to the modern one.

Kremenetski, K.; Velichko, A.

2007-12-01