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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el conteni [...] do y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the conten [...] t and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

Bakker, María L.; Alvarado, Patricia I..

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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae, Robinia pseudoacacia(Fabaceae, Ulmus pumila(Ulmaceae y Fraxinus Americana (Oleaceae en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

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Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

Patricia I. Alvarado

2006-01-01

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Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods  

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Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods migh...

Wheeler E A; Manchester S R

2007-01-01

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The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 ?M, 50 ?M and 90 ?M. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

?uki? Matilda

2014-01-01

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Ecophysiological and Growth Responses of Elm, Ulmus pumila, to Different Water Tables  

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Full Text Available The relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and underground water table need to be studied because a huge number of trees died in arid and semi-arid area during recent years for the decreasing water table due to increasing water consumption. In this study, the water table was represented by the distance from soil surface to water surface. Study on the effect of water tables on the ecophysiological characteristics and growth of Ulmus pumila saplings was conducted by a short-term experiment. Saplings at water tables of -5 (under water, 3, 9, 15 and 22 cm were abbreviated as U-5, U3, U9, U15 and U22. Present results indicated that water table did affect the ecophysiological and growth response of U. pumila. All U-5 died after one week. U9 and U15 had higher net photosynthesis rates than those of U3 and U22. The diurnal mean transpiration rate of U3 was significantly lower than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. The diurnal mean stomatal resistance of U3 was significantly higher than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. U22 had the highest increment in main root length and there was good correlation between water level and main root length. U15 had the highest increment in stem height. Maintaining proper water table would result in higher net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, plant height and root length, but relative lower transpiration rate for U. pumila saplings. These results would have implications for water management at arid and semi-arid area for vegetation survival and regeneration. Seedlings and saplings should not be submerged for a long time during irrigating. Ecophysiological measurements can indicate the underground water table. Maintaining proper underground water table at arid and semi-arid area would be helpful to the growth of plant species and vegetation.

Xiongwen Chen

2005-01-01

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Stem Weight Ratios of Siberian Elm (Ulmus Pumila L.) Grown as a Short Rotation Crop  

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Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) is a fast growing tree which has not been studied extensively for short rotation crop (SRC) purposes. Seedlings were planted in Madrid (Spain) in the year 2000 at a density of 1 plant/m{sup 2}. Trials were carried out in order to evaluate the biomass production in high-density plantations. The plantation was cut after the fourth growing season and evaluated for height, diameter, and dry weight. The same measurements were repeated for the sprouts of the 1st and 2nd year that followed. The mean biomass yield after 4 years was 101.6 g dw/m{sup 2} year-1; 269 g dw /m{sup 2} for 1-year-old sprouts and 480.4 g dw /m{sup 2} for 2-year-old sprouts. Correlations between height and basal diameter with dry weight were calculated for each year. There was a close correlation between the 4th year original plant weight and the 1-year-old sprouts but less than with the 2nd year. Water efficiency for biomass production was higher during the 2nd sprouting cycle.

Iriarte, Leyre; Fernandez, Jesus [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Produccion Vegetal

2006-07-15

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Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Reduces Presence of Xylem Endophytic Fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.)  

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Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than su...

2013-01-01

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Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance prevents thrombus formation through antiplatelet activity.  

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Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (Ulmaceae) has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of edema, mastitis, gastric cancer and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ulmus macrocarpa extract (UME) on thrombus formation in vivo, platelet activation ex vivo and fibrinolytic activity in vitro. To identify the antithrombotic activity of UME in vivo, we used an arterial thrombosis model. UME delayed the occlusion time by 13.4 and 13.9 min at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. UME significantly inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), respectively, but did not affect the coagulation times following activated partial thromboplastin and prothrombin activation. Therefore, to investigate the antiplatelet effect of UME, the effect of UME on collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro was examined. UME exhibited antiplatelet aggregation activity, induced by ADP and collagen. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic activity of UME was investigated. The results showed that UME significantly increased fibrinolysis at 1,000 mg/ml. In conclusion, the results suggested that UME may significantly inhibit artery thrombus formation in vivo, potentially due to antiplatelet activity, and also exhibits potential as a clot?dissolving agent for thrombolytic therapy. PMID:23846328

Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Jin; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Myung, Chang-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2013-09-01

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Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations  

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Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phen...

Hirsch, Heidi; Von Wehrden, Henrik; Wesche, Karsten; Renison, Daniel; Hensen, Isabell; Wypior, Catherina

2012-01-01

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Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling  

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Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith.

Rosemari Pilati

2006-01-01

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Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall  

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Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

Aleksi? Jelena

2004-01-01

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Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.  

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Full Text Available The structure of Kalancho? pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

2008-12-01

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Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation.  

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Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), known as "Kacip Fatimah," has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate child birth as well as a post partum medicine. However, its topical application on skin has not been reported yet. In this study, we have focused on the anti-photoaging effects of L. pumila. Extract of L. pumila was first analyzed for their antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) since UV irradiation is a primary cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the skin. The 50% free radical scavenging activity (FSC(50)) of L. pumila extract was determined to be 0.006%, which was equal to that produced by 156 microM ascorbic acid. TNF-alpha and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) play a primary role in the inflammation process upon UV irradiation and are known to be stimulated by UVB. Treatment with L. pumila extract markedly inhibited the TNF-alpha production and the expression of COX-2. Decreased collagen synthesis of human fibroblasts by UVB was restored back to normal level after treatment with L. pumila extract. On the other hand, the enhanced MMP-1 expression upon UVB irradiation was down regulated by L. pumila extract in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of normal keratinocytes with L. pumila extract attenuated UVB-induced MMP-9 expression. These results collectively suggest L. pumila extract has tremendous potential as an anti-photoaging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:20159580

Choi, Hyun-kyung; Kim, Dong-hyun; Kim, Jin Wook; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

2010-03-01

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Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.)  

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The structure of Kalancho? pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type) mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndro...

2008-01-01

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Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

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One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

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Effect of Water Extract of Labisia pumila Var Alata on Aorta of Ovariectomized Sprague Dawley Rats  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila var alata, locally known Kacip Fatimah, is a traditional herb used by Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as to increase a woman's libido. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Labisia pumila consumption on maintaining the integrity of the aortic wall in ovariectomized rats. Thirty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats, 6 months old, were used in the experiment. Rats were divided into Normal (NOR and ovariectomized (OVXC, KF and ERT groups. Body weight was checked and recorded monthly. After four months, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and tissue samples from the aorta were collected for histological studies. Results showed that water extract of Labisia pumila-treatment maintained the elastic lamellae architecture of the ovariectomized rat aortae in a manner comparable to that of the normal rats. Results implied a possible role for Labisia pumila in modulating postmenopausal cardiovascular risks.

Ayida Al-Wahaibi

2008-01-01

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Genetic relationship among Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae) species based on ISSR-PCR.  

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The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. PMID:24841662

Karimi, E; Jaafar, H Z E; Aziz, M A; Taheri, S; AzadiGonbad, R

2014-01-01

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Potential Role of Labisia pumila in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, also called Kacip Fatimah, is a herbal medicine that has been widely used in South East Asian communities mainly for women’s health. The extensive use of this plant has led to many speculations and studies on its phytoestrogenic properties. This review highlights the studies that involved Labisia pumila, which include phytochemical profiling and its safety. In addition, we also look into its use as an alternative to hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women, and its role in cardiovascular protection and osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to highlight the potential benefits of this plant in promoting advantageous health properties.

Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

2013-06-01

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Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.  

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Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

2012-12-01

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Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.  

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Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO? in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).  

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A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO? (400, 800 and 1,200 ?mol·mol?¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO? concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO? levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO? (1,200 ?mol·mol?¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO? conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 ?g·g?¹ DW) and pumila (25 ?g·g?¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO? enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO? levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO? enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

2012-01-01

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MINERALS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Labisia pumila var. alata OF SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS  

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Full Text Available In this study, relationships between physic-chemical, mineral and antioxidant properties of water-soluble extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata are proposed. A wide range of analytical parameters were studied including physic-chemical viz., proximate composition, yield, pH, total solid, total acidity, solubility; minerals content (Ca, Fe, and Zn and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, and Pb; total phenolic content (TPC, tannin content, gallic acid (GA content, and free scavenging activity of DPPH (EC50. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA. Based on PCA analysis, TPC, GA content, moisture content, crude protein, and zinc content were found to have a significant positive correlation (r close to 1 to antioxidant activity. Cluster analysis (CA resulted in four groups of L.pumila (LP. These results provide useful data about the relationships and chemical patterns in LP leaves.

Mashitah M Yusoff

2012-02-01

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Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata  

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Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumil...

Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

2013-01-01

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Exploring phenotypic floral integration in Iris pumila L.: A common-garden experiment  

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The angiosperm flower is a complex integrated phenotype, but within this structure there are partly independent units or modules. The interconnections among floral organ traits are hypothesized to be mostly generated by pollinatormediated selection. In this study, we explore whether floral dry mass per area (DMA) in an insect-pollinated herb, Iris pumila, exhibits a modular correlation pattern as has been reported for some size-related traits. We found that the overall pattern of floral...

Tuci? Branka; Vuleta Ana; Manitaševi?-Jovanovi? Sanja

2013-01-01

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Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

2010-10-12

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The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9?mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280?mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2012-01-01

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The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9?mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280?mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values.

Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2012-01-01

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Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice  

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Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

Lyu Jeonghyeon

2013-06-01

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Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata  

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Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Methods: The capabilities of callus, shoot, and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mg/L. Results: Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34±19.55)% and (70.40±14.14)% efficacy, respectively. IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction. A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA, respectively. Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant, with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture. Conclusions: Callus, roots, and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

2013-01-01

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Alkyl phenols and saponins from the roots of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).  

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Recently, there is a remarkable boom in the sales of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) in the Malaysian market, as an extract of the plant is used to gain energy and libido as well as to treat many other ailments. A chemical analysis of its roots was undertaken and three metabolites, demethylbelamcandaquinone B (1), fatimahol (2), and dexyloprimulanin (3) together with 21 known compounds including epoxyoleanane glycosides, alkenated phenolics, cerebroside, glycerogalactolipids, and lipids were isolated and identified. Structure elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic and chemical studies. The MeOH extract of KF and compounds 12 and 13 exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial activity. PMID:21784496

Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A

2011-11-01

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Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats  

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A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent.

Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

2005-01-01

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Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.  

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A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

2005-07-01

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Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)  

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A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis reve...

Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Ehsan Karimi

2012-01-01

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The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume  

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Full Text Available Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume, one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-06-01

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The relationship of nitrogen and C/N ratio with secondary metabolites levels and antioxidant activities in three varieties of Malaysian kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).  

Science.gov (United States)

Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity. PMID:21716173

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

2011-01-01

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Exploring phenotypic floral integration in Iris pumila L.: A common-garden experiment  

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Full Text Available The angiosperm flower is a complex integrated phenotype, but within this structure there are partly independent units or modules. The interconnections among floral organ traits are hypothesized to be mostly generated by pollinatormediated selection. In this study, we explore whether floral dry mass per area (DMA in an insect-pollinated herb, Iris pumila, exhibits a modular correlation pattern as has been reported for some size-related traits. We found that the overall pattern of floral organ integration with regard to DMA was uneven in the offspring of Iris pumila derived from a sunexposed and a shaded natural population. Since principal component analysis (PCA showed that most of the eigenvalue variance was explained by the first two principal components (PCs, these PCs were considered as two floral modules. The greatest factor loadings on the first PC axis was that of the perianth and style arm DMA (PSDMA and perianth tube DMA (PTDMA,while on the second PC axis, the greatest factor loading was that of stamen DMA (STDMA. The results indicate that the function of the first module would be to attract a pollinating vector, while the second one would reflect male functions. Selection analyses revealed that the targets of phenotypic selection were both intra-floral integration and individual floral traits. Both PSDMA and PC1DMA were under strong linear selection, while PTDMA experienced direct stabilization selection. The level of integration in floral organ DMA expressed in the term of relative eigenvalue variance appeared to be rather low, as was documented for other angiosperm taxa. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173007

Tuci? Branka

2013-01-01

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Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model  

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Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the bone-protective mechanism of LPva by measuring the expressions of several factors involved in bone formative and resorptive activities namely Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL), Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2). Methods Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin®) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via daily oral gavages at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 ?g/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized and the gene expressions of BMP-2, OPG, RANKL and MCSF in the femoral bones were measured using a branch - DNA technique. Results The RANKL gene expression was increased while the OPG and BMP-2 gene expressions were reduced in the OVXC group compared to the SHAM group. There were no significant changes in the MCSF gene expressions among the groups. Treatment with either LPva or ERT was able to prevent these ovariectomy-induced changes in the gene expressions in ovariectomized rats with similar efficacy. Conclusion LPva may protect bone against estrogen deficiency-induced changes by regulating the RANKL, OPG and BMP-2 gene expressions.

2013-01-01

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Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis  

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Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

2012-01-01

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HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.  

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Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

2011-01-01

40

Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

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A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

Ehsan Karimi

2011-05-01

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Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

2011-01-01

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Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)  

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A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were sol...

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

2011-01-01

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Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of kacip fatimah (labisia pumila blume).  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants. PMID:21954355

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2011-01-01

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Anthraquinone profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Rhamnus alaternus, R. fallax, R. intermedia and R. pumila.  

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The quantity of phenols, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, were investigated in bark of Rhamnus alaternus L., R. fallax Boiss., R. intermedia Steud. et Hochst., and R. pumila Turra from natural stands in Croatia. The most abundant anthraquinones in the investigated extracts were chrysophanol in R. alaternus (3.14 mg/g), emodin in R. pumila (0.339 mg/g), and physcion in R. fallax (2.70 mg/g) and R. intermedia (0.285 mg/g). The species exhibiting the highest antioxidant activity were R. fallax and R. pumila. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extracts and antioxidant activity in some of the assays. All species showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum gypseum with minimal inhibitory concentrations equal to or below 2.500 mg/mL. The results indicate that the investigated Rhamnus species are a source of anthraquinones and other phenols, which act as multifunctional antioxidants with antimicrobial activity. PMID:23122067

Kosalec, I; Kremer, D; Locatelli, M; Epifano, F; Genovese, S; Carlucci, G; Randi?, M; Zovko Kon?i?, M

2013-01-15

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Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells  

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The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.

Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

2012-01-01

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Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.  

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The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

2012-01-01

48

Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

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A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P?O?:10% K?O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P?O?, 15% K?O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2013-01-01

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Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

Ehsan Karimi

2013-09-01

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Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2011-01-01

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Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

Jones A Maxwell P

2012-05-01

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Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2012-01-01

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Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

Zaharah Abdul Rahman

2011-12-01

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Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore  

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Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila(Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P.sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3,Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analysis.Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees.This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

E.A. Petrova

2008-09-01

55

Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2012-01-01

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The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.  

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Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-? production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis. PMID:22611381

Nadia, M E; Nazrun, A S; Norazlina, M; Isa, N M; Norliza, M; Ima Nirwana, S

2012-01-01

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The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis  

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Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-? production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis.

Nadia, M. E.; Nazrun, A. S.; Norazlina, M.; Isa, N. M.; Norliza, M.; Ima Nirwana, S.

2012-01-01

58

Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

2010-10-01

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Alkenylresorcinols and cytotoxic activity of the constituents isolated from Labisia pumila.  

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Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-?-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-?-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC?? values ? 10 ?M), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one. PMID:22633846

Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil Ali; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Kneer, Ralf; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Stanslas, Johnson; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Honda, Toshio; Lajis, Nordin H

2012-08-01

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The in vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) extract.  

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Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:17322824

Zaizuhana, Shahrim; Puteri J Noor, M B; Noral'ashikin, Yahya; Muhammad, Hussin; Rohana, A B; Zakiah, I

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol?1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g?1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g?1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2012-05-01

62

Acerca de Lozanella enantiophylla (Ulmaceae  

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Full Text Available Lozanella es un género con distribución neotropical con dos especies estrechamente relacionadas, que se encuentran desde México hasta Bolivia.  En Colombia solo se ha registrado Lozanella enantiophylla (Donn. Sm. Killip & Norton.  Esta especie es relativamente común en los bosques andinos perturbados entre 2.400 y 3.200 m de alt., y ha sido confundida a menudo con Boehmeria caudata Sw., a la cual es muy similar.

Franco Roselli Pillar

1992-09-01

63

Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-07-01

64

Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO? enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO? levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O?), hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO? > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > stem 800 µmol/mol CO? > stem 400 µmol/mol CO? > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > root 800 µmol/mol CO? > root 400 µmol/mol CO?. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO? might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO?, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O?, H?O?, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

2011-01-01

65

Molecular Identification and Ultrastructural and Phylogenetic Studies of Cyanobacteria from Association with the White Sea Hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758)  

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Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Compa...

Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.

2013-01-01

66

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)  

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A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

2013-01-01

67

Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

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A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

2012-01-01

68

Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2012-04-01

69

HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.  

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Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

2011-01-01

70

Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.  

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Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5?mg/kg and 64.5??g/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. PMID:22991574

Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

71

Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis  

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Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5?mg/kg and 64.5??g/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis.

Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

2012-01-01

72

HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.  

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Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2011-08-01

73

Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity  

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A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 ?mol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 ?mol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 ?mol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition.

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E.

2012-01-01

74

Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)  

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A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100...

2012-01-01

75

Ultrafine particles of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells via activation of caspase and endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

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Small-sized particles are more suitable for targeted delivery and are therapeutically more effective than large-sized particles. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of ultrafine particles of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (ufUJ) on human gastric cancer cell lines SNU-1, SNU-216, and SNU-484. ufUJ induced apoptosis by the proteolytic activation of caspase-9, caspase-6, and caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein BiP markedly increased after ufUJ treatment. BiP knockdown decreased ufUJ-induced cell death. ufUJ-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, caspase-6 inhibitor z-VEID-fmk, and caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk, and by siRNAs against caspases 3, 6, and 9. Gastric cancer cells did not show anchorage-independent growth in the presence of ufUJ. However, cells treated with caspase inhibitors showed an enhanced colony-forming ability. These findings may be helpful in the prevention of gastric cancer and in the development of functional foods. PMID:24395528

Ahn, Joungjwa; Lee, Jong Suk; Yang, Kyung Mi

2014-06-01

76

Range extension, habitat and conservation status of three rare mallees, Eucalyptus castrensis, Eucalyptus fracta and Eucalyptus pumila from the Hunter Valley, NSW  

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New populations of three threatened mallee species, Eucalyptus castrensis K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus fracta K.D.Hill and Eucalyptus pumila Cambage (all Myrtaceae), have recently been found in the Singleton Military Area in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales (32°45’S, 151°15’E). Each population is significant as they increase the known distribution and total numbers of three highly restricted species. Details of the habitat and size of each additional population are given and conservation no...

2013-01-01

77

Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

78

Enhancement of leaf gas exchange and primary metabolites under carbon dioxide enrichment up-regulates the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila seedlings.  

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A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO? enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO? enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO? levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO? increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21544039

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

2011-01-01

79

Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones  

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Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

Miljkovi? Danijela

2013-01-01

80

Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions  

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A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions.  

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A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2012-01-01

82

Labisia pumila extract down-regulates hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression and corticosterone levels in ovariectomized rats.  

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We evaluated the effects of a standardized Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) extract on body weight change, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) expressions and corticosterone (CORT) level in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The decoction of LPva has been used for generations among Malay women in Malaysia to maintain a healthy reproductive system.Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley OVX rats were treated orally with LPva extract (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg/day) or estrogen replacement (ERT) for 30 days. Sham operated rats were used as controls. Compared to untreated OVX rats, LPva-treated rats showed less weight gain and had significantly down-regulated HSD11B1 mRNA in liver tissues. HSD11B1 mRNA in adipose tissues increased by 55% (p < 0.05) in OVX rats but normalized in rats treated with LPva. Similarly, there was significant down-regulation (p < 0.05) of protein levels of HSD11B1 in both liver and adipose tissue of LPva and ERT groups, and CORT levels were significantly reduced in both groups of rats. This is the first study ever conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of LPva in relation to weight gain caused by estrogen insufficiency. Results implied that the bioactive components in LPva extract affect not only HSD11B1 expressions in both adipose and liver tissues but also decrease circulating CORT. The extract should be explored for its potential use as a natural remedy for weight management. PMID:21833773

Fazliana, Mansor; Gu, Harvest F; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

2012-04-01

83

Chloroplast microsatellites and mitochondrial nad1 intron 2 sequences indicate congruent phylogenetic relationships among Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra), Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica), and Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila).  

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We studied the phylogenetic relationships among the three stone pine species, Pinus cembra, P. sibirica, and P. pumila, using chloroplast microsatellites and mitochondrial nad1 intron 2 sequences. The three chloroplast microsatellite loci combined into a total of 18 haplotypes. Fourteen haplotypes were detected in 15 populations of P. cembra and one population of P. sibirica, five of which were shared between the two species, and the two populations of P. pumila comprised four species-specific haplotypes. Mitochondrial intron sequences confirmed this grouping of species. Sequences of P. cembra and P. sibirica were identical, but P. pumila differed by several nucleotide substitutions and insertions/deletions. A repeat region found in the former two species showed no intraspecific variation. These results indicate a relatively recent evolutionary separation of P. cembra and P. sibirica, despite their currently disjunct distributions. The species-specific chloroplast and mitochondrial markers of P. sibirica and P. pumila should help to trace the hybridization in their overlapping distribution area and to identify fossil remains with respect to the still unresolved postglacial re-colonization history of these two species. PMID:11412370

Gugerli, F; Senn, J; Anzidei, M; Madaghiele, A; Büchler, U; Sperisen, C; Vendramin, G G

2001-06-01

84

Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

2012-06-01

85

The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization  

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Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2010-12-01

86

The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

2011-01-01

87

Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200??mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900??mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200??mol/mol?+?light intensity at 225??mol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400??mol/mol CO2?+?900??mol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200??mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

88

Testing the adaptive plasticity of Iris pumila leaf traits to natural light conditions using phenotypic selection analysis  

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A multivariate selection analysis has been used to test the adaptiveness of several Iris pumila leaf traits that display plasticity to natural light conditions. Siblings of a synthetic population comprising 31 families of two populations from contrasting light habitats were grown at an open dune site and in the understory of a Pinus nigra stand in order to score variation in phenotypic expression of six leaf traits: number of senescent leaves, number of live leaves, leaf length, leaf width, leaf angle, and specific leaf area. The ambient light conditions affected the values of all traits studied except for specific leaf area. In accordance to ecophysiological expectations for an adaptive response to light, both leaf length and width were significantly greater while the angle between sequential leaves was significantly smaller in the woodland understory than at the exposed dune site. The relationship between leaf traits and vegetative fitness (total leaf area) differed across light habitats as predicted by functional hypotheses. The standardized linear selection gradient ( ?') for leaf length and width were positive in sign in both environments, but their magnitude for leaf length was higher in the shade than under full sunlight. Since plasticity of leaf length in the woodland shade has been recognized as adaptive, fitness cost of producing plastic change in leaf length was assessed. In both of the available methods used, the two-step and the multivariate regression procedures, a rather high negative association between the fitness value and the plasticity of leaf length was obtained, indicating a cost of plasticity. The selection gradient for leaf angle was weak and significant only in the woodland understory. Genetic correlations between trait expressions in contrasting light environments were negative in sign and low in magnitude, implying a significant genetic variation for plasticity in these leaf traits. Furthermore, leaf length and leaf width were found to be genetically positively coupled, which indicates that there is a potential for these two traits to evolve toward their optimal phenotypic values even faster than would be expected if they were genetically independent.

Tuci?, Branka; Tomi?, Vladimir; Avramov, Stevan; Pemac, Danijela

1998-12-01

89

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P.; Wynne, Michael J..

90

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos / Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais [...] doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular. Abstract in english Green leaves of Trema micrantha were ground and mixed with water in a domestic blender and then administered by stomach tube to seven goats. One additional goat was fed ad libidum with the green leaves of T. micrantha. Clinical signs were observed in six goats that became ill 2 days after having bee [...] n dosed with or fed the plant. There were five deaths, which occurred until 4 days after ingestion. Affected goats remained static during long periods and kept their heads low. Incoordination, rhythmical movements of the head, apathy, anorexia, and tenesmus were also noticed. Paddling movements and coma were seen in one goat. T. micrantha was toxic at dosages of 30 g/kg or higher. The most significant gross lesions were observed in the livers, which were yellowish, friable, and with pronounced lobular pattern. Their cut surfaces were reddened and depressed areas alternated with whitish ones. The liver of one goat was slightly but homogeneously reddened but did not show accentuated lobulation. Petechial haemorrhages in the region between the chest and scapula, in the epicardium, mediastinum and serosal membranes of the abdominal organs were also observed. The most important histologic finding was hepatic centrilobular coagulative necrosis, which was associated with congestion, haemorrhages and degenerative changes in the circumjacent hepatocytes. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the nervous system and included perineuronal and perivascular edema and swollen neurones, especially those of the frontal cortex.

Sandra Davi, Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro, Corrêa; Caroline Argenta, Pescador; Edson Moleta, Colodel; Cláudio Estêvão Farias da, Cruz; David, Driemeier.

91

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.Green leaves of Trema micrantha were ground and mixed with water in a domestic blender and then administered by stomach tube to seven goats. One additional goat was fed ad libidum with the green leaves of T. micrantha. Clinical signs were observed in six goats that became ill 2 days after having been dosed with or fed the plant. There were five deaths, which occurred until 4 days after ingestion. Affected goats remained static during long periods and kept their heads low. Incoordination, rhythmical movements of the head, apathy, anorexia, and tenesmus were also noticed. Paddling movements and coma were seen in one goat. T. micrantha was toxic at dosages of 30 g/kg or higher. The most significant gross lesions were observed in the livers, which were yellowish, friable, and with pronounced lobular pattern. Their cut surfaces were reddened and depressed areas alternated with whitish ones. The liver of one goat was slightly but homogeneously reddened but did not show accentuated lobulation. Petechial haemorrhages in the region between the chest and scapula, in the epicardium, mediastinum and serosal membranes of the abdominal organs were also observed. The most important histologic finding was hepatic centrilobular coagulative necrosis, which was associated with congestion, haemorrhages and degenerative changes in the circumjacent hepatocytes. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the nervous system and included perineuronal and perivascular edema and swollen neurones, especially those of the frontal cortex.

Sandra Davi Traverso

2002-10-01

92

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle  

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Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

Sandra Davi Traverso

2004-12-01

93

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

2013-09-01

94

Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using an LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of four triterpene saponins (ardisicrenoside B, ardisiacrispin A, 3- O- ?- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1???2)-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1???4)-?-L-arabinopynanosyl cyclamiretin A and ardisimamilloside H) and three alkenated-phenolics (irisresorcinol, belamcandol B, and demethylbelamcandaquinone B) from the leaves, leaves/stems, and roots of LABISIA PUMILA using an HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase (C-18) column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The major triterpenoid (ardisiacrispin A) and irisresorcinol compounds were detected at a concentration as low as 10.0 and 0.2?µg/mL, respectively. Analysis of various samples showed considerable variation of 0.11-2.46?% for the major triterpenoid compound, ardisiacrispin A. LC-mass spectrometry method coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. This method involved the use of the [M + Na]+ and [M + NH?]+ ions for compounds 1-4 in the positive ion mode with extractive ion chromatogram (EIC). PMID:21590653

Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

2011-10-01

95

Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50?mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1?mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100??g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10??M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

Gu, Harvest F.; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Manneras-Holm, Louise; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2013-01-01

96

Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50?mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1?mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100? ? g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10? ? M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway. PMID:23935612

Mansor, Fazliana; Gu, Harvest F; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

2013-01-01

97

Causes and consequences of exotic tree invasion in the Iberian peninsula  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en el estudio de especies de árboles nativos y exóticos coexistentes en bosques de ribera del centro de la Península Ibérica y en bosques mésicos del noroeste peninsular. En el caso de los bosques de ribera del centro peninsular, las especies estudiadas fueron las nativas Fraxinus angustifolia, Populus alba y Ulmus minor y las exóticas Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. En los bosques del noroeste...

Gonza?lez Mun?oz, Noelia

2012-01-01

98

Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level  

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Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha?1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol?1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha?1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

99

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

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In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored), leaves shape (jaggy) and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L.) and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.) Seedlings. The t...

?uki? Matilda; Grbi? Mihailo; Sko?aji? Dragana; ?unisijevi? Danijela

2006-01-01

100

???????: ??  

Full Text Available ?? Malus pumila Malus pumila[Apple???????????] ??? ???????????? ?? ????;???????????????????????? ???????????? [?]???????????? 09);???????502??1590????????????? ?????????(2005) ????????(???,??

 
 
 
 
101

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Natalia Allegrucci

2007-07-01

102

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales [...] durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad. Abstract in english In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were [...] isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Allegrucci, Natalia; Elíades, Lorena; Bucsinszky, Ana María; Cabello, Marta; Arambarri, Angélica.

103

Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

1993-09-02

104

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

?uki? Matilda

2006-01-01

105

The vegetation classification in coal mine overburden dump using canopy spectral reflectance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The canopy spectral characteristics of typical plants in the overburden of the Fuxin coal mine dump were measured and analyzed. The reflectance of Leymus chinensis was affected by the soil, with a slight shift from green (550 nm) to the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll and water absorption were not significant in the red (670 nm) and NIR bands, respectively. The reflectance curve trend for Artemisia lavandulaefolia was similar to those of Sophora japonica and Ulmus pumila, while the reflectance of S. japonica and U. pumila fluctuated in the NIR region (760-1200 nm). In contrast, the reflectance of A. lavandulaefolia fluctuated slightly around 930 nm and a significant peak appeared at 1127 nm. In addition, the spectral reflectance of S. japonica was lower than for the other species in the visible band (400-700 nm). However, it was higher than for L. chinensis in the NIR region (780-1200 nm). Three classifiers, the self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ), and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), were used to classify the vegetation and the results of all classifiers were compared based on total spectral reflectance data from 400 to 1200 nm. The PNN was the best classifier in terms of training and testing accuracy. The first difference reflectance was calculated, and the red edge parameter was able to classify the herbs (L. chinensis and A. lavandulaefolia) and the arbores (S. japonica and U. pumila) with an accuracy of 77 and 84%, respectively, although it did not perform as well for detail species. A mixing parameter matrix was built based on the sensitive wavelengths (550, 674, 810, 935, and 1125 nm), the vegetation indices (SAVI and NDGI), and the water absorption slope. High classification accuracy was obtained by applying the mixing parameter matrix. This method could be used for revegetation monitoring and in decision making.

Sun, H.; Li, M.Z.; Li, D.L. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

2011-01-15

106

Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent findings indicated antisickling activity of anthocyanins from plants used in the management of sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins extracts from Trema orientalis on sickle cell. So, Emmel, Itano and hypoxic induced sickle erythrocyte haemolysis bioassays were used to evaluate the influence of these extracts on haemoglobin S aggregation and sickle erythrocyte haemolysis. Anthocyanins extracts were found to possess antisickling activity. Indeed, the treated sickle erythrocyte indicated the re-appearance of the normal and classical biconcave form of red blood cells with a radius value of 3.50.2 m similar to that of normal erythrocytes values. The solubility of Deoxyhemoglobin S and the rate of inhibition of hypoxic induced haemolysis, increased upon treatment with anthocyanins extracts. Anthocyanins would cross the erythrocytes membrane for either interfering with intracellular polymerization hemoglobin S or to scavenge the free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or haemolysis.

D.D. Tshilanda

2011-01-01

107

Nutraceutical potential of polyphenolic fractions from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacities of polyphenolic extracts from Annurca apple peel and flesh to inhibit the glucose and cholesterol uptake by HepG2 cells were evaluated, and compared with those of other conventional cultivars, such as Red Delicious (RD), Pink Lady (PL), Fuji (F) and Golden Delicious (GD). RD peels exhibited the best hypoglycaemic effects, while Annurca flesh appeared the most active in reducing cell cholesterol uptake among the cultivars tested. The influence of the apple polyphenolic extracts on the cell proliferation and oxidative stress was also evaluated. Particularly, RD, Annurca and PL peels decreased proliferation by a 62.5%, 48.0% and 37.5%, respectively, probably due to their prooxidant capacity. Conversely, flesh extracts appeared more protective of cells than peels: Annurca and RD, particularly, proved to be able of increasing proliferation by a 32.2% and 11.1%, respectively, probably due to their capacity of reducing cell physiological radical levels of a 33.3% and 19.9%, respectively. PMID:23692744

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Stiuso, Paola; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2013-10-15

108

Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urinárias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico.The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infections and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

R.R. Trevisan

2012-01-01

109

[Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

2012-03-01

110

How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

2010-05-01

111

Two new species of celtis (Celtidaceae) from Australia and Madagascar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Celtis australiensis Sattarian is described from Australia and Celtis madagascariensis Sattarian is new for Madagascar. Both new Celtidaceae (formerly Ulmaceae-Celtidoideae) are illustrated with a photograph.

Sattarian, A.; Maesen, L. J. G.

2005-01-01

112

Elevated CO? does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO? might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of CO? and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO?-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70-97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO? increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO? increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (?¹³C(leaf) ), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. The moderate positive effects of elevated CO? on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO?, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species. PMID:23171384

Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R

2013-01-01

113

In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).  

Science.gov (United States)

The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:23993515

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

2013-12-15

114

Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

115

Effects of water stress on the distribution of "1"4C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Young apple trees were treated by water stress and "1"4CO_2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of "1"4C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of "1"3C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

1994-06-01

116

The emision of corrosive vapours by wood. Hot-water-extracted O-acetylated hemicelluloses from sweet chestnut (Castnaea sativa) and wych elm (Ulmus glabrau) and a discussion of O-acetyl-group changes occurring in these woods during incubation at 48 degrees and 100 per cent relative humidity.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. O-Acetylated polysaccharides were obtained from green wood of both sweet chestnut and wych elm by treatment of the residue remaining after dimethyl sulphoxide extraction with water at 98 degrees . This gives a mixture of polysaccharides containing xylose, galactose, glucose and uronic acids. Analysis of these and their fractionated products suggest that only xylans in green sweet chestnut and green wych elm are O-acetylated. 2. The isolated O-acetylated xylans are not representative of the total O-acetylated xylans occurring in sweet chestnut and wych elm. 3. Application of the method developed by Bouveng for the location of O-acetyl groups to all four O-acetylated xylans obtained in this series of investigations by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction showed that those from sweet chestnut and wych elm, under the same conditions of incubation, lost: 74.2 and 43.4% of acetyl groups respectively, at C-2; 58.0 and 28.5% of acetyl groups respectively at C-3; 41.8 and 82.2% of acetyl groups respectively at C-2 and C-3. 4. A consideration of electronic and steric factors indicates that there does not appear to be a purely chemical reason for the difference in loss of O-acetyl groups between sweet chestnut and wych elm. It is suggested that the location of O-acetylated xylans in the wood cell walls and the presence of extractive may play some part in this difference. PMID:5808313

Cochrane, G C; Gray, J D; Arni, P C

1969-06-01

117

7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...except seeds) of Ulmus spp. (elm) from Canada and destined to California, Nevada, or Oregon; (17) Solanum tuberosum true seed from New Zealand and the X Region of Chile (that area of Chile between 39° and 44° South...

2010-01-01

118

Population biology of rare plants : the effects of ecological and genetic processes for the growth and viability of populations of three endangered floodplain violets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work contains studies on various aspects of the population biology of the congeneric plants Viola elatior Fries, V. pumila Chaix and V. stagnina Kit.. These are endangered and red listed in many countries. They show a continental distribution range. In Central Europe the species reach their western range margin. These violets have a complex life-cycle, a mixed mating system with chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers and a persistent seed bank. Viola pumila and V. stagnina o...

Eckstein, Lutz

2007-01-01

119

[Host plants of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from northwest and central Argentina].  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy four species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) were reared from forty eight host plants found into Yungas, Chaco and Prepuna phytogeografical provinces. The host plants belong Anacardiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae, Cactaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Juglandaceae, Leguminosae sensu lato (Caesalpinaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae), Loranthaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae, Ulmaceae and Vitaceae. Some species of Cerambycidae and their host plants show similar distribution patterns: from northeastern Brazil through Paraguay and reach the Argentina at both sides of the Chaco Provine: at the east, along the river systems through Buenos Aires, and the at the west into forests of the Yungas Province or into North Sierra Chaco, a probably relictual community. Others species are restricted to the South America area of Prosopis, that comprise the Chaco, Monte and Espinal biogeographical provinces, and live in host plants of chaquenian lineage mainly Leguminosae sensu lato and Ulmaceae. PMID:9404519

Di Iorio, O R

1997-03-01

120

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed...

Barth, Ortrud M.; Barreto, Ci?ntia F.; Coelho, Luciane G.; Luz, Cynthia F. P.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Three new species of genus Corynespora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new species of Corynespora viz." C. trematicola, C. solanii and C. viticola occurring on Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae), Solanum indicum (Solanaceae) and Cayratia carnosa (Vitaceae) have been found.&...

Nidhi Sharma, Sapna Chaudhary And Kamal

2012-01-01

122

Additions to the genus Corynespora from India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies of phytoparasitic fungi of forests and cultivated plants of Madhya Pradesh, revealed many leaf spot collections. Detailed morphotaxonomic investigations of some of them revealed three hitherto undescribed species of Corynespora viz., C. bombacearum on Bombax malabaricum DC. (Bombaceae), C. holopetae on Holoptelea integrifolia Linn. (Ulmaceae) and C. zizyphae on Zizyphus grialdii (Rhamnaceae). These are described, illustrated and compared with allied species.

Seema Lata Jain, An Rai And P. Mehta

2012-01-01

123

Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two coexisting species of African molossids the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumila, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumila and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate their habitat utilisation. The results confirmed that both of these species selected to forage over sugarcane fields inst...

Christina Lehmkuhl Noer; Torben Dabelsteen; Kristine Bohmann; Ara Monadjem

2012-01-01

124

Leaf Anatomical Acclimation of Six Tree Species to Low Soil Water Content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whether plant adaptation to soil water stress is related to their anatomical change is important to ecophysiological research. The leaf anatomical changes of six coexisting tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd) Sarg. and Quercus mongolica Fisch.) from a typical community of the mixed coniferous and broadleaved Korean pine forest in Northea...

Xiongwen Chen; JieWen

2005-01-01

125

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Barth Ortrud M.

2004-01-01

126

Aspectos morfológicos de plântulas e mudas de trema / Morphological aspects of seedlings of trema  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O conhecimento dos caracteres morfológicos de plântulas e mudas é de grande importância em trabalhos de laboratório, viveiros de produção de mudas e estudos de avaliação da regeneração natural, facilitando assim, o reconhecimento e a identificação das espécies. Neste sentido, os objetivos deste trab [...] alho foram descrever e ilustrar os aspectos morfológicos externos do desenvolvimento de plântulas e mudas de trema (Trema micrantha (L.) Blum.) - ULMACEAE, para fins de identificação taxonômica. O reconhecimento taxonômico da espécie é possível por meio dos caracteres morfológicos externos, seja a partir da plântula ou da muda. Aspectos como a germinação fanerocotiledonar e a modificação da filotaxia, passando de protófilos opostos para metáfilos alternos são importantes para a identificação da espécie. Abstract in english The knowledge of morphological characters of seedlings is very important to laboratory studies, to seedlings production in nursery and to evaluate the natural regeneration, aiding to recognize and identify the species. The objectives of this study were to describe and illustrate the external morphol [...] ogical aspects of seedlings of trema (Trema micrantha (L) Blum.) - ULMACEAE, to taxonomy identifying. The method used was efficient to promote the recognizing of species by external characters, aiding to evaluation in laboratory, identify the species in nursery and to natural regeneration studies. Aspects like germination phaneroctyl and philotaxy modification of first leaves were the most important.

Isaac Lucena de, Amorim; Robério Anastácio, Ferreira; Antonio Claudio, Davide; Maria Madalena Ferreira, Chaves.

127

Biological method to quantify progressive stages of decay in five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053

Olfat, A M; Karimi, A N; Parsapajouh, D

2007-04-01

128

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

2010-01-01

129

Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

Acatay, A.

1968-01-01

130

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their ef...

Italo Chiffelle; Amanda Huerta; Fernando Azúa; Karla Puga; Araya, Jaime E.

2011-01-01

131

Heartwood and sapwood allometry of seven Chinese temperate tree species
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Allométrie du bois de cœur et de l'aubier pour sept espèces d'arbres tempérées chinoises
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

* Allometry of sapwood/heartwood is essential for understanding tree growth, water transport and carbon allocation, timber production and use, but such an allometry is lacking for Chinese temperate tree species.* We studied the allometry and development of heartwood and sapwood for seven Chinese temperate tree species: Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.), Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana Planch var. japonica (Rehd.) Nakai), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus...

Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Zhang, Quanzhi; Quan, Xiankuai

2010-01-01

132

Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees  

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Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase ('0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from th...

Schink, Bernhard; Ward, James C.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

1981-01-01

133

Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees  

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Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (?0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from ...

Schink, Bernhard; Ward, James C.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

1981-01-01

134

SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS  

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A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

Brullo, S.; Spampinato, G.

1999-01-01

135

Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

136

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

Matthew R. Thomas

2008-01-01

137

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio N [...] egro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul. Abstract in english Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by [...] having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

Matthew R., Thomas; Lúcia H. Rapp, Py-Daniel.

138

An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

2013-11-01

139

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria...

Thomas, Matthew R.; Rapp Py-daniel, Lu?cia H.

2008-01-01

140

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

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Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651) for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

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Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), hazelnut (C. maxima) and apple Malus pumila) were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting...

Tajbakhsh, Mehdi; Korkan, Manuchehr; Ghiyasi, Mehdi

2009-01-01

142

The role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis  

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The profiles of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the two highly polyphagous arctiids Estigmene acrea and Grammia geneura and their potential PA sources in southeastern Arizona were compiled. One of four species of Boraginaceae, Plagiobothrys arizonicus, contained PAs; this is the first PA record for this plant species. The principle PA sources are Senecio longilobus (Asteraceae) and Crotalaria pumila (Fabaceae). The known PA pattern of S. longilobus was extended; the species was found to cont...

2004-01-01

143

When defense backfires: detrimental effect of a plant's protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

Eisner, T; Eisner, M; Hoebeke, E R

1998-04-14

144

When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant  

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The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost.

1998-01-01

145

Biocatalytic asymmetric formation of tetrahydro-?-carbolines  

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Strictosidine synthase triggers the formation of strictosidine from tryptamine and secologanin, thereby generating a carbon-carbon bond and a new stereogenic center. Strictosidine contains a tetrahydro-?-carboline moiety ? an important N-heterocyclic framework found in a range of natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Stereoselective methods to produce tetrahydro-?-carboline enantiomers are greatly valued. We report that strictosidine synthase from Ophiorrhiza pumila utilizes a r...

Bernhardt, Peter; Usera, Aimee R.; O Connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

146

Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy.  

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Atomic force microscopy has been used to visualize the ultrastructure of hydrated plant cell wall material from prepared apple (Malus pumila MILL; Cox orange pippin), water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Bintje), and carrot (Daucus carota L.; Amsterdamse bak) parenchyma. Samples of cell wall material in aqueous suspension were deposited onto freshly cleaved mica. Excess water was blotted away and the moist samples were imaged in air at ambient temperature and h...

Kirby, A. R.; Gunning, A. P.; Waldron, K. W.; Morris, V. J.; Ng, A.

1996-01-01

147

Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

Muhajir Hamid

2008-01-01

148

A new Tadarida of the subgenus Chaerephon (Chiroptera: Molossidae) fron Sao Tomé Island, Gulf of Guinea  

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We describe a population of the genus Tadarida (Molossidae) from São Tome Island (Gulf of Guinea, West Africa), as a new species based on cranial and interaural-membrane mor­ phology shown in three specimens. These features are shared only with T. (Chaerephon) gallagheri from Zaire and, in part, with T. (C.) johorensis from the Malayan Peninsula, two species that appear to be the closest allies. The families Molossidae (the new species and T. (C.) pumila) and Emballonuridae (Taphozous mauri...

1993-01-01

149

Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira  

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The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos...

Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas; José Itamar Boneti; Rubens Onofre Nodari; Miguel Pedro Guerra

2006-01-01

150

The Middle Eocene flora of Csordakút (N Hungary)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Middle Eocene fossil plant assemblage from Csordakút (N Hungary) comprises plant remains preserved exclusively as impressions. Algae are represented by abundant remains of Characeae, including both vegetative fragments and gyrogonites. Remains of angiosperms comprise Lauraceae (Daphnogene sp.), Fagaceae (cf. Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum div. sp.), Myricaceae (Myrica sp., Comptonia div. sp.), Leguminosae (leaves and fruit), Rhamnaceae (?Zizyphus zizyphoides), Elaeocarpaceae (Sloanea nimrodi, Sloanea sp. fruit), Smilacaceae (Smilax div. sp.). The absence of gymnosperms is indicative of a floristic similarity to the coeval floras of Tatabánya (N Hungary) and Girbou in Romania. Sloanea nimrodi (Ettingshausen) Kva?ek & Hably, a new element for the Hungarian fossil record indicates a floristic relation to the Late Eocene flora of Ku?lin (Bohemia).

Erdei, Boglárka; Rákosi, László

2009-02-01

151

Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Novara, Martín G.; Narváez, Paula L.; Marquillas, Rosa A..

152

Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro / Assessment of extinction risk of Urticineae from sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados o georreferenciamento e as análises de avaliação de risco de extinção seguindo os critérios e categorias da IUCN para 32 espécies de Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae e Moraceae) ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Materiais correspondentes a essas espé [...] cies foram examinados nos principais herbários brasileiros, sendo selecionados 2524 registros para a avaliação. Dentre as 32 espécies, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis e Phyllostylon brasiliense encontraram-se ameaçadas de extinção, já Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana e S. hilarii deixaram de ser consideradas ameaçadas de extinção pelo recente estudo. Os resultados apontaram, como localidades de importância conservacionista, os municípios de Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro e Saquarema. Abstract in english This paper conducted georeferencing and analyzes of extinction risk assessments following the criteria and categories from IUCN for 32 species of Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae) occurring in the sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Materials corresponding [...] to these species were examined in major Brazilian herbaria and 2524 records were selected for evaluation. Among the 32 species, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis and Phyllostylon brasiliense fall into endangered category, and Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana and S. hilarii were not considered threatened. The locations of conservation importance belong to the municipalities of Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro and Saquarema.

Pederneiras, Leandro Cardoso; Costa, Andrea Ferreira da; Carauta, Jorge Pedro Pereira; Romaniuc Neto, Sergio.

153

Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)leaf (0.0313 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B. cereus in foods. PMID:23290233

Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2013-01-01

154

Biosorption of Fe from Aqueous Solutions by Syringa Vulgaris Tree Leaves  

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Ulmus Syringa Vulgaris tree leaves, which are abundant in Iran, were evaluated for removal of Fe From aqueous solution. Maximum biosorption capacities for Syringa Vulgaris were measured as 155.42 mg/g for Fe. For sorbent the most effective pH range was 4–6 for Fe. Metal ion biosorption was increased as the ratio of metal solution to the biomass quantity decreased. Conversely, Biosorption/g biosorbent was decreased as the quantity of biomass increased. The biosorption of metal ion was increa...

2011-01-01

155

PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMI?OARA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

A. Faur

2003-01-01

156

REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE / REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaulther [...] ia es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con amplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaulth [...] eria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa among species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

Sebastián, Teillier; Felipe, Escobar.

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AcEST: DK960617  

Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0007_O12 473 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0007_O12. 5' end seq t_id Q287V7 Definition tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabidopsis pumila Align len ignments: (bits) Value tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabid... 47 6e-04 tr|B4FXR6

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AcEST: DK961683  

Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0010_M24 481 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_M24. 5' end seq t_id Q287V7 Definition tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabidopsis pumila Align len ignments: (bits) Value tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabid... 42 0.020 tr|B4FXR6

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AcEST: DK953771  

Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0018_K15 596 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0018_K15. 5' end seq t_id Q287V7 Definition tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabidopsis pumila Align len ignments: (bits) Value tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabid... 78 4e-13 tr|Q9M1L9

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AcEST: DK958662  

Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0002_J13 690 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0002_J13. 5' end seq t_id Q287V7 Definition tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabidopsis pumila Align len ignments: (bits) Value tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabid... 98 4e-19 tr|Q9M1L9

 
 
 
 
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AcEST?Adiantum capillus-veneris EST)?DNA????????????: DK961683  

Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0010_M24 TST39 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0010_M24. 5' end s CGKLGHIQKDC 125 Q287V7 tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabidopsis pumila BLASTX 2. ignments: (bits) Value tr|Q287V7|Q287V7_OLIPU Zinc knuckle family protein OS=Olimarabid... 42 0.020 tr|B4FXR6

162

Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species  

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Full Text Available The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass, Festuca pratensis (hair grass and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass, as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzyme plays an at least as equally important role as the ?-amylase and, on the other, the considerable differences observed among the three Poaceae species from cultivated and, respectively, spontaneous flora.

Elena Ciornea

2008-05-01

163

Acquired and partially de novo synthesized pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two polyphagous arctiids and the alkaloid profiles of their larval food-plants.  

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The profiles of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the two highly polyphagous arctiids Estigmene acrea and Grammia geneura and their potential PA sources in southeastern Arizona were compiled. One of four species of Boraginaceae, Plagiobothrys arizonicus, contained PAs; this is the first PA record for this plant species. The principle PA sources are Senecio longilobus (Asteraceae) and Crotalaria pumila (Fabaceae). The known PA pattern of S. longilobus was extended; the species was found to contain six closely related PAs of the senecionine type. Three novel PAs of the monocrotaline type, named pumilines A-C, were isolated and characterized from C. pumila, a species not studied before. The pumilines are the major PAs in the seeds, while in the vegetative organs they are accompanied by the simple necine derivatives supinidine and as the dominant compound subulacine (1beta,2beta-epoxytrachelanthamidine). In both plant species, the PAs are stored as N-oxides, except C. pumila seeds, which accumulate the free bases. Great variation in PA composition was observed between local populations of C. pumila. The PA profiles were established for larvae and adults of E. acrea that as larvae had fed on an artificial diet supplemented with crotalaria-powder and of G. geneura fed with S. longilobus. In both experiments, the larvae had a free choice between the respective PA source and diet or food plants free of PAs. The profiles compiled for the two species reflect the alkaloid profiles of their PA sources with one exception, subulacine could never be detected in E. acrea. Besides acquired PAs, insect PAs synthesized from acquired necine bases and necic acids of insect origin were detected in the two arctiid species. These insect PAs that do not occur in the larval food sources accounted for some 40-70% (E. acrea) and 17-37% (G. geneura) of total PAs extracted from the insects. A number of novel insect PAs were identified. Plant-acquired and insect PAs were found to accumulate as N-oxides. The results are discussed in relation to specific biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral mechanisms involved in PA sequestration by arctiids. PMID:15112722

Hartmann, T; Theuring, C; Beuerle, T; Ernst, L; Singer, M S; Bernays, E A

2004-02-01

164

A New Record of Campylaspis fusiformis (Crustacea: Cumacea: Nannastacidae from Korea  

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Full Text Available This study dealt with cumacean specimens collected from the shallow waters of the South Sea and East Sea, Korea. Campylaspis fusiformis Gamo, 1960 belonging to the family Nannastacidae is newly recorded to Korean fauna. This species resembles C. pumila and C. striata in having a similar body form and a pair of narrow lateral sulcuses on the carapace, but it is easily distinguished from them by the dactylus of the pereopod 2 which is more than 3.5 times the length of the propodus and bears many setae (about 20 on the surface. This species mainly occurs in the Korean and Japanese waters.

Chang-Mok Lee

2012-01-01

165

Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México  

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This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus? Ulmus? Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus? Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

166

Climatic change causes abrupt changes in forest composition, inferred from a high-resolution pollen record, southwestern Quebec, Canada  

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A pollen profile from a lake with varved sediments sampled at continuous 10-year intervals and spanning the past 1000 years was analyzed to understand the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on forests in southwestern Quebec. Pollen assemblages were dominated by arboreal taxa, primarily Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Fagus. Between 990 and 1560 AD, pollen accumulation rates and percentages of hardwoods (Betula, Fagus, Acer, Ulmus, Tilia) and Tsuga were relatively high. At 1560 AD, PARs of many hardwood taxa (Fagus, Acer, Betula, Fraxinus, Ulmus) and Tsuga abruptly decreased, some remaining low for the remainder of the record (Tsuga, Fagus, Acer), but others increasing after 50 years (Betula, Fraxinus). An increase in non-arboreal pollen between 1810 and 2010 AD was caused by European settlement of the area. The transition in the pollen assemblages beginning at 1560 AD and a climate reconstruction based on these data shows an abrupt climate cooling had a significant impact on the pollen accumulation rates of the region within a couple of decades. A synthesis of this record with other high-resolution and well-dated pollen data from the conifer-hardwood forest of eastern North America shows consistent results across the whole area, indicating that very-high resolution pollen data can provide insight into multi-decadal climate variability and its impact on forest vegetation.

Paquette, Nathalie; Gajewski, Konrad

2013-09-01

167

Supply of fatty acid is one limiting factor in the accumulation of triacylglycerol in developing embryos  

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The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mM (14)C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of (14)C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h(-1) embryo(-1)) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mM decanoic acid. (14)C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids. PMID:10444089

Bao; Ohlrogge

1999-08-01

168

Supply of Fatty Acid Is One Limiting Factor in the Accumulation of Triacylglycerol in Developing Embryos1  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic factors that determine oil yield in seeds are still not well understood. To begin to examine the limits on triacylglycerol (TAG) production, developing Cuphea lanceolata, Ulmus carpinifolia, and Ulmus parvifolia embryos were incubated with factors whose availability might limit oil accumulation. The addition of glycerol or sucrose did not significantly influence the rate of TAG synthesis. However, the rate of 14C-TAG synthesis upon addition of 2.1 mm 14C-decanoic acid (10:0) was approximately four times higher than the in vivo rate of TAG accumulation in C. lanceolata and two times higher than the in vivo rate in U. carpinifolia and U. parvifolia. In C. lanceolata embryos, the highest rate of 14C-TAG synthesis (14.3 nmol h?1 embryo?1) was achieved with the addition of 3.6 mm decanoic acid. 14C-Decanoic acid was incorporated equally well in all three acyl positions of TAG. The results suggest that C. lanceolata, U. carpinifolia, and U. parvifolia embryos have sufficient acyltransferase activities and glycerol-3-phosphate levels to support rates of TAG synthesis in excess of those found in vivo. Consequently, the amount of TAG synthesized in these oilseeds may be in part determined by the amount of fatty acid produced in plastids.

Bao, Xiaoming; Ohlrogge, John

1999-01-01

169

Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem II of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest.  

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Drought stress can induce closure of stomata, thus leading to photoinhibition. The effects of prolonged severe drought under natural growing conditions on photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) in drought-tolerant tree species are unclear. In spring 2010, southwestern China confronted severe drought that lasted several months. Using three dominant evergreen species, Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis philippensis Bl. (Ulmaceae) and Pistacia weinmannifolia J. Poisson ex Franch. (Anacardiaceae) that are native to a tropical limestone forest, we investigated the influence of this stress on PSI and PSII activities as well as light energy distribution in the PSII and P700 redox state. By the end of the drought period, predawn leaf water potential (?(pd)) largely declined in each species, especially in C. sumatranus. Photosystem I activity strongly decreased in the three species, especially in C. sumatranus which showed a decrease of 65%. The maximum quantum yield of PSII after dark adaptation remained stable in P. weinmannifolia and C. philippensis but significantly decreased in C. sumatranus. Light response curves indicated that both linear electron flow and non-photochemical quenching were severely inhibited in C. sumatranus along with disappearance of CEF, resulting in deleterious excess light energy in PSII. We conclude that PSI is more sensitive than PSII to prolonged severe drought in these three drought-tolerant species, and CEF is essential for photoprotection in them. PMID:23329334

Huang, Wei; Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang

2013-02-01

170

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ?-amyrin, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

171

Antineoplastic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch bark extracts (in vitro).  

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Cancer remains the major public health concern with a number of cancer patients relying on chemotherapy as a treatment option. Although, advances in biomedical research have led to increased anticancer agents in recent years, the treatment is not always effective due to resistance, toxicity or other factors. Phytochemicals and their active components isolated from plants have provided diversified effective drugs many of them are currently used against cancer and other diseases. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is a widely distributed plant in many parts of the world, also grown in gardens of Pakistan. It is an ornamental plant with certain medicinal characteristics due to many valuable and active phyto constituents in various parts of the plant. We looked at in vitro antineoplastic effects of four different extracts, in butanol (BMBU), hexane (BMHx), ethyl acetate (BMET) and chloroform (BMCHF), from bark of Holoptelea integrifolia on small cell lung cancer, breast, prostate, coloretal and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Plant extracts BMHx and BMET showed significant cytotoxic effects on breast and prostate cancer cells. These preliminary studies are encouraging to proceed further this research in future, regarding the isolation of active phytoconstituents in these extracts as well as its mechanism in chemoprevention and combination anticancer therapy. PMID:24191320

Guo, Huiqin; Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Amir; Xu, Rui-Hua; Mansoor, Najia; Tiwari, Amit K; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2013-11-01

172

The triglyceride composition of 17 seed fats rich in octanoic, decanoic, or lauric acid.  

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Seed fats of eight species ofLauraceae (laurel family), six species ofCuphea (Lythraceae family), and three species ofUlmaceae (elm family) were extracted, and the triglycerides were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. GLC of the triglycerides on a silicone column resolved 10 to 18 peaks with a 22 to 58 carbon number range for each fat. These carbon number distributions yielded considerable information about triglyceride compositions of the fats.The most interesting finding was withLaurus nobilis seed fat, which contained 58.4% lauric acid and 29.2-29.8% trilaurin. A maximum of 19.9% trilaurin would be predicted by a 1, 2, 3-random, a 1, 3-random-2-random, or a 1-random-2-random-3-random distribution of the lauric acid(3). This indicates a specificity for the biosynthesis of a simple triglyceride byLaurus nobilis seed enzymes.Cuphea lanceolata seed fat also contained more simple triglyceride (tridecanoin) than would be predicted by the fatty acid distribution theories. PMID:17805764

Litchfield, C; Miller, E; Harlow, R D; Reiser, R

1967-07-01

173

Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen  

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Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

1988-08-01

174

Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

2009-12-01

175

Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

2009-12-01

176

The post-glacial history of Pinus sylvestris in the British Isles  

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A consideration of all available macrofossil and pollen data suggests that Pinus sylvestris entered England from the southeast just after 10,000 BP, and spread across nearly the whole of the British Isles, reaching northernmost Scotland by 4000 BP. Populations in western Ireland and northern Scotland may have had an independent glacial refugium (or refugia). Competition from deciduous trees such as Corylus avellana, Ulmus and Quercus, restricted the habitats available to P. sylvestris at about 9000 BP. At about 7500 BP, expanding populations of Alnus glutinosa replaced some of the remaining P. sylvestris populations. By about 4000 BP, P. sylvestris occurred only in northern and mountainous areas, on raised bogs, and on the limestone of the Burren, western Ireland. P. sylvestris over much of its range was severely reduced by the spread of blanket bog at about 4000 BP. This event may have been initiated by widespread climatic change.

Bennett, K. D.

177

[Dynamic changes of dominant tree species in broad-leaved Korean pine forest at different succession stages in Changbai Mountains].  

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Taking the broad-leaved Korean pine forest stands at four different succession stages after clear-cutting in Changbai Mountains as test objects, this paper studied the change characteristics of community composition and dominant species. The tree species richness, Shannon diversity index, and Simpson dominance index at different succession stages had less change, but the evenness and abundance changed greatly. As succession progressed, the community composition changed constantly, i.e., species number decreased, while the basal area sum and the maximum importance value of dominant tree species increased, suggesting that the dominance of dominant species was continuously improved with succession. In the succession process of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Ulmus japonica, and other intolerant or semi-intolerant tree species decreased, while Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Acer mono, and other shade-tolerant species increased. PMID:21774305

Guo, Li-ping; Ji, Lan-zhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zhi-xuan

2011-04-01

178

Liberomyces gen. nov. with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees.  

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During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf trees (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two species, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both species have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear. PMID:21937729

Pazoutová, Sylvie; Srutka, Petr; Holusa, Jaroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Kubátová, Alena; Kolarík, Miroslav

2012-01-01

179

Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

2007-03-01

180

Lichens of the Knyszy?ska Forest (NE Poland).  

Science.gov (United States)

During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the Knyszy?ska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves. PMID:11780570

Czeczuga, B; Lengiewicz, I

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain, MycoBank accession number = 564110) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407, CBS 12361, type strain, MycoBank accession number = 564111) was isolated from the exudate on an elm tree (Ulmus americana), also growing in Peoria, Illinois. The species were resolved from divergence in gene sequences for domains D1/D2 LSU rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA, RNA polymerase subunit 1 and translation elongation factor-1?. Species of Komagataella assimilate few carbon compounds and are unlikely to be resolved from differences in standard growth and fermentation tests. For this reason, separation of species is dependent on gene sequence analysis. PMID:22302468

Kurtzman, Cletus P

2012-02-01

182

[Effects of topography on seedling regeneration in a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the responses of forest seedlings to topographic heterogeneity, nine hundreds of 4 m2 (2 m x 2 m) quadrats with perennial seedlings (H > or = 30 cm, DBH 90% of the total. Topography had significant effects on the seedling distribution of the 8 major tree species. For Syringa reticulate var. mandshurica, Abies nephrolepis, Acer mono, Ulmus japonica, A. ukurunduense, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum, the spatial distribution of the seedlings was consistent with that of grown trees; but for Pinus koraiensis, the spatial distribution of seedlings was inconsistent with that of the grown trees. The mortality of S. reticulate var. mandshurica, A. nephrolepis, U. laciniata, A. tegmentosum, and T. amurensis seedlings was significantly correlated with the topography. The recruitment of S. reticulate var. mandshurica, U. japonica, P. koraiensis, A. nephrolepis, Fraxinus mandshurica, A. mono, and T. amurensis seedlings was also significantly correlated with the topography. PMID:24564129

Zhao, Xue; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Guang-Ze

2013-11-01

183

Plant Microsomal Phospholipid Acyl Hydrolases Have Selectivities for Uncommon Fatty Acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing endosperms and embryos accumulating triacylglycerols rich in caproyl (decanoyl) groups (i.e. developing embryos of Cuphea procumbens and Ulmus glabra) had microsomal acyl hydrolases with high selectivities toward phosphatidylcholine with this acyl group. Similarly, membranes from Euphorbia lagascae and Ricinus communis endosperms, which accumulate triacylglycerols with vernoleate (12-epoxy-octadeca-9-enoate) and ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoate), respectively, had acyl hydrolases that selectively removed their respective oxygenated acyl group from the phospholipids. The activities toward phospholipid substrates with epoxy, hydroxy, and medium-chain acyl groups varied greatly between microsomal preparations from different plant species. Epoxidated and hydroxylated acyl groups in sn-1 and sn-2 positions of phosphatidylcholine and in sn-1-lysophosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed to a similar extent, whereas the hydrolysis of caproyl groups was highly dependent on the positional localization. PMID:12228415

Stahl, U.; Banas, A.; Stymne, S.

1995-03-01

184

The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

Alicja Stach

2006-06-01

185

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

186

Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts. PMID:18244941

Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

2008-04-01

187

Dalby Söderskog revisited: long-term vegetation changes in a south Swedish deciduous forest  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we report on 67 years of secondary succession in the temperate deciduous forest Dalby Söderskog, southern Sweden. In 2002 vegetation analyses were conducted in 74 systematically distributed plots and the results compared with similar investigations during the years 1935, 1969 and 1976. Additionally, a floristic survey of the forest was made and compared with inventories of the years 1925, 1935 and 1970. From 1970 to 2002, overall species richness of the forest continued to decline, but at a lower rate than before. In 2002, for the first time, shade-tolerant forest species constituted the largest group. In the upper tree layer Fraxinus excelsior became the most important species, at the expense of Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra. In the herb layer, no changes in total or mean species richness were exhibited at plot scale between 1976 and 2002. In contrast to the lack of quantitative changes in species richness, we observed major changes in species composition at the plot level. In particular, the former dominant species Mercurialis perennis had declined markedly. After release from a historical regime of livestock grazing and irregular cuttings, the predicted steady-state community dominated by Ulmus and Mercurialis only prevailed for a few decades before unexpected external events, in this particular case Dutch elm disease and invasion by the slug Arion lusitanicus, initiated a successional change. We conclude that unexpected diseases or pests or rare climatic extremes can play a decisive role in forest dynamics and strongly interact with more gradual autogenic changes of forest structure and composition.

von Oheimb, Goddert; Brunet, Jörg

2007-03-01

188

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas / Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germ [...] inación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of w [...] eeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N., Zapata; M., Vargas; P., Medina.

189

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N. Zapata

2011-06-01

190

Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

I.L Rautenbach

1990-09-01

191

On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

1999-01-01

192

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

Mehdi GHIYASI

2009-06-01

193

Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                     &n

Dugand Armando

1968-09-01

194

Current vegetation dynamics of the “forest-mountain tundra” ecotones of Lake Baikal coastal ranges  

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Full Text Available During last decades, new trends appeared in the ecotones of the upper boundary of forests at the ridges surroundingLakeBaikal(Khamar-Daban and Baikal’sky Ridge: ones to advance of wood species (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Larix dahurica Lawson out of timber stands into the area of subgoltsy with Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel. up to mountain tundras. In average, this is from 100 to 200 - 300 meters (maximum up to500 m in linear distance from the margin of dense timber stand. A burst of forests renewal occurred in 1989-1995, it resulted probably from a high productivity of the seeds of wood species due to warmer winters in 1980ies-1990ies which favoured the formation of favourable climate-edaphic conditions for the development of forest communities above the forests boundary on the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal.

Victor Voronin

2013-02-01

195

Role of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products on Osteoporotic Fracture Healing  

Science.gov (United States)

Popularly known as “the silent disease” since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases—hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing.

Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

2012-01-01

196

Species invasion alters local adaptation to soil communities in a native plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant populations are often adapted to their local conditions, including abiotic factors as well as the biotic communities with which they interact. Soil communities, in particular, have strong effects on both the ecology and evolution of plant populations. Many invasive plant species alter the ecological relationships between native plants and soil communities; however, whether invaders also alter the evolutionary dynamics between native plants and soils is less well known. Here I show that populations of a native annual, Pilea pumila, shift from being maladapted to adapted to their local soil community with increasing history of invasion by Alliaria petiolata, an invader known to alter microbial communities. Additionally, native populations showed a signal of adaptation to soils of particular invasion stages, independent of local coevolutionary dynamics. These results suggest that invasive species affect not only the ecological, but also the evolutionary relationships of native species. PMID:23600238

Lankau, Richard A

2013-01-01

197

University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur CronquistâÂÂs classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant familiesâ are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

Carr, Gerald D.

198

Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season  

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Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

2009-12-01

199

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and phosphate fertilization on shoot apical growth of micropropagated apple and plum rootstocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effects of phosphate fertilization and inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdmann and Trappe, Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith or Glomus viscosum Nicolson on shoot apical growth of plantlets that had been micropropagated from MM 106 apple (Malus pumila L.) and Mr.S. 2/5 plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) rootstocks. Unfertilized and non-mycorrhizal plantlets showed no apical growth during the post in vitro acclimation phase, whereas P fertilization induced early resumption of shoot apical growth. Growth enhancement and percentage of actively growing apices of mycorrhizal-inoculated plantlets were comparable to those obtained in plantlets fertilized with P. Furthermore, tissue P concentrations of mycorrhizal plantlets were similar to those of plantlets fertilized with P. We conclude that mycorrhizal inoculation can be used as a biotechnological tool to overcome blocked apical growth and to reduce chemical inputs, especially P inputs, to micropropagated fruit trees. PMID:14871682

Fortuna, P; Citernesi, A S; Morini, S; Vitagliano, C; Giovannetti, M

1996-09-01

200

Plant communities of cultivated fields of the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu mesoregion. Part 3. Stubble field communites on sandy soils  

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Full Text Available The characteristic of communities developing in sandy stubble fields in the area of the Podlaski Prze?om Bugu mesoregion is presented in the paper. The association Echinochloo-Setarietum was the most frequently noted and the most differentiated internally. Subassociations: Echinochloo-Setarietum scleranthetosum and Echinochloo-Setarietum typicum, as well as lower phytosociological units were distinguished in it. Phytocoenoses with Setaria pumila and Oxalis stricta were also common in the studied area. Small area patches of Digitarietum ischaemi were observed seldom and in the poorest habitats. On superficially excessively moistened soils, phytocoenoses from class Isoëto-Nanojuncetea, community Spergularia rubra-Hypericum humifusum and association Centunculo-Anthoceretum were noted.

Zofia Rzymowska

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

Saxe, H

1994-01-01

202

The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator  

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The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

Naidina, O. D.

2014-05-01

203

Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis, red apple (Mallus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, pear (Pyrus calleryana, golden apple (Mallus pumila, pawpaw (Carica papaya, pineapple (Ananas comosus and banana (Musa acuminate} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS, Nitric Oxide (NO and hydroxyl (OH radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3 were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

Anthony Jide Afolayan

2013-01-01

204

Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y [...] Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminos [...] ae) is influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

González Rodríguez, Humberto; Cantú Silva, Israel; Ramírez Lozano, Roque Gonzalo; Gómez Meza, Marco Vinicio; Pando Moreno, Marisela; López Hernández, Juan Manuel.

205

Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil / Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) e U [...] lmaceae (4) as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical. Abstract in english In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) and [...] Ulmaceae (4) having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

Benedito Baptista dos, Santos; Heleno Dias, Ferreira; Walter Santos de, Araújo.

206

Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR  

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The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show geographical patterns similar to those in North America, although Betula and Ericaceae are more important in pollen spectra in the Soviet Union. Picea pollen is less important and Pinus pollen is more widespread in the USSR. Deciduous pollen types such as Quercus, Tilia, and Ulmus are less important than in North America.

Peterson, G. M.

207

Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

208

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

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Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

Tretiakova I.

2012-08-01

209

Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta  

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The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2014-05-01

210

Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense  

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Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de los aceites en las diferentes semillas varió del 9 al 16%. Todos los aceites mostraron un alto grado de insaturación con índices de iodo de 94 a 122 Kl/g. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron el oleico y linoleico. Todos los aceites crudos resultaron de buena calidad y comparables a los aceites convencionales como el de soya, maíz, girasol, colza y uña de gato. Así mismo, su calidad fue comparable a la de otros aceites de leguminosas de la misma región.

Ortega-Nieblas, M.

1996-06-01

211

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental está localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum são novas referências para o estado do Pará.In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality and comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Sebastião Maciel

2010-03-01

212

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil / Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental es [...] tá localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum) são novas referências para o estado do Pará. Abstract in english In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality an [...] d comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Maciel, Sebastião; Pietrobom, Marcio Roberto.

213

As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta do Brasil The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta from Brazil  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações.This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran. In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

Paulo H Labiak

2005-03-01

214

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

Curkovic, Tomislav; F. Brunner, Jay.

215

Exploring Holocene continentality changes in Fennoscandia using present and past tree distributions  

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With global warming, the distribution of warmth through the year is likely to change in the future and comparable changes may have occurred over the course of the Holocene. Its effect on vegetation composition and species distribution can be compared to that of a continental versus an oceanic climate. The distribution of five major tree species along a continentality gradient was studied in Fennoscandia based on distribution maps and on their proportions of pollen in surface-sediment samples. Both analyses indicate that the five arboreal species show similar patterns of response to a continentality index in the order Ulmus glabra, Corylus avellana, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, and Picea abies from the most oceanic to most continental. Continentality, growing degree days above 5 °C, and January temperature were reconstructed quantitatively from four pollen diagrams using transfer functions based on a combined Fennoscandian pollen surface-sample data-set. Quantitative reconstructions indicate that the climate in Fennoscandia has become increasingly more continental over the last 7000 years, and this is largely an effect of winter cooling. Early Holocene vegetation composition has poor analogues to the present vegetation in Fennoscandia, which hampers quantitative reconstructions. Qualitative reconstructions suggest that the early Holocene in Fennoscandia was the most oceanic period, but probably with a high variability in temperature.

Giesecke, T.; Bjune, A. E.; Chiverrell, R. C.; Seppä, H.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Birks, H. J. B.

2008-07-01

216

[Quantitative analysis of urban forest structure: a case study on Shenyang arboretum].  

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The spatial features and attribute data of urban forests in Shenyang arboretum were acquired by using aerial photographs and field investigation. After systemic and quantitative analysis of the species composition and spatial distribution pattern of urban forest community based on geographic information system (GIS), the following results were achieved: 1) the vegetation in the arboretum was rich and in a good condition. Phellodendron amurense, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Ulmus punita were the main species according to their abundant individuals and relative dominance. The spatial distribution pattern of this vegetation indicated that it was in a growing level and in the best state for ecological benefits; 2) the tree species relative dominance based on vegetation quantity had no distinct relationship with the species abundance, and the species having abundant individuals might have a low relative dominance; and 3) the curve displayed in the relationship diagram between tree individuals and tree height showed ascending and protruding. With the increment of tree height class, the individuals were unchanged nearly at the beginning, but when the height was more than 12 m, the individuals reduced distinctly, and the curve displayed a quickly declined trend. The relationship between tree individuals and tree diameter at the breast height (DBH) showed the same result. PMID:15031894

Zhu, Wenquan; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yunhao; Zhang, Yue; Ning, Zhuhua

2003-12-01

217

Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).  

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To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

2010-12-01

218

Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation  

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Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

L. Gurau

2010-03-01

219

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

220

Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus in the Helan Mountains, China  

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Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes in forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833. The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (<10° but the use of slope gradient categories varied seasonally. Red deer avoidance of human disturbance in the Helan Mountains varied significantly by season. Information on red deer habitat selection can help understand the factors affecting seasonal movements and also support decision making in the management and conservation of red deer and their habitats.

Mingming Zhang

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Recent changes in the riparian forest of a large regulated Mediterranean river: implications for management.  

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The structure of the floodplain forests of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined at patch and landscape scales along a three-step chronosequence defined according to the extent of flow regulation-induced hydrogeomorphic changes, with the ultimate purpose of producing baseline information to guide through management and restoration plans. At patch scale, a total of 6,891 stems within 39 plots were registered for species, diameter and health status. The stem density, size class distribution, canopy dieback and mortality were further compared by means of non-parametric tests. At landscape scale, the temporal evolution of the area occupied by forest stands of different ages in the floodplain along the chronosequence was evaluated using four sets of aerial photographs dated in 1927, 1957, 1981 and 2003. The within-patch structure of pioneer forests (25-30 years old) were characterized by declining and sparse P. nigra-S. alba-Tamarix spp. stands, where late-seral species such as Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia were frequent, but only as small-size stems. At landscape scale, these type of senescent forests have doubled their surface after river regulation was intensified. Populus alba only appeared in the oldest plots recorded (colonized before 1957), suggesting sexual regeneration failure during the last five decades, but usually as healthy and dense stands. Based on these findings, measures principally aimed at recovering some hydrogeomorphic dynamism are recommended to guarantee the self-sustainability of the floodplain forest ecosystem. PMID:20145922

González, Eduardo; González-Sanchis, María; Cabezas, Alvaro; Comín, Francisco A; Muller, Etienne

2010-04-01

222

Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

2013-01-01

223

Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions  

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Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D, on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

H. Seyedoleslami

2004-10-01

224

Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Tör?csik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

2011-12-01

225

A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES  

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Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

Bruce A. Smith

2012-12-01

226

Nonvolatile chemical cues affect host-plant ranking by gravid Polygonia c-album females.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a multiple-choice test, the preference of egg-laying Polygonia c-album (comma butterfly) females was studied for oviposition on plants bearing surrogate leaves treated with crude methanol extracts obtained from leaves of seven host-plant species: Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, Ribes nigrum, Corylus avellana, and Betula pubescens. The ranking order of surrogate leaves treated with host-plant extracts corresponded well to that reported on natural foliage, except R. nigrum. Thus, host-plant choice in P. c-album seems to be highly dependent on chemical cues. Moreover, after two subsequent fractionations using reversed-phase chromatography the nonvolatile chemical cues residing in the most polar water-soluble fractions evidently provided sufficient information for egg-laying females to discriminate and rank between the samples of more and less preferred plants, since the ranking in these assays was similar to that for natural foliage or whole methanol extracts, while the physical traits of the surrogate leaves remained uniform. PMID:22486046

Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Murtazina, Rushana; Nylin, Sören; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2012-01-01

227

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in Northern Europe  

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Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed pattern would challenge the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records. The arctic regions may therefore not always be optimal for detecting past climate changes.

H. Seppä

2007-01-01

228

Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe  

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Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

H. Seppä

2007-01-01

229

Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen  

Science.gov (United States)

Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

230

Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex  

Science.gov (United States)

A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

2000-03-01

231

Radiosensitivity and recovery of tree crowns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crown mortality was observed on 13 tree species in a gamma-irradiated forest community located near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations at the end of the first (1973) and second (1974) postirradiation growing seasons are presented for each species. Crown mortality was most severe during 1973 for Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Populus tremuloides, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. For some species, however, crown mortality was most severe during 1974. These were Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Tilia americana, and possibly Fraxinus americana and F. nigra. These differences in year of primary response are explained on the basis of bud differentiation and mortality. The most resistant species were A. saccharum, O. virginiana, and Populus tremuloides, and the most sensitive were T. americana and U. americana. Others were intermediate in sensitivity. Taken collectively, exposures less than 2 or 3 kr did not seriously affect crowns of most species, whereas exposures exceeding about 40 kr were lethal to the crowns of all tree species. The observed zonation of tree mortality closely approximated predictions published by others except for underestimating the resistance of A. saccharum and overestimating the resistance of T. americana, F. americana, and Prunus serotina. Not surprisingly, the tree stratum of the northern forest community was found to be more radiosensitive than lichen, grassland, or herbaceous communities in other irradiation studies

1977-01-01

232

Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians  

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Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

Józef Mitka

2014-04-01

233

Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture  

Science.gov (United States)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

2011-10-01

234

Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and Clostridium species in living trees. [Eastern Cottonwood; Block Poplar; American Elm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. (Refs. 38).

Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.

1981-09-01

235

On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

Ahmed, Mohammed; van de Vossenberg, Bart TLH; Cornelisse, Chris; Karssen, Gerrit

2013-01-01

236

Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

2013-01-01

237

Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha-1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha-1, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha-1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha-1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China

2006-09-01

238

Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations  

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Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010–2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevés were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevés were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic  variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In  herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

Krzysztof Domaradzki

2014-07-01

239

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

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Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

C. Williams

2009-06-01

240

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

Lee, Jeom-Sook

2007-05-01

242

Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

1990-11-01

243

The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Che?m. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

Sylwia Andruszczak

2010-12-01

244

Growth, fire history, and browsing recorded in wood rings of shrubs in a mild temperate climate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Separate effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the structure and dynamics of ecological communities may be recorded in growth rings of woody plants. We used Ceanothus cuneatus rigidus and Arctostaphylos pumila to tease apart the roles of fire, rain, and herbivores on the histories and community structure of four areas in a coastal mediterranean-type climate in central California with mild winters and mild summers. Ring widths of both species were related to rainfall in two of the areas; heavy deer browsing on Ceanothus overwhelmed the climate signal in the others. Ceanothus germination was more closely related to heavy rainfall, especially during ENSO years, than to fire events. In a related greenhouse experiment that evaluated these observations, the same proportions of new Ceanothus seeds germinated after burning and after receiving regular water for several months, but germination of old seeds responded primarily to the fire treatment. In areas where heavy browsing by mammals reduces recruitment and growth of Ceanothus and increases mortality, the continuance of the Ceanothus population must rely heavily on germination from the persistent seed bank during unusually wet years or after occasional fires. Because Arctostaphylos can produce new stems from underground roots, individual plants may survive and produce seeds until another fire. PMID:21661563

Coale, Tyler H; Deveny, Adrian J; Fox, Laurel R

2011-05-01

245

Radioecological investigations of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The landscape structure of the territory and the current radioactive state of ecosystems in the vicinity of Bilibino Nuclear Power Station (Western Chukotka Peninsula) within the area of its potential influence on the environment were studied in 1989--1990. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radionuclides in several key biological members of the ecosystems has been analyzed. Maximal weighted content of cesium-137 was revealed in mountain pine cones (Pinus pumila) -- 9,200 Bq/kg.d.w., cowberry fruits have demonstrated considerable contamination by strontium and cesium isotopes. The purification of first two components of food chain ''lichen-reindeer-man'' was pointed out in the investigated area. Besides the chemical characteristics, visual biological anomalies of biocomponents nearby the Bilibino NPS ecosystems are observed. On the basis of field radioecological investigations and future work, programs were developed for the conditions of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area. This experience could be applied to the researches of radioactive contamination in ecosystems of other northern territories

1995-11-05

246

Radioecological investigations of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The landscape structure of the territory and the current radioactive state of ecosystems in the vicinity of Bilibino Nuclear Power Station (Western Chukotka Peninsula) within the area of its potential influence on the environment were studied in 1989--1990. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radionuclides in several key biological members of the ecosystems has been analyzed. Maximal weighted content of cesium-137 was revealed in mountain pine cones (Pinus pumila) -- 9,200 Bq/kg.d.w., cowberry fruits have demonstrated considerable contamination by strontium and cesium isotopes. The purification of first two components of food chain ``lichen-reindeer-man`` was pointed out in the investigated area. Besides the chemical characteristics, visual biological anomalies of biocomponents nearby the Bilibino NPS ecosystems are observed. On the basis of field radioecological investigations and future work, programs were developed for the conditions of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area. This experience could be applied to the researches of radioactive contamination in ecosystems of other northern territories.

Emelyanova, L.; Neretin, L. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Geographical Faculty]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology

1995-12-31

247

Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

248

Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

Sylwia Andruszczak

2012-10-01

249

Species association among predaceous and phytophagous apple mites (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tetranychidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Predator-predator, predator-prey, and prey-prey associations among nine species of mites were studied in a plot of 100 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus pumila Miller) trees from 1990 to 1997. In 1990, seven-year-old trees were inoculated with Panonychus ulmi (Koch), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) or both, and sprayed with azinphosmethyl (alone or plus endosulfan), or nothing. The species Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eotetranychus sp., Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) were already present or immigrated into plots, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Tvphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were introduced. Yule's V association index was used to measure positive, neutral, or negative interspecific associations for each species pair, because of its robustness with spatially autocorrelated data. We found that pesticide and release treatments did not greatly affect the association results, but there were strong seasonal differences. Predator-predator associations were the strongest and most consistent, showing negative associations in the early and mid seasons, and neutral ones in late season. Negative associations of T pyri with other predators were the strongest, which is consistent with evidence that this mite can detect other predators on a leaf. Predatorprey seasonal associations were mixed, with some positive and others negative, with most significant associations occurring in the mid season. One prey-prey interaction was positive, again in mid season, most likely because of similar habitat preferences. PMID:11513362

Slone, D H; Croft, B A

2001-01-01

250

Conserved genetic regions across angiosperms as tools to develop single-copy nuclear markers in gymnosperms: an example using cycads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several individuals of the Caribbean Zamia clade and other cycad genera were used to identify single-copy nuclear genes for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in Cycadales. Two strategies were employed to select target loci: (i) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis conserved ortholog sequence (COS) set and (ii) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis-Populus-Vitis-Oryza Shared Single-Copy genes (APVO SSC) against the EST Zamia databases in GenBank. From the first strategy, 30 loci were selected, and from the second, 16 loci. In both cases, the matching GenBank accessions of Zamia were used as a query for retrieving highly similar sequences from Cycas, Picea, Pinus species or Ginkgo biloba. After retrieving and aligning all the sequences in each locus, intron predictions were completed to assist in primer design. PCR was carried out in three rounds to detect paralogous loci. A total of 29 loci were successfully amplified as a single band of which 20 were likely single-copy loci. These loci showed different diversity and divergence levels. A preliminary screening allowed us to select 8 promising loci (40S, ATG2, BG, GroES, GTP, LiSH, PEX4 and TR) for the Zamia pumila complex and 4 loci (COS26, GroES, GTP and HTS) for all other cycad genera. PMID:24444413

Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Stevenson, Dennis W; Nakamura, Kyoko

2014-07-01

251

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa / Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oli [...] gonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCC [...] IGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.

Travensolo, Regiane F.; Ciapina, Luciane P.; Lemos, Eliana G. M..

252

Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD in grapes (Vitis vinifera. The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3' using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3' which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus, citrus (Citrus spp., coffee (Coffea arabica, elm (Ulmus americana, mulberry (Morus rubra, oak (Quercus rubra, periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus, plums (Prunus salicina and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD em videira (Vitis vinifera. Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3' utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3', que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus, citros (Citrus spp., café (Coffea arabica, olmo (Ulmus americana, amora (Morus rubra, carvalho (Quercus rubra, vinca (Catharantus roseus, ameixa (Prunus salicina e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira.

Regiane F. Travensolo

2005-04-01

253

Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México / Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmento [...] s óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástica asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, w [...] hich was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironme

Jasinto, Robles-Camacho; Pedro, Corona-Chávez; Miguel, Morales-Gámez; Ana Fabiola, Guzmán; Óscar J., Polaco; Gabriela, Domínguez-Vázquez; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Arturo, Oliveros-Morales.

254

Leaf Anatomical Acclimation of Six Tree Species to Low Soil Water Content  

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Full Text Available Whether plant adaptation to soil water stress is related to their anatomical change is important to ecophysiological research. The leaf anatomical changes of six coexisting tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd Sarg. and Quercus mongolica Fisch. from a typical community of the mixed coniferous and broadleaved Korean pine forest in Northeast China acclimated to Relative Soil Water Content (RSWC of 100, 50 and 30% was studied. Results indicate a decrease in stomatal density for F. mandshurica, J. mandshurica and T. amurensis under RSWC of 30%, while the stomatal density of P. amurense increased. The cuticle thickness of F. mandshurica, Q. mongolica, P. amurense and J. mandshurica increased significantly under RSWC of 30%; however, a decrease in cuticle thickness was found for T. amurensis and U. japonica under RSWC of 50%. At RSWC of 30%, a decrease in the diameter of the main vein was found in F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica while an increase was seen in P. amurense and Q. mongolica. Under low RSWC, the average length of epidermal hair for Q. mongolica, J. mandshurica and U. japonica increased significantly, but it decreased significantly for T. amurensis and P. amurense. The palisade layer of leaves of F. mandshurica, P. amurense, T. amurensis increased significantly under low RSWC. The thickness of spongy layer of leaves of F. mandshurica and J. mandshurica increased significantly under low RSWC, but the thickness of spongy layer of Q. mongolica and P. amurense decreased significantly. The thickness of upper and lower epidermis did not change significantly for all tree species studied under low RSWC. These anatomical changes may have relation with leaf transpiration, but depend on species. Species anatomical divergence under drought may relate to their functional divergence.

Xiongwen Chen

2005-01-01

255

Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses  

Science.gov (United States)

The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition.

Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

2013-10-01

256

Vegetation and climate changes during the Eemian and Early Weichselian in the Upper Volga region (Russia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Ples is the key-section that represents the Mikulino (Eemian) interglaciation and early part of the Valdai (Weichselian) glacial epoch in the north-central Russia. Pollen profile of this section reflects spread of the broad-leaved forest dominated by Quercus, Ulmus, and Tilia with participation of Acer, Fraxinus and Carpinus in the optimum phase of the interglaciation. A gradual cooling and increasing humidity of climate brought about a decline in the broad-leaved forest and development of dark-coniferous communities ( Picea-Abies-Pinus sibirica) in the end of the interglaciation. It was followed by Scots pine and birch forest, and then replaced by communities of tundra shrubs with patches of the open birch forest. During the first post-Eemian cooling the climatic conditions were not uniform, as a short climatic amelioration separated it into two stages. This minor warming is indicated by an increase in birch woodland in complex plant cover. This first Early Weichselian cold stage was followed by a warm interstade, when mixed spruce-birch, and later larch-pine and spruce-pine forests occupied the region. This interstade, known as Verkhnevolzhskiy (Upper Volga) in the climatostratigraphic subdivision of the Late Pleistocene in the Russian Plain (after Grichuk [1961. Fossil floras as the basis for the Quaternary stratigraphy. In: Markov, K.K. (Ed.), Rel`ef i Stratigrafiya Chetvertichnykh Otlozheniy Severo-zapada Russkoi Ravniny, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR, Moscow, pp. 25-71]), corresponds to the Brörup interstade in the northern Europe, or to Marine Oxygen Isotope Substage (MIS) 5c (e.g. Mangerud [1989. Correlation of the Eemian and the Weichselian with deep sea oxygen isotope stratigraphy. Quaternary International 3, 1-4.]). On the whole, we correlate the sediment sequence at Ples to the MIS from 5e to 5c.

Borisova, O. K.; Novenko, E. Yu; Velichko, A. A.; Kremenetski, K. V.; Junge, F. W.; Boettger, T.

2007-10-01

257

Community development on 35-year-old planted minespoil banks in Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading plant communities were studied in 1982 on a series of 35-year old strip-mine test plantings in the main bituminous region of Pennsylvania. Ten of the original 22 sites were evaluated; the others had been significantly disturbed or destroyed. The sites varied in mean pH, in survival and basal area of the planted trees and in the species planted. The study involved 24 plots of the following species: eastern white pine (Pine strobus), red pine (Pinus resinosa), Japanese larch (Laprix leptolepis), red oak (Quercus rubra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), white ash (Fraxinus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and hybrid poplar (Populus hyb.) and seven plots where plantings were unsuccessful (control plots). In the cluster analysis of invading communities described by a modified Braun-Blanquet scale, strong clustering trends were evident by both site and planted species. Clustering by sites was most pronounced for those sites with extremes of soil pH. There was also strong clustering among pine plots and among some hardwood plots. Species richness was higher on white ash, red oak, Japanese larch and control plots than on white pine plots. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) was the most common of the 169 invading species and was especially numerous on black locust plots. Aspens (Populus sp.) were also common invaders, especially on pine and ash plots. These species, along with pin cherry (Prunus Pennsylvanica) and the planted black locust are declining in importance, whereas black cherry, red maple (Acer rubrum) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) are increasing. Invading oaks (Quercus sp.), hickories (Carya sp.) and a few sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) suggest future successional changes. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Schuster, W.S.; Hutnik, R.J.

1987-07-01

258

Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752

Youn, H J; Noh, J W

2001-04-19

259

Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

2004-03-01

260

Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle  

Science.gov (United States)

The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenstrom, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacialâ??interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacialâ??interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard Sørensen, Malene

2013-01-01

262

Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

2012-01-01

263

Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter  

Science.gov (United States)

We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

2014-04-01

264

Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stage

2007-12-01

265

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.

2008-01-01

266

Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

A. Grootjans

2014-01-01

267

The effect of intercropping on weed infestation of a spring barley crop cultivated in monoculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the years 2005-2007 in the Bezek Experimental Farm near the city of Che?m, Poland, on heavy mixed rendzina soil. The effect of intercropping, using red clover (cv. Dajana and white clover (cv. Astra, on weed infestation of a spring barley crop was studied. The species composition of weeds in the spring barley crop changed to a small extent under the influence of the application of clover intercropping, whereas the population size of particular species showed large fluctuations. In the spring barley crop with the red clover intercrop, Sonchus arvensis occurred in greatest numbers among dicotyledonous weed species. In the barley crop with white clover and without intercrop, Viola arvensis and Sonchus arvensis were the dominant dicotyledonous species. Setaria pumila was the dominant monocotyledonous species in all the treatments. Intercropping using red and white clover clearly limited the growth and development of weeds. The red clover intercrop in the spring barley crop better reduced the infestation with dicotyledonous weeds and also significantly reduced the number of monocotyledonous weeds and the total number of weeds, whereas the white clover intercrop limited only the number of monocotyledonous weeds. The application of the herbicide Chwastox Extra 300 SL significantly reduced the fresh weight of weeds found in the spring barley crop. The presence of the intercrop resulted in different total numbers of weeds in particular treatments. Intercropping distinctly limited the occurrence of the following weed species: Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Melandrium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Veronica arvensis and Medicago lupulina. The investigated intercrop species also reduced the biomass of weeds. The application of the herbicide did not differentiate the number of monocotyledonous weeds, which resulted from the application of Chwastox Extra 300 SL that controls only dicotyledonous species.

Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe

2009-06-01

268

The Relationship Between Tree-Core and Groundwater Trichloroethylene Concentrations for Groundwater Plume Delineation  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

A 17-month field study designed to evaluate the feasibility of using trees as a cost-effective groundwater sampling and plume delineation tool was recently completed at site Operable Unit 4 at Hill Air Force Base (Ogden, UT). Using a hand-driven incremental borer, tree-core samples were collected monthly from cottonwood (Populus deltoides), russian olive (Elaeagnaceae elaeagnus), poplar (Salicaceae populus), apple (Malus pumila), and box elder (Acer negundo) trees located within and outside a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated shallow groundwater plume. Concentrations of TCE in the core samples were determined using a headspace gas chromatography procedure. Variations to the headspace analysis method were made and results compared to other methods of TCE measurement for performance comparison. A relationship ? between tree core (0.001 to 32 mg/kg) and groundwater (0.2 to 4890 mg/L) TCE concentrations was observed (e.g., trees located above areas of high groundwater TCE concentration were found to contain high TCE concentrations). Stable isotopes of hydrogen were used to show that shallow TCE-contaminated groundwater is the most likely source of water used by the trees. Wood sorption isotherms (using site specific trees) were completed using C-14 TCE in a sealed batch process. Wood-water partitioning coefficient (K(sub wood)) values of 16.42 mL/g (cottonwood) and 11.51 mL/g (russian olive) were obtained from linear isotherms. When measuring TCE concentrations in water, these K(sub wood) values can now be used to estimate original concentrations of TCE within the tree tissues. Desorption coefficients were measured through sequential dilution steps and found to be reversible along the sorption isotherm.

2001-01-01

269

Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphyll [...] a, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Zurita-Vásquez, Guilibaldo G; Pacheco-Hernández, Yesenia; Betancourt-Jiménez, Martha G; Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Duque-Bautista, Horacio.

270

Bioreactor technology for herbal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

2010-10-12

271

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado [...] determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the [...] extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Sittenfeld Appel, Ana; Jiménez-Somarribas, Alberto; Valerio-Campos, Idalia.

272

Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in southern of SCS are mainly 21-117 grains/g. Pollen concentration of the northern is nearly 10 times more than in the southern SCS. This is because most pollen types is transported from the north by the Pearl River and rivers in Taiwan, only Trilete-spore is not transported by the above rivers, it may be transported by rivers from Hainan Island and summer monsoon forced marine current. 3. Pollen from surface water of the South China Sea 5 samples were collected from surface water of the South China Sea. It was found that the 1st sample has most abundant of Algae, because it is located in the entrance of Hanjiang River. Pollen grains in the sample number 4 are rare; this is probably because that it is located on the boundary current of the northern part of the South China Sea. 4. Comparison of pollen from air, ocean surface water, surface sediments Pollen and spore in air contain mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores. Ocean surface water contain mainly the Dicranopteris dichotoma , Polypodiales and other Trilete-spores, with pollen of aquatic plants Alismataceae occurring, excluding Pinus pollen. Pollen in the surface sediments are mainly Trilete-spores, Pinus and herbaceous, and may be a combination of annual pollen characteristics. Acknowledgments This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants NSFC 41176049).

Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

2013-12-01

273

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

2008-06-01

274

Holocene climate variability in south-western France  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (43°22'765N, 2°16'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

2012-04-01

275

Holocene environmental changes in the Alashan Gobi, NW China: Evidence from a pollen record in comparison to modern pollen spectra  

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Pollen data of an early to mid-Holocene sediment record from the centre of the present dry Eastern Juyan lake, Alashan Gobi, northwestern China and comparisons with modern pollen spectra provide information about vegetation and climatic changes in a desert dominated region. The arid Alashan Plateau receives less than 80 mm annual precipitation and is covered by a typical desert vegetation comprising Calligonum mongolicum, Nitraria sphaerocarpa, Zygophyllum xanthoxylon, Ephedra przewalskii, Reaumuria soogorica, Artemisia tschernerviana, Haloxylon ammodendron and some other Chenopodiaceae being the main plant taxa. An 8.25 m long sediment core taken from the northwestern part of Juyan lake covers the the early and the mid-Holocene (11.0 to 2.0 cal. ka BP). Altogether 64 samples with a total of ca. 400 grains per sample were analysed. The most abundant taxa and their probable origin are the following: Betula (far transport from the adjacent mountains), Ulmus (riparian vegetation), Artemisia, Poaceae, Ephedra distachya-type, Ephedra fragilis-type (steppe vegetation or indefinable), Chenopodiaceae, Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria (desert vegetation). According to 5 AMS datings and pollen spectra the record can be subdivided into two parts: 11.0 to 5.5 cal. ka BP with higher abundances of Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra and 5.5 to 2.0 cal. ka BP with more Artemisia and less Ephedra. Due to the varying Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae ratio and the similarly changing abundance of some desert taxa (Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria) a division in periods with steppe vegetation mainly indicate wetter conditions while the abundance of desert vegetation may reflect somewhat drier conditions. According to the age model wetter conditions prevailed between about 8.2 7.5, 6.6 - 6.2, 5.6 4.8, 4.3 4.0 and 3.2 2.8 cal. ka BP. Many pollen surface samples from the Alashan Gobi and the adjacent areas (the Qilian Mountains in the south and Mongolia in the north) supply this investigation with Recent pollen spectra from several vegetation types with known climatic conditions, which were used to understand the fossil pollen spectra and to identify and to verify the pollen indicator species and pollen indicator ratios.

Herzschuh, U.; Tarasov, P.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.

2003-04-01

276

Short Rotation Forestry (SFR in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

Antonio Sergio De Franchi

2010-12-01

277

Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

2012-11-01

278

Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?  

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To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

2014-07-01

279

Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

Antanaviciute Laima

2012-05-01

280

Vegetation Change through Glacial-Interglacial Cycles: A Long Pollen Sequence Perspective  

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A core recovered from a thick sedimentary sequence in the Ioannina basin, on the western flank of the Pindus Mountain Range, northwest Greece, presents the opportunity to observe multiple changes in vegetational communities at one locality through a series of glacial-interglacial Quaternary cycles. The Ioannina 249 record adds to the knowledge of vegetation history of areas of increased topographical variability and precipitation of the western Balkans and provides a complete stratigraphical record that can be compared with that of other long terrestrial sequences and with the marine record. Pollen analytical results are presented as percentages and concentrations, the former providing information on the composition and structure of vegetation, while the latter is considered here to be a reliable indication of vegetation density when changes differing by an order of magnitude are documented. The record shows an hierarchical order of variation in the response of vegetation to environmental change. Higher order of magnitude changes are alternations between forest and open vegetation communities, a reflection of major climatic shifts from interglacial to glacial modes. Superimposed on these oscillations is a lower order variability associated with vegetation changes within interglacial and glacial periods. During forest periods a succession is recorded with Quercus and Ulmus/Zelkova expanding early, followed by Carpinus betulus and also Ostrya carpinifolia/Carpinus orientalis, and finally Abies often accompanied by Fagus. Although individual periods may be characterized by dominance of one or more taxa, the underlying pattern of differential expansion is usually distinct and consistent. Nine forested intervals are distinguished and are assigned local names to facilitate long-distance comparisons and correlations. During open vegetation periods a series of changes is also observed from transitional steppe-forest or forest-steppe vegetation, through grassland steppe communities, culminating in a discontinuous desert-steppe vegetation. In addition to the two ends of the spectrum (forest and desert-steppe), attention is drawn to the intermediate phases representing `average' Quaternary conditions. The Ioannina record is correlated with that of other long sequences from Europe and variation in the response of vegetation with site characteristics is considered. A strategy for long-distance correlations relying on the primary structure of vegetation and relative stratigraphical position of individual periods is described. The last interglacial period followed by two interstadials is recorded in much the same fashion in all records. Correlation of earlier periods was also in general agreement although only two continuous records that extend beyond the last interglacial are at present available for comparison. To minimize elements of circularity, similarities in the behaviour of individual taxa during particular periods are not part of the correlation criteria so that if their chronostratigraphical equivalence is independently corroborated their significance can be examined. On this basis, the importance of Carpinus betulus and the almost complete absence of Fagus on a subcontinental scale during the last interglacial are noted. Possible effects of climate, competition and disease are discussed. Cross-correlation with the deep-sea oxygen isotope record provides a tentative chronology for the Ioannina record. Based on this, the sequence down to a depth of 162.75 m is considered to represent a record of approximately the past 423 000 years. Aspects of land-sea correlations are discussed in the light of the Ioannina 249 record and the importance of long sequences in the development of European Quaternary stratigraphy is emphasized.

Tzedakis, P. C.

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

Vegetational and climatic changes on the Russian Plain at the Eemian/Weichselian transition  

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Palynological data from peat sections and lake deposits spanning the Last Interglacial and the beginning of the Last Glacial Epoch indicate that on the central Russian Plain the Eemian (Mikulino)/Early Weichselian (Valdai) transition was marked by a sequence of secondary climatic oscillations of various magnitudes and duration. Pollen profiles from the Last Interglacial on the central Russian Plain show a distinctive sequence of the forest communities, reflecting an increase in temperatures towards the warmest ("optimum") phase of the interglacial followed by a gradual cooling. During the optimum phase of the Last Interglacial, a broad-leaved forest dominated by Carpinus, Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia with lower levels of Acer and Fraxinus occupied the middle latitudes of the Russian Plain. During the post-optimal part of the Last Interglacial, climatic cooling and increasing humidity brought about a decline in the broad-leaved forest and the spread of coniferous forest of Picea and Abies, along with Pinus sibirica on the northeastern part of the Plain. During this final forest phase of the interglacial, smaller climatic oscillations can be inferred from changes in arboreal pollen content and composition in high resolution pollen sequences of the region (e.g. Butovka, Ples). A rapid climatic deterioration, manifesting an onset of the Weichselian (Valdai) Glacial, was accompanied by decreasing humidity and increasing continentality of climate. This substantially colder and drier climate led to a decline of mesophilic plants and an increase in abundance and diversity of the xerophytes and of plants growing at present under highly continental climates. Reconstructions based on the palaeofloras from Nizhnyaya Boyarschina section suggest that during the first Early Glacial cold stage winter temperatures were 14°C and summer temperatures 4°C lower than those of the interglacial optimum. Usually two intervals of climatic amelioration can be distinguished in the pollen profiles from the Russian Plain, which span the early part of the Last Glacial. These two relatively warm intervals are marked by an increased role for forest communities on the landscape. The forests were similar to the present-day taiga communities in West Siberia, but the vegetation also included a variety of periglacial elements. Higher representations of dark-coniferous trees (Picea + Abies + Pinus sibirica) indicate that the second phase was warmer than the first one. Based on its stratigraphic position and inferred features of climate and vegetation, the second warm interval can be attributed to the Verkhnevolzhskiy (Upper Volga) Interstadial in the Russian Plain (Grichuk, 1961), which is correlated to the Brørup Interstadial in West Europe, or to Oxygen Isotope substage 5c (e.g. Mangerud, 1989). We can also tentatively correlate it with warm Dansgaard-Oeschger event 23 (DO 23) as reflected in the oxygen isotope record from the Northern Greenland deep ice-core (NorthGRIP Members, 2004). A slighter and shorter warming within the first cold stage of the Early Weichselian (Valdai) probably was of an interphasial rank and corresponded to the warm part of a shorter DO 24 in the NorthGRIP oxygen-isotope curve. Likewise, a slight increase in warmth in the final part of the Last Interglacial, inferred from the changes in pollen composition, might correspond to the warming at the onset of DO 25.

Borisova, Olga

2010-05-01