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Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. FenologŪa de la floraciůn de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de BahŪa Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in BahŪa Blanca city (Argentina)

    L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

    Full Text Available La fenologŪa es el estudio de los fenůmenos periůdicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenolůgicas durante la floraciůn de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de BahŪa [...] Blanca y relacionar la floraciůn con datos meteorolůgicos de temperaturas mŪnimas y mŠximas. Durante dos periodos de floraciůn (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenolůgicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floraciůn se observů en los meses de julio y agosto, registrŠndose la mŠxima floraciůn el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floraciůn del aŮo 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duraciůn de la fase de floraciůn fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinŠmica de floraciůn de U. pumila en la ciudad de BahŪa Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirŠ a la interpretaciůn de los cambios climŠticos de la regiůn y a una mejor prevenciůn de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in BahŪa Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

  2. Ulmus pollen at Sibisa Swamp, North Sumatra (Ulmaceae)

    Maloney, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ulmus pollen characterised by a four-pored morphology was reported from samples of various ages taken from the radiocarbon dated pollen sites of Pea Sim-sim and Tao Sipinggan and in one sample from the undated Pea Sijajap record (Maloney, 1984). All these sites are located on the Toba Plateau, south of Lake Toba, over 50 km away from the nearest existing sources (Touw & Van Steenis, 1968) of Ulmus lancaeafolia Roxb. ex Wall. Sibisa Swamp is situated east of Lake Toba, at 98¬į58'E, 2¬į33'N, near...

  3. Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods

    Wheeler E A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods might be identified to an infrageneric category, selected wood anatomical features of 21 extant species of Ulmus are summarized to evaluate whether any sections within the genus have distinctive anatomy. Porosity type in extant Ulmus is related to leaf longevity; extant evergreen species are diffuse porous and have relatively narrow rays. Other extant Ulmus species are deciduous and predominantly ring porous, only rarely semi-ring porous, with clustered latewood vessels that are tangentially arranged. Sometimes earlywood characteristics have systematic value and allow recognition of groups. However, in some species earlywood characteristics are variable, apparently being much affected by growing conditions. Eastern U.S. species belonging to Sections Chaetoptelea and Trichoptelea of Subgenus Oreoptelea consistently have thick-walled fibers, single rows of small-medium diameter earlywood vessels, and little difference between the diameters of the solitary earlywood vessels and latewood vessels. The late Eocene Ulmus woodii sp. nov. shares more features with this group than any other. Another of these late Post Eocene woods is referable to Ulmus danielii, a species previously known only from the Middle Eocene Clarno Formation. A third fossil wood type resembles diffuse porous Ulmus, but its lower preservational quality obscures some diagnostic features and precludes secure assignment.

  4. The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth

    ńźukińá Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 őľM, 50 őľM and 90 őľM. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  5. Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations

    Heidi Hirsch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phenotypic plasticity towards different environmental influences.This paper focuses on the germination of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations. We expected that non-native populations would be characterized by their higher final germination percentage and enhanced germination rate, which might indicate an influence due to corresponding climatic conditions.Germination experiments with a moderate and a warm temperature treatment did not reveal significant differences in final germination percentage. However, seeds from the North American non-native range germinated significantly faster than native seeds (p < 0.001. Additionally, mean time to germination in both ranges was significantly negatively correlated with annual precipitation (p = 0.022. At the same time, this relationship is stronger in the native range whereas mean time to germination in non-native populations seems to be less influenced by climatic conditions.Different germination responses of the North American populations could be caused by a fast evolutionary change mediating a higher tolerance to current climatic conditions in the non-native range. However, our findings could also be caused by artificial selection during the introduction process and extensive planting of U. pumila in its non-native range. Nevertheless, we assume that the faster germination rate of non-native populations is one potential explanation for the invasion success of U. pumila in its new range since it might provide a competitive advantage during colonization of new sites.

  6. Ecophysiological and Growth Responses of Elm, Ulmus pumila, to Different Water Tables

    Xiongwen Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and underground water table need to be studied because a huge number of trees died in arid and semi-arid area during recent years for the decreasing water table due to increasing water consumption. In this study, the water table was represented by the distance from soil surface to water surface. Study on the effect of water tables on the ecophysiological characteristics and growth of Ulmus pumila saplings was conducted by a short-term experiment. Saplings at water tables of -5 (under water, 3, 9, 15 and 22 cm were abbreviated as U-5, U3, U9, U15 and U22. Present results indicated that water table did affect the ecophysiological and growth response of U. pumila. All U-5 died after one week. U9 and U15 had higher net photosynthesis rates than those of U3 and U22. The diurnal mean transpiration rate of U3 was significantly lower than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. The diurnal mean stomatal resistance of U3 was significantly higher than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. U22 had the highest increment in main root length and there was good correlation between water level and main root length. U15 had the highest increment in stem height. Maintaining proper water table would result in higher net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, plant height and root length, but relative lower transpiration rate for U. pumila saplings. These results would have implications for water management at arid and semi-arid area for vegetation survival and regeneration. Seedlings and saplings should not be submerged for a long time during irrigating. Ecophysiological measurements can indicate the underground water table. Maintaining proper underground water table at arid and semi-arid area would be helpful to the growth of plant species and vegetation.

  7. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Jiao Tang; Carlos A. Busso; Deming Jiang; Yongcui Wang; Dafu Wu; Ala Musa; Renhui Miao; Chunping Miao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm), an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents) results showed that seed burial depths, soil water ...

  8. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  9. A study of airborne Ulmaceae pollen in Modena (northern Italy).

    Torri, P; Accorsi, C A; Bandini Mazzanti, M; Zagni, A M

    1997-01-01

    We examined Ulmaceae airborne pollen at the Modena-Geophysical Observatory monitoring station in 1993. The pollen trap was placed 15 m above the ground. 365 daily slides were fully analyzed to obtain daily and bi-hourly pollen concentrations. Morphological analysis on native and introduced Ulmaceae pollen was also conducted between February 3rd and May 17th. Five pollen types were identified: Celtis cf. australis, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus cf. laevis, Ulmus cf. minor, and Ulmus minor/laevis. Pollen concentrations and percentages showed that the Elm family contributed little pollen to the air (about 1% of the total pollen recorded), Ulmus and Celtis being 0.9% and 0.04%, respectively. The maximum levels were 30 p/m3/24 hr and 118 p/m3/ 2 hr (Ulmus) and 4 p/m3/24 hr and 13 p/m3/2 hr (Celtis). The highest levels of Ulmus were during the morning and afternoon, while the afternoon was highest for Celtis. In general, Ulmaceae trees appear worth planting in urban areas, but Celtis pollen should also be monitored at human height. PMID:9276007

  10. Genome size estimations on Ulmus minor Mill., Ulmus glabra Huds., and Celtis australis L. using flow cytometry.

    Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Gomes, A; Santos, C

    2007-07-01

    The Ulmaceae family is composed of nearly 2000 species widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Despite their wide distribution area, there are only four native species in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work the genome size of three of those species (ULMUS MINOR, U. GLABRA, and CELTIS AUSTRALIS) was estimated using flow cytometry. The nuclear DNA content of C. AUSTRALIS was estimated as 2.46 +/- 0.061 pg/2C, of U. MINOR as 4.25 +/- 0.158 pg/2C, and of U. GLABRA as 4.37 +/- 0.103 pg/2C of DNA. No statistically significant differences were detected among individuals of the same species. These species revealed to be problematic for flow cytometric analyses, due to the release of mucilaginous compounds into the nuclear suspension. Despite that, the modified protocol here presented ensured high quality analyses (low coefficient of variation and background debris and nuclear fluorescence stability), opening good perspectives on its application to estimate the genome size of species with similar problems. PMID:17642035

  11. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  12. Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations

    Heidi Hirsch; Catherina Wypior; Henrik von Wehrden; Karsten Wesche; Daniel Renison; Isabell Hensen

    2012-01-01

    Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phen...

  13. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai Upregulates Eosinophils and Suppresses Th1 and Th17 Cells in the Small Intestine

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jeun, Eun Ji; Kim, Chan; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Kwang-Seong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Jang, Young Pyo; Ahn, Kyoo-Seok; Kim, You-Me; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2013-01-01

    The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae) has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP), spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE) to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4+ versus CD8+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24116141

  14. Proposal to Reject the Name Ulmus Campestris L. (Ullmaceae)

    The name Ulmus campestris has nomenclatural priority over U. glabra and technically should be the correct name for the wych elm under the international rules of botanical nomenclature. The name Ulmus campestris has a very confused history, having been used for three different elm species in the past...

  15. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Ze; AHMAD, SYAHIDA

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila ...

  16. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  17. Chloroplast analysis of Zelkova schneideriana (Ulmaceae): genetic diversity, population structure, and conservation implications.

    Liu, H L; Zhang, R Q; Geng, M L; Zhu, J Y; An, J C; Ma, J L

    2016-01-01

    Zelkova schneideriana is endemic to China and belongs to the Ulmaceae. It is listed as a Near Threatened species in the China Biodiversity Red Data Book. We conducted a phylogeographical study of two chloroplast regions (psbA-trnH and trnG-trnM) in several Chinese Z. schneideriana populations, in order to examine the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary history of the species. In all, 10 haplotypes were detected. The population from Sangzhi, Hunan, had the highest nucleotide diversity (ŌÄ = 0.00653) and haplotype diversity (HD = 1.000), and should be considered the most suitable population to be protected under an in situ conservation strategy. Seed collections from as many individuals as possible in other populations would preserve the genetic diversity of Z. schneideriana. PMID:26910007

  18. [FTIR spectra of endangered plants Ulmus elongata and its correlation to soil nitrogen].

    Zhang, Zhi-xiang; Liu, Peng; Kang, Hua-jing; Liao, Cheng-chuan; Pan, Cheng-chun; Li, Cheng-hui

    2008-06-01

    Ulmus elongata, an endemic species in China, is one of the grade II national key conservation rare and endangered plants. The spectra of root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata sampled from eight different sites were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. A positioning technology of OMNIC E.S.P. 5.1 intelligent software and ATR correction was used. The background was scanned before the determination of every example. The peak value and absorbance were ascertained using a method of baseline correction in infrared spectra, and then the relativity between absorption peaks of the spectra and the soil nitrogen was analyzed. Results from the comparison of the spectra showed some differences in their FTIR spectra among root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata from the same plant. The coefficients of correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil nitrogen were positive in different degrees. There was the significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of stem and total nitrogen (p statistic significance was not significant (p > 0.05). It was showed that the change in soil total nitrogen has some influence on chemical composition of different organs of Ulmus elongata, but the degree of available nitrogen was very smaller. The linear correlation between soil total nitrogen and organs chemical composition of Ulmus elongate, not only provided the theoretic basis for plant nutriology and nutrient ecology of Ulmus elongate, but also proved that the plants and soil were inseparable. The results also showed that FTIR can be used widely for analysis of the correlation between chemical composition of endangered plants and soil physical and chemical properties in the future, and indicated that the new method has practicability and reliability to a certain degree. PMID:18800699

  19. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in Northeastern China

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern, China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and aggregated patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ? DBH ? 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm ? DBH ? 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in class 1, class 2 and class 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, in distances larger than 67.72 m there were a negative association between class 1 and class 2, which was also the case between class 2 and class 3 and between class 1 and class 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only with distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of Northern China.

  20. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ‚ȧ DBH ‚ȧ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  1. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in Northeastern China

    Zhang, M; Wu, J.; Y. Tang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern, China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and aggregated patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ‚ȧ DB...

  2. Functional response of Ulmus minor Mill. to drought, flooding and dutch elm disease

    Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Ulmus minor es una especie arbórea originaria de Europa cuyas poblaciones han sido diezmadas por el hongo patógeno causante de la enfermedad de la grafiosis. La conservación de los olmos exige plantearse su propagación a través de plantaciones y conocer mejor su ecología y biología. Ulmus minor es un árbol de ribera, pero frecuentemente se encuentra alejado del cauce de arroyos y ríos, donde la capa freática sufre fuertes oscilaciones. Por ello, nuestra hipótesis general es que esta especie e...

  3. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280‚ÄČmg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  4. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Aldo Gava; Joelma Lucioli; Fernando Henrique Furlan; Maurício Buss Leal; Sandra Davi Traverso

    2010-01-01

    Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae), uma √°rvore com nome comum de grandi√ļva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de v√≠sceras foram coletadas para exame histol√≥gico. As principais altera√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabe√ßa apoiada contra obst√°culos, dec√ļbito e morte. Achados macrosc√≥picos inclu√≠ram sufus√Ķes no epic√°rdio e endoc√°rdio; f√≠gado levemente amarelado e com padr...

  5. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400‚ÄČmg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17ő≤-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  6. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  7. Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells

    Lim Bora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.

  8. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women's health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have be...

  9. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan, Karimi; Hawa ZE, Jaafar; Ali, Ghasemzadeh; Mahdi, Ebrahimi.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty a [...] cids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant revealed that L. pumila var. alata contained higher anti-oxidative activities compared to var. pumila and var. lanceolata. However, these values were lower than the tested anti-oxidant standards. On the other hand, the aqueous leaf extracts in all three varieties of L. pumila were also found to inhibit a variable degree of antibacterial activities against eight bacteria (four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was observed the leaves of three varieties of L. pumila exhibited variable patterns of fatty acids and the microwave aqueous extraction possess anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.

  10. Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae) on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions

    Sadeghi, S. E.; J. Khajehali; B. Hatami; A. Mazaheri

    2007-01-01

    Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites) were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9¬Ī0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6¬Ī0....

  11. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents.

    Manda, Vamshi K; Dale, Olivia R; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women's health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

  12. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Yu-Ling Ho; Shang-Chih Lai; Yuan-Shiun Chang; Wen-Huang Peng; Chun-Pin Kao; Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH). Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by ?-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH s...

  13. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents

    VamshikrishnaManda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

  14. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MINERALS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Labisia pumila var. alata OF SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS

    Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Ade Chandra Iwansyah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationships between physic-chemical, mineral and antioxidant properties of water-soluble extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata are proposed. A wide range of analytical parameters were studied including physic-chemical viz., proximate composition, yield, pH, total solid, total acidity, solubility; minerals content (Ca, Fe, and Zn) and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, and Pb); total phenolic content (TPC), tannin content, gallic acid (GA) content, and free scavenging activity of DPPH ...

  16. Morfologia do půlen anemůfilo e alergisante no Brasil: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae (I Morphology of the anemophilous and allergenic pollen grains in Brazil

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi iniciado um catŠlogo da morfologia policlŪnica das epťcies anemůfilas e das causadoras de alergias, ocorrentes no Brasil. Nesta primeira parte foram examinados os gr„os de půlen das Angiospermas consideradas menos evoluŪdas, correspondendo ŗs seguintes FamŪlias: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae. O catŠlogo seguirŠ a ordem filogenťtica dos vegetais superiores.A catalogue of pollen morphology from the anemophilous species in Brazil, specially the allergenic ones, is beginning with this paper. In this first article the pollen grain morphology of the less developed angiosperm families, like Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae has been examined. The catalogue will follow the phyllogenetic lines of the plant families.

  17. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  18. First Record of a Hyalid Species, Protohyale pumila (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalidae, from Korea

    Myung-Hwa Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hyalid amphipod, Protohyale pumila (Hiwatari and Kajihara, 1981, collected from Jeju Island is reported for the first time in the Korean fauna. The species is characterized by the presence of a short apical spine on the palp article 4 of maxilliped, a distinctly large and blunt cusp on the propodus of male gnathopod 1, and a distal truncate process on the palm of male gnathopod 2. Herein, the present species is described and illustrated. Korean hyalid amphipods now are composed of four species belonging to three genera. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Marine Arthropod Depository Bank of Korea, Seoul National University.

  19. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma √°rvore com nome comum de grandi√ļva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de v√≠sceras foram coletadas para exame histol√≥gico. As principais altera√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabe√ßa apoiada contra obst√°culos, dec√ļbito e morte. Achados macrosc√≥picos inclu√≠ram sufus√Ķes no epic√°rdio e endoc√°rdio; f√≠gado levemente amarelado e com padr√£o lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hep√°tica, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compat√≠vel com hepatopatia t√≥xica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefa√ß√£o neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagn√≥stico de intoxica√ß√£o por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro cl√≠nico e lesional de hepatite t√≥xica associado ao uso da planta para alimenta√ß√£o de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandi√ļva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  20. Comparative patterns of genetic variation among populations of the Zamia pumila L. complex across three islands of the Greater Antilles

    The Zamia pumila L. complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) is a distinctive, monophyletic, diploid (2n =16) assemblage of populations restricted to the West Indies and southeastern U. S. (Florida) that is currently considered to encompass either a single polymorphic, or nine distinct species. We are extensi...

  1. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in Northeastern China

    Zhang, M; Wu, J.; Y. Tang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern, China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and aggregated patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ‚ȧ DB...

  2. Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions

    S. E. Sadeghi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9¬Ī0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6¬Ī0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6¬Ī17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26¬Ī0.6 and 29.4¬Ī0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6¬Ī8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067¬Ī0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5¬Ī0.4 and 102.7¬Ī3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (őĽ (female/female/day was 1.006¬Ī0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

  3. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Ehsan Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  6. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Nadia Mohd Effendy; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for womenís health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several ...

  7. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

  8. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  9. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  10. Pre-dispersal Seed Predation by a Granivorous Bird, the Masked Grosbeak (Eophona personata, in Two Bird-dispersed Ulmaceae Species

    Tetsuro Yoshikawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird, the masked grosbeak (Eophona personata,Fringillidae, was investigated in two bird-dispersed trees, Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera (Ulmaceae.The objectives of this study were to 1 measure direct damage of predation by grosbeaks on plant crops, 2reveal the temporal pattern of predation within each tree species and its causal factors, and 3 test whetherforaging grosbeaks hinder foraging of frugivorous birds, thereby indirectly impacting the reproduction of both treespecies. A substantial amount of fruit and seed crop was consumed by grosbeaks (24.3% in Celtis; 55.5% inAphananthe, and only 17.7% (Celtis and 16.7% (Aphananthe were removed by frugivorous birds. At the studysite, the grosbeak population size fluctuated greatly during the fruiting seasons of both plant species. As forCeltis, predated seed density also fluctuated temporally, and the local population size of grosbeaks was responsiblefor predated seed density. In Aphananthe, predation was not fully explained by grosbeak populationsor plant phenology, but its peak coincided with that of grosbeak population. These results suggest that predispersalseed predation by granivorous birds can have large negative impacts on the bird-dispersed plants.Changes in local population size of granivorous birds can influence predatation and can affect reproductivesuccess of the bird-dispersed plants available to the birds.

  11. The in vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) extract.

    Zaizuhana, Shahrim; Puteri J Noor, M B; Noral'ashikin, Yahya; Muhammad, Hussin; Rohana, A B; Zakiah, I

    2006-12-01

    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:17322824

  12. Adaptive strip sampling in forest inventory of scattered species of Ulmus glabra in Hyrcanian Forests, northern Iran

    MARYAM FAZLOLLAHI MOHAMMADI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fazlollahi Mohammadi M, Ahmadlo F, Keshtiban SM. 2015. Adaptive strip sampling in forest inventory of scattered species of Ulmus glabra in Hyrcanian Forests, northern Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 48-54. Some populations of tree species may be sparse but they are highly geographically clustered. A simple random sample of plots could then yield mainly empty plots. Adaptive Cluster Sampling (ACS is an efficient design for tallying of these populations. Presented study is designed to estimate the abundance of Wych elm (Ulmus glabra as a scattered tree species in mountain forests of Iran. This study looks at design-based methods for a forest inventory survey, with the goal of improving estimation when the target species has a patchy spatial distribution. In particular, we examined the efficiency and feasibility of modified adaptive cluster sampling in combination with strip sampling (SACS as a new sampling design in Hyrcanian forests, Iran for scattered species. To collect data, we recorded a number of 845 trees to represent locations of individuals in a spatially aggregated population by using GPS 60CX model. In overall, results showed that SACS was underestimated in estimating coefficient of variance (CV¬Ķ and (Var¬Ķ while it was overestimated in estimating mean of tree density at all quadrat size except for size 15 m square in compared to conventional strip sampling (CSS. Results evidenced that HH estimator was more efficient than HT ones in estimating mean, (CV¬Ķ and variance (Var¬Ķ in compared to (CSS approach. Practically results of our study using SACS confirmed that, a 15 m square sample size of quadrat with four adjacent units was optimized network size to sampling of such populations. Future studies using SACS may be required, especially, in combine to two-phase sampling strategies when cover of these species is of concern.

  13. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 ◊ 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 Ķmol∑mol?1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 Ķmol∑mol?1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101Ė111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 Ķg∑g?1 DW and pumila (25 Ķg∑g?1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  15. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  16. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of the hybrid. Compared to the Siberian Stone Pine, the Japanese Stone Pine had higher dark respiration rate.The hybrid respiration rate was similar to that of the Japanese Stone Pine suggesting that the hybrid inherited mitochondria from thisspecies. Our findings indicated that the P. pumila exhibited particular ecological plasticity and this phenomenon is attributable to its high potential activity of photosynthetic and respiratory processes. These physiological features explained the large transcontinental naturalhabitat of Japanese Stone Pine.

  17. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium‚Äôs determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and ¬ęa zone source¬Ľ of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  18. Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods

    Trémolières, Michèle; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel; Schmitt, Diane

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

  19. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  20. Impact of genet size and flowering stage on fruit set in Iris pumila L. clones in wild

    Tarasjev, Aleksej

    2005-03-01

    The interplay between vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction in clonal plants affects the fitness of individuals as well as the structure of genetic diversity. The relevance of studies of that interaction depends on how well chosen genotypes and environmental conditions reflect the real situation in natural populations. In order to analyze the relationship between genet size (and consequently its vegetative success) and fruit set (its female reproductive success) under undisturbed natural conditions I utilized 2916 ramets that bear hermaphrodite flowers on 137 naturally growing Iris pumila clones in a protected area of Deliblato Sand, Serbia. The number of flowers (i.e. flowering ramets) served as a fair estimator of genet size and the larger clones produced more fruits than the smaller ones. However, the smaller clones had significantly higher fruit to flower ratio compared to the larger ones and that difference was detectable in later flowering stages of a clone but not in the earlier ones. In the large clones, flowers that opened later had significantly lower fruit to flower ratio. Since the deleterious effect of geitonogamy on fruit set in I. pumila was documented by hand pollinations, the reduction of fruit to flower ratio in more abundant genets and in later flowering stages is most likely the result of increased geitonogamy. That reduction could lead to a different genetic structure in the seed bank compared to the structure in aboveground population, which can imply important ecological and micro-evolutionary consequences.

  1. Coupling deep transcriptome analysis with untargeted metabolic profiling in Ophiorrhiza pumila to further the understanding of the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer alkaloid camptothecin and anthraquinones.

    Yamazaki, Mami; Mochida, Keiichi; Asano, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Chiba, Motoaki; Udomson, Nirin; Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Goodenowe, Dayan B; Sankawa, Ushio; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Toyoda, Atsushi; Totoki, Yasushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Gůngora-Castillo, Elsa; Buell, C Robin; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-05-01

    The Rubiaceae species, Ophiorrhiza pumila, accumulates camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid with a potent DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, as well as anthraquinones that are derived from the combination of the isochorismate and hemiterpenoid pathways. The biosynthesis of these secondary products is active in O. pumila hairy roots yet very low in cell suspension culture. Deep transcriptome analysis was conducted in O. pumila hairy roots and cell suspension cultures using the Illumina platform, yielding a total of 2 Gb of sequence for each sample. We generated a hybrid transcriptome assembly of O. pumila using the Illumina-derived short read sequences and conventional Sanger-derived expressed sequence tag clones derived from a full-length cDNA library constructed using RNA from hairy roots. Among 35,608 non-redundant unigenes, 3,649 were preferentially expressed in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. Candidate genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway for the monoterpenoid indole alkaloid camptothecin were identified; specifically, genes involved in post-strictosamide biosynthetic events and genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid. Untargeted metabolomic analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) indicated that most of the proposed intermediates in the camptothecin biosynthetic pathway accumulated in hairy roots in a preferential manner compared with cell suspension culture. In addition, a number of anthraquinones and chlorogenic acid preferentially accumulated in hairy roots compared with cell suspension culture. These results suggest that deep transcriptome and metabolome data sets can facilitate the identification of genes and intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of secondary products including camptothecin in O. pumila. PMID:23503598

  2. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

  3. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberianstone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the lessproductive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structureshowed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with thespecies' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generativecycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo.The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiatedembryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the UpperAngara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however,it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine andSiberian stone pine species occurred.

  4. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 ¬Ķmol mol‚ąí1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 ¬Ķmol mol‚ąí1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 ¬Ķmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 ¬Ķmol mol‚ąí1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 ¬Ķmol mol‚ąí1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  5. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 őľM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (¬Ī3.27 in controls to 65.3% (¬Ī4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 őľM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (¬Ī3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

  6. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    Miljkovińá Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  7. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms has the potential to prevent and/or treat allergic asthma. PMID:26807923

  8. Aboveground biomass relationships for mixed ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus glabra Hudson) stands in Eastern Prealps of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

    Alberti, Giorgio; Candido, Patrick; Peressotti, Alessandro; Turco, Sheera; Piussi, Pietro; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Biomasse a√©rienne chez des peuplements m√©lang√©s de fr√™ne (Fraxinus excelsior L. et Ulmus glabra Hudson) dans les Pr√©alpes de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie). Environ 5¬†% de la surface foresti√®re de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie) est constitu√©e de peuplements de fr√™ne en m√©lange avec d'autres essences. Dans la plupart des cas, ce sont des for√™ts secondaires install√©es sur des p√Ęturages et des prairies au cours des cinquante derni√®res ann√©es. Elles constituent une importante ressource √©conomique...

  9. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited signiÔ¨Ācantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (…ł and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  10. The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila

    Gili, Josep Maria, 1953-; Rossi, Sergio; Hughes, R G

    2000-01-01

    The spatial distribution patterns of two species of epiphytic hydrozoans, Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila, on the intertidal alga Ascophyllum nodosum were studied in adjacent wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas. Clava were more abundant on the wave-sheltered algae than on the wave-exposed fronds, and in both areas occupied the basal and middle sections of the algae. There was no difference in the abundance of Dynamena between the wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas, but in both area...

  11. Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records

    Hammarlund, Dan; Klimaschewski, Andrea; St. Amour, Natalie A.; Andrén, Elinor; Self, Angela E.; Solovieva, Nadia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Barnekow, Lena; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2015-11-01

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water őī18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in őī18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800 cal yr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in őī18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining őī18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000 cal yr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  12. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women‚Äôs health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 őľg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

  13. Adaptive flexibility of enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT to high light stress: The clonal perennial monocot Iris pumila as a study case.

    Vuleta, Ana; ManitaŇ°evińá Jovanovińá, Sanja; Tucińá, Branka

    2016-03-01

    High solar radiation has been recognized as one of the main causes of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. To remove the excess of ROS, plants use different antioxidants and tune their activity and/or isoform number as required for given light conditions. In this study, the adaptiveness of light-induced variation in the activities and isoform patterns of key enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT was tested in leaves of Iris pumila clonal plants from two natural populations inhabiting a sun exposed dune site and a forest understory, using a reciprocal-transplant experiment. At the exposed habitat, the mean enzymatic activity of total SODs was significantly greater than that in the shaded one, while the amount of the mitochondrial MnSOD was notably higher compared to the plastidic Cu/ZnSOD. However, the number of Cu/ZnSOD isoforms was greater in the forest understory relative to the exposed site (three vs. two, respectively). An inverse relationship recorded between the quantities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in alternative light habitats might indicate that the two enzymes compensate each other in maintaining intracellular ROS and redox balance. The adaptive population differentiation in APX activity was exclusively recorded in the open habitat, which indicated that the synergistic effect of high light and temperature stress could be the principal selective factor, rather than high light alone. The enzymatic activity of CAT was similar between the two populations, implicating APX as the primary H2O2 scavenger in the I. pumila leaves exposed to high light intensity. PMID:26841194

  14. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 Ķmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 Ķmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 Ķmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  15. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 √ó 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signiÔ¨Ācantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  16. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano

    Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gůmez; Michael J., Wynne.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del gťnero por caracterŪsticas como su tamaŮo diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hŠbito decumbente y poco calcificado (epŪfita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificaciůn ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticaciůn y la forma alargada de las cťlulas terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocŠrpicos) y tetraspůricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km≤. However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  17. Toponymic Data Helps to Reveal the Occurrence of Previously Unknown Populations of Wild Zamia pumila L. on Volcanic Substrates in South Central Puerto Rico

    Jaime R. PagŠn-Jimťnez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungŁey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the TaŪnos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought.†

  18. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta, a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    Brigitte Gavio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta, Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length, its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae, its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  19. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose √ļnica, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose √ļnica de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais cl√≠nicos e seis morreram. Os sinais cl√≠nicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas ap√≥s a ingest√£o da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorr√©ia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurol√≥gicos, tais como pressionar a cabe√ßa contra obst√°culos e movimentos laterais da cabe√ßa, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas ap√≥s o t√©rmino da ingest√£o da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no f√≠gado que era fri√°vel com padr√£o lobular acentuado e com √°reas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o f√≠gado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da ves√≠cula biliar foram altera√ß√Ķes adicionais observadas com freq√ľ√™ncia. Rins p√°lidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histol√≥gico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagula√ß√£o massiva associada √† hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram altera√ß√Ķes nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altra√ß√Ķes histol√≥gicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retra√ß√£o de neur√īnios, principalmente no c√≥rtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais cl√≠nicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada n√£o causaram sinais de intoxica√ß√£o.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

  20. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Caroline Argenta Pescador; Edson Moleta Colodel; Cláudio Estêvão Farias da Cruz; David Driemeier

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  1. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose √ļnica, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose √ļnica de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais cl√≠nicos e seis morreram. Os sinais cl√≠nicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas ap√≥s a ingest√£o da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorr√©ia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurol√≥gicos, tais como pressionar a cabe√ßa contra obst√°cul...

  2. Pit membranes in tracheary elements of Rosaceae and related families: new records of tori and pseudotori.

    Jansen, Steven; Sano, Yuzou; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Lens, Frederic; Dute, Roland R

    2007-04-01

    The micromorphology of pits in tracheary elements was examined in 35 species representing 29 genera of Rosaceae and related families to evaluate the assumption that angiosperm pits are largely invariant. In most Rosaceae, pit membranes between fibers and tracheids frequently appear to have amorphous thickenings with an irregular distribution. Although these structures are torus-like under the light microscope, observations by electron microscopy illustrate that they represent "pseudotori" or plasmodesmata-associated thickenings. These thickenings frequently extend from the periphery of the pit membrane and form a cap-like, hollow structure. Pseudotori are occasionally found in few Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae and appear to be related to species with fiber-tracheids and/or tracheids. True tori are strongly associated with round to oval pit apertures and are consistently present in narrow tracheary elements of Cercocarpus (Rosaceae), Planera (Ulmaceae), and ring-porous species of Ulmus and Zelkova (Ulmaceae). Vestured pits with homogenous pit membranes are reported for Hemiptelea (Ulmaceae). The homoplastic nature of pit membrane characteristics may be related to functional adaptations in terms of safety and efficiency of water transport or may reflect different developmental processes of xylem elements. These observations illustrate that there is more variation in angiosperm pits than previously thought. PMID:21636420

  3. Comparative study of rooting of leaf-bud and straight softwood elm cuttings

    Grbi? Mihailo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel propagation tests of nine elm taxa - 6 species (Ulmus americana L., U. chenmoui Cheng, U. japonica (R Sarg., U. laciniata (Tr Mayr, U. laevis Pall. and U. parvifolia Jacq, 2 clones (U. 'Regal', U. 'Sapporo Autumn Gold' and 1 hybrid (U. pumila x japonica, by leaf bud cuttings and standard straignt softwood showed the results which point to the possibility of wider application of leaf bud cuttings. In some elm taxa, leaf bud cuttings can be the main method of propagation, and it can be used as an additional method in other taxa, because the seasonal timing is extended compared to standard cuttings.

  4. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  5. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  6. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan

    2016-02-01

    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  7. Long-term livestock exclusion facilitates native woody plant encroachment in a sandy semiarid rangeland.

    Su, Hua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Hong; Wang, Zongshuai; Zhang, Huifang; Hu, Haixiao; Li, Yonggeng

    2015-06-01

    The role of livestock grazing in regulating woody cover and biomass in grass-dominant systems is well recognized. However, the way in which woody plant populations in respond when livestock are removed from grazing in the absence of other disturbances, such as fire, remains unclear.We conducted a 10-year, replicated fencing experiment in a sandy semiarid rangeland in northern China (which has a mean annual rainfall of 365†mm), where fires have been actively suppressed for decades.Fencing dramatically influenced the growth and age structure of the native tree species, Ulmus pumila, which is the sole dominant tree in the area. After a decade, the density of the U.†pumila tree population in the fencing plots increased doubly and canopy cover increased triply. The proportion of both saplings (U 2 ) and young trees (U 3 ) increased in fencing plots but decreased in grazing plots after the 10-year treatment period. The effects of fencing on U.†pumila trees varied by age class, with potential implications for the future structure of the U.†pumila tree community. Decadal fencing led to approximately 80-fold increase in recruitment and a nearly 2.5-fold decrease in the mortality of both U 2 and U 3 . Further, livestock grazing generated a "browsing trap" to the recruitment of both U 2 and U 3 , and had a small impact on the mortality of old trees. A long-term, fencing-driven shift in woody species composition was mediated via its effects on both recruitment and mortality rates.Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that in the long-term absence of both fire and livestock, native woody plant encroachment tends to occur in sandy rangelands, transforming the woody plant demography in the process. The feasibility of full livestock exclusion in sandy rangelands requires further discussion. A balanced amount of livestock grazing may provide critical ecosystem services by regulating woody cover and mediating woody plant encroachment. PMID:26120433

  8. Inter-species comparisons in Water use with Different water Irrigation Regimes in a Semi-arid area of Korea-Mongolia Greenbelt Plantation

    Cho, S.; Ser-Oddamba, B.; Batkhuu, N. O.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    As an effort to mitigate desertification and to restore desert areas in Mongolia, Korea-Mongolia Green Belt was established to develop a 3000 ha plantation in 2006. Two native tree species, Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila L., have been planted under different irrigation regimes (control, control+2L, control +4L and control +8L) since 2008. To investigate the responses of different tree species to different treatment and the effect of plantation on water balance, intensive field experiments have been carried out in 2013-2014 in Mongolia. The objectives of our study are 1) to investigate whether different irrigation regimes changed the physiological characteristics of tree species, 2) to quantify transpirations and water balance under different irrigation regimes, and 3) to compare the water-use-efficiencies among species and irrigation regimes. We used Granier type thermal dissipation sensor, portable photosynthesis analyzer (Li-Cor 6400) and species and site specific allometric equations for transpiration, photosynthetic characteristics and net primary production, respectively. Our preliminary results show that the transpiration rates of P. sibirica increased with the increase of irrigation amount. For examples, the average water consumption of P. sibirica was 1.87kg/tree under control+2L irrigation and 2.97kg/tree at controal+4L irrigation. However, the transpiration rates of U. pumila were not different among different irrigation regimes; the average transpiration of U. pumila at control+2L was 1.1kg/tree compared to 0.89kg/tree at control+4L. But, photosynthetic characteristic showed similar results, which no apparent response under high irrigation regimes. The water use and carbon assimilation of P. sibirica responded to the water irrigation, however, U. pumila did not show any significant response to added water. Our results show different species respond differently to irrigation regimes, and this would lead to different effects on water balance. Therefore, species consideration is necessary for the restoration of desert area.

  9. Conservation of threatened relict trees through living ex situ collections: lessons from the global survey of the genus Zelkova (Ulmaceae)

    Kozlowski, Gregor; Gibbs, Douglas; Huan, Fan; Frey, David; Gratzfeld, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining living ex situ collections is one of the key conservation methods in botanic gardens worldwide. Despite of the existence of many other conservation approaches used nowadays, it offers for many endangered plants an important insurance policy for the future, especially for rare and threatened relict trees. The aim of this research was to investigate the global extent of living ex situ collections, to assess and discuss their viability and inform the development of conservation appro...

  10. Protoplast isolation from Ulmus americana l. Pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores

    Redenbaugh, M.K.; Westfall, R.D.; Karnosky, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Meiotic protoplasts of U. amerciana are potentially valuable for producing interspecific elm hybrids through protoplast fusion. Meiotic cells(pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores) were incubated in either a cellulase, hemicellylase and pectinase enzyme solution of a beta-1,3-glucanase (lainarinase) solution. Respective protoplast isolation frequencies for the three meiotic cell types were 100, 50, and 10%. Exclusion staining with 0.2% Evans blue and 0.1% methyl blue suggested protoplast viability. Some of the microspore protoplasts were vacuolated, which is an important condition for cell division. Although attempts of regenerating cell walls and inducing cell division were unsuccessful, these two problems may be superceded by protoplast fusion with more regenerative protoplasts.

  11. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents. PMID:27097433

  12. Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal

    Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

  13. Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Stiuso, Paola; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2013-10-15

    The capacities of polyphenolic extracts from Annurca apple peel and flesh to inhibit the glucose and cholesterol uptake by HepG2 cells were evaluated, and compared with those of other conventional cultivars, such as Red Delicious (RD), Pink Lady (PL), Fuji (F) and Golden Delicious (GD). RD peels exhibited the best hypoglycaemic effects, while Annurca flesh appeared the most active in reducing cell cholesterol uptake among the cultivars tested. The influence of the apple polyphenolic extracts on the cell proliferation and oxidative stress was also evaluated. Particularly, RD, Annurca and PL peels decreased proliferation by a 62.5%, 48.0% and 37.5%, respectively, probably due to their prooxidant capacity. Conversely, flesh extracts appeared more protective of cells than peels: Annurca and RD, particularly, proved to be able of increasing proliferation by a 32.2% and 11.1%, respectively, probably due to their capacity of reducing cell physiological radical levels of a 33.3% and 19.9%, respectively. PMID:23692744

  14. Anti-proliferative effect of Ficus pumila Linn. on human leukemic cell lines

    Christopher Larbie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that crude extracts of FPS and FPL have anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells. The antioxidant properties of the plant including phenolics may be partly responsible for the anti-proliferative activity. Further studies are required to isolate chemical components of the plant and establish their anti-proliferative activities and mechanism of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 330-336

  15. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    A.P. Zotikova; G. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to i...

  16. Biological Flora of Central Europe: Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina

    Eckstein, R. L.; H√∂lzel, N.; Danihelka, JiŇô√≠

    2006-01-01

    Rońć. 8, - (2006), s. 45-66. ISSN 1433-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ecology * species biology * Viola persicifolia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  18. Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trac ... (bittersweet family) Euonymus fortunei, Vitaceae (grape ... family) Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Rubiaceae (ma ...

  19. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yata?an basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; GŁner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Mu?la province, western Turkey). In the Yata?an basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yata?an Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the SekkŲy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yata?an basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae, Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yata?an basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  20. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  1. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

  2. Integración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica

    P. Castro-Díez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto en Espa√Īa como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas ex√≥ticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gesti√≥n de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las m√°s nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistem√°ticas y comparables de su impacto. La informaci√≥n disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto dif√≠cil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente m√©todo para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1 B√ļsqueda de casos de estudio, 2 c√°lculo de tama√Īos del efecto; 3 clasificaci√≥n de los casos por nivel de organizaci√≥n, 4 integraci√≥n de los tama√Īos del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con t√©cnicas de meta-an√°lisis, y 5 estima de un √≠ndice de fiabilidad (basado en el n√ļmero de casos y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos. Aplicamos este m√©todo para estimar los impactos en Espa√Īa de tres √°rboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad fueron los m√°s estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo est√°n menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodolog√≠a propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicaci√≥n est√° limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio.

  3. Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes

    R.R. Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A esp√©cie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent √© popularmente conhecida como espor√£o de galo ou gr√£o de galo. As folhas s√£o indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, c√≥licas, m√° digest√£o e como diur√©tico; as ra√≠zes s√£o utilizadas para infec√ß√Ķes urin√°rias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoqu√≠mico e atividade fitot√≥xica com enfoque alelop√°tico das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etan√≥lico foi submetido √† parti√ß√£o com os solventes hexano, clorof√≥rmio e acetato de etila. As subst√Ęncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos foram isoladas da fra√ß√£o hexano e identificadas por meio de m√©todos espectrosc√≥picos de RMN de ¬ĻH e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentra√ß√£o de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibi√ß√£o acentuada do hipoc√≥tilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da rad√≠cula em 29,64% de pl√Ęntulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente √† Artemia salina o extrato bruto e fra√ß√Ķes apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 őľg mL-1, indicando que o mesmo n√£o possui efeito t√≥xico.The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent is popularly known as "espor√£o de galo" or "gr√£o de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infections and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¬ĻH and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 őľg mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

  4. In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2013-12-15

    The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:23993515

  5. Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)

    Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

  6. Formulasi Gel Hair Tonic Ekstrak Kulit Buah Apel (Malus pumila Mill.) Dan Uji Aktivitas Pertumbuhan Rambut Marmut

    Margaretha, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background : The function of hair are beutifying and making people more confident. Characteristic features of healthy hair are shiny and unwrinkled. Hair Tonic is a cosmetic which compound of chemicals or other ingredients used to strengthen and to improve growing. Apple’s rind contains procyanidin B-2 which is helpful for hair growth can improve hair follicle growth activity and stimulate hair cycle from telogen phase to anagen phase by lowering kinase C protein level inside cytocol. Purp...

  7. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70‚Äď97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (őĒ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  8. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven , Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 (ycf9) gene, parti ...

  10. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  11. Evaluation of trees and shrubs for oil sands reclamation: field trial results

    1987-01-01

    This project was initiated to select suitable tree and shrub species for use in revegetating spoils and tailings resulting from oil sand mining in Alberta. As part of this program, three field trials were established to test one or more provenances (seed sources) of promising native and exotic woody species. The trial site was prepared to simulate an oil sands reclamation situation. Overburden and peat were hauled to the site from Syncrude's mining lease and incorporated in native sand. The resulting soil was alkaline (pH 7.5), non-saline, and low in available N, P, and K, with no fertilizers added. All species were outplanted as one- or two-year-old container stock. All seed used to rear the native species was collected from local populations. Survival rates were high for most species. Girdling damage by small mammals was almost nonexistent, probably because of fine-mesh fencing installed around the test site. Populus Northwest and P. Tristis number1 were the tallest and fastest growing species. Among the native species, Pinus banksiana was the tallest and fastest growing. Several other species also performed well and may be suitable for oil sands reclamation, such as caragana, spruces, and Populus Brooks number6. Some gave mediocre or inconsistent performances, including birches, Populus Walker, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. The remaining species were failures and may not be adapted to the test site environment, including Alnus tenuifolia/crispa, Populus tremuloides, Rosa woodsii, willows, and Ulmus pumila. The few significant differences found among provenances for any of the native species suggests that genotypic differences were small among the populations tested. 10 refs., 1 fig., 13 tabs.

  12. An√°lisis de la invasi√≥n del h√°bitat ribere√Īo por tres √°rboles ex√≥ticos en Espa√Īa

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasi√≥n de las especies ex√≥ticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en h√°bitats ribere√Īos espa√Īoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los r√≠os Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del r√≠o Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intenci√≥n de determinar el grado de invasi√≥n de cada zona y especie, as√≠ como las caracter√≠sticas de los rodales y de los h√°bitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anot√≥ el origen (plantado/espont√°neo, tama√Īo, densidad y caracter√≠sticas del h√°bitat (bi√≥ticas, abi√≥ticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasi√≥n fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antr√≥pica y densidad de fuentes de prop√°gulos. Cada especie present√≥ un mayor grado de invasi√≥n en una zona diferente. Los rodales espont√°neos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son peque√Īos comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en h√°bitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antr√≥pica, pero tambi√©n pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arb√≥rea. Las diferentes condiciones del h√°bitat en que se plantaron las especies y el h√°bitat donde se naturalizan podr√≠an explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersi√≥n utilizados por cada una.

  13. Comparison of relative illuminance, relative photosynthetic photon flux and relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation in apple [Malus pumila] tree canopy

    Relative light intensities in an apple (Malus domestice Borkh.) tree canopy were determined by measuring light quantity: Photometrically (illuminance, lx), radiometrically (radiation, W. m-2), and in quantum terms (photosynthetic photon flux, mumol. m-2. s-1). There was a strong positive correlation between relative illuminance and relative photosynthetic photon flux, measured on an overcast day. Relative photosynthetic photon flux was, however, 6.0 % higher than relative illuminance. A strong correlation was also found between relative illuminance and relative cumulative photosynthetic photon for one day; the latter was higher by 6.7 % on an overcast day and 6.8 % on a clear day. There was a strong positive correlation between the relative cumulative photosynthetic photon and the relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation for one day, while that of relative cumulative photosynthetic photon was 11 % lower than relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation

  14. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it

  15. Apple (Malus pumila) procyanidins fractionated according to the degree of polymerization using normal-phase chromatography and characterized by HPLC-ESI/MS and MALDI-TOF/MS.

    Shoji, Toshihiko; Masumoto, Saeko; Moriichi, Nina; Kanda, Tomomasa; Ohtake, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-13

    Our previously reported method for the fractionation of apple procyanidins was modified successfully to achieve the separation of (epi)catechins and procyanidins (ranging from dimers to octamers) according to the degree of polymerization. Normal-phase chromatography was employed, using a hexane-methanol-ethyl acetate mixture as the mobile phase. Each fraction was characterized using high-performance liquid-chromatography electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). This method will be useful for the evaluation of the physiological functions of proanthocyanidins and for the elucidation of their individual structures. PMID:16313915

  16. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Geosmithia species on European elms

    Pepori, A.L.; KolaŇô√≠k, Miroslav; Bettini, P.P.; Vettraino, A.M.; Santini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Rońć. 119, ńć. 11 (2015), s. 1063-1074. ISSN 1878-6146 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Geosmithia spp. * Geosmithia omnicola * Geosmithia ulmacea Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  17. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored. PMID:26071680

  18. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Surender Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, anal...

  19. fRNAdb Summary: FR293939 [

    Full Text Available FR293939 AC004708,AC006837,AF055192,AF055193,AF055194,AF055195,AF055196,AF055201,AF100679,AF1006 ... ungiella salsuginea,Olimarabidopsis pumila,Eutrema wasabi ,Olimarabidopsis cabulica,Arabidopsis halleri subsp ...

  20. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers

    Paulsen, E; Skov, Per Stahl; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    Schlumbergera cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high...

  1. Population biology of rare plants : the effects of ecological and genetic processes for the growth and viability of populations of three endangered floodplain violets

    Eckstein, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This work contains studies on various aspects of the population biology of the congeneric plants Viola elatior Fries, V. pumila Chaix and V. stagnina Kit.. These are endangered and red listed in many countries. They show a continental distribution range. In Central Europe the species reach their western range margin. These violets have a complex life-cycle, a mixed mating system with chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers and a persistent seed bank. Viola pumila and V. stagnina o...

  2. Celtisanin, a novel sulphonated phenolic from Celtis australis L. fruits.

    Badoni, Ruchi; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Rawat, Usha; Singh, Gur Jas Preet

    2010-08-01

    A novel sulphonated phenolic named celtisanin, elucidated as 3-[8'-hydroxy-prop-6'-ene-6'-yl]-5-hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2-[penta-1',4'-diene-1'-yl-5'-sulphonic acid]-5,6-dihydrobenzofuran, has been isolated from the fruits of Celtis australis (Ulmaceae), together with three known compounds: apigenin, quercetin and its glucoside. Their structures were characterised by means of chemical and spectral methods, including advanced 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. PMID:20645217

  3. Contribution to the biosystematics of Celtis L. (Celtidaceae) with special emphasis on the African species

    Sattarian, A.

    2006-01-01

    CeltisL. (Celtidaceae, earlier part of the Ulmaceae) is a genus mainly of tree species, which has its natural distribution in Africa, the Mediterranean region, Asia, North and South America, and northernAustralia. Outside this natural distribution various species are planted in temperate areas, but they occur in many different ecological habitats, tropical and temperate regions in all continents. Some species are ornamental; some are used for timber and reforestation.This thesis is focused on...

  4. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Caribbean Zamia clade: an integrated systematic approach with SSRs and single copy nuclear genes

    The Zamia pumila L. complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) is a monophyletic, diploid (2n = 16) and distinctive assemblage of cycad populations restricted to the West Indies and southeastern U. S. that has been treated as comprising one to nine species. Our research project seeks to simultaneously investi...

  5. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  6. Variation in life-cycle between three rare and endangered floodplain violets in two regions: implications for population viability and conservation

    Eckstein, R. L.; Danihelka, JiŇô√≠; Otte, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rońć. 64, ńć. 1 (2009), s. 69-80. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA M҆k LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Viola elatior * Viola pumila * Viola stagnina Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  7. Post-emergence weed control through abrasion with an approved organic fertilizer

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is an approved organic fertilizer and preemergence herbicide that can be manufactured in the form of grit. This grit was tested for its ability to abrade seedlings of the summer annual weedy grass, Setaria pumila, when plants were in the 1- to 5-leaf stages of growth. It was p...

  8. fRNAdb Summary: FR183814 [

    Full Text Available FR183814 AF110534,AF110535,AF110536,AF110537,AF110539,AF110540,AF110542,AF110543,AF110545,AF1105 ... ium graveolens,Conium maculatum,Pseudorlaya pumila,Laser pitium siler,Scandix pecten-veneris,Crithmum mariti ... lica sylvestris,Bifora radians,Cymopterus globosus,Laser pitium hispidum,Lomatium californicum,Thaspium trif ...

  9. The coontie’s new clothes: asymmetric genetic diversification within Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) on Puerto Rico, and an hypothesis of multiple introductions

    Three distinctive Zamia species occur on Puerto Rico: Z. erosa on the north coast, and Z. portoricensis and Z. pumila, both in the south. Their relationships are largely unknown. We tested an hypothesis of multiple introductions and explored whether the three species show divergent patterns of ge...

  10. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embri√Ķes a partir de cruzamentos interespec√≠ficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 ¬ĶM IAA, 5 ¬ĶM kinetin and 1.5 ¬ĶM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embri√Ķes imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de poliniza√ß√£o e coloc√°-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com √°gar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de case√≠na (500 mg L-1. Embri√Ķes originados do cruzamento interespec√≠fico dirigido e de poliniza√ß√£o aberta mostraram diferen√ßas significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferen√ßas quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto √† fase de desenvolvimento do embri√£o e √† composi√ß√£o do meio de cultura. Embri√Ķes do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da poliniza√ß√£o e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com √°cido indolac√©tico (AIA, √°cido giber√©lico (GA3, cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Por√©m, foi observada alta porcentagem de embri√Ķes oxidados (96,2%, originados de poliniza√ß√£o dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 ¬ĶM de AIA, 5 ¬ĶM de cinetina e 1,5 ¬ĶM de GA3 (MS1, principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embri√Ķes de poliniza√ß√£o aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi poss√≠vel identificar a influ√™ncia do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brota√ß√Ķes de M. pumila derivada de poliniza√ß√£o aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de esp√©cies responsivas e o uso da t√©cnica de cultura de embri√£o promoveram germina√ß√£o r√°pida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais.

  11. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other...

  12. Environ: E00505 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00505 Grinded paste of Ulmus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf Ulmi pasta Crude drug U ... mus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf (in time ... mud) left for several days to rot and ferment, sha ...

  13. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  14. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, CŪntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

    2004-09-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region. PMID:15334253

  15. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  16. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Tr√™s novas esp√©cies de Loricaria s√£o descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de √°guas brancas e pretas da bacia Amaz√īnica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das √°guas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi √© simp√°trica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas tamb√©m √© conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odont√≥deos hipertrofiados formando cristas consp√≠cuas nas superf√≠cies dorsal da cabe√ßa e placas pr√©-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o op√©rculo da √≠ris, e um padr√£o √ļnico de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas esp√©cies s√£o pequenas entre Loricaria, alcan√ßando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padr√£o, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dim√≥rficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais √ļnico e presen√ßa de grandes odont√≥deos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabe√ßa. Loricaria pumila √© a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcan√ßando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padr√£o. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combina√ß√£o √ļnica de configura√ß√£o das placas abdominais, cabe√ßa larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as tr√™s novas esp√©cies apresentam graus variados de redu√ß√£o de tamanho do olho e pigmenta√ß√£o distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da Am√©rica do Sul.

  17. Biocatalytic asymmetric formation of tetrahydro-ő≤-carbolines

    BERNHARDT, PETER; Usera, Aimee R.; O'Connor, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    Strictosidine synthase triggers the formation of strictosidine from tryptamine and secologanin, thereby generating a carbon-carbon bond and a new stereogenic center. Strictosidine contains a tetrahydro-ő≤-carboline moiety ‚ąí an important N-heterocyclic framework found in a range of natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Stereoselective methods to produce tetrahydro-ő≤-carboline enantiomers are greatly valued. We report that strictosidine synthase from Ophiorrhiza pumila utilizes a range...

  18. A new species of castilleja (orobanchaceae) from the p√°ramos of the colombian eastern cordillera, with comments on its association with plantago rigida (plantaginaceae)

    FAVIO GONZ√ĀLEZ; NATALIA PAB√ďN-MORA

    2013-01-01

    Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically similar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relativ...

  19. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    Muhajir Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ő≤-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  20. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    Muhajir Hamid; Siti Pauliena Mohd Bohari; Mohd Saufi Bastami; Abdul Manaf Ali; Nik Musa`adah Mustapha; Khozirah Shari

    2008-01-01

    In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ő≤-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promis...

  1. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake of woody angiosperm seedlings

    Noland, T.L.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake varied with SO/sub 2/ dosage and plant species. Fumigation of Ulmus americana L. seedlings with 1 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 h inhibited stomatal closure and fumigation with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 12 h induced stomatal closure. Sulfur uptake of fumigated Ulmus americana seedlings depended on stomatal aperture and was much higher in the light than in the dark. Fumigation of water-stressed Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 6.5 h tended to prevent stomatal closure. However, the effects of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture were modulated and often overridden by environmental stresses such as low light intensity and drought.

  2. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  3. Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul

    Acatay, A.

    1968-01-01

    As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

  4. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  5. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanůlicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller

    Italo Chiffelle; Amanda Huerta; Fernando Azķa; Karla Puga; JAIME E. ARAYA

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their eff...

  6. Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Breuil Colette; Hamelin Richard; Burgess Steven; Jacobi Volker; de la Bastide Paul; Pinchback Michael; Hintz William; Bernier Louis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana) in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Op...

  7. The role of cytokinins during micropropagation of wych elm

    Mal√°, J.; M√°chov√°, P.; Cvrńćkov√°, H.; Karady, M. (Michal); Nov√°k, O.; Mikul√≠k, J. (Jarom√≠r); Dost√°l, J.; Strnad, M.; DoleŇĺal, K. (Karel)

    2013-01-01

    We have compared the influence of two aromatic cytokinin derivatives, N (6)-benzyladenine (BA) and meta-topolin (mT), on the in vitro multiplication and senescence of wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.). After 3 months of cultivation, the micropropagation rate was higher (approx. six times more shoots developed) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with mT than on MS supplemented with BA. Quantification of 50 endogenous cytokinins, using a recently developed UPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS method, sho...

  8. Evidence of sexual reproduction of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, in New Zealand

    Sandanayaka, W.R.M.; Bus, V.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), can take place parthenogenetically or sexually when both host plants, apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and elm (Ulmus americana L.) are available. Since elm is not commonly grown in New Zealand, E. lanigerum, a major pest of apple, is thought to reproduce only parthenogenetically here. During our studies between 1999 and 2003, different morphs of E. lanigerum have been observed on apple trees, which were studied in more deta...

  9. Presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South Florida native plants.

    Fisher, Jack B; Jayachandran, K

    2005-11-01

    The roots of 27 species of South Florida plants in 15 families (including one cycad, six palms, one Smilax, and 19 dicotyledons) native to pine rockland and tropical hardwood hammock communities were examined for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These plants grow in the biologically diverse but endangered Greater Everglades habitat. Roots from field-grown and potted plants were cleared and stained. All 27 species had AMF and include 14 species having an endangered or threatened status. The Paris-type colonization occurred in two species in the families Annonaceae and Smilacaceae. The Arum-type occurred in 22 species in the families Anacardiaceae, Arecaceae (Palmae), Boraginaceae, Cactaceae (questionable), Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae, Melastomataceae, Polygalaceae, Rubiaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ulmaceae, and Zamiaceae. Three species in the families Fabaceae, Lauraceae, and Simaroubaceae had a mix of Paris- and Arum-types. The results have implications for the restoration of these endangered plant communities in the Everglades. PMID:16195864

  10. Anatomía de la madera de 20 especies de lianas del lote boscoso El Dorado-Tumeremo (estado Bolívar, Venezuela

    Williams J León H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el estudio de la anatom√≠a de la madera de 19 especies de lianas procedentes del estado Bol√≠var, Venezuela. Las especies estudiadas se agrupan en un total de 12 familias: Bignoniaceae (2, Caesalpiniaceae (2, Combretaceae (1, Dilleniaceae (2, Papilionaceae (3, Menispermaceae (3, Moraceae (1, Nyctaginaceae (1, Rhamnaceae (1, Sapindaceae (1, Ulmaceae (1, Verbenaceae. El material se preparo utilizando procedimientos convencionales de microtecnia y fue descrito de acuerdo a lo establecido por IAWA. Las caracter√≠sticas que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia en el material estudiado fueron la presencia de cristales (85 %, variantes cambiales (55 % y vasos de dos tama√Īos (50 %. Entre los tipos de variantes cambiales se encontr√≥ el desarrollo de cu√Īas floem√°ticas, floema conc√©ntrico, floema disperso y masa xilem√°tica compuesta. Se elabor√≥ una clave dicot√≥mica para la identificaci√≥n de las especies estudiadas.This paper presents the wood anatomy of 19 species of lianes from Bol√≠var State, Venezuela. The species studied belong to 12 families: Bignoniaceae (2, Caesalpiniaceae (2, Combretaceae (1, Dilleniaceae (2, Papilionaceae (3, Menispermaceae (3, Moraceae (1, Nyctaginaceae (1, Rhamnaceae (1, Sapindaceae (1, Ulmaceae (1, Verbenaceae. The material was prepared using conventional microtechnique. Descriptions were realized according to rules of the IAWA. The features found with greatest frequency were crystals (85 %, cambial variants (55 % and two-sized vessels (50 %. The cambial variant types found were stems with furrowed xylem, concentric phloem, diffuse phloem and compound xylem cylinder. A dichotomous key for identification is presented.

  11. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Sisymbrium altissimum (S. altissimum), and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) were chosen for the study. The ephemeral A. pumila, which is genetically close to A. thaliana and ecologically in the same habitat as S. altissimum, was used to avoid complications arising from the superficial differences resulted from comparing plants from two extremely contrasting ecological groups. The findings manifested that the ephemerals showed significantly enhanced activities of photosystem (PS) II under HL conditions, while the activities of PSII in A. thaliana were markedly decreased under the same conditions. Detailed analyses of the electron transport processes revealed that the increased plastoquinone pool oxidization, together with the enhanced PSI activities, ensured a lowered excitation pressure to PSII of both ephemerals, and thus facilitated the photosynthetic control to avoid photodamage to PSII. The analysis of the reaction centers of the PSs, both in terms of D1 protein turnover kinetics and the long-term adaptation, revealed that the unusually stable PSs structure provided the basis for the ephemerals to carry out high photosynthetic performances. It is proposed that the characteristic photosynthetic performances of ephemerals were resulted from effects of the long-term adaptation to the harsh environments. PMID:26779223

  12. Acquired and partially de novo synthesized pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two polyphagous arctiids and the alkaloid profiles of their larval food-plants.

    Hartmann, T; Theuring, C; Beuerle, T; Ernst, L; Singer, M S; Bernays, E A

    2004-02-01

    The profiles of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the two highly polyphagous arctiids Estigmene acrea and Grammia geneura and their potential PA sources in southeastern Arizona were compiled. One of four species of Boraginaceae, Plagiobothrys arizonicus, contained PAs; this is the first PA record for this plant species. The principle PA sources are Senecio longilobus (Asteraceae) and Crotalaria pumila (Fabaceae). The known PA pattern of S. longilobus was extended; the species was found to contain six closely related PAs of the senecionine type. Three novel PAs of the monocrotaline type, named pumilines A-C, were isolated and characterized from C. pumila, a species not studied before. The pumilines are the major PAs in the seeds, while in the vegetative organs they are accompanied by the simple necine derivatives supinidine and as the dominant compound subulacine (1beta,2beta-epoxytrachelanthamidine). In both plant species, the PAs are stored as N-oxides, except C. pumila seeds, which accumulate the free bases. Great variation in PA composition was observed between local populations of C. pumila. The PA profiles were established for larvae and adults of E. acrea that as larvae had fed on an artificial diet supplemented with crotalaria-powder and of G. geneura fed with S. longilobus. In both experiments, the larvae had a free choice between the respective PA source and diet or food plants free of PAs. The profiles compiled for the two species reflect the alkaloid profiles of their PA sources with one exception, subulacine could never be detected in E. acrea. Besides acquired PAs, insect PAs synthesized from acquired necine bases and necic acids of insect origin were detected in the two arctiid species. These insect PAs that do not occur in the larval food sources accounted for some 40-70% (E. acrea) and 17-37% (G. geneura) of total PAs extracted from the insects. A number of novel insect PAs were identified. Plant-acquired and insect PAs were found to accumulate as N-oxides. The results are discussed in relation to specific biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral mechanisms involved in PA sequestration by arctiids. PMID:15112722

  13. Species of Mastogloia (Bacillariophyceae new for the Aegean coast of Turkey

    F. COLAK SABANCI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the comprehensive morphological characteristics of ten Mastogloia Thwaites ex W. Smith (Bacillariophyceae species, including, M. aquilegiae, M. baldjikiana, M. binotata, M. grunowii, M. ignorata, M. paradoxa, M. pumila, M. cf. regula, M. similis and M. vasta. Specimens were examined under the light microscope; eight of them are reported for the first time from Turkish coastal waters. Apart from the photo documentation, some information on the species geographical distribution patterns and the type of the substratum are also provided.

  14. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz.†Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis†and†Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ? 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ? 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in†Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in†Albizia procera†(118.37 ? 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ? 9.87 tha-1 in†Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86? 10.34 tha-1 in†Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83? 20.60 tha-1in†Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in†Pinus roxburghii†(6.79 ? 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91? 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ? 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in†Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.†

  15. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57Ī48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47Ī10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37Ī1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50Ī9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86Ī10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83Ī20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79Ī2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91Ī3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09Ī12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  16. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    Seppš, H.; Birks, H.J.B.; Giesecke, T.; Hammarlund, D.; Alenius, T.; Antonsson, K.; Bjune, A. E.; Heikkilš, M.; MacDonald, G M; Ojala, A. E. K.; Telford, R. J.; Veski, S.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61į N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitat...

  17. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Spier, L.; Dobben, H.F., van; Dort, K.W., van

    2010-01-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone i...

  18. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Devetakovińá Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  19. An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.

    Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

    2013-11-01

    The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

  20. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  1. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume Fern.-Vill, Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff. Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control. Thus, the present work was aimed to compare the three varieties using microscopic, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Microscopic anatomical examination and powder microscopy were performed on fresh and dried plant materials, respectively. Fingerprint profiles of the varieties were obtained using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, high performance thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The microscopic examination showed presence of anisocytic stomata, scale and capitate glandular trichome in all varieties. The type of stomata and trichomes, outline structure of stem and leaf margin, petiole and midrib, organization of vascular system, areolar venation, pattern of anticlinal walls, the distribution of secretory canals and cell inclusion as well as the measurement of selected structures could be used to distinguish and identify each variety of M. pumilum. In addition, spectroscopic and chromatographic fingerprint analyses of the three varieties exhibited distinguishable profiles based on the intensity of certain peaks or bands. The findings from this study will provide systematic identification for these varieties.

  2. Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos

    Bao, X.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-08-01

    The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM {sup 14}C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of {sup 14}C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h{sup {minus}1} embryo {sup {minus}1}) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. {sup 14}C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lancelata, U. Carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

  3. Quantificação do banco de sementes sob diferentes usos do solo em área de domínio ciliar Evaluation of seed bank under different soil uses

    D√°lgima Gasparino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se o n√ļmero de pl√Ęntulas e a composi√ß√£o do banco de sementes do solo em √°reas de dom√≠nio ciliar com remanescentes florestais ou utilizadas para agricultura ou pastagem. As amostras foram coletadas em tr√™s √©pocas do ano. O n√ļmero m√©dio de indiv√≠duos encontrados nas √°reas com remanescentes florestais, agricultura e pasto foi de 551,68; 451,36; e 452,48 sementes vi√°veis por metro quadrado, respectivamente. O maior n√ļmero de esp√©cies por metro quadrado foi observado na coleta de ver√£o, com 46,72 esp√©cies. No total, foram identificadas 37 fam√≠lias e 81 esp√©cies. Das esp√©cies identificadas, 65,4% foram consideradas como invasoras, 7,41% como gram√≠neas e 27,19% como arb√≥reas. Dentre as esp√©cies arb√≥reas foram identificadas 19 fam√≠lias com Ulmaceae, Cecropiacea e Euphorbiaceae, apresentando-se com maior n√ļmero de pl√Ęntulas. O maior n√ļmero de esp√©cies arb√≥reas foi encontrado em amostras de solo de √°reas com remanescentes florestais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed bank of areas under different uses (forest patches, agriculture and pasture. Soil was sampled during three seasons. Mean number of individuals in forest patches, agriculture and pasture areas were of 551.68; 451.36; and 452.48 species per square meter, respectively. The largest mean number of species was collected in the summer sampling with 46.72 species per square meter. Among the identified species, 65.4% were classified as weeds, 7.41% as grasses, and 27.19% as arboreal species. Among the arboreal species 19 families were identified as Ulmaceae, Cecropiaceae and Euphorbiaceae, yielding the highest number of seedlings. Areas with forest patches presented the highest number of arboreal species.

  4. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of ő≥-irradiation 14,000-16,000 őľR/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of ő≥-irradiation 10,000-13,000 őľR/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of ő≥-irradiation 3,600-8,000 őľR/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of ő≥-irradiation of 60-200 őľR/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic parts, remains of concrete constructions and debris; To fill up trenches on the slopes of the hills, make even soil surface; It is necessary to apply phyto-remediation technology to clear the hills from radiation pollution. Lichens developing on the outcrops accumulate Cs137 up to 54,000 Bq/kg. Coverage of their aggregations reaches 40-45 %. Mosses developing on fine earth in cracks of stones accumulate Cs137 up to 4,100 Bq/kg, Am241 - 1,830 Bq/kg, Eu152,154 - 211 Bq/kg. 4 For prevention of water and wind erosion it is necessary to sow in addition seeds of Caragana pumila, Spiraea hypericifolia, Artemisia frigida, Psathyrostachys juncea

  5. [Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro)].

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero Berm√ļdez, Olga Marta; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Appel, Ana Sittenfeld; Jim√©nez-Somarribas, Alberto; Valerio-Campos, Idalia

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. PMID:19256421

  6. Cytotoxic glucosphingolipid from Celtis Africana

    Shagufta Perveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature survey proved the use of the powdered sun-dried bark and roots of Celtis africana for the treatment of cancer in South Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to do further isolation work on the ethyl acetate fraction and to investigate the cytotoxic activities of the various fractions and isolated compound. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and compound 1 were tested on mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y using the microculture tetrazolium assay. Results: One new glucosphingolipid 1 was isolated from the aerial parts of C. africana. The structure of the new compound was determined by extensive analysis by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The ethyl acetate fraction and compound 1 showed strong cytotoxic activity with an EC 50 value of 8.3 őľg/mL and 7.8 őľg/mL, respectively, compared with Kahalalide F positive control (6.3 őľg/mL. Conclusion: This is the first report of the occurrence of a cytotoxic glucosphingolipid in family Ulmaceae.

  7. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  8. Detección y abundancia de especies del género Frankliniella en una zona protegida de San José de las Lajas en la provincia de Mayabeque, Cuba

    Carlos Gonz√°lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un ecosistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella, el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, lo que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch, con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor incidencia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae.

  9. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ő≤ -amyrin, stigmasterol, ő≤ -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  10. Long-term CO2 enrichment of a forest ecosystem: implications for forest regeneration and succession.

    Mohan, Jacqueline E; Clark, James S; Schlesinger, William H

    2007-06-01

    The composition and successional status of a forest affect carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity, yet it remains unclear whether elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will impact rates and trajectories of forest succession. We examined how CO2 enrichment (+200 microL CO2/L air differential) affects forest succession through growth and survivorship of tree seedlings, as part of the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in North Carolina, USA. We planted 2352 seedlings of 14 species in the low light forest understory and determined effects of elevated CO2 on individual plant growth, survival, and total sample biomass accumulation, an integrator of plant growth and survivorship over time, for six years. We used a hierarchical Bayes framework to accommodate the uncertainty associated with the availability of light and the variability in growth among individual plants. We found that most species did not exhibit strong responses to CO2. Ulmus alata (+21%), Quercus alba (+9.5%), and nitrogen-fixing Robinia pseudoacacia (+230%) exhibited greater mean annual relative growth rates under elevated CO2 than under ambient conditions. The effects of CO2 were small relative to variability within populations; however, some species grew better under low light conditions when exposed to elevated CO2 than they did under ambient conditions. These species include shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Liquidambar styraciflua, intermediate-tolerant Quercus velutina, and shade-tolerant Acer barbatum, A. rubrum, Prunus serotina, Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis. Contrary to our expectation, shade-intolerant trees did not survive better with CO2 enrichment, and population-scale responses to CO2 were influenced by survival probabilities in low light. CO2 enrichment did not increase rates of sample biomass accumulation for most species, but it did stimulate biomass growth of shade-tolerant taxa, particularly Acer barbatum and Ulmus alata. Our data suggest a small CO2 fertilization effect on tree productivity, and the possibility of reduced carbon accumulation rates relative to today's forests due to changes in species composition. PMID:17555228

  11. STRUCTURE OF CONSORTIUM DESTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KRIVYI RIG BASIN

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available –Ęhe structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining ‚Äď metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortiums and their use in monitoring should be based on regulation of energy balance, material parameters and biomass of determinants of consortium, changes in components of autotrophic and heterotrophic blocks of consortium, estimation of function of biogeochemical threshold by coefficients that reflect the intensity of allocation of acids and contrast of destruction and acid-base conditions.

  12. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El an√°lisis de dos series sedimentarias org√°nicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atl√°ntico-meridional y otra en la cant√°brica de Galicia (Espa√Īa, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arb√≥rea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetaci√≥n obtenidos para los dep√≥sitos del N y del S: m√°s intensa cobertura arb√≥rea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestaci√≥n de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representaci√≥n de Eric√°ceas son caracter√≠sticas destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cant√°brica durante el periodo Atl√°ntico, mientras que en la atl√°ntico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosi√≥n de los suelos. Este es m√≠nimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradaci√≥n del bosque.

  13. Experience influences gustatory responsiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the polyphagous caterpillar, Estigmene acrea.

    Chapman, R F; Bernays, E A; Singer, M S; Hartmann, T

    2003-11-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from taste sensilla of the caterpillar Estigmene acrea with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid, seneciphylline N-oxide, demonstrated that prior feeding on plants with pyrrolizidine alkaloids caused an increase in responsiveness of the PA-sensitive cells in two sensilla, relative to feeding on plants without such chemicals. Rearing on synthetic diet without pyrrolizidine alkaloids for up to seven generations caused a continuous decline in responsiveness, that could be reversed by experience with powdered Crotalaria pumila in the diet or by pure pyrrolizidine alkaloid, monocrotaline, in the diet. Response to the cardiac glycoside, ouabain, that stimulates one of the two pyrrolizidine alkaloid-sensitive cells, showed a similar decline. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids had no measurable effect on growth and development. Responses in all other taste cells were unaffected. The data are discussed in relation to the possible adaptive significance and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:14520497

  14. Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats

    I.L. Rautenbach

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

  15. Enzimas proteolíticas presentes en el látex de Ficus punlila L. (Moraceae)

    Perelló, Mario; Arribére, María Cecilia; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; Priolo de Lufrano, Nora Silvia

    2000-01-01

    Se detectó la presencia de actividad proteolítica en frutos de Ficus pumila L. (Ficus repens Hort.). El extracto crudo fue obtenido por clarificación del látex centrifugado a 16.000 x g durante 30 mn y ultracentifugando luego el sobrenadante a 100.000 x g durante una hora. La preparación enzimática cruda mostró elevada actividad proteolítica sobre caseína en presencia de cisteína 12 mM, pero la actividad fue inhibida por inhibidores tiol-específicos tales como HgCl2 y E-64, sugiriendo que las...

  16. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  17. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, GoiŠs. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14722-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available P003251 |pid:none) Oryza sativa Japonica Group genomi... 36 0.37 (B1AUE5) RecName: Full=Peroxisome biogenesis factor 10; AltName... c... 35 1.1 AK063978_1( AK063978 |pid:none) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA c... 35 1.1 (Q8HXW8) RecName: Full=Peroxisome bio...quitin-protein ligase synoviolin-B;... 35 1.1 AC011765_28( AC011765 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome...mosom... 35 0.63 (Q54S31) RecName: Full=Peroxisome biogenesis factor 10; AltName...46 DQ103593_12( DQ103593 |pid:none) Olimarabidopsis pumila clone BAC ... 184 6e-46 (Q940X7) RecName

  19. Stubble field plant communities of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park

    Teresa Skrajna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of communities found in unploughed stubble fields of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park and its agricultural buffer zone are presented in the paper. The association Echinochloo-Setarietum divided into a typical variant, the variant with Galinsoga parviflora, and the variant with Bidens tripartite, was the most frequently noted and floristically differentiated association. Patches of Digitarietum ischaemi were also frequently observed in stubble fields on the poorest habitats. Rarely, on fertile soils, small patches of floristically rich communities with Veronica agrestis were recorded. Periodically, excessively wet habitats were seldom occupied by the speciesrichest phytocoenoses of Centunculo-Anthoceretum punctati. Single patches of the community with Setaria pumila, the form with Aphanes arvensis, were observed only in the south-eastern part of the Park.

  20. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers.

    Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Andersen, K E

    1998-10-01

    Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in 105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent among these compared to attendants with negative reactions. Positive histamine release tests made immunologic etiology probable in Schlumbergera cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high prevalence of short-lived skin symptoms and because contact urticaria may present itself as a dermatitis, it is recommended that one supplement patch tests with tests for immediate reactions. PMID:9817221

  1. The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator

    Naidina, O. D.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2įC and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

  2. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph; Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2012-01-01

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids...... above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed...... population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth...

  3. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Nicolae TŐ°icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the B√ĘcleŇü fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from B√ĘcleŇü is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of B√ĘcleŇü fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  4. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

  5. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

    ŇĹikińá V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Sińáevo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferri√®re and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  6. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  7. Lichens of the KnyszyŇĄska Forest (NE Poland).

    Czeczuga, B; Lengiewicz, I

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the KnyszyŇĄska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves. PMID:11780570

  8. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  9. Influence of fumes from industrial works on the seasonal development of trees and shrubs

    Antipov, V.G.

    1957-01-01

    Phenological observations were made at Leningrad in 1953 and 1954 on woody species growing near three chemical works. Controls were observed in an unpolluted park. Data on the relative incidence of the main phenological phases (flushing, flowering, fruiting, autumn coloration and leaf-fall) are tabulated separately for each works. Pollution curtailed the growing season to some degree in all species; its effect in hastening coloration and leaf-fall was more marked than in retarding the spring phases. The least susceptible species were Populus balsamifera, P. suaveolens, Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Amelanchier rotundifolia and Lonicera tatarica. Species unsuited for cultivation in these conditions are Caragana arborescens, Prunus padus, Tilia cordata, Ulmus laevis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa.

  10. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  11. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  12. Aspects de l'histoire de la végétation tardiglaciaire et Holocène dans la région des Subcarpates de la Courbure (Subcarpates de Buzau

    Ioan TantŐ°aŐÜu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A Late Glacial - Holocene sequence from the Bisoca peat bog (BuzńÉului Subcarpathians was studied from palynological point of view. The vegetation history, supported by 12 14C dates is described since the end of the Late Glacial. At the onset of the Holocene Ulmus became established by around 9,700 B.P.; Quercus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Corylus became established almost simultaneously by around 9,500 B.P. The local establishment of Carpinus is about 6,200 B.P. Its maximum occurred since 5,000 B.P. Fagus pollen is regularly recorded since 7,000 B.P. Its absolute dominance took place at about 2,000 B.P.

  13. Urban trees and atmospheric pollutants in big cities: Effects in Madrid

    Calderon Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Una investigaci√≥n sobre la mejora de la contaminaci√≥n del aire (CA) por medio de arbolado urbano se realiz√≥ en Madrid, una ciudad con casi 4 M de habitantes, 2,8 M de veh√≠culos y casi 3 M de √°rboles de mantenimiento p√ļblico. La mayor√≠a de los √°rboles estaban en dos bosques periurbanos. Los 650.000 restantes era pies de alineaci√≥n y parques. Los taxones estudiados fueron Platanus orientalis (97.205 √°rboles), Ulmus sp. (70.557), Pinus pinea (49.038), Aesculus hippocastanum (22.266), Cedrus sp. ...

  14. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

  15. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  16. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanůlicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola MŁller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daŮo severo en Šrboles principalmente en Šreas de parques, Šrboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinů el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinů su efectividad y su CL50. La acciůn antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causů un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer dŪa despuťs de la exposiciůn, y 6,6% p/v al quinto dŪa con los extractos acuosos.

  17. Survey of air-borne allergic pollens in North China: contamination with ragweed.

    Li, W K; Wang, C S

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the survey of 9 districts in North China with an object of understanding more about geographical distribution of air-borne pollens in relation with allergic diseases in the upper respiratory system. The findings prove to be a good guidance, beneficial both to the physicians who are treating the cases and to the patients who are receiving the treatments. The components of the peaks of the curves in Spring are nearly the same, they are usually formed of Ulmus (elm), Populus (poplar) and Selix (willow), with the exception that in the Spring curve of Lanzhou, Biota Orientalis dominates and at Huohot, Ulmus (elm) dominates. Like in the report on air-borne pollens in Peking, made by C. T. Chang as well as in our report on air-borne pollens survey in 9 districts in North China, Artemisia (sage) is found to be the chief component of the Summer-Autumn curve and the major offender in Summer-Autumn seasons in the etiology of upper respiratory allergic diseases. In contradistinction to Artemisia (sage), there are two exceptions such as in south China: In Shenghai, Ricinus (castor bean) and Humulus (Hops) are found to be the major offender instead of Artemisia (sage) and At Kwangzhou, Kwangdong province Wood Ephedra, Wild Amaranth (pigweed) are also found to be major offenders instead of Artemisia (sage). In addition to the major offender, Artemisia (sage) which was said to be dominant in Shenyang (Moukden) of Laoning province by Yuchin (cited from POLLINOSIS by Shih Ruei, Ragweed was first discovered at Shenyang (and Tehling, Fushuen and Dandong). A question is raised "How it came to China"? Preventive measures must be taken to eradicate it, otherwise it certainly will spread all over China. PMID:3475544

  18. Fifteen years' record of airborne allergenic pollen and meteorological parameters in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Balafoutis, Christos; Damialis, Athanasios; Papakosta, Despoina; Gioulekas, George; Patakas, Dimitrios

    . A pollen calendar has been constructed for the area of Thessaloniki and relationships between pollen transport and meteorological parameters have been assessed. Daily airborne pollen records were collected over a 15-year period (1987-2001), using a Burkard continuous volumetric pollen trap, located in the centre of the city. Sixteen allergenic pollen types were identified. Simultaneously, daily records of five main meteorological parameters (mean air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine, wind speed) were made, and then correlated with fluctuations of the airborne pollen concentrations. For the first time in Greece, a pollen calendar has been constructed for 16 pollen types, from which it appears that 24.9% of the total pollen recorded belong to Cupressaceae, 20.8% to Quercus spp., 13.6% to Urticaceae, 9.1% to Oleaceae, 8.9% to Pinaceae, 6.3% to Poaceae, 5.4% to Platanaceae, 3.0% to Corylus spp., 2.5% to Chenopodiaceae and 1.4% to Populus spp. The percentages of Betula spp., Asteraceae (Artemisia spp. and Ambrosia spp.), Salix spp., Ulmaceae and Alnus spp. were each lower than 1%. A positive correlation between pollen transport and both mean temperature and sunshine was observed, whereas usually no correlation was found between pollen and relative humidity or rainfall. Finally, wind speed was generally found to have a significant positive correlation with the concentrations of 8 pollen types. For the first time in the area of Thessaloniki, and more generally in Greece, 15-year allergenic pollen records have been collected and meteorological parameters have been recorded. The airborne pollen concentration is strongly influenced by mean air temperature and sunshine duration. The highest concentrations of pollen grains are observed during spring (May).

  19. Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

  20. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ¬Ĺ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ‚ĄĖ 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

  1. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid-inferred July temperature reconstruction suggests cool periods between 3200-2800 cal yr BP and 1100-700 cal yr BP and a warmer period between 2800 and 1100 cal yr BP. Chironomid and diatom DCA scores decline from ca. 6000 cal yr BP, indicating compositional changes in these aquatic assemblages. In comparison declines in pollen PCA scores are delayed, starting ca. 5100 cal yr BP. The results suggest that while catchment vegetation was responding primarily to climate change, the biota within the lake and lake water chemistry were responding to localised environmental conditions.

  2. Evaluaciůn de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifŪcate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar informaciůn que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ů Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tťsota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraŪdos con hexano, se evaluaron las caracterŪsticas fisico-quŪmicas de calidad y la cuantificaciůn de Šcidos grasos por cromatografŪa de gases. El contenido de los aceites en las diferentes semillas variů del 9 al 16%. Todos los aceites mostraron un alto grado de insaturaciůn con Ūndices de iodo de 94 a 122 Kl/g. Los Ūndices de acidez, perůxidos y Šcidos grasos libres fueron bajos. Los Šcidos grasos predominantes fueron el oleico y linoleico. Todos los aceites crudos resultaron de buena calidad y comparables a los aceites convencionales como el de soya, maŪz, girasol, colza y uŮa de gato. AsŪ mismo, su calidad fue comparable a la de otros aceites de leguminosas de la misma regiůn.

  3. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Male Control in Washington State (USA Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU. Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Tomislav Curkovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1 homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill. orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.¬† It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.√Čste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 √≥ 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1, aplicadas homog√©neamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.. Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estad√≠sticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Despu√©s de aplicar los tratamientos, se observ√≥ una reducci√≥n significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hect√°rea. La incorporaci√≥n de permetrina en la formulaci√≥n atracticida no mejor√≥ su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusi√≥n de c√≥pula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, control√≥ a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulaci√≥n atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusi√≥n de c√≥pula

  4. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40¬įN were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20¬įC lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10¬įC cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10¬įC which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11¬įC to 15.7¬įC. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14¬įC), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4¬įC) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  5. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobot√°nico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Espa√Īa, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnol√≥gicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 a√Īos. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vern√°culos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricaci√≥n de muebles, elaboraci√≥n de utensilios dom√©sticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies m√°s frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales espa√Īolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producci√≥n al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relaci√≥n al consumo racional de materias primas.

  6. Annurca peel extract: from the chemical composition, through the functional activity, to the formulation and characterisation of a topical oil-in-water emulsion.

    Sansone, Francesca; Esposito, Tiziana; Mencherini, Teresa; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Picerno, Patrizia; Russo, Paola; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Essolito, Massimilano; Campiglia, Pietro; Aquino, Rita P

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a hydro-alcoholic safe antioxidant Malus pumila Miller cv Annurca peel extract (APE) useful as functional ingredient in an oil-in-water emulsion. Results showed that APE contains a hydroxycinnamic acid (chlorogenic acid), flavonol glycosides (quercetin derivatives) and a dihydrochalcone, phloridzin (phloretin-2-O-glucoside). The isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-glucoside) content was quantified in 0.3% w/w of extract. APE showed a significant and concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity correlated to its polyphenols content. No cytotoxic effect was observed in primary human epidermal keratinocyte adults and dermal fibroblast cell lines. The formulative approach led to produce a stable emulsion able to load a high amount of APE, up to 6.0% w/w. The homogenous distribution of APE in the emulsion was clearly demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy analysis. The emulsion resulted able to enhance the in vitro release rate of APE through synthetic membranes with respect to the raw material. PMID:26211432

  7. Development and application of high-performance liquid chromatography for the study of two new oxyprenylated anthraquinones produced by Rhamnus species.

    Locatelli, Marcello; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Kremer, Dario; Randic, Marko; Epifano, Francesco

    2012-02-17

    Rhamnus spp. is known to contain biologically active anthraquinone secondary metabolites but the presence of oxyprenylated ones is not reported. To this aim, a new simple, and accurate analytical method was developed to reveal chemical fingerprint of these analytes in plant extracts. Plant samples were analysed after extraction with n-hexane (first step) and methanol (second step) using a C(18) column with a mobile phase composed of 35% of water:65% of methanol (both with 1% formic acid, v/v) at 0.7 mL min?Ļ flow rate in gradient elution mode. For quantitative analyses, selective detection was performed at 435 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ?M, with the only exception of 3-geranyloxyemodin for which the LOQ value was 5.0 ?M, and external matrix-matched standard curves showed linearity up to 125 ?M. The within- and between-batch precision (RSD%) values ranged from 0.2% to 12.9% while within- and between-batch trueness (bias%) values ranged from 12.2% to 12.7%. The method was applied to evaluate for the first time the presence and the quantities of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in Rhamnus spp. barks as well as the anthraquinone profile of Rhamnus pumila Turra. The proposed method could be directly applied to the selective quantification of these analytes in natural sources. PMID:22261224

  8. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Quťbec.

    Bťlair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  9. Are insect-synthesized retronecine esters (creatonotines) the precursors of the male courtship pheromone in the arctiid moth Estigmene acrea?

    Hartmann, T; Theuring, C; Bernays, E A

    2003-11-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) profiles were determined for adults of the polyphagous arctiid Estigmene acrea, which as larvae had fed on artificial diet supplemented with Crotalaria-pumila powder with known concentrations of PAs. The larvae always had a free choice between alkaloid-containing and plain diets. The alkaloid profiles of adults revealed a striking sexual dimorphism. Both sexes contained macrocyclic PAs of the monocrotaline type sequestered from the diet and, in addition, a substantial proportion of supinidine and retronecine esters synthesized by the insects from necine bases derived from the dietary alkaloids and necic acids of insect origin. These insect alkaloids accounted for 35% and 55% of total PAs in males and females, respectively. The difference was that in females the retronecine esters (creatonotines) made up 58 microg (43% of total PAs), while males contained a fivefold lower proportion, 12 microg (13%). Four of the ten male individuals analyzed were found devoid of creatonotines. Based on the experimental data in combination with evidence from the literature, it is suggested that the creatonotines are direct pheromone precursors in E. acrea. It is hypothesized that this may represent a general mechanism of hydroxydanaidal formation from diverse macrocyclic PAs in arctiids. PMID:14682536

  10. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40¬į10'S, 73¬į30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  11. Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phloridzin.

    Wang, Junzhi; Chung, Mi Hwa; Xue, Bingjie; Ma, Hong; Ma, Chaomei; Hattori, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Phloridzin, a phloretin 2'-beta-D-glucoside, belongs to dihydrochalcones and mainly exists in the fruits of Malus pumila Mill., Lithocarpus polystachyus REHD and the root skins, stems, tender leaves and fruits of Malus hupehensis. It has many pharmacological activities, such as regulating blood sugar level and blood pressure, protecting heart, scavenging of oxygen free radicals and antioxidant injuries. Thus, market demand of products containing phloridzin is increasing year by year. Our research results demonstrated that phloridzin is provided with a double directional adjusting function of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. It showed significant effects on the proliferation of estrogen sensitive estrogen receptor (ER) (+)MCF-7 cells in the absence of estrogen. When added with 17beta-estradiol, phloridzin showed antagonism on estradiol-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, but it did not significantly affect proliferation of estrogen insensitive ER (-)MDA-MB-231 cells. Phloridzin induced beta-galactosidase activity in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Light increase of the uterine weight and serum estradiol content of mouse was observed when the glucoside was administered orally for 7 d. After oral administration, phloridzin was found mainly in the blood and a small part was metabolized to phloretin. Our investigation proved that phloridzin was distributed at the target organ and played the role of phytoestrogen. PMID:20410591

  12. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    KoszaŇāka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  13. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25‚Äď0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8‚Äď38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3‚Äď24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  14. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  15. The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of CheŇām. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

  16. Conserved genetic regions across angiosperms as tools to develop single-copy nuclear markers in gymnosperms: an example using cycads.

    Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Stevenson, Dennis W; Nakamura, Kyoko

    2014-07-01

    Several individuals of the Caribbean Zamia clade and other cycad genera were used to identify single-copy nuclear genes for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in Cycadales. Two strategies were employed to select target loci: (i) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis conserved ortholog sequence (COS) set and (ii) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis-Populus-Vitis-Oryza Shared Single-Copy genes (APVO SSC) against the EST Zamia databases in GenBank. From the first strategy, 30 loci were selected, and from the second, 16 loci. In both cases, the matching GenBank accessions of Zamia were used as a query for retrieving highly similar sequences from Cycas, Picea, Pinus species or Ginkgo biloba. After retrieving and aligning all the sequences in each locus, intron predictions were completed to assist in primer design. PCR was carried out in three rounds to detect paralogous loci. A total of 29 loci were successfully amplified as a single band of which 20 were likely single-copy loci. These loci showed different diversity and divergence levels. A preliminary screening allowed us to select 8 promising loci (40S, ATG2, BG, GroES, GTP, LiSH, PEX4 and TR) for the Zamia pumila complex and 4 loci (COS26, GroES, GTP and HTS) for all other cycad genera. PMID:24444413

  17. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from ‚Äúcosmic‚ÄĚ seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus ‚ÄúBion-M‚ÄĚ No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of ‚ÄúBion-M‚ÄĚ, among them the experiment ‚ÄúBiocont-BS‚ÄĚ. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (–°lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (√ė12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of ‚ÄúBion-M‚ÄĚ the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (–°lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding possible changes on the following stages of plants development up to their own seeds formation (generation 1 and its features).

  18. Species association among predaceous and phytophagous apple mites (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tetranychidae).

    Slone, D H; Croft, B A

    2001-01-01

    Predator-predator, predator-prey, and prey-prey associations among nine species of mites were studied in a plot of 100 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus pumila Miller) trees from 1990 to 1997. In 1990, seven-year-old trees were inoculated with Panonychus ulmi (Koch), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) or both, and sprayed with azinphosmethyl (alone or plus endosulfan), or nothing. The species Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eotetranychus sp., Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) were already present or immigrated into plots, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Tvphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were introduced. Yule's V association index was used to measure positive, neutral, or negative interspecific associations for each species pair, because of its robustness with spatially autocorrelated data. We found that pesticide and release treatments did not greatly affect the association results, but there were strong seasonal differences. Predator-predator associations were the strongest and most consistent, showing negative associations in the early and mid seasons, and neutral ones in late season. Negative associations of T pyri with other predators were the strongest, which is consistent with evidence that this mite can detect other predators on a leaf. Predatorprey seasonal associations were mixed, with some positive and others negative, with most significant associations occurring in the mid season. One prey-prey interaction was positive, again in mid season, most likely because of similar habitat preferences. PMID:11513362

  19. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' ‚Äúconspicuousness‚ÄĚ. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  20. EFEITO DA POLINIZA«√O DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp. NA FRUTIFICA«√O EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM S√O JOAQUIM-SC

    DANTAS ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo especŪfico de obter uma populaÁ„o segregante, visando ŗ avaliaÁ„o na frutificaÁ„o efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e di‚metro de frutos oriundos de polinizaÁ„o aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh. e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill. na EstaÁ„o Experimental de S„o Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificaÁ„o efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de půlen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior nķmero de sementes atŪpicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinizaÁ„o aberta. O mesmo n„o ocorreu no cruzamento recŪproco. O peso e o di‚metro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinizaÁ„o dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo n„o acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente ŗ polinizaÁ„o aberta. A anŠlise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos tambťm para nķmero de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinizaÁ„o em 'M.9'.

  1. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.

    Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

    2012-03-15

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

  2. The genus Perissocytheridea Stephenson, 1938 (Crustacea: Ostracoda) and evidence of brackish water facies along the Oligo-Miocene, Pirabas Formation, eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Evangelista Nogueira, Anna Andressa; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2016-01-01

    Perissocytheridea Stephenson is characteristic of brackish water facies. In 57 samples from the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene, from five localities, Pirabas Formation, Par√° State, Brazil eleven species have been identified. Among these species, four are new reports: Perissocytheridea punctoreticulata n. sp., Perissocytheridea largulateralis n. sp., Perissocytheridea colini n. sp. and Perissocytheridea pirabensis n. sp.; five species in open nomenclature: Perissocytheridea sp. 1, P. sp. 2, P. sp. 3, P. sp. 4, and P. sp. 5 and two species left in "aff." abbreviation: Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea pumila and Perissocytheridea aff. Perissocytheridea brachyforma subsp. excavata. The distributional pattern of the Perissocytheridea combined with the occurrence of foraminifera Elphidium and Ammonia in the studied sections supports the presence of the brackish water facies to the respective layers. Their quantitative variation through the studied sections indicate more than one phase of salinity reduction (about >5 and <30¬†ppm) and/or the decrease of the sea level, forming lagoon along the Pirabas Formation. This genus has a wide paleobiogeographical occurrence and stratigraphic distribution ranging from the Cretaceous to Recent, and already been recorded in the northern of South America, especially in the Neogene of Solim√Ķes Basin, but this is the first report of a neotropical genus to the Oligo-Miocene deposits of Pirabas Formation, northern Brazilian Coast, Par√° State.

  3. Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010Ė2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevťs were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevťs were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic †variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In †herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

  4. Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA

    C. Williams

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

  5. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Mu√Īoz Rodr√≠guez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  6. Radiosensitivity and recovery of tree crowns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community

    Crown mortality was observed on 13 tree species in a gamma-irradiated forest community located near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations at the end of the first (1973) and second (1974) postirradiation growing seasons are presented for each species. Crown mortality was most severe during 1973 for Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Populus tremuloides, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. For some species, however, crown mortality was most severe during 1974. These were Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Tilia americana, and possibly Fraxinus americana and F. nigra. These differences in year of primary response are explained on the basis of bud differentiation and mortality. The most resistant species were A. saccharum, O. virginiana, and Populus tremuloides, and the most sensitive were T. americana and U. americana. Others were intermediate in sensitivity. Taken collectively, exposures less than 2 or 3 kr did not seriously affect crowns of most species, whereas exposures exceeding about 40 kr were lethal to the crowns of all tree species. The observed zonation of tree mortality closely approximated predictions published by others except for underestimating the resistance of A. saccharum and overestimating the resistance of T. americana, F. americana, and Prunus serotina. Not surprisingly, the tree stratum of the northern forest community was found to be more radiosensitive than lichen, grassland, or herbaceous communities in other irradiation studies

  7. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    N√°fr√°di, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; T√∂rŇĎcsik, T√ľnde; S√ľmegi, P√°l

    2011-12-01

    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  8. Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-01-01

    To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

  9. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  10. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  11. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  12. Vegetation history in central Kentucky and Tennessee (USA) during the last glacial and deglacial periods

    Liu, Yao; Andersen, Jennifer J.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge about vegetation dynamics during the last glacial and deglacial periods in southeastern North America is under-constrained owing to low site density and problematic chronologies. New pollen records from two classic sites, Anderson Pond, TN, and Jackson Pond, KY, supported by AMS 14C age models, span 25.2-13.7 ka and 31.0-15.4 ka, respectively. A transition from Pinus dominance to Picea dominance is recorded at Jackson Pond ca. 26.2 ka, ~ coincident with Heinrich Event H2. Anderson and Jackson Ponds record a transition from conifer to deciduous-tree dominance ~ 15.9 and 15.4 ka, respectively, marking the development of no-analog vegetation characterized by moderate to high abundances of Picea, Quercus, Carya, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Ostrya/Carpinus, Cyperaceae, and Poaceae, and preceding by ~ 2000 yr the advent of similar no-analog vegetation in glaciated terrain to the north. No-analog vegetation developed as a time-transgressive, south-to-north pattern, mediated by climatic warming. Sporormiella abundances are consistently low throughout the Jackson and Anderson Pond records, suggesting that megafaunal abundances and effects on vegetation varied regionally or possibly that the Sporormiella signal was not well-expressed at these sites. Additional records with well-constrained chronologies are necessary to assess patterns and mechanisms of vegetation dynamics during the last glacial and deglacial periods.

  13. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Refojo, N; Perrotta, D; Brudny, M; Abrantes, R; Hevia, A I; Davel, G

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the distribution of the members of the Cryptococcus species complex (Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii) in hollows of trees from seven parks in Buenos Aires City, to determine the serotypes and genotypes of these environmental isolates and to compare them with the ones reported in the 2001 survey. Four hundred and eighty nine samples were collected by swabbing all trees which had hollows or fissures in the seven parks studied. Each tree was sampled once during the study period and one or more isolates were recovered from each swab. Eight isolates of C. neoformans and 18 isolates of C. gattii were recovered from 15 out of 489 tree samples. C. neoformans was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Eucalyptus spp., and Phoenix sp. All isolates were serotype A and belonged to genotype VNI. C. gattii was isolated from Tipuana tipu, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus spp., Acacia visca, Cupresus sempervirens and Ulmus campestrus. All isolates were serotype B and genotype VGI, like both C. gattii strains isolated in 2001. On two occasions, both species were isolated from the same tree sample. These results reinforce and extend our previous findings especially about the presence of C. gattii serotype B, genotype VGI, in Argentina. PMID:18654914

  14. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m≤) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m≤). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m≤. The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  15. Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México

    Garc√≠a-Aguirre, Mar√≠a Concepci√≥n; √Ālvarez, Rom√°n; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus‚Äí Ulmus‚Äí Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus‚Äí Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

  16. Malacological and palynological evidence of the Lower Pleistocene cold phase at the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)

    Stworzewicz, Ewa; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Wůjcik, Antoni

    2012-05-01

    Early Pleistocene sediments bearing gastropod shells and pollen flora were found during coring at Jawornik (South Poland) at a depth interval of 54.30-39.00 m, beneath the oldest till of the Carpathians. Thirteen land-snail taxa identified in 55 samples of the core formed two molluscan assemblages. In the bottom part, typical cold-loving snails were found (e.g. Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla loessica, Vertigo genesii, Columella columella), whereas in the upper part only Semilimax kotulae was present. The succession of molluscan assemblages may suggest that at the site of deposition, after a phase of tundra, steppe-tundra or forest-steppe landscape with patches of wet habitats in cold climate, the climate became slightly milder but still cool, favourable to the spreading of boreal (coniferous) woodlands. Pollen analysis was performed only for the upper part of the profile. The pollen spectra, besides the Tertiary (Miocene) elements, contained sporomorphs common to the Tertiary and Quaternary floras. Among them, the highest percentages were noted for Pinus haploxylon t., P. diploxylon t., Picea, Quercus, Ericaceae, Betula, and Ulmus. The fact that the sediments with organic remains underlie the oldest Scandinavian till suggests that they are older than the oldest glacial unit of the South-Polish Complex (Narevian = Menapian, ~ 1.2 Ma).

  17. Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context

    In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

  18. THE COPńāCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BńāLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŇě COUNTY

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the ‚ÄúTransylvanian Plain‚ÄĚ, on the CopńÉcel hill, between BńÉla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum PawŇā. var. psilocarpum (Simk. PawŇā species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the CopńÉcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 So√≥ 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  19. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Gonz√°lez-Mu√Īoz, Noelia; Castro-D√≠ez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  20. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  1. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  2. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in Northern Europe

    H. Seppš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61į N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed pattern would challenge the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records. The arctic regions may therefore not always be optimal for detecting past climate changes.

  3. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    H. Seppš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61į N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

  4. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  5. Quercetin-6-C-ő≤-D-glucopyranoside, natural analog of quercetin exhibits anti-prostate cancer activity by inhibiting Akt-mTOR pathway via aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Hamidullah; Kumar, Rajeev; Saini, Karan Singh; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sudhir; Ramakrishna, E; Maurya, Rakesh; Konwar, Rituraj; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2015-12-01

    Pre-clinical studies suggest mitigating effect of dietary flavonoid quercetin against cancer and other diseases. However, quercetin suffers from poor metabolic stability, which appears to offset its pharmacological efficacy. Recently, we isolated quercetin-6-C-ő≤-D-glucopyranoside (QCG) from Ulmus wallichiana planchon that has greater stability profile over quercetin. In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of QCG on prostate cancer cells were assessed. QCG inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation by arresting cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and induces apoptosis as evident from cytochrome c release, cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Mechanistic studies revealed that QCG inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Akt/mTOR cell survival pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was a critical mediator of QCG action as knockdown of AhR attenuated QCG-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest that QCG exhibits anti-cancer activity against prostate cancer cells via AhR-mediated down regulation of Akt/mTOR pathway in PC-3 cells. PMID:26476001

  6. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (őī13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and őī13C in modern plants and when the őī13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax őī13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid őī13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) őī13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax őī13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax őī13C preserved in the geologic record.

  7. Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica

    Yorleny Badilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica, eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus, pino patula (Pinus patula, pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa, roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis,jaul (Al- nus acuminata, cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii y tirra (Ulmus mexicana. De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad ę15% y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50% y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

  8. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China

    Mingming Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10¬į but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

  9. Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amaz√īnia Oriental, munic√≠pio de Moju, estado do Par√°, Brasil Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida of the Embrapa Amaz√īnia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Par√° state, Brazil

    Sebasti√£o Maciel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxon√īmico da fam√≠lia Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Lic√≥fitas e monil√≥fitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as esp√©cies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amaz√īnia Oriental est√° localizado no munic√≠pio de Moju e abrange uma √°rea total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igap√≥. Para an√°lise e identifica√ß√£o taxon√īmica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas t√©cnicas usuais e literatura especializada. S√£o apresentadas chaves para identifica√ß√£o de g√™neros e esp√©cies, al√©m de descri√ß√Ķes, ilustra√ß√Ķes, coment√°rios, dados de distribui√ß√£o e habitat. A fam√≠lia Pteridaceae est√° representada na √°rea estudada por 14 esp√©cies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm. Duas esp√©cies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum s√£o novas refer√™ncias para o estado do Par√°.In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Par√°", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amaz√īnia Oriental lies in Moju municipality and comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Par√° state.

  10. Seven new species and one new species record of Sabatieria (Nematoda: Comesomatidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand.

    Leduc, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sabatieria is the most abundant nematode genus on the upper continental slope of New Zealand but no Sabatieria species have yet been recorded/described from the region's deep-sea habitats. The present study describes seven new and one known species of this genus from the continental margin of New Zealand. S. bitumen Botelho et al. 2007 was originally described from the South Atlantic Ocean, and is recorded from the first time in the Pacific Ocean. Sabatieria challengerensis sp. n. is characterised by a combination of short cephalic setae, large fovea amphidialis with 3 turns, short arcuate spicules without distal hook, and short tail with cylindrical proximal portion and blunt, rounded distal portion. Sabatieria parapraedatrix sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with striations resulting from fusion of every second lateral row of dots,fovea amphidialis with 2.0-2.5 turns, spicules with distal hook, and short conico-cylindrical tail. Sabatieria bubulba sp. n. is characterised by the presence of a large muscular pharyngeal bulb, secretory-excretory system with large ventral gland at level of intestine and with cuticularised pore opening. Sabatieria exculta sp. n. is characterised by having a slender body, cuticle with faint annulations resulting from fusion of every second or third lateral row of dots, short cephalic setae, a large ventral gland, and long, narrow gubernacular apophyses. Sabatieria balbutiens sp. n. is characterised by having a dorsally-directed mouth opening and assymetrical mouth cavity and spicules with small distal hook. Sabatieria pumila sp. n. is characterised by the combination of short body length, short cephalic setae, spicules with distal hook and short distal lamella, and 8-9 precloacal supplements. Sabatieria bathycopia sp. n. is characterised by having a stout body, short cephalic setae, curved gubernaculum, and spicules with swollen, lightly cuticularised distal tip. PMID:26185831

  11. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  12. A revision of the genus Arenivaga (Rehn (Blattodea,†Corydiidae, with descriptions of new†species and key to the males of the genus

    Heidi Hopkins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cockroach genus Arenivaga is revised. Forty-eight Arenivaga species are recognized with nine previously known species and 39 described as new including the following: A.pagana sp.n., A.grandiscanyonensis sp.n., A.haringtoni sp.n., A.hopkinsorum sp.n., A.umbratilis sp.n., A.tenax sp.n., A.impensa sp.n., A.trypheros sp.n., A.darwini sp.n., A.nalepae sp.n., A.sequoia sp.n., A.mckittrickae sp.n., A.gaiophanes sp.n., A.belli sp.n., A.estelleae sp.n., A.delicata sp.n., A.mortisvallisensis sp.n., A.milleri sp.n., A.pratchetti sp.n., A.gumperzae sp.n., A.rothi sp.n., A.ricei sp.n., A.adamsi sp.n., A.nicklei sp.n., A.akanthikos sp.n., A.moctezuma sp.n., A.paradoxa sp.n., A.apaeninsula sp.n., A.hebardi sp.n., A.dnopheros sp.n., A.aquila sp.n., A.florilega sp.n., A.galeana sp.n., A.gurneyi sp.n., A.pumila sp.n., A.hypogaios sp.n., A.diaphana sp.n., A.nocturna sp.n., A.alichenas sp.n. All species are described or redescribed, major morphological features are illustrated, distributions are characterized, and the biology of the species is reviewed. A neotype series is designated for A.investigata Friauf & Edney.

  13. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west‚Äďeast gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

  14. Analysis of Genomic DNAs from Nine Rosaceae Species Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    Lu, Qiu; Lang, Tao; Fan, Shuguo; Chen, Wen; Zang, Deqing; Chen, Jing; Shi, Minzhen

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of genomic DNA was used to determine genetic relationships and species identification of nine plants from three subfamilies of Rosaceae. Genomic DNA was extracted, and the SERS spectra were obtained by using a nanosilver collosol at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. Adenine and ribodesose were the active sites of genomic DNAs in the silver surface-enhanced Raman spectra. The strong peak at 714 cm(-1) was assigned to the stretching vibration of adenine, the strong peak at 1011cm(-1) contributed to the stretching vibration of the deoxyribose and the scissoring vibrations of cytosine, and the strong peak at 625 cm(-1) is the stretching vibration of glycosidic bond and the scissoring vibrations of guanine. The three-dimensional plot of the first, second, and third principal components showed that the nine species could be classified into three categories (three subfamilies), consistent with the traditional classification. The model of the hierarchical cluster combined with the principal component of the second derivative was more reasonable. The results of the cluster analysis showed that apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and cherry (Prunus seudocerasus Lindl.) were clustered into one category (Prunoideae); firethorn (Firethorn fortuneana Li.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), apple (Malus pumila Mill.), and crabapple (Malus hallianna Koehne.) were clustered into a second category (Pomoideae); and potentilla (Potentilla fulgens Wall.), rose (Rosa chinensis Jacd.), and strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne.) were clustered into a third category (Rosoideae). These classifications were in accordance with the traditional classification with a correction rate of clustering of 100%. The correct rate of species identification was 100%. These five main results indicate that the genetic relationship and species identification of nine Rosaceae species could be determined by using SERS spectra of their genomic DNAs. PMID:26555541

  15. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 įC). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 įC, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 įC) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 įC creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 įC produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  16. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400Ė800 įC. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 įC, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400Ė800 įC in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 įC creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 įC produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  17. Acaricidal properties of spinosad against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to characterize the activity of the insecticide spinosad against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). T. urticae females and larvae were individually placed on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae), leaf disks treated with four rates of spinosad (25, 55, 121, and 266 ppm) and a water control. Significantly fewer T. urticae completed development on any spinosad rates (85%), whereas spinosad exhibited no significant effects on P. ulmi development; 72.5 and 83.1% of P. ulmi completed development on apple (Malus pumila P. Mill, Rosaceae) leaf disks treated with 75 ppm spinosad and the control, respectively. T. urticae adult females placed on spinosad-treated disks had significantly higher mortality and lower oviposition rates compared with the water control; no significant mortality effects were observed until 3 d after placing adults on leaf disks. In choice tests where half of a bean leaf was treated with 55 ppm spinosad transversally or longitudinally, T. urticae females were repelled by spinosad and largely oviposited and fed on nonspinosad treated areas. Spinosad did not affect the behavior of P. ulmi females. When T. urticae females were released on potted bean plants (two-leaf stage) in which leaves received spinosad sprays on the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces, or complete spinosad coverage on one or two of the leaves, mite population increase lagged significantly behind those released on control plants. These results indicate that spinosad has significant acaricidal effects against T. urticae but not P. ulmi. PMID:16813320

  18. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‚ÄėMaruba Kaido‚Äô rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‚ÄėM.9‚Äô and ‚ÄėMaruba Kaido‚Äô rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‚ÄėMaruba Kaido‚Äô were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‚ÄėM.9‚Äô rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‚ÄėMaruba Kaido‚Äô. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  19. Anti-lipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, Mťxico.

    Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-VŠsquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-HernŠndez, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jimťnez, Martha G; Cruz-DurŠn, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, Mťxico. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphylla, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min Ļ). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mLĻ). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties. PMID:23959013

  20. Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania

    Schuster, W.S.; Hutnik, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community.

    Ivens, A B F; Kronauer, D J C; Pen, I; Weissing, F J; Boomsma, J J

    2012-09-01

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle. PMID:22804757

  3. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  4. Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar

    Randolph H. Wynne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups‚ÄĒor the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

  5. Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet?

    Bernier L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp. and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi. Genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification, cloning and characterization of a few genes that contribute to parasitic fitness in the pathogens. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput methods, such as expressed sequence tag analysis, have been used for measuring gene expression and identifying subsets of elm genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of O. novo-ulmi. These analyses have also helped identify genes that were differentially expressed in DED fungi grown under defined experimental conditions. Until recently, however, functional analysis of the DED fungi was hampered by the lack of protocols for efficient gene knockout and by the unavailability of a full genome sequence. While the selective inactivation of Ophiostoma genes by insertional mutagenesis remains a challenge, an alternative approach based on RNA interference is now available for down-regulating the expression of targeted genes. In 2013, the genome sequences of O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi were publicly released. The ongoing annotation of these genomes should spark a new wave of interest in the DED pathosystem, as it should lead to the formal identification of genes modulating parasitic fitness. A better understanding of DED, however, also requires that omic approaches are applied to the study of the other biotic components of this pathosystem.

  6. Vegetation and climate in the Miocene deposits of southern side of the B√ľy√ľk Menderes Graben, »ėahinali-2 core, SW Turkey

    Akkiraz M S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lower-Middle Miocene succession from the »ėahinali coalfield (SW Turkey was analyzed to reconstruct climate and vegetation. The sediments mainly represent a lacustrine facies and consist of a mudstone-marl dominated succession, including limited coarse-grained clastics. Results of microfloral and published macrofloral records have been considered. The main vegetation types were mixed mesophytic forest dominated by evergreen Quercus and coniferous forest consisting mainly of indeterminate Pinaceae, Pinus and Cupressaceae. In this belt riparian vegetation incorporates high proportions of Alnus, and less amounts of deciduous Salix, Ulmus, Pterocarya, Carya, Platanus, Zelkova and Liquidambar. Herbaceous components in the pollen spectra are in low frequencies, and consist of Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedra, Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also three local pollen zones can be recognized based on the changes in relative abundances of palynomorphs. The micro- and published macrofloral records have been subjected to the Coexistence Approach method to obtain the palaeoclimate. Mean annual temperature is estimated to be over 14 ¬įC and mean annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm. In combination with other climate parameters (temperatures of warmest and coldest months, precipitation of the wettest, driest and warmest months, the data indicate very stable warm-temperate with high annual precipitation. Results of the Coexistence Approach using both sporomorph and leaf datasets are good in agreement, implying internal consistency in the method. Compared with modern meteorological records, surroundings of the B√ľy√ľk Menderes Graben had similar temperature and higher precipitation during the Early‚ÄďMiddle Miocene. This study contributes to an understanding of the Miocene vegetation and climate evolution in southeastern Mediterranean area.

  7. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  8. Species Structure of Plants in the B√°b Forest Clearcuts

    Pilkov√° Ivana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we have summarized the results of a research which was realized in the B√°b forest (Veńĺk√Ĺ B√°b, Nitra upland. The target of the research is the evaluation of species composition in the clearcuts in 2012. In the B√°b forest, during spring records there were 80 and during summer records 102 taxa of taxons recorded. The woody plants of spring and summer reports were mainly represented by typical forest species. Moreover, these are woody plants of forest open parts and there are also two invasive woody Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia plants documented. During the summer reports, three new woody plants Clematis vitalba, Lonicera caprifolium, Ulmus minor appeared in the herb layer. Herbs are represented during the spring reports by typical spring ephemeroids, geophytes and forest herbs presenting the spring synusia. During the summer reports, ephemeroids are absent and there were new species, mainly Alliaria petiolata, Convallaria majalis, Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum, Melica nutans of forest herbs reported. In the clearcut areas also clearcut, synanthropic, mainly Cirsium vulgare, Lamium purpureum, Sambucus ebulus, Serratula tinctoria, Torilis japonica and invasive species Aster lanceolatus, A. novi-belgii agg., Erigeron annuus ssp. annuus, Impatiens parviflora occurred. Generally, we can state that the diversity of clearcut plant taxa is high. Taxa are represented by forest woody plants, woody plants of clearcuts, forest open parts and forest edges. Within clearcut herbs, there are typical forest species of oak-hornbeam forests represented, species of clearcuts and human-influenced posts and there are also invasive taxa found

  9. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sf√Ęnta Ana, Szent-Anna-t√≥ to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results.¬†

  10. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culmin√≥ la acumulaci√≥n del Grupo Salta (Cret√°cico-Pale√≥geno. A continuaci√≥n y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tect√≥nico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenz√≥ el dep√≥sito del Subgrupo Met√°n (Grupo Or√°n, constitu√≠do por las formaciones R√≠o Seco, Anta y Jes√ļs Mar√≠a. La Formaci√≥n Anta en r√≠o Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas ool√≠ticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un an√°lisis palinol√≥gico comparativo entre la Formaci√≥n Anta (Subgrupo Met√°n y el Subgrupo Santa B√°rbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro pol√≠nico reflejar√≠a la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical h√ļmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa B√°rbara. La relativa mayor representaci√≥n de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinol√≥gicos y sedimentol√≥gicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansi√≥n de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente √°ridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Met√°n Subgroup, divisible into R√≠o Seco, Anta and Jes√ļs Mar√≠a formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick in R√≠o Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa B√°rbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Met√°n Subgroup shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa B√°rbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  11. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in southern of SCS are mainly 21-117 grains/g. Pollen concentration of the northern is nearly 10 times more than in the southern SCS. This is because most pollen types is transported from the north by the Pearl River and rivers in Taiwan, only Trilete-spore is not transported by the above rivers, it may be transported by rivers from Hainan Island and summer monsoon forced marine current. 3. Pollen from surface water of the South China Sea 5 samples were collected from surface water of the South China Sea. It was found that the 1st sample has most abundant of Algae, because it is located in the entrance of Hanjiang River. Pollen grains in the sample number 4 are rare; this is probably because that it is located on the boundary current of the northern part of the South China Sea. 4. Comparison of pollen from air, ocean surface water, surface sediments Pollen and spore in air contain mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores. Ocean surface water contain mainly the Dicranopteris dichotoma , Polypodiales and other Trilete-spores, with pollen of aquatic plants Alismataceae occurring, excluding Pinus pollen. Pollen in the surface sediments are mainly Trilete-spores, Pinus and herbaceous, and may be a combination of annual pollen characteristics. Acknowledgments This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants NSFC 41176049).

  12. Concentraciůn natural de compuestos antimalŠricos en artrůpodos tropicales (in vitro

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohůlicos, hexŠnicos y diclorometŠnicos de 751 muestras de artrůpodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalŠrica. En este trabajo se empleů un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biolůgicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parŠsito por la inclusiůn o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalŠrica se mostrů en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontrů que los ůrdenes mŠs promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las mŠs positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalŠrica. En el caso de los ůrdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan tambiťn de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidůpteros, coleůpteros, hemŪpteros fitůfagos y otros artrůpodos, ademŠs de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podrŪa explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, tambiťn secretan ciertas sustancias quŪmicas, las cuales podrŪan tener un efecto antiparasitario. AsŪ, a travťs de este trabajo en artrůpodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimalŠricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  13. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780‚Äď1857, Turin

    Paolo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera, belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; C. comparata Lepeletier, 1806; C. dives Dahlbom, 1854; C. pumila Klug, 1845; C. succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; C. analis Spinola, 1808; C. assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; C. bihamata Spinola, 1838; C. chilensis Spinola, 1851; C. dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; C. distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; C. episcopalis Spinola, 1838; C. grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; C. incrassata Spinola, 1838; C. pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; C. pulchella Spinola, 1808; C. ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; C. refulgens Spinola, 1806; C. splendens Dahlbom, 1854; C. succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; C. versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; He. chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; He. difficile Spinola, 1851; He. virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Ho. luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984; C. calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965; C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986; He. rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984. Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781; Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of C. germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and C. coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and He. aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and He. niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is C. tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n. The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given.

  14. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae. In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  15. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of a multiproxy, multisite, palaeoecological study of Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka, Far East Russia, details of which are presented elsewhere in the volume. We summarise the results of the analyses of pollen, diatom, chironomid, and testate amoebae assemblages, together with stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon, and sediment characteristics from the sediments of five lakes and a peat succession on a latitudinal gradient of the Kamchatka Peninsula, to infer environmental change and establish the major climate forcers and climatic teleconnections. There are synchronous shifts in the assemblage composition of most of the biota and across most sites at 6.5-6.2 ka BP, 5.2 ka BP, 4.0 ka BP, and 3.5 ka BP, suggesting a response to strong regional climate forcing at these times. These dates correspond to the warmest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) (6.5-6.2 ka BP), the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling (5.2 ka BP), the coolest and wettest part of the Neoglacial (4.0 ka BP), and a switch to warmer and drier conditions at 3.5 ka BP. Our results provide evidence for the penetration and domination of different air masses at different periods during the Holocene. Cool and dry periods in winter (e.g., at 6.0 ka BP) were driven by a relatively weak pressure gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low, whereas cool, wet periods in winter (e.g., the Neoglacial and during the LIA) developed when these two systems increased in strength. Warm, dry, continental periods in summer (e.g., at 2.5 ka BP) were driven by a weakening of the Siberian High. We find that the timing of the HTM in Kamchatka is later than in the Eurasian arctic but similar to northern Europe and the sub-arctic part of eastern Siberia. This progressive onset of the HTM was due to the effects of postglacial ice-sheet decay that modulated the routes of westerly storm tracks in Eurasia. A major ecosystem driver was the Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila, which spread northward during the Holocene in response to increasing winter snow, and caused water chemistry changes on arrival in the catchments of our study lakes and a response in diatom and chironomid assemblages. We also detect short-term responses, especially in diatom assemblages, to water chemistry changes following volcanic ash deposits.

  16. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil

    Alexandre Soares Pessanha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43, an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Seasonal contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain)

    Z√ļ√Īiga, D.; Alonso-P√©rez, F.; Castro, C. G.; Arbones, B.; Figueiras, F. G.

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system as a key piece to understand the coupling between primary production in the photic layer and the transfer mechanisms of the organic material from the photic zone. Between April 2004 and January 2005, five campaigns were carried out in the R√≠a de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) covering the most representative oceanographic conditions for this region. Measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll- a (chl a), phaeopigments (phaeo), and identification of phytoplankton species were performed on the water column samples and on the organic material collected in sediment traps. The POC fluxes measured by the sediment traps presented no seasonal variation along the studied period ranging around a mean annual value of 1085¬Ī365 mg m -2 d -1, in the upper range of the previously reported values for other coastal systems. The fact that higher POC fluxes were registered during autumn and winter, when primary production rates were at their minimum levels points to a dominant contribution of organic carbon from resuspended sediments on the trap collected material. On the contrary, fluxes of living phytoplankton carbon (C phyto) and chl a clearly presented a seasonal trend with maximum values during summer upwelling (546 mg m -2 d -1 and 22 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively) and minimum values during winter (22 mg m -2 d -1 and 0.1 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively). The contribution of C phyto to the vertical flux of POC ranged between 2% and 49% in response to the pelagic phytoplankton community structure. Higher values of C phyto fluxes were registered under upwelling conditions which favour the dominance of large chain-forming diatoms ( Asterionellopsis glacialis and Detonula pumila) that were rapidly transferred to the sediments. By contrast, C phyto fluxes decreased during the summer stratification associated with a pelagic phytoplankton community dominated by single-cell diatoms and flagellates. Minimal C phyto fluxes were observed during the winter mixing conditions, when the presence of the benthic specie Paralia sulcata in the water column also points toward strong sediment resuspension.

  18. Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments

    Andrťn, Elinor; Klimaschewski, Andrea; Self, Angela E.; St. Amour, Natalie; Andreev, Andrei A.; Bennett, Keith D.; Conley, Daniel J.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Solovieva, Nadia; Hammarlund, Dan

    2015-11-01

    A sediment record from a small lake in the north-eastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula has been investigated in a multi-proxy study to gain knowledge of Holocene climatic and environmental change. Pollen, diatoms, chironomids and selected geochemical parameters were analysed and the sediment record was dated with radiocarbon. The study shows Holocene changes in the terrestrial vegetation as well as responses of the lake ecosystem to catchment maturity and multiple stressors, such as climate change and volcanic eruptions. Climate change is the major driving force resulting in the recorded environmental changes in the lake, although recurrent tephra deposition events also contributed. The sediment record has an age at the base of about 10,000 cal yrs BP, and during the first 400 years the climate was cold and the lake exhibited extensive ice-cover during winter and relatively low primary production. Soils in the catchment were poor with shrub alder and birches dominating the vegetation surrounding the lake. At about 9600-8900 cal yrs BP the climate was cold and moist, and strong seasonal wind stress resulted in reduced ice-cover and increased primary production. After ca. 8900 cal yrs BP the forest density increased around the lake, runoff decreased in a generally drier climate resulting in decreased primary production in the lake until ca. 7000 cal yrs BP. This generally dry climate was interrupted by a brief climatic perturbation, possibly attributed to the 8.2 ka event, indicating increasingly windy conditions with thick snow cover, reduced ice-cover and slightly elevated primary production in the lake. The diatom record shows maximum thermal stratification at ca. 6300-5800 cal yrs BP and indicates together with the geochemical proxies a dry and slightly warmer climate resulting in a high productive lake. The most remarkably change in the catchment vegetation occurred at ca. 4200 cal yrs BP in the form of a conspicuous increase in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), indicating a shift to a cooler climate with a thicker and more long-lasting snow cover. This vegetational change was accompanied by marked shifts in the diatom and chironomid stratigraphies, which are also indicative of colder climate and more extensive ice-cover.

  19. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrťn, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct response to the changes of summer air temperature. Instead, it appears to thrive during the periods of increased winter precipitation, thicker ice and late spring turn-over periods, i.e., shows indirect response to climate. The clearest effect of tephra deposition on the lake ecosystem is above 908 cm (ca. 3800 cal yr BP) where the tephra deposit might have caused the shift from Stephanodiscus-dominated planktonic assemblages to the Fragilariaceae complex of benthic species. Tephra deposits might have also contributed towards the development of eutrophic plankton from about 6300 cal yr BP. It is not certain if several tephra deposits influenced diatom and chironomid changes during the last 300 years.

  20. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the MaciÁo do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On MaciÁo do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of EspŪrito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the MaciÁo do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

  1. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (?13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased ?13C and low TOC values between ?12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ?11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ?8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ?4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ?1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with marshy elements i.e. Polygonum and Liliaceae between ?6732 and 3337 cal yr BP marked warm and wet Holocene climate optimum (HCO) period. The warm and moist climate from ?1158-647 cal yr BP corresponded with global Medieval Warm Period (MWP).

  2. The potential of subfossil trunks for deriving floating dendrochronologies in NE Romania

    Constantin, Nechita; Maria, Radoane; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane; Ionel, Popa

    2015-04-01

    The subfossil wood material collected along rivers from north-eastern part of Romania was dated with radiocarbon and dendrochronological investigated. The study area is represented by Siret and Moldova rivers. Both rivers originate in the Eastern Carpathians where they collect the majority of their tributaries, further crossing through the eastern sector of the mountains by creating transverse valleys. Along these rivers, on reaches covering lengths of 100 km and 140 km, tree-rings samples were collected (n = 40 along Moldova River and n = 37 along Siret River). Of the total number of 77 collected wood samples, we dated 26 in order to determine the absolute age. The species of subfossil trunks belong to Quercus (n=51), Ulmus (n=20) and Alnus genus (n=3). The ratio between the average growth and the trunk age varies greatly, from trees aged as little as 38 years with average diameters above 32 cm, to trees as old as 184 years with diameters of just 45 cm. The absolute age of subfossil trunks varied from few decades to 6900-6670 cal yrs BP. The obtained result consists in dendrochronological series which covers periods from Mid to Late Holocene. The highest concentration of deposited subfossil trunks was carried out in the last 3000 yrs BP. Therefore, it is possible to create an exclusively dendrochronological sequence for this time frame. A first step in this direction is the extension of living tree rings series (180 yrs.) with modern wood in order to create an enlarged series of 383 years, (as illustrated for rings series of modern oaks in Dolhasca site, Siret Valley). Albeit there are many gaps in the reconstruction of these phases, several clusters are easily distinguishable, i.e. 3500-2900 years BP, 2200-2075 years BP, and 1000-800 years BP extending to LIA. By relating this data to obtained information from other proxies (lacustrine sediments, pollen records, lake levels, etc) we may conclude that the two major periods in Holocene history were characterized by large hydrological events and were, thus, conducive to significant changes in the fluvial domain (avulsion, sedimentation), which strongly affected riparian forests, as well. This is the first tree-ring chronology to cover such a long time frame (nearly 7000 years, based on incomplete information), albeit with many gaps, in our geographical region. About 95 - 97% of riparian trees can rarely provide series longer than 400 years (Becker, 1993; Friedrich et al., 2004) and this is directly linked to the frequency of flood events destroying floodplain forests. We consider our longest tree ring series (322 yrs.) ranks between the limits quoted above by the latter authors for oaks vegetating in floodplain forests.

  3. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Janusz B. FaliŇĄski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in BiaŇāowieŇľa National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of BiaŇāowieŇľa National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of BiaŇāowieŇľa National Park.

  4. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneö, Petr; Jakab, GusztŠv; SŁmegi, PŠl; PelŠnkovŠ, Barbora; Schšbitz, Frank; Braun, MihŠly; Chytrż, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 Ī 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, HippophaŽ rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

  5. From the Aller√łd to the mid-Holocene: palynological evidence from the south basin of the Caspian Sea

    Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Tudryn, Alina; Chalié, Françoise; López-Merino, Lourdes; Gasse, Françoise

    2013-10-01

    Pollen and dinoflagellate cysts have been analysed in a core from the south basin of the Caspian Sea, providing a picture of respectively past vegetation and water salinity for the Late Pleistocene to middle Holocene. A relatively sharp lithological change at 0.86 m depth reflects a shift from detrital silts to carbonates-rich fine silts. From this depth upwards, a Holocene chronology is built based on ten radiocarbon dates on ostracod shells and bulk carbonates. From the vegetation point of view, the Late Pleistocene deserts and steppes were partially replaced in the most sheltered areas by an open woodland with Pinus, Juniperus-Hippophae-Elaeagnus and even Alnus-Quercus-Pterocarya and Fraxinus, related to the Aller√łd palynozone. This was interrupted by the Younger Dryas palynozone when Artemisia reaches a maximum in a first instance followed by a very dry phase with only a slight return of Pinus and Quercus and the rare presence of Ulmus-Zelkova. From 11.5 to 8.4 cal. ka BP, an open landscape dominated by shrubs such as Ephedra and progressively increasing Quercus appeared. The final spread of diverse evergreen and deciduous trees is delayed and occurs after 8.4 cal. ka BP. It is suggested that this delay is caused by an arid climate in the Early Holocene linked to high insolation and perhaps to a lake effect. The dinocyst assemblages fluctuate between slightly brackish (Pyxidinopsis psilata and Spiniferites cruciformis, 7 psu and lower) and more brackish (Impagidinium caspienense, ňú13 psu). In the Lateglacial (Khvalynian highstand), the assemblages remained dominated by relative low salinity taxa. A late and brief increase of salinity occurred prior to 11.2 cal. ka BP associated with the Mangyshlak lowstand. It is suggested that it was caused by a brief drop in meltwater flow from both the north and the southeast (Uzboy) and a likely evaporation increase. This lowstand occurs quasi at the same time as the end of a longer lowstand in the Black Sea. The freshest waters are then inferred as having occurred between 8.4 and ‚ȧ4.4 cal. ka BP, linked to a connection with the Amu Darya and the melting glaciers on the Pamir Mountains. The Caspian Sea is a sensitive environment, easily perturbed by global climatic changes, such as the Aller√łd and Holocene warming, and the Lateglacial and Younger Dryas cooling, as well as by regional changes in its hydrography, such as shifts in the Eurasian meltwater and the Volga and Amu Darya inflows.

  6. Palynology of latest Neogene (Middle Miocene to late Pliocene) strata in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia

    Sirkin, L.; Owens, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Palynology of Miocene and Pliocene formations in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia reveals a significant representation of exotic pollen interspersed in pollen assemblages that are otherwise comparable to those from the modern vegetation of the Mid-Alantic coastal plain region. The late Tertiary arboreal pollen (AP) assemblages are dominated by oak, hickory, pine, birch and alder with minor amounts of mid- and southern coastal tree taxa, as well as minor spruce and hemlock and a trace of fir. Nonarboreal pollen (NAP) include grass, sedge, composite and aquatic taxa. Exotic pollen in these assemblages represent plants now foreign to this region. They may be placed in three categories. First, there are extinct forms, such as Labrapollis, Plicatopollis, and Multiporopollenites, that can be traced from the Cretaceous or Early Tertiary into the Late Tertiary. The second group includes forms, such as Podocarpus, Engelhardtia, Pterocarya, Ephedra, Eucommia, Ulmus-Zelkova, Glyptostrobus, Palmae, and Cyathea, that are not found in this region today and not found in early Pleistocene sediments in the eastern United States. Many of these taxa are subtropical or greatly restricted in geographic range. A third group of exotics, mainly Cyrilla, Planera, Gordonia, Jussiaea, and Sapotacaea, including Minusops, are generally found south of the study area or have their northern limit here at this time. The lack of the extinct or distant exotics in early to mid-Pleistocene sediments in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain and the last appearance of Pterocarya, as the last exotic taxon in the early Pleistocene of western Europe, support the stratigraphic assignment of the Pliocene units. The number of exotic taxa diminish markedly between the Miocene pollen assemblages and those of the Late Pliocene. Climatic fluctuations characterize the Late Tertiary environments. The Miocene, for example, incorporates a warming trend between the upper, middle Miocene and the Manokin beds and the late Miocene of the Pokomoke beds. The late Miocene was probably somewhat warner than the present climate in the Delmarva region. This trend is based on the presence of colder climate indicators, mainly spruce and hemlock, in the Manokin pollen record. The two distinct pollen assemblages constitute two pollen zones. Similarly, the Pliocene pollen record also shows a warming trend. The pollen zone of the Yorktown Formation of the early Pliocene age contains the colder climate indicators spruce and hemlock. The Beaverdam and Walston formation of late Pliocene age contain pollen assemblages that reflect climatic conditions warmer than the present time.

  7. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 ¬įC. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 őľmol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface-controlled mineral dissolutions. It is shown that the Si release rate from the above-ground forest biomass is capable of producing the Si concentrations observed in soil solutions of surficial horizons and contribute significantly to the Si flux from the soil to the river.

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

  9. Subglacial carbonate precipitates on central Baffin Island, Arctic Canada may constrain basal conditions for the Foxe sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Miller, G. H.; Refsnider, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Extensive, widespread carbonate deposits on gneissic bedrock have recently been discovered around the Barnes Ice Cap, central Baffin Island. Deposits range from conglomeratic crack-fillings ?5 cm thick to laminated, striated films plastered on bedrock surfaces, often in the lee of obstacles. A single outcrop of these carbonates was first described by Andrews et al. (1972, Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 9, 233-238) and was interpreted as an early Tertiary limestone based on the presence of warm-climate palynomorphs including Liriodendron (tulip tree), Ulmus (elm), and Taxodium (cypress). However, recent fieldwork in the region has demonstrated that these carbonates are far more ubiquitous than previously thought and found on both glacially-polished bedrock surfaces and till boulders that melted out in recent decades from Laurentide ice at the base of the Barnes Ice Cap. In many cases, these carbonates exhibit the characteristic morphologies of subglacial carbonates (flutes, furrows, and striations parallel to the direction of ice flow, columnar spicules, and tufa-dam-like forms). A few deposits include angular sands, gravels, and pebbles. The nearest carbonate bedrock is Paleozoic limestone flooring Foxe Basin 130 km west of the Barnes Ice Cap summit. While subglacial carbonate deposits have been documented adjacent to retreating mountain and outlet glaciers and in areas previously covered by Pleistocene ice sheets, few localities are distant from carbonate bedrock. Thus, the carbon required for carbonate deposition in the Barnes region was either (1) derived from Paleozoic limestone and dissolved in subglacial water that was subject to long-distance transport, or (2) there was sufficient trapped atmospheric CO2 in the ice to yield alkaline basal meltwater which hydrolyzed calcium-bearing silicates in the local bedrock. Given the volume of carbonate deposited at some sites, we find the latter model unlikely. If the former model is applicable, these carbonates will provide considerable insight into subglacial processes beneath the Foxe sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and possibly constrain the former ice thicknesses above these sites. Quantitative x-ray diffraction defines the mineralogy of both the carbonate and clastic components. Carbon and strontium isotopes in the carbonate precipitates, Foxe Basin Paleozoic bedrock, and local bedrock should define the source of the carbon and calcium in the deposits. Oxygen isotopes of Barnes Ice Cap Laurentide ice and the carbonates provide a unique opportunity to compare the isotopic composition of subglacial carbonates with the isotopic composition of the actual ice sheet under which they were precipitated.

  10. Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

    2012-11-01

    Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

  11. Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Breuil Colette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Ophiostoma spp. and the genetic basis of virulence, we have constructed an expressed sequence tag (EST library using total RNA extracted from the yeast-like growth phase of O. novo-ulmi (isolate H327. Results A total of 4,386 readable EST sequences were annotated by determining their closest matches to known or theoretical sequences in public databases by BLASTX analysis. Searches matched 2,093 sequences to entries found in Genbank, including 1,761 matches with known proteins and 332 matches with unknown (hypothetical/predicted proteins. Known proteins included a collection of 880 unique transcripts which were categorized to obtain a functional profile of the transcriptome and to evaluate physiological function. These assignments yielded 20 primary functional categories (FunCat, the largest including Metabolism (FunCat 01, 20.28% of total, Sub-cellular localization (70, 10.23%, Protein synthesis (12, 10.14%, Transcription (11, 8.27%, Biogenesis of cellular components (42, 8.15%, Cellular transport, facilitation and routes (20, 6.08%, Classification unresolved (98, 5.80%, Cell rescue, defence and virulence (32, 5.31% and the unclassified category, or known sequences of unknown metabolic function (99, 7.5%. A list of specific transcripts of interest was compiled to initiate an evaluation of their impact upon strain virulence in subsequent studies. Conclusions This is the first large-scale study of the O. novo-ulmi transcriptome. The expression profile obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of this species will facilitate a multigenic approach to gene expression studies to assess their role in the determination of pathogenicity for this species. The identification and evaluation of gene targets in such studies will be a prerequisite to the development of biological control strategies for this pathogen.

  12. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales

    Jachowski, David S.; Rota, Christopher T.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007‚Äď2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural components that are products of past and current land use interacting with environmental aspects such as landform also are important factors influencing roost-tree selection patterns. PMID:27028116

  13. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in ‚Äúcollection‚ÄĚ plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random ‚Äúexperimental‚ÄĚ split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in ‚Äúcollection‚ÄĚ plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in ‚Äúexperimental‚ÄĚ plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the ‚Äúcollection‚ÄĚ plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in ‚Äúcollection‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúexperimental‚ÄĚ plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

  14. Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Buiteveld J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elms, and especially Ulmus √ó hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: ‚ÄúCommelin‚ÄĚ (relatively susceptible and ‚ÄúLobel‚ÄĚ (relatively resistant. In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with ‚ÄúColumella‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúSapporo Autumn Gold‚ÄĚ‚Äô and ‚ÄúRebella‚ÄĚ being highly resistant and significantly different from ‚ÄúLobel‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúRegal‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúUrban‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúBelgica‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúDen Haag‚ÄĚ and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to ‚ÄúCommelin‚ÄĚ. The non-released clones performed comparable to ‚ÄúLobel‚Äô‚ÄĚor even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.

  15. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; BrŁckner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to BrŁckner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

  16. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Considering Roost-Site Selection at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    Jachowski, David S; Rota, Christopher T; Dobony, Christopher A; Ford, W Mark; Edwards, John W

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of bat species is one of the most daunting wildlife conservation challenges in North America, requiring detailed knowledge about their ecology to guide conservation efforts. Outside of the hibernating season, bats in temperate forest environments spend their diurnal time in day-roosts. In addition to simple shelter, summer roost availability is as critical as maternity sites and maintaining social group contact. To date, a major focus of bat conservation has concentrated on conserving individual roost sites, with comparatively less focus on the role that broader habitat conditions contribute towards roost-site selection. We evaluated roost-site selection by a northern population of federally-endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) at Fort Drum Military Installation in New York, USA at three different spatial scales: landscape, forest stand, and individual tree level. During 2007-2011, we radiotracked 33 Indiana bats (10 males, 23 females) and located 348 roosting events in 116 unique roost trees. At the landscape scale, bat roost-site selection was positively associated with northern mixed forest, increased slope, and greater distance from human development. At the stand scale, we observed subtle differences in roost site selection based on sex and season, but roost selection was generally positively associated with larger stands with a higher basal area, larger tree diameter, and a greater sugar maple (Acer saccharum) component. We observed no distinct trends of roosts being near high-quality foraging areas of water and forest edges. At the tree scale, roosts were typically in American elm (Ulmus americana) or sugar maple of large diameter (>30 cm) of moderate decay with loose bark. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of considering day roost needs simultaneously across multiple spatial scales. Size and decay class of individual roosts are key ecological attributes for the Indiana bat, however, larger-scale stand structural components that are products of past and current land use interacting with environmental aspects such as landform also are important factors influencing roost-tree selection patterns. PMID:27028116

  17. Lateglacial-Holocene Environment History, Kazakhstan

    Kremenetski, K.; Velichko, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kazakhstan is located in central Asia between Caspian Sea and Tiang-Shang Mountains. Few well dated holocene sequences from the forest-steppe and steppe belt of Kazakhstan provided information about the vegetation and climate history. Mokhovoe mire was studied in the watershed of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. That's the most thick peat mire in northern Kazakhstan. Sedimentation in the Mokhovoe sequence started ca. 7800 BP. At that time regional vegetation was represented by steppes and birch-poplar forests. Pine penetrated in the Tobol region likely between 6500 and 6000 BP. Pine grew on sand terraces of Tobol River together with birch. At 3000-2900 BP Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus grew in north-west Kazakhstan.The general structure of vegetation was the same as at 6500-6000 BP. At 1900-1500 BP climate became less continental and pine forests with pure pine canopy expanded on sandy terraces of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. Soon after 1500 BP broad-leaved trees were extinct from the regional forests. Pashennoe lake is located in Karkaralinsk mountains in the most elevated part in the south-east part of the Kazakhstan lowhills. Dry grass-wormwood and wormwood steppes were spread in the region at 10500-8200 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophše rhamnoides occurred in protected parts in intermountain valleys of Karkaralinsk mountains. Salix and Betula also occurred in valleys. Between 8000 and 6000 BP forest vegetation in Karkaralinsk mountains was represented by birch forests. Pine penetrated to Karkaralinsk mountains between 6000 and 5500 BP, but it didn't formed large forests. At the same time the maximal spread of Alnus glutinosa was reconstructed. The general structure of regional vegetation was stable up to. At 1500 BP pure pine forests expanded over Karkaralinsk mountains and around Pashennoe lake. Few lakes were investigated in Borovoe mountains in south of Kokchetav region of Kazakhstan. In early Holocene birch forests dominated in regional vegetation. Pine expanded in Borovoe at ca 7000 BP. Pine forests have been dominating in regional vegetation since 5300-5200 BP. The section of lake-bog sediment of Ozerki mire in the Irtysh river valley represents the history of vegetation and climate in southern margin of the West Siberian Lowland since 14,000 BP. Dry cold steppes grew in the Irtysh valley at 14,000 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophše rhamnoides occurred in the Irtysh valley together with Betula and Salix. Climate became slightly warmer between 12,000 and 9500 BP. After 9500 BP Picea was extinct in the Irtysh valley and regional vegetation was represented by dry steppes and birch forests with willows near streams and lakes. At 6300-6200 BP pine penetrated to the Irtysh valley around Ozerki. Pure pine forests have been dominating in the Ozerki region since 5500 BP and the general structure of regional vegetation is very similar to the modern one.

  18. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae (Pyrus sp., Prunus sp., etc.), Tilia sp. (Linden), Morus sp. (mulberry), Taxus baccata (yew), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas etc.), Labiata (Lavandula sp.), Cannabaceae (Humulus sp. etc.), Liliaceae (Lilium sp.), Echium sp. (viper's bugloss). The most abundant taxa, detected in the highest quantities (grains/m3 air), by order of counting were as follows: holm-oak, olive, grasses, Plantago and Parietaria. With the data obtained we have established a pollen calendar for Salamanca and report the period in which each type of pollen is found along the years and the periods with the highest airborne concentrations of such pollens. The diversity and the spectrum of the pollen in the city of Salamanca correspond to the typical plant communities found on the dehesas (large ranges of grasslands) of Castile, where Salamanca is located, although the wind directions and the peculiar climatic characteristics of the area govern the peaks of maximum presence of the different taxa. As examples, in the case of olive, which is cultivated at some distance from the city, its maximum presence coincides with south-westerly winds; in the case of grasses, the peaks of maximum counts coincide with a sharp rise in mean temperature, close to or higher than 20 degrees C and between five and six weeks after rainfall equal to or greater than 5 L/m2. PMID:9885728

  19. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    Full text: By estimations of scientific biogeochemists and geochemists hollow of the Issyk Kul is a natural uranium biogeochemical province. However uranium ores consists other microelements. In the given uranium region the biogeochemistry of uranium, etc. microelements are studied poorly. Considering the social and economic and ecological importance of subregion of Issyk-Kul for republic and value of uranium for alive organisms, we have aim - to research biogeochemistry of uranium in territory hollow of Issyk Kul. Uranium waste is located in 2,5 km to the east from inhabited settlement, but natural factors (rains, underground waters, landslips) are dangerous for ecology of Issyk Kul lake and the nearest settlements. But after closing of mining combine of the Kadji-Say a lot of not conserving radioactive-industrial waste in coastal of Dzhili-Bulak, underwent intensive destruction, carry of its part to a exit of natural boundary. The reason was frequent storm rains. For 40 years there was an intensive raising a coastal part in area of industry zone. It was made by formation of terraces in highest natural boundaries of Dzhil-Bulak. On the kept terraces it is possible to meet here and there the radioactive-industrial waste, combined by ashed material mixed up with gravel material. The part of radioactive ashes achieved to Issyk Kul Lake, but it is not so important, because that is makes a drop in the sea for Issyk Kul Lake (we shall remind, that in the lake contains about 100 thousand tons of uranium). By radiometric shooting turn out that a level of radiation in hollow of the Issyk-Kul and in around territory of the Kadji-Sai settlement is low and about from 15 up to 47 nZv/hour. In province of E-circumflexadji-Say and around territory the soil and covered ground are characterized by the various contents of uranium -from 0,1x10-6 g/g to 35,0x10-6 g/g. The analysis of 20 samples of soils and ground has shown, that on the uranium deposit in the upper horizon of a covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm, except of some technogenic territories

  20. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region‚Äôs Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest ‚Äď 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak ‚Äď 10.7%, SB1OP¬†(dry oak-pine ‚Äď 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak ‚Äď 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak ‚Äď 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region‚Äôs Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril‚Äô Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5¬†ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8¬†ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. ‚Äď 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. ‚Äď 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. ‚Äď 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. ‚Äď 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. ‚Äď 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. ‚Äď 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4¬†m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area ‚Äď 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands ‚Äď 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests ‚Äď 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands‚Äô stock is 1,782.0¬†m3 per ha.

  1. A Contribution to the Knowledge of Composition and Classification of Holm Oak Forests in Istria

    Dario Barińćevińá

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The forest vegetation of Istria is considered one of the most interesting vegetation types in the Republic of Croatia. This is confirmed by the presence of a large number of highly diverse forest communities occurring on the border between two completely different plant-geographical regions: the Mediterranean region and the Euro-Siberian ‚Äď North American region. As climazonal vegetation, forests of holm oak in the Eu-Mediterranean represent special value and a particular asset. Owing to systematic research during the past fifty or more years, the general distribution of holm oak in Istria is well known; however, data on forest communities of holm oak and their phytocoenologcal characteristics are much less known. This means that until the present research, only about forty phytocoenological relev√©s of the forest stands of holm oak in Istria had been released, which clearly demonstrates that these stands have been insufficiently studied and that further detailed research is required. Synecological-vegetation research was undertaken in 12 localities in the coastal part of Istria, starting with the surroundings of Poreńć in the north-west, across the western and southern parts, to the surroundings of Pula (Fig. 1. Phytocoenological research of forest vegetation was based on the principles of the Zurich-Montpellier School (Braun-Blanquet 1964. Our own phytocoenological relev√©s were entered into the Turboveg database (Hennekens and Schaminee 2001, together with 30 published phytocoenological relev√©s of forests of holm oak and manna ash, taken in a broader research area and described as the subassociations typicum and cotinetosum. A total of 42 phytocoenological relev√©s were statistically processed. In addition to classical analysis, numerical analysis by means of SYN-TAX 2000 (Podani 2001 software was also conducted. Eco-indicator values according to Pignatti (2005 were applied to describe the ecological conditions using the floral composition, while the mean values for particular relev√©s and forest communities were calculated by means of the JUICE 6.3 programme (Tischy 2002.The applied cluster methods showed very similar results and the same general patterns. Accordingly, the majority of the relev√©s are clearly divided into three groups, while only three relev√©s make up a separate group (Fig. 2. Further detailed analysis of the floral composition showed that the studied forest stands of holm oak belong to the first group of relev√©s, typical stands of holm oak and manna ash to the second group, while stands of holm oak and manna ash with smoke tree (Table 1 belong to the third group, and so do the three separate relev√©s. The analysis also showed that all the analyzed phytocoenological relev√©s belong to the same association Fraxino orni-Quercetum ilicis (Horvatińá (1956 1958, with all the floristic and ecological differences that indicate the affiliation to the three subassociations. Thus, the first group of relev√©s is represented by stands of holm oak and manna ash with a significant amount of deciduous elements, the second group is represented by typical stands of holm oak and manna ash, and the third includes stands in the form of maquis and less well developed forests, containing, apart from the species Cotinus coggygria, species of more open sites. This is presented in more detail in Table 1.Based on the comparisons of the floral composition in our own relev√©s with the stands of holm oak and manna ash in the Republic of Croatia described earlier, it can be concluded that our stands, in addition to the characteristic and differentiating species of the association Fraxino orni-Quercetum ilicis and the appertaining alliance, order and class, are strongly characterized by the elements from the neighbouring forests of pubescent oak with oriental hornbeam (Querco-Carpinetum orientalis Horvatińá 1939. In the tree and shrub layers, these include the deciduous Quercus pubescens, Carpinus orientalis, Quercus cerris, Acer monspessulanum, Coronilla emerus ssp. emeroides, Ligustrum vulgare, Cornus mas, Ulmus minor, Sorbus domestica, Euonymus europaea and others, and in the ground layer the grasses Sesleria autumnalis, Carex halleriana, Brachypodium sylvaticum and Carex flacca.Such a large participation of these species, as well as the affiliation of our relev√©s to the association Fraxino orni-Quercetum ilicis, indicate the different nature and specific features that place it into a separate subassociation. Differences in the floral composition in relation to the subassociations typicum and cotinetosum can primarily be attributed to different synecological growth conditions, as seen from the analysis of ecoindicator values according to Pignatti (2005 (Table 2. The studied holm oak forests are characterized by the best synecological conditions and by species that indicate more sciophylic, colder, more continental, more humid and richer sites than those of typical holm oak forests. It should be pointed out that, in relation to the previously described subassociation typicum, our phytocoenological relev√©s differ statistically in all ecological indicators, whereas in relation to the relev√©s of the subassociation cotinetosum, they differ in most of the ecological indicators. These results confirm the earlier understanding on the need to form a special, new subassociation within the forest of holm oak with manna ash.In order to make the final decision on the accurate nomination and systematic affiliation of the analyzed stands of holm oak, in addition to the conducted analyses, we should also take into account past descriptions of holm oak forests both from the area of Istria and from the entire distribution range of this species. As evident from all these works, only the subassociations typicum and cotinetosum are accompanied by phytocoenological relev√©s, whereas the others are only furnished with textual descriptions without any concrete phytocoenological relev√©s or a list of differentiating species. This prevented us from making a more accurate and better comparison and clear determination.However, taking into consideration the floral composition, the synecological conditions of its occurrence and past descriptions of the subassociations, variants and facies of the association Fraxino orni-Quercetum ilicis, it may be claimed that the studied stands belong to the subassociation carpinetosum orientalis subass. nova hoc loco. This is in accordance with the valid Code of Phytocoenological Nomenclature (see article 7. Hence, relev√© 4 in Table 1 is taken as the nomenclatural type. Species Carpinus orientalis, Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum, Ligustrum vulgare, Cornus mas, Celtis australis, Carex flacca i Carex halleriana have been determined as differentiating species. In order to reach the final solution to the problem of forests of holm oak with manna ash, both in Istria and in the overall distribution range of this community, we should conduct our own research over a broader area. By doing so we would obtain more comparable data and more specific conclusions on the systematic classification of this association into lower systematic units. Moreover, the newly studied sites provide an excellent basis for further monitoring of syndynamic processes in holm oak forests in Istria.

  2. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este art√≠culo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos a√Īos en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xer√≥fila y subxer√≥fila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En √©l se hacen observaciones taxon√≥micas, morfol√≥gicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.¬†¬† - Especies que se se√Īalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ‚ąÜChamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Crotalaria pumila G√≥mez-Ortega. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ‚ąÜPterocarpus acapulcensis Rose. Rhamnaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Colubrina heteroneura (Griseb. StandI. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Ziziphus cyclocardia Blake. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ‚ąÜZiziphus saeri Pittier. Simaroubaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. B. - Especies que ya hab√≠an sido anotadas anteriormente en la flora Colombiana:Boraginaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Tournefortia maculata Jacq. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Tournefortia volubilis L. Cactaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Acanthocereus sicariguensis Croiz. & Tamayo. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Pilosocereus lanuginosus (L. Byl. & Rowl. Celastraceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Schaefferia frutescens Jacq. Convolvulaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Ipomoea incarnata (Vahl Choisy. Euphorbiaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† *Chamaesyce sanmartensis (Rushy Dugand. Leguminosae- Faboideae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Flemingia strobilifera (L. R. Br. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Machaerium bondaense Pittier. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Pterocarpus floribundus Pittier. Leguminosae- Mimosoideae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Senegalia guacamayo Britt. & Killip. Loranthaceae.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Phthirusa adunca (Mey. Maguire. ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Struthanthus polystachyus (R. & Pav. Blume.