WorldWideScience

Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Ulmus pollen at Sibisa Swamp, North Sumatra (Ulmaceae)

    Maloney, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Ulmus pollen characterised by a four-pored morphology was reported from samples of various ages taken from the radiocarbon dated pollen sites of Pea Sim-sim and Tao Sipinggan and in one sample from the undated Pea Sijajap record (Maloney, 1984). All these sites are located on the Toba Plateau, south of Lake Toba, over 50 km away from the nearest existing sources (Touw & Van Steenis, 1968) of Ulmus lancaeafolia Roxb. ex Wall. Sibisa Swamp is situated east of Lake Toba, at 98°58'E, 2°33'N, near...

  2. Programmed cell death of Ulmus pumila L. seeds during aging

    Yulan ZHANG; Ming ZHANG; Fang LI; Xiaofeng WANG

    2008-01-01

    The programmed cell death (PCD) character-istics of Ulmus pumila L. seeds were investigated. The seeds were treated at a high temperature of 37℃ and 100% relative humidity for six days. DAPI (4'6-diami-dino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that the aging treatment induced condensation and margination of chro-matin, as well as the formation of apoptotic bodies. DNA electrophoresis results of U. pumila seeds on an agarose gel showed a characteristic "ladder" pattern. Levels of electrolyte leakage of seed cells showed that membranes retained their integral form during almost the entire aging time. There was an immediate increase in the production rate of superoxide anion (O2-) and in the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which remained at a μmol level. All of these common characteristics indicate that seed aging can be classified as PCD.

  3. The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth

    Đukić Matilda; Đunisijević-Bojović Danijela; Samuilov Slađana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 μM, 50 μM and 90 μM. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentration...

  4. The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth

    Đukić Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 μM, 50 μM and 90 μM. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  5. Effects of Sand Burial on Survival, Growth, Gas Exchange and Biomass Allocation of Ulmus pumila Seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China

    Shi, L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, J Z

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm–grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were studi...

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  7. Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Solla A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

  8. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Jiao Tang; Carlos A. Busso; Deming Jiang; Yongcui Wang; Dafu Wu; Ala Musa; Renhui Miao; Chunping Miao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm), an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents) results showed that seed burial depths, soil water ...

  9. Evaluación de Ulmus pumila L. y Populus spp. como cultivos energéticos en corta rotación

    Pérez García, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo estudia el empleo del olmo de Siberia (Ulmus Pumila L.) y el chopo (Populus spp.) en corta rotación y alta densidad para la producción de biomasa con fines energéticos. En el área mediterránea las disponibilidades hídricas son limitadas, por lo que la mayoría de los cultivos energéticos utilizados hasta el momento requieren el aporte de agua de riego; por ello resulta fundamental encontrar especies con bajos requerimientos hídricos, analizar la eficiencia en el uso del agu...

  10. An Application of Auxin in Elm (Ulmus pumila L.) Seedling Breeding%植物生长素在榆树育苗中的应用

    赵永春

    2014-01-01

    榆树(Ulmus pumila L)是重要的绿化树种.通过对榆树1年生苗进行植物生长素喷施试验,结果表明植物生长素不仅能够促进榆树幼苗的苗高、地径生长,同时更能增加苗木的重量,使苗木达到优质壮苗的要求;在选用植物生长素时,应选用商品植物生长素,如高效植物生长素、叶面宝和丰产素为佳.应避免盲目使用不必要的激素.

  11. A study of airborne Ulmaceae pollen in Modena (northern Italy).

    Torri, P; Accorsi, C A; Bandini Mazzanti, M; Zagni, A M

    1997-01-01

    We examined Ulmaceae airborne pollen at the Modena-Geophysical Observatory monitoring station in 1993. The pollen trap was placed 15 m above the ground. 365 daily slides were fully analyzed to obtain daily and bi-hourly pollen concentrations. Morphological analysis on native and introduced Ulmaceae pollen was also conducted between February 3rd and May 17th. Five pollen types were identified: Celtis cf. australis, Ulmus glabra, Ulmus cf. laevis, Ulmus cf. minor, and Ulmus minor/laevis. Pollen concentrations and percentages showed that the Elm family contributed little pollen to the air (about 1% of the total pollen recorded), Ulmus and Celtis being 0.9% and 0.04%, respectively. The maximum levels were 30 p/m3/24 hr and 118 p/m3/ 2 hr (Ulmus) and 4 p/m3/24 hr and 13 p/m3/2 hr (Celtis). The highest levels of Ulmus were during the morning and afternoon, while the afternoon was highest for Celtis. In general, Ulmaceae trees appear worth planting in urban areas, but Celtis pollen should also be monitored at human height. PMID:9276007

  12. Seed Burial Depth and Soil Water Content Affect Seedling Emergence and Growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land

    Jiao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of seed burial depth and soil water content on seedling emergence and growth of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm, an important native tree species distributed over the European-Asian steppe. Experimental sand burial depths in the soil were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 cm, and soil water contents were 4%, 8%, 12% and 16% of field capacity. All two-way ANOVA (five sand burial depths and four soil water contents results showed that seed burial depths, soil water content and their interactions significantly affected all the studied plant variables. Most of the times, seedling emergence conditions were greater at the lower sand burial depths (less than 1.0 cm than at the higher (more than 1.0 cm seed burial depths, and at the lower water content (less than 12% than at the higher soil water content. However, high seed burial depths (more than 1.5 cm or low soil water content (less than 12% reduced seedling growth or change in the root/shoot biomass ratios. In conclusion, the most suitable range of sand burial was from 0.5 to 1.0 cm soil depth and soil water content was about 12%, respectively, for the processes of seedling emergence and growth. These findings indicate that seeds of the sandy elm should be kept at rather shallow soil depths, and water should be added up to 12% of soil capacity when conducting elm planting and management. Our findings could help to create a more appropriate sandy elm cultivation and understand sparse elm woodland recruitment failures in arid and semi-arid regions.

  13. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  14. The diurnal release rhythm analysis of insect attack inducing Ulmus pumila volatile matter%虫害诱导家榆挥发物的日释放节律分析

    程彬; 陈平; 任立伟; 鹿永强; 鹿永斌

    2015-01-01

    以家榆为试验对象,分析挥发物的组分与日释放节律,结果表明:家榆的挥发物共有24种化合物,包含有醇类、烷类、酯类和萜烯类等。挥发物的释放存在昼高夜低的现象,在上午时释放量会迅速增加,到中午达到最大,然后在下午、晚上逐渐减少;在由明转暗时,挥发物的释放有一个短暂的爆发。挥发物的日夜释放节律与害虫天敌的活动规律相符,可能是植物发挥主动防御的结果。%The component and diurnal release rhythm of volatile matter was analyzed by taking Ulmus pumila as object.The result showed that volatile matter of Ulmus pumila had 24 compounds which included alcohol, alkanes, esters and terpene. The release of volatile matter was larger in daylight than in the night.Its amount of release increased fast in the morning.It got the largest in midday and it decreased in afternoon and night.There was a transitory outbreak from bright to dark.The diurnal release rhythm of volatile matter was consistent with activity routines of natural enemies of pests.Maybe it was the result of active defense of plant.

  15. 浑善达克沙地榆树疏林幼苗更新空间格局%Spatial pattern of seedling regeneration of Ulmus pumila woodland in the Otindag Sandland

    刘振; 董智; 李红丽; 李钢铁

    2013-01-01

    Ulmus pumila woodland widely distributing in the Otindsg sandland, is a kind of sand vegetation types and adapted to semi-arid and semi-humid climate. It is a important local species to protect the ecosystem from desertification and defense the sandstorms. However, the seedlings and small trees are found to be few in natural ecosystem because of overgrazing and felling of great trees, which has seriously affected the distribution of U. pumila and regeneration of population. The aims of the study are to investigate the patterns for seedlings regeneration and the relationship between seedlings density and mature trees in two different habitats of fenced sites. With Ripley's K function statistical method, the seedlings distribution and regeneration spatial pattern of Ulmus pumila were analyzed in fenced fixed sand dunes and lowland between dunes in the Otindag sandland. The results showed that the vegetation was regenerated very well in U. pumila sparse forest after exempt from the damage of animals and human being by fence. The coverage of shrubs and grasses is getting to about 60% of land area and the density of seedlings in the two different habitats was 88 seedlings per hectare and 77 seedlings per hectare. The seedlings with the same ages have a better growth conditions in lowland between dunes than those in fixed sand dunes. So the lowland between dunes is thought to be more suitable for seedlings development than the fixed sand dunes. The patterns for distributions of Ulmus pumila seedlings were aggregated distributions in two habitats in the area with radius being 0 to 50 m, but the aggregation intensity of seedlings was higher in lowland between dunes than the fixed sand dunes. The distribution patterns were affected by seed shadow, aggregation of seedlings, arid environment and sand blown by the wind. The patterns for distribution of mature trees were aggregated distributions in radius being 0 to 30 m, and random distribution with radius > 30 m. The soil

  16. 科尔沁沙地家榆林的种子散布及幼苗更新%Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment of Ulmus pumila woodland in the Keerqin Sandy Land, China

    杨允菲; 白云鹏; 李建东

    2013-01-01

    家榆是典型的风播植物,在科尔沁沙地可以形成单一优势种林地.通过对林缘和孤立树不同方向从树基部向外的有序取样与林下和林窗的随机取样调查,分析了家榆林下和林窗不同生境的种子沉降和幼苗分布特征、林缘和孤立树种子散布方向的差异性与规律性.结果表明,家榆种子密度在林下生境阴坡和阳坡明显大于丘顶和丘底,在林窗生境丘顶明显大于丘底.家榆向周围不同方向种子散布的距离和累积数量均有较大差异,其中林缘和孤立树均以当地多逆风频率的西南方向最近,累积数量也最少;孤立树以多顺风频率的东北方向最远,累积数量也最多.林缘和孤立树共6个方向断面从树基部向外单位面积种子数量频度均适合于韦伯分布和对数-正态分布(X2(a)<0.500)密度函数,具有相同的种子散布格局.家榆幼苗密度在林下阴坡明显大于阳坡,林下和林窗均为丘顶明显大于丘底.林缘19 m内家榆幼苗呈连续分布.在科尔沁沙地,如果不加限制或人为扰动,家榆林不仅可以很好地进行自然更新,而且可以在适宜的沙地生境逐渐扩大其分布空间.%Ulums pumila, a typical anemochorous plant, is the single dominant species of many woodlands in the Keerqin Sandy Land, China. To understand habitat differences in the characteristics of seed deposition and seedling distribution in U. pumila, we randomly surveyed the numbers of seed and seedlings in the habitats of both understory and the wooland gaps. We also measured the abundance of seed and/or seedlings along transects of different directions starting from the woodland edges and the bases of isolated trees to illustrate differences and regulation of seed dispersal directions on the woodland edges and isolated trees. For the understory habitats, U. pumila seed densities on either shady or sunny slopes were significantly higher than both at the top of sand dunes or on the

  17. Genome size estimations on Ulmus minor Mill., Ulmus glabra Huds., and Celtis australis L. using flow cytometry.

    Loureiro, J; Rodriguez, E; Gomes, A; Santos, C

    2007-07-01

    The Ulmaceae family is composed of nearly 2000 species widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Despite their wide distribution area, there are only four native species in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work the genome size of three of those species (ULMUS MINOR, U. GLABRA, and CELTIS AUSTRALIS) was estimated using flow cytometry. The nuclear DNA content of C. AUSTRALIS was estimated as 2.46 +/- 0.061 pg/2C, of U. MINOR as 4.25 +/- 0.158 pg/2C, and of U. GLABRA as 4.37 +/- 0.103 pg/2C of DNA. No statistically significant differences were detected among individuals of the same species. These species revealed to be problematic for flow cytometric analyses, due to the release of mucilaginous compounds into the nuclear suspension. Despite that, the modified protocol here presented ensured high quality analyses (low coefficient of variation and background debris and nuclear fluorescence stability), opening good perspectives on its application to estimate the genome size of species with similar problems. PMID:17642035

  18. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  19. Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai upregulates eosinophils and suppresses Th1 and Th17 cells in the small intestine.

    Han-Sung Lee

    Full Text Available The bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai (Ulmaceae has been used in traditional Korean medicine for chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the frequency and cytokine profile of the major immune cells in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI LP, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of mice treated orally with Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai bark water extract (UDE to address the immunomodulatory role of this herb in intestinal homeostasis. B6 mice were given 5g/kg UDE once daily for 14 days. They were then sacrificed, and cells were isolated from the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP. The proportion of B versus T lymphocytes, CD4(+ versus CD8(+ T lymphocytes, Th1 and Th17 cells, and Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells in the spleen, MLNs, and SI LP were analyzed. The frequency of antigen-presenting cells (APCs, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and eosinophils in the SI LP and the expression of costimulatory molecules on APCs were also evaluated. The numbers and frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells in the SI LP were significantly reduced in the UDE-treated mice compared with PBS controls. In addition, the proportion of IL-4-producing eosinophils in the SI LP was significantly elevated in the UDE-treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, these data indicate that UDE up-regulates the number and frequency of SI LP eosinophils, which can down-regulate the Th1 and Th17 responses via IL-4 secretion and contribute to intestinal homeostasis.

  20. Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp..

    Juan A Martín

    Full Text Available Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp. trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

  1. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh; Shazwani Shaharuddin; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Long Chiau Ming

    2016-01-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malays...

  2. Safety and efficacy of Labisia pumila containing products

    Muhammad Syafiq Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila is a traditional medicinal plant which has wide therapeutic application including induction of labor and treatment of dysentery, dysmenorrhea and gonorrhea. We aimed for systematic review of the efficacy andsafety of L. pumila extract or its other commercial products availabe in Malaysian market. The marketed 500 mg capsule is composed of 40 mg L. pumila, 10 mg C. caudatum extract and 450 mg excipient. The commercial products did not follow the registration guidelines of Malaysian National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB and advertisement guidelines of Malaysian Advertisement Board. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trials reported the safe consumpotion of L. pumila water extract on postmanoposal women. Information on the efficacy and safety of commercial products are not sufficiently available. Many unregistered products (mostly capsule form are flooded in Malaysian market without having scientific information. Consumption of those products may seriously impair the health of the people.

  3. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb 1

    Lee Hong Tnah; Chai Ting Lee; Soon Leong Lee; Chin Hong Ng; Kevin Kit Siong Ng

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48...

  4. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ahmad, Syahida

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila ...

  5. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb1

    Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Lee, Soon Leong; Ng, Chin Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. • Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. • Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling. PMID:25202631

  6. Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb

    Lee Hong Tnah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

  7. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  8. Labisia pumila extract protects skin cells from photoaging caused by UVB irradiation.

    Choi, Hyun-kyung; Kim, Dong-hyun; Kim, Jin Wook; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2010-03-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), known as "Kacip Fatimah," has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate child birth as well as a post partum medicine. However, its topical application on skin has not been reported yet. In this study, we have focused on the anti-photoaging effects of L. pumila. Extract of L. pumila was first analyzed for their antioxidant activities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) since UV irradiation is a primary cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the skin. The 50% free radical scavenging activity (FSC(50)) of L. pumila extract was determined to be 0.006%, which was equal to that produced by 156 microM ascorbic acid. TNF-alpha and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) play a primary role in the inflammation process upon UV irradiation and are known to be stimulated by UVB. Treatment with L. pumila extract markedly inhibited the TNF-alpha production and the expression of COX-2. Decreased collagen synthesis of human fibroblasts by UVB was restored back to normal level after treatment with L. pumila extract. On the other hand, the enhanced MMP-1 expression upon UVB irradiation was down regulated by L. pumila extract in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of normal keratinocytes with L. pumila extract attenuated UVB-induced MMP-9 expression. These results collectively suggest L. pumila extract has tremendous potential as an anti-photoaging cosmetic ingredient. PMID:20159580

  9. Fire Burning Characteristics, Attacking Techniques and Safety Precautions in Pinus pumila Scrubs

    2010-01-01

    In China, Pinus pumila is mainly distributed in Daxing’anling, while those growing in the eastern Daxing’anling are primarily covered under the jurisdiction of Huzhong Forest Bureau. P. pumila is an evergreen shrub, 3-6 m high, and always grows vigorously. Its trunks creep along the ground, usually 10 m long or more. It is easily flammable because of the large amounts of resins and volatile oils in its body. Attacking forest fires is a dangerous work, especially in P. pumila scrubs. The fires in P. pumila s...

  10. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm DBH ≤ 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in classes 1, 2 and 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  11. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

    Chua, Lee Suan; Latiff, Norliza Abdul; Lee, Sze Yean; Lee, Chew Tin; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Both total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Labisia pumila extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. L. pumila leaves extracted in 60% methanol (MeOH) were fractionated on C18 cartridge and the antioxidant property of each fraction was determined by measuring free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The 40% MeOH fraction exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Nine flavonols (quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol), two flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) and nine phenolic acids were identified from this active fraction by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and confirmed by comparison with the mass spectra of standard aglycones, theoretical fragments generated from MS Fragmenter software, and literature values. PMID:25214112

  12. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.)

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type) mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by e...

  13. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  14. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  15. Genetic relationship among Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae) species based on ISSR-PCR.

    Karimi, E; Jaafar, H Z E; Aziz, M A; Taheri, S; AzadiGonbad, R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. PMID:24841662

  16. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  17. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  18. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  19. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    2014-01-01

    Background For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which could be of agricultural interest. Results To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the ...

  20. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400 mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17β-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  1. Phytoplasma associated with witches´-broom disease of Ulmus minor in the Czech Republic. Electron microscopy and molecular characterization

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Válová, P.; Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 37-42. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ulmus minor * Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi * PCR * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  2. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  3. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  4. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2012-12-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

  5. Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.

    Jasreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

  6. Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen in Nederland

    Pedersen, Anfred

    1963-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey of ecology, distribution, and differences in flowering time of Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. verna, subsp. litoralis (Fr.) A. Pedersen, subsp. fennica (Markl.), subsp. serotina (Wettst.) E. F. Warb., and subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen. In a description of t

  7. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxi...

  8. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showe...

  9. Phenolics and flavonoids compounds, phenylanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant activity responses to elevated CO₂ in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae).

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Karimi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO₂ (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO₂ concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO₂ levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO₂ (1,200 μmol·mol⁻¹) exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101-111%), whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%), followed closely by alata (201%). Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO₂ conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100%) and pumila (298~433%). Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 μg·g⁻¹ DW) and pumila (25 μg·g⁻¹ DW), respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO₂ enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO₂ levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO₂ enrichment conditions. PMID:22634843

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

  11. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa ZE; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Results The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty acids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant reveal...

  12. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed ...

  13. Optimization and characterization of Tl(I) adsorption onto modified ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjarani, Neda [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S. Norollah [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves were successfully used to remove Tl(I) from aqueous solution in a batch system. In order to improve the uptake capacity of sorbent, it was modified by various chemical agents such as NaOH, HNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, NaCl, NaHCO{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}. Among the modifiers, NaCl was the best. Equilibrium behavior of sorbent with Tl(I) was examined by the several isotherms. Considering modified U. carpinifolia equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 54.6 mg/g. The other isotherms such as: Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) models were also examined. The central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for optimization of biosorption process. An empirical model was given through using response surface methodology. Also its validation was recognized by using relevant statistical tests such as ANOVA. The optimum conditions of biosorption: pH, m (amount of sorbent) and C (initial concentration) were found to be 7.9, 11.4 g/L, and 8.8 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand thermodynamic parameters: {Delta}G, {Delta}H, and {Delta}S were evaluated: the obtained results show that biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Eventually, FT-IR analysis confirmed that the main functional groups of sorbent have been involved through the biosorption process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Labisia pumila regulates bone-related genes expressions in postmenopausal osteoporosis model

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia Pumila var. alata (LPva) has shown potential as an alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in prevention of estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. In earlier studies using postmenopausal model, LPva was able to reverse the ovariectomy-induced changes in biochemical markers, bone calcium, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical strength. The mechanism behind these protective effects is unclear but LPva may have regulated factors that regulate bone remodeling....

  15. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  16. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents.

    Manda, Vamshi K; Dale, Olivia R; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Khan, Shabana I

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women's health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

  17. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    Vamshikrishna eManda; Olivia Reed Dale; Charles eAwortwe; Zulfiqar eAli; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Khan, Shabana I.

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) ...

  18. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents

    Vamshikrishna eManda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

  19. On the activity of alpha-glucanphosphorylase in Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis

    Elena Ciornea; Gabriela Vasile

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the present study involves determination of the α-glucanphosphorylase in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis, through dosing of the anorganic phosphorous, seed germination being performed in Petri plates, at room temperature, for 10 days, while taking over of the samples occurred at intervals of 24 hours. In the enzymatic extracts thus obtained, starch concentration was also determined, by the polarimetric method, while the concentrat...

  20. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich; Popov, A. G.; G.V. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour) and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.) Regel) since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization w...

  1. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  2. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study.

    Abdul Kadir, Azidah; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohammad; Mohd, Dayang Marshitah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Hassan, Intan Idiana; Shukor, Norlela; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol) were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo). Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG) values. PMID:22701504

  3. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone/estradiol were measured during visits every two months. ANCOVA model analysis showed significantly lower triglycerides levels in LP subjects at 6 months after treatment as compared to placebo (1.4 versus 1.9 mmol/L; adj. mean difference 0.5, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.89 after adjusted for the baseline values, age, BMI, and duration of menopause placebo. Other parameters in both groups did not differ significantly. In conclusion, daily intake of Labisia pumila at 280 mg/day for six months was found to provide benefit in reducing the triglyceride (TG values.

  4. 不同生根剂处理对金叶榆嫩枝扦插影响的研究%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Rooting of Ulmus Pumila cv.jinye

    孙铭; 辛丽红

    2014-01-01

    以金叶榆当年生半木质化嫩枝为扦插材料,研究4种不同质量分数的生根剂(ABT6、NAA、IAA、IBA)对扦插生根的影响.结果表明:大部分激素处理都可不同程度的的提高金叶榆嫩枝扦插的生根率,尤以ABT6处理后的生根率最高,以200mg/L的激素配比最为理想;IAA的效果次之,以100mg/L的激素配比最好;IBA、IAA的效果相近,分别以50mg/L和400mg/L的激素配比最佳;经过生根剂处理后的金叶榆在生根数量和长度上有差异,生根时间较清水对照有所提前.

  5. Co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza pumila.

    Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Ji, Qian; Teng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yanru; Wu, Chao; Zekria, David; Zhang, Dasheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were separately and simultaneously introduced into Ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. Overexpression of individual G10H (G lines) significantly improved CPT production with respect to non-transgenic hairy root cultures (NC line) and single STR overexpressing lines (S lines), indicating that G10H plays a more important role in stimulating CPT accumulation than STR in O. pumila. Furthermore, co-overexpression of G10H and STR genes (SG Lines) caused a 56% increase on the yields of CPT compared to NC line and single gene transgenic lines, showed that simultaneous introduction of G10H and STR can produce a synergistic effect on CPT biosynthesis in O. pumila. The MTT assay results indicated that CPT extracted from different lines showed similar anti-tumor activity, suggesting that transgenic O. pumila hairy root lines could be an alternative approach to obtain CPT. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enhancement of CPT production in O. pumila employing a metabolic engineering strategy. PMID:25648209

  6. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  7. Alkyl phenols and saponins from the roots of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah).

    Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-11-01

    Recently, there is a remarkable boom in the sales of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) in the Malaysian market, as an extract of the plant is used to gain energy and libido as well as to treat many other ailments. A chemical analysis of its roots was undertaken and three metabolites, demethylbelamcandaquinone B (1), fatimahol (2), and dexyloprimulanin (3) together with 21 known compounds including epoxyoleanane glycosides, alkenated phenolics, cerebroside, glycerogalactolipids, and lipids were isolated and identified. Structure elucidation was achieved by spectroscopic and chemical studies. The MeOH extract of KF and compounds 12 and 13 exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial activity. PMID:21784496

  8. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  9. Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods

    Trémolières, Michèle; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel; Schmitt, Diane

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

  10. Comparative patterns of genetic variation among populations of the Zamia pumila L. complex across three islands of the Greater Antilles

    The Zamia pumila L. complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) is a distinctive, monophyletic, diploid (2n =16) assemblage of populations restricted to the West Indies and southeastern U. S. (Florida) that is currently considered to encompass either a single polymorphic, or nine distinct species. We are extensi...

  11. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  12. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Ficus pumila L. in Mice

    Chi-Ren Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH. Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.

  13. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contrib...

  14. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

  15. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1). No varietal differences w...

  16. First report of Geosmithia langdonii and Geosmithia spp. isolated from a decaying elm (Ulmus minor in Geneva, Switzerland

    Hänzi Martine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of a young elm Ulmus minor in 2014 in Geneva prompted a search for the microorganisms potentially involved. Symptoms included foliar chlorosis and wilting followed by defoliation of branches. Wood symptoms included a brown streaking of sap wood and brown stains in trunk and branches. The comparison of the resulting ITS rDNA sequences to the NCBI Nucleotide database allowed to identify 10 different organisms. The genus Geosmithia represented 48% of the isolates belonging to three species: Geosmithia langdonii (7 isolates and 2 unknown morphologically and genetically different Geosmithia sp. 1 and sp. 2 (4 isolates. Geosmithia species are very little known ascomycetes, which have been recently shown to be opportunistic pathogens on broadleaved trees and conifers, living as saprobes in galleries of many bark beetle species. In the case described here, Geosmithia langdonii, and the unknown Geosmithia species were found in symptomatic wood while bark beetle galleries were found in close regions of the symptomatic wood. Geosmithia langdonii was the major fungus retrieved from the symptomatic wood and could have contributed, along with other identified fungal species, to a pathogenic complex producing symptoms similar to the ones of the Dutch Elm Disease and led to the dieback of this elm tree. Geosmithia langdonii and 2 yet unknown Geosmithia species (sp. 1 and sp. 2, different from any other reported Geosmithia species are reported from an elm tree in Switzerland for the first time.

  17. Comparative field performance of some agricultural crops under a ca-nopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana

    Tariq Hussian Masoodi; Nasir Ahmad Masoodi; Sajad Ahmad Gangoo; Shah Murtaza Mushtaq; Hillal Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The performance of maize, beans and sunflower was evalu-ated under a canopy of Populus deltoides and Ulmus wallichiana at Fac-ulty of Agriculture, Wadura. The germination, growth and yield of the three test crops were suppressed under both tree species. The reduction, however, decreased when the cultivation of test crops was continued for three years. The inhibition potential generally is in the order of P. del-toides U. wallichiana for beans. Available soil N, P and K increased under the canopy of the selected tree species. The soils under U. wallichiana were more fertile than those under P. deltoides. Chromatographic investigation of extracts showed that the soils under P. deltoides and U. wallichiana differed in their composition of phenolic acids and phenolic glycocides. Except for caffic acid, all other allelochemicals disappeared and were no longer recovered in soil samples obtained after the second or third year of cultivation. Tree-crop compatibility can be explored in greater detail for improved management of traditional agro-ecosystems in Kashmir to increase the overall productivity of the land.

  18. The Relationship of Nitrogen and C/N Ratio with Secondary Metabolites Levels and Antioxidant Activities in Three Varieties of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume, one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves’ inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity.

  19. The relationship of nitrogen and C/N ratio with secondary metabolites levels and antioxidant activities in three varieties of Malaysian kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume), one of the most famous and widely used herbs, especially in Southeast Asia, is found to have interesting bioactive compounds and displays health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves, stems and roots of three varieties of L. pumila (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata) were evaluated in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of this indigenous Malaysian herb species. The antioxidant activity determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, as well as the total amount of phenolics and flavonoids were the highest in the leaves, followed by the stems and roots in all the varieties. A similar trend was displayed by the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, suggesting that the L. pumila varieties possess high foliar antioxidant properties. At low FRAP activity concentrations, the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in the three varieties were significantly higher than those of the stems and roots, with var. alata exhibiting higher antioxidant activities and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids compared to the varieties pumila and lanceolata. The high production of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities in var. alata were firmly related to low nitrogen content and high C/N ratio in plant parts. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activities, and revealed that the consumption of L. pumila could exert several beneficial effects by virtue of its antioxidant activity. PMID:21716173

  20. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  1. Factores anatómicos y químicos del xilema de Ulmus minor Mill. relacionados con la resistencia a Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier

    Martín García, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Las poblaciones de Ulmus minor europeas se encuentran seriamente amenazadas por la grafiosis, la enfermedad más devastadora y difundida de los olmos. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi se desarrolla en el interior de los vasos del xilema cusando su cavitación. Este proceso origina marchitamiento foliar y, en la casi totalidad de los casos, la muerte del árbol. En el presente trabajo, se ha estudiado en U. minor la variación de la susceptibilidad con la edad y su posible relación con la variación de las car...

  2. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Nadia Mohd Effendy; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several ...

  3. Studies on Labisia pumila var. alata extract with phytoestrogenic effects: impact on biological activities and gene expression

    Mansor, Fazliana

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) has been used by women for generations. Traditionally, the plant is boiled, either alone or in decoction with other herbs. It is claimed to have health benefits such as to contract the uterus after childbirth, allay painful menstruation and irregular periods and to generally alleviate fatigue. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the scientific basis of LPva phytoestrogenic activities in different animal models and cell lines. In Pape...

  4. Time and dose-dependent effects of Labisia pumila on the bone strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Abdullah, Shahrum; Yunoh, Mohd Faridz Mod; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteoporosis has long been treated and prevented by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT is associated with serious adverse effects. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a herb with potential as an alternative agent to ERT due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on bone. This study aimed to determine the effects of LP supplementation on bone biomechanical strength of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Me...

  5. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  7. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of leaf, stem and root from different varieties of Labisa pumila Benth.

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ahmad, Sahida

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol) were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol) was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431) and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96) pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control. PMID:21623314

  9. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely...

  10. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

  11. Airborne-pollen pool and mating pattern in a hybrid zone between Pinus pumila and P. parviflora var. pentaphylla.

    Ito, Megumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The reproductive isolation barriers and the mating patterns among Pinus pumila, P. parviflora var. pentaphylla and their hybrids were examined by flowering phenology and genetic assays of three life stages: airborne-pollen grains, adults and seeds, in a hybrid zone on Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. Chloroplast DNA composition of the airborne-pollen was determined by single-pollen polymerase chain reaction. Mating patterns were analysed by estimating the molecular hybrid index of the seed parent, their seed embryos and pollen parents. The observation of flowering phenology showed that the flowering of P. pumila precedes that of P. parviflora var. pentaphylla by about 6 to 10 days within the same altitudinal ranges. Although this prezygotic isolation barrier is effective, the genetic assay of airborne-pollen showed that the two pine species, particularly P. pumila, still have chances to form F(1) hybrid seeds. Both parental species showed a strong assortative mating pattern; F(1) seeds were found in only 1.4% of seeds from P. pumila mother trees and not at all in P. parviflora var. pentaphylla. The assortative mating was concluded as the combined result of flowering time differentiation and cross-incompatibility. In contrast to the parental species, hybrids were fertilized evenly by the two parental species and themselves. The breakdown of prezygotic barriers (intermediate flowering phenology) and cross-incompatibility may account for the unselective mating. It is suggested that introgression is ongoing on Mount Apoi through backcrossing between hybrids and parental species, despite strong isolation barriers between the parental species. PMID:19120991

  12. Thermal dependence of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in foliage of Iris pumila L.

    Vuleta Ana; Tucić Branka

    2009-01-01

    Thermal dependence of the enzymes SOD, CAT, and POD was investigated in leaves of Iris pumila plants inhabiting two contrasting light environments, a sun-exposed dune site and a woodland understory. At the same assay temperature, both the specific activity and the activation energy of SOD and CAT were higher in plants inhabiting vegetation shade than in those experiencing full sunlight. Conversely, the temperature optima for the two enzymes did not differ between alternative radiation environ...

  13. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  15. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  16. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata). The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha) was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe) under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM). The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants. PMID:21954355

  18. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway.

  19. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    E.A. Petrova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  20. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  1. Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  2. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol−1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g−1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g−1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila

  3. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  4. The in vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) extract.

    Zaizuhana, Shahrim; Puteri J Noor, M B; Noral'ashikin, Yahya; Muhammad, Hussin; Rohana, A B; Zakiah, I

    2006-12-01

    Kacip Fatimah also known as Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a traditional herbal medicine with a long history in the Malay community. It has been used by many generations of Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as a post-partum medicine. We tested the genotoxic potential of Kacip Fatimah in bone marrow cells obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats using micronuclei formation as the toxicological endpoints. Five groups of five male rats each were administered orally for two consecutive days with doses of 100, 700 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Kacip Fatimah extract dissolved in distilled water. Micronucleus preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells of the animals following standard protocols. No statistically significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was observed at any dose level and sacrifice/harvest time point (24, 48 and 72h). However, a significant decrease in polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE:NCE) ratio was observed from the highest dose level (2000 mg/kg of body weight) at 48h harvest time point. In this study, we investigated the effect of Kacip Fatimah on mammalian bone marrow cells using micronuclei formation to assess the genotoxicity of the herb. PMID:17322824

  5. Alkenylresorcinols and cytotoxic activity of the constituents isolated from Labisia pumila.

    Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil Ali; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Kneer, Ralf; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Stanslas, Johnson; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Honda, Toshio; Lajis, Nordin H

    2012-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-β-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-β-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC₅₀ values ≤ 10 μM), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one. PMID:22633846

  6. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    M. E. Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-α production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis.

  7. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  8. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Nadia, M E; Nazrun, A S; Norazlina, M; Isa, N M; Norliza, M; Ima Nirwana, S

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-α production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis. PMID:22611381

  9. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO₂ levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O₂), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > stem 400 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 800 µmol/mol CO₂ > root 400 µmol/mol CO₂. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO₂ might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO₂, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O₂, H₂O₂, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

  10. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

  11. Aboveground biomass relationships for mixed ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus glabra Hudson) stands in Eastern Prealps of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

    Alberti, Giorgio; Candido, Patrick; Peressotti, Alessandro; Turco, Sheera; Piussi, Pietro; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Biomasse aérienne chez des peuplements mélangés de frêne (Fraxinus excelsior L. et Ulmus glabra Hudson) dans les Préalpes de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie). Environ 5 % de la surface forestière de Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italie) est constituée de peuplements de frêne en mélange avec d'autres essences. Dans la plupart des cas, ce sont des forêts secondaires installées sur des pâturages et des prairies au cours des cinquante dernières années. Elles constituent une importante ressource économique...

  12. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  13. Seasonal changes in the amount of carbohydrates and photosynthetic activity of Pinus pumila Regal on alpine in central Japan

    Kibe,Takeshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    1992-01-01

    Branches and needles of Pmus pumila REGEL were collected from a site in the Yatsugatake mountain range in central Japan They were divided into current, 1-year-old, 2-year-old and 3-year-old parts Then, soluble carbohydrate (total sugars and starch) included in each of them was analyzed by SOMOGYI-NELSON method Photosynthetic rate of needles was measured by an infrared CO_2 gas analyzer Total sugar contents of branches and needles showed high levels in the winter season, but starch content lev...

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  15. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  16. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  17. Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  18. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of

  19. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  20. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Fathilah, Siti Noor; Abdullah, Shahrum; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVXC), ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin) (ERT). The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. PMID:22991574

  1. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Siti Noor Fathilah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmenopausal rat model. Thirty-two female rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomized control (OVXC, ovariectomized with Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, and ovariectomized with ERT (Premarin (ERT. The LPva and ERT were administered via oral gavage daily at doses of 17.5 mg/kg and 64.5 μg/kg, respectively. Following two months of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and their right femora were prepared for bone biomechanical testing. The results showed that ovariectomy compromised the femoral strength, while LPva supplementation to the ovariectomized rats improved the femoral strength. Therefore, LPva may be as effective as ERT in preventing fractures due to estrogen-deficient osteoporosis.

  2. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  3. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  4. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  5. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%...

  6. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var.alata

    Anna Pick Kiong LING; Kinn Poay TAN; Sobri HUSSEIN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Labisia pumi/a var.a/ata,commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia,is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties.Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat.Thus,this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila.Methods:The capabilities of callus,shoot,and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0,1,3,5,and 7 mg/L.Results:Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34± 19.55)% and (70.40± 14.14)% efficacy,respectively.IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction.A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA,respectively.Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant,with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture.Conclusions:Callus,roots,and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L.pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs.

  7. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Fazliana Mansor; Gu, Harvest F.; Claes-Göran Östenson; Louise Mannerås-Holm; Elisabet Stener-Victorin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivi...

  8. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s) for...

  9. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

  10. Enhancement of leaf gas exchange and primary metabolites under carbon dioxide enrichment up-regulates the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila seedlings.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO₂ enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO₂ enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO₂ levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose). TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol⁻¹. Net photosynthesis (A) and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) were also enhanced as CO₂ increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol⁻¹. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21544039

  11. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol−1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol−1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol−1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  12. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf

  13. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine

  14. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    Miljković Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  15. Labisia pumila extract down-regulates hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 expression and corticosterone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    Fazliana, Mansor; Gu, Harvest F; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Wan Nazaimoon, W M

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of a standardized Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) extract on body weight change, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) expressions and corticosterone (CORT) level in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The decoction of LPva has been used for generations among Malay women in Malaysia to maintain a healthy reproductive system.Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley OVX rats were treated orally with LPva extract (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg/day) or estrogen replacement (ERT) for 30 days. Sham operated rats were used as controls. Compared to untreated OVX rats, LPva-treated rats showed less weight gain and had significantly down-regulated HSD11B1 mRNA in liver tissues. HSD11B1 mRNA in adipose tissues increased by 55% (p rats but normalized in rats treated with LPva. Similarly, there was significant down-regulation (p rats. This is the first study ever conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of LPva in relation to weight gain caused by estrogen insufficiency. Results implied that the bioactive components in LPva extract affect not only HSD11B1 expressions in both adipose and liver tissues but also decrease circulating CORT. The extract should be explored for its potential use as a natural remedy for weight management. PMID:21833773

  16. Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (ξ) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  17. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (ɸ and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  18. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200  μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900  μ mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary m...

  19. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2) and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1) fo...

  20. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Roza Dianita; Ibrahim Jantan; Athirah Z. Amran; Juriyati Jalil

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after t...

  1. Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records

    Hammarlund, Dan; Klimaschewski, Andrea; St. Amour, Natalie A.; Andrén, Elinor; Self, Angela E.; Solovieva, Nadia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Barnekow, Lena; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2015-11-01

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water δ18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in δ18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800 cal yr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in δ18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining δ18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000 cal yr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  2. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  3. Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μ mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μ mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μ mol/mol + light intensity at 225 μ mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μ mol/mol CO2 + 900 μ mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μ mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  4. The relationship between phenolics and flavonoids production with total non structural carbohydrate and photosynthetic rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under high CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO(2) enrichment (1,200 µmol mol(-1)) combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha(-1)). No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha(-1), the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC), where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r(2) = 0.88) than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r(2) = -0.87). A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate. PMID:21191319

  5. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 μg/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its

  6. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 μmol/mol and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 μmol/m2/s over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 μmol/mol + light intensity at 225 μmol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400 μmol/mol CO2 + 900 μmol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 μmol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II, and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH, thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition.

  7. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  8. Adaptive flexibility of enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT to high light stress: The clonal perennial monocot Iris pumila as a study case.

    Vuleta, Ana; Manitašević Jovanović, Sanja; Tucić, Branka

    2016-03-01

    High solar radiation has been recognized as one of the main causes of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. To remove the excess of ROS, plants use different antioxidants and tune their activity and/or isoform number as required for given light conditions. In this study, the adaptiveness of light-induced variation in the activities and isoform patterns of key enzymatic antioxidants SOD, APX and CAT was tested in leaves of Iris pumila clonal plants from two natural populations inhabiting a sun exposed dune site and a forest understory, using a reciprocal-transplant experiment. At the exposed habitat, the mean enzymatic activity of total SODs was significantly greater than that in the shaded one, while the amount of the mitochondrial MnSOD was notably higher compared to the plastidic Cu/ZnSOD. However, the number of Cu/ZnSOD isoforms was greater in the forest understory relative to the exposed site (three vs. two, respectively). An inverse relationship recorded between the quantities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in alternative light habitats might indicate that the two enzymes compensate each other in maintaining intracellular ROS and redox balance. The adaptive population differentiation in APX activity was exclusively recorded in the open habitat, which indicated that the synergistic effect of high light and temperature stress could be the principal selective factor, rather than high light alone. The enzymatic activity of CAT was similar between the two populations, implicating APX as the primary H2O2 scavenger in the I. pumila leaves exposed to high light intensity. PMID:26841194

  9. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  10. Expression Analysis of GFP Gene in Olimarabidopsis pumila and Arabidopsis thaliana%GFP基因在新疆小拟南芥和拟南芥中的表达分析

    院海英; 吴祥辉; 东锐; 崔百明; 黄先忠

    2012-01-01

    以质粒pMCB30为模板,扩增GFP基因,连接到载体pCMBIA2300-35S-OCS上,构建过量表达载体p35S:GFP,将其转入农杆菌GV3101.通过农杆菌介导法将p35S:GFP载体分别转入新疆特色植物小拟南芥和拟南芥中.T0代经含有卡那霉素的1/2MS培养基筛选,获得了Tt代转基因小拟南芥2株,T1代转基因拟南芥9株.通过激光共聚焦显微镜观察,在转基因小拟南芥和拟南芥的根尖细胞中均可检测到GFP绿色荧光蛋白;对转基因植株进行PCR扩增,均可检测到GFP基因,表明GFP基因已成功转入小拟南芥和拟南芥中.该研究建立了小拟南芥的遗传转化体系,为进一步利用GFP基因和进一步研究小拟南芥的功能基因奠定基础.%GFP gene was amplified by PCR using the plasmid of pMCB30 as template, and the corrected GFP fragment was ligatcd into the plant expression vector of pCMBIA2300-35S-OCS. The p35S:GFP vector was transformed into Agrobacterium GV3101,then p35S;GFP transferred into Olimarabidopsis pumila and Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium-mediated method. 2 independent plants of T1 generation of transgenic O. pumila and 9 independent plants of T1 generation of transgenic A. thaliana were screened on 1/2 MS medium containing kanamycin. GFP protein can be detected in the root tip cells of transgenic O. pumila and A. thaliana by confocal laser microscopy. GFP gene was confirmed by PCR amplification using DNA of transgenic plants,indicated that GFP gene had been successfully transformed into transgenic plants. The study layed foundations for further using of GFP gene and set up the genetic transformation system of O. pumila,which will benefit a lot in further study of the functional genes of O. pumila.

  11. Protective effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on biochemical and histopathological alterations of cardiac muscle cells in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats.

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Amran, Athirah Z; Jalil, Juriyati

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p rats. There were significant rises (p rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats. PMID:25786162

  12. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Fazliana Mansor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT- induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100 μg/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10 μM of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones. LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway.

  13. Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Mansor, Fazliana; Gu, Harvest F; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: PCOS-LP (50 mg/kg/day of LP) and PCOS-control (1 mL of deionised water) for 4-5 weeks on the same schedule. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the PPARgamma mRNA levels. LP upregulated PPARgamma mRNA level by 40% in the PCOS rats. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the increased PPARgamma protein levels in parallel with upregulation in mRNA. These observations were further proven by adipocytes culture. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with final concentration of 100  μ g/mL LP and compared to untreated control and 10  μ M of rosiglitazone (in type of thiazolidinediones). LP increased PPARgamma expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and enhanced the effect of glucose uptake in the insulin-resistant cells. The data suggest that LP may ameliorate insulin resistance in adipocytes via the upregulation of PPARgamma pathway. PMID:23935612

  14. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using an LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF.

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of four triterpene saponins (ardisicrenoside B, ardisiacrispin A, 3- O- α- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-arabinopynanosyl cyclamiretin A and ardisimamilloside H) and three alkenated-phenolics (irisresorcinol, belamcandol B, and demethylbelamcandaquinone B) from the leaves, leaves/stems, and roots of LABISIA PUMILA using an HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase (C-18) column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile gradient as the mobile phase. The major triterpenoid (ardisiacrispin A) and irisresorcinol compounds were detected at a concentration as low as 10.0 and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively. Analysis of various samples showed considerable variation of 0.11-2.46 % for the major triterpenoid compound, ardisiacrispin A. LC-mass spectrometry method coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) is described for the identification of compounds in plant samples. This method involved the use of the [M + Na]+ and [M + NH₄]+ ions for compounds 1-4 in the positive ion mode with extractive ion chromatogram (EIC). PMID:21590653

  15. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  16. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats

    Roza Dianita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight prior to ISO (85 mg/kg-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p < 0.05 in cardiac enzyme activities, i.e., cardiac troponin I (cTnI, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05 in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats.

  17. Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha−1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol−1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol−1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha−1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

  18. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstácul...

  19. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

  20. Intra-and inter-specific competition of rare and endangered plant Ulmus lamellosa in Shanxi Province of China%山西稀有濒危植物脱皮榆种内和种间竞争

    王晓霞; 张钦弟; 毕润成; 白玉芳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the field investigation data of 128 Ulmus lamellosa target trees and 1093 competing species individuals in a 100 m× 100 m sampling plot in Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi,this paper analyzed the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa by using Hegyi' s competition index (CI).The intraspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa decreased gradually with its increasing DBH.In the plot,there were many other species,but their individual number was fewer than that of U.lamellose,and thus,the interspecific competition intensity of U.lamellosa was relatively weaker than its intraspecific competition.The order of the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities was U.lamellosa-U.lamellosa > Carpinus cordata-U.lamellosa > Acer elegantulum-U.lamellosa > other species-U.lamellosa.The relationships between the competition intensity and the DBH of U.lamellosa followed the equation CI=AD-B.When the DBH of U.lamellosa reached 25 cm,the competition intensity had less change,and the model could well simulate and predict the intra-and inter-specific competition intensities of U.lamellosa.%通过对山西太岳山一块100 m×100 m样地中128株脱皮榆对象木及1093株竞争木的调查,运用Hegyi的单木竞争指数计算分析了脱皮榆的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明:(1)脱皮榆种群所受到的竞争强度随着对象木胸径的增大而逐渐减小;(2)调查样地内尽管其他物种种类较多,但数量较少,与脱皮榆种间竞争相对较弱,脱皮榆种内与种间竞争关系的顺序为:脱皮榆-脱皮榆>千金榆-脱皮榆>五角枫-脱皮榆>茶条槭-脱皮榆>其他树种-脱皮榆;(3)竞争强度和对象木胸径的关系服从幂函数关系,当脱皮榆胸径在25 cm以上时,竞争强度变化不大,所得的预测模型能很好地预测脱皮榆种内种间竞争强度.

  1. 红肉苹果MpMYBPA1的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of MpMYBPA1 from Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid

    吕东; 李春霞; 展蔷; 都贝贝; 张计育; 章镇; 渠慎春

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid was employed as the experimental material. The full-length sequence of one MYB transcription factor named MpMYBPAl was cloned by RACE and silico cloning technology from Malus pumila var. Niedzwetzkyana Schneid. Along with the bioinformatics analysis and subcellular localization to the MYB protein, the gene expression research on MpMYBPAl was conducted. The result showed that the full length of this gene from apple was 1 020 bp, which was to code 340 amino acids,and with a highest homology with MYBPA1 from Vitis viniferna. This gene was named MpMYBPAl, which had two MYB HTH DNA-binding domains with 55 amino acids in parathormone-N te. It was proved from the subcellular localization that MpMYBPAl protein was located in nucleus. Through quantitative real-time PCR,the expression of MpMYBPAl was observed in different organs such as root,stem,leaf and peel,with a highest level in peel,which might be influenced by temperature and ABA. After 4 days with 20 ℃ treatment, the expression level rose, however, the increase of the gene expression was not significant with 30 ℃ treatment, which might suggest that low temperature should be positive to the expression of MYBPA1. It could be concluded from the research results that MpMYBPAl might have been involved in the process of coloration for apple.%利用RACE和电子克隆技术相结合的方法从野生红肉苹果(Malus pumila var.niedzwetzkyana Schneid)中克隆了1个MYB类转录因子的全长序列,利用生物信息学方法对其进行分析,同时进行了亚细胞定位分析以及表达特性的研究.结果表明:该基因全长为1 020 bp,编码340个氨基酸;其核苷酸序列与葡萄MYBPA1同源性最高,命名为MpMYBPA1,其N端含2个约有55个氨基酸组成的MYB特征结构域.亚细胞定位分析结果表明MpMYBPA1蛋白定位在细胞核中.荧光定量PCR结果表明:MpMYBPA1基因在根、茎、叶、果皮中均有表

  2. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  3. Eriophyoid mites from Northeast China (Acari: Eriophyoidea).

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe and illustrate herein one new genus and eighteen new eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) collected in northeast China. They are: Shevtchenkella huzhongiensis sp. nov. on Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica (Sarg. ex Rehder) Nakai (Ulmaceae), Shevtchenkella jingboicus sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Calepitrimerus flexuosus sp. nov. on Spiraea flexuosa Fisch. ex Cambess. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus maximowiczii sp. nov. on Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus pilosus sp. nov. on Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus yichunensis sp. nov. on Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A.Br. (Rosaceae), Cupacarus oxyphyllus sp. nov. on Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. (Cel-astraceae), Epitrimerus sambucus sp. nov. on Sambucus williamsii Hance (Caprifoliaceae), Epitrimerus wuyingensis sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Longisolenidionus amurensis gen. nov & sp. nov. on Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Tiliaceae), Phyllocoptes jiagedaqiensis sp. nov. on Cunninghamia sp. (Taxodiaceae), Aculops huzhongensis sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Sali-caceae), Aculus huzhongsalixus sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Salicaceae), Tetra angelica sp. nov. on Angelica sp. (Apiaceae), Tetra jiagedaqia sp. nov. on Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Vittacus mandshurica sp. nov. on Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid. (Betulaceae), Vittacus cannabus sp. nov. on Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), and Peralox dentatis sp. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae). Two species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. abiesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) and R. fabris (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) were reassigned to Nalepella, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, and other characteristics of Nalepella. One species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. fargesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) was reassigned to Pentaporca, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, opisthosoma with five ridges and other characteristics of Pentaporca. At the same time, four new eriophyoid

  4. Miocene woods from the Qaidam Basin on northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with implications for paleoenvironmental change

    Cheng, Ye-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Nan

    2016-02-01

    The Qaidam Basin with the most complete Cenozoic sedimentary preservation in northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a key area for studying uplift and environmental change of the plateau. Three types of woods, Ulmus (Ulmaceae), Leguminosae (?) (angiosperm) and Cupressaceae (gymnosperm) were recognized from the large-scale preservation of fossil woods in late Miocene Shang Youshashan Formation in northern Qaidam Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Both investigations of their Nearest Living Relatives (NLRs) and previous grassland mammal evidences suggest that there have been temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved forest with grass in northern Qaidam Basin during the late Miocene in contrast to the desert vegetation found there nowadays. The presence of the ancient forest steppe further implies that the southern part of the plateau used to be adequately low, so that the Indian and East Asian monsoons could approach the northern area and to accommodate the vegetation in late Miocene.

  5. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Kebin; Zhou, Jinxing; Ahmad, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm) showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila tree community in this typical temperate savanna ecosystem. This might eventually result in the degradation of the original tree-dominated savanna to a xerophytic shrub-dominated savanna. PMID:26196956

  6. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  7. THE SELECTION ASSESSMENT OF HIBRIDES OF THE FAMILY ULMACEAE MIRB. FOR DECORATIVE GARDENING OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

    I. Podkovyrov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of selection of the elm for decorative gardening. On the basis of complex analysis of the estimation of economically valuable selection of samples. Shown the advantage of individual selection. Investigated the variability of morphological characteristics of the form of the crown, of leaves and fruits. Allocated promising group of plants that allows you to continue breeding work. Summarizes the results of the hybridization of species of elm.

  8. Protoplast isolation from Ulmus americana l. Pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores

    Redenbaugh, M.K.; Westfall, R.D.; Karnosky, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Meiotic protoplasts of U. amerciana are potentially valuable for producing interspecific elm hybrids through protoplast fusion. Meiotic cells(pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores) were incubated in either a cellulase, hemicellylase and pectinase enzyme solution of a beta-1,3-glucanase (lainarinase) solution. Respective protoplast isolation frequencies for the three meiotic cell types were 100, 50, and 10%. Exclusion staining with 0.2% Evans blue and 0.1% methyl blue suggested protoplast viability. Some of the microspore protoplasts were vacuolated, which is an important condition for cell division. Although attempts of regenerating cell walls and inducing cell division were unsuccessful, these two problems may be superceded by protoplast fusion with more regenerative protoplasts.

  9. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).

    Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-11-01

    Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P germplasm. PMID:24117864

  10. [Herbalogical textual research of Wuyi].

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-11-01

    Wuyi is one of the Chinese medicine recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic and many other herbal books during the long history period. Up to now, Wuyi is still an important medicine used for insecticidal and removing food retention. Recent researches indicated that Wuyi also had the function of anti-malaria and treating herpetic simplex keratitis. Therefore, Wuyi had notable value on clinic and development of new medicine. The herbalogical textual research on Wuyi was conducted through investigation of the literature of materia medica during the long historical period from Han Dynasty. It was demonstrated by this work that the original plants of Wuyi include Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Hemiptelea davidii (Hance) Planch, in which, U. macrocarpa was the quality specie. U. pumila was the false specie which cause confusing. The medicine Wuyi was the processed product made from the nutlet of the plants through fermentation with other additive agents. PMID:27097433

  11. Cross Breeding of Populus and Its Hybrids for Cold Resistance

    2005-01-01

    Populus tomentosa was crossed with P. tremuloidis, P. grandidentata, P. alba × P. grandidentata and P. alba × Ulmus pumila in order to maintain its rapid growth and high wood quality and improve its resistance to cold. Two methods were used to increase the germination rate from 1.5% to 41.1% and the remaining rate from 1.7% to 44.2%. Forty crossing combinations were conducted and 2 744 hybrid seedlings were obtained. MX4 × P. grandidentata (G-1-58), MX3 × P. tremuloidis (T-44-60), MX2 × P. tremuloidis (l-13-87-37) and MX2 × (P. alba × P. grandidentata) were regarded as superior combinations after analysis and selection. Thirty seedlings of these combinations and 11 triploid seedlings identified by counting their chromosomes were selected as super plants.

  12. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Đukić Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  14. A Contribution to the Problem of Tree Necrosis in Cities: Soil Properties in the Habitat of Ulmus glabra Huds. and Ulmus minor Mill. Greenery Elements of the City of Kielce

    Świercz Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of soils have a significant impact on the growth and development of vegetation. In urban areas, because of increased human activity, changes occur in both grain-size composition as well as physical and chemical properties of soils. These soils are frequently saline and contaminated with heavy metals, which limit the development of vegetation and cause its necrosis. Elm is a commonly growing tree with low habitat requirements, whose population has been considerably reduced because of progressing Dutch elm disease. This study attempts to assess the relationship of dependency between physicochemical parameters of soils and health status of elms from the area of the City of Kielce. Two elms were selected for the study, that is, one alive tree being a natural monument and one necrotic tree. The soil analysis concerned physicochemical parameters such as size composition, reaction, salinity measured by means of proper electrolyte conductivity (PEC, acidity, organic carbon content, carbonates, nitrogen, and selected elements including heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn. The study indicates differentiation amongst the physicochemical parameters of the analysed soils. A characteristic feature of the soils being the habitat of the necrotic elm is that they have considerably higher salinity than those being the habitat of the alive elm. Increased levels of sodium and chlorides could negatively affect water transportation in vegetation what might have resulted, amongst others, in necrosis of the tree.

  15. The Spatial Pattern and Interactions of Woody Plants on the Temperate Savanna of Inner Mongolia, China: The Effects of Alternating Seasonal Grazing-Mowing Regimes.

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available Ulmus pumila tree-dominated temperate savanna, which is distributed widely throughout the forest-steppe ecotone on the Mongolian Plateau, is a relatively stable woody-herbaceous complex ecosystem in northern China. Relatively more attention has been paid to the degradation of typical steppe areas, whereas less focus has been placed on the succession of this typical temperate savanna under the present management regime. In this study, we established 3 sample plots 100 m×100 m in size along a gradient of fixed distances from one herder's stationary site and then surveyed all the woody plants in these plots. A spatial point pattern analysis was employed to clarify the spatial distribution and interaction of these woody plants. The results indicated that old U. pumila trees (DBH ≥ 20 cm showed a random distribution and that medium U. pumila trees (5 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm showed an aggregated distribution at a smaller scale and a random distribution at a larger scale; few or no juvenile trees (DBH < 5 cm were present, and seedlings (without DBH formed aggregations in all 3 plots. These findings can be explained by an alternate seasonal grazing-mowing regime (exclosure in summer, mowing in autumn and grazing in winter and spring; the shrubs in all 3 plots exist along a grazing gradient that harbors xerophytic and mesophytic shrubs. Of these shrubs, xerophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a smaller scale (0-5.5 m, whereas mesophytic shrubs show significant aggregation at a larger scale (0-25 m, which may be the result of the dual effects of grazing pressure and climate change. Medium trees and seedlings significantly facilitate the distributions of xerophytic shrubs and compete significantly with mesophytic shrubs due to differences in water use strategies. We conclude that the implementation of an alternative grazing-mowing regime results in xerophytic shrub encroachment or existence, breaking the chain of normal succession in a U. pumila

  16. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  17. Biological Flora of Central Europe: Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina

    Eckstein, R. L.; Hölzel, N.; Danihelka, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 45-66. ISSN 1433-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ecology * species biology * Viola persicifolia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  18. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Nadia, M. E.; Nazrun, A. S.; Norazlina, M.; N.M. Isa; M. Norliza; S. Ima Nirwana

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these ...

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of Ficus pumila Linn. on human leukemic cell lines

    Christopher Larbie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that crude extracts of FPS and FPL have anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells. The antioxidant properties of the plant including phenolics may be partly responsible for the anti-proliferative activity. Further studies are required to isolate chemical components of the plant and establish their anti-proliferative activities and mechanism of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 330-336

  20. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    A.P. Zotikova; G. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to i...

  1. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  2. Impacts of mixed litter decomposition from Robinia pseudoacacia and other tree species on C loss and nutrient release in the Loess Plateau of China

    Xiaoxi Zhang; Zengwen Liu; Bochao Zhu; Yuanhao Bing; Nhu Trung Luc; Liangzhen Du; Zhenhua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of Robinia pseudoacacia (R.p.) pure forest usually declines at the late growth stage, and reforming it into mixed forests could be a promising way to resolve this problem. When choosing a suitable tree species that can be mixed with R.p., the interspecific relationship is an important issue. Therefore, we gathered the autumn litter fall from R.p. and 10 other species from the Loess Plateau of China were mixed in dual species litterbags (R.p. ? each other species) and buried them in soil for a 345 days lab decay incubation. We measured the litter mass loss and nutrient contents to determine whether the nutrient release was affected by mixed species litter decomposition. The impacts of mixed litter decomposition on macro-elements release were more obvious than on micro-elements. The litters with similar substrate quality might show variable impacts on nutrients release in mixed decomposition. The C loss and release of nutrient was improved by descending order when R.p. litter was mixed with Hippophae rhamnoides, Ulmus pumila, Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Quercus liaotun-gensis (Q.l.). But, except for Q.l., only the other species were recommended as suitable mix-plants for R.p. since promoting a high turnover of the nutrient in the litter compartment and a rapid availability for tree.

  3. Relationships between xylem embolism and eco-physiological indices in eight woody plants in sltu(Ⅱ):The relationship with photosynthetic eco-physiological indices

    AN Feng; CAI Jing; JIANG Zaimin; ZHANG Yuanying; ZHAO Pingjuan; ZHANG Shuoxin

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between xylem embolism and eco-physiology indices (I.e.photosynthetic available radiation,temperature,relative humidity,photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance and water use efficiency) in eight tree species was investigated in situ.The species studied,Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Acer truncatum Bge.,Hippophae rhamnoides L.,Ulmus pumila L.,Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl.,Ligustrum lucidum Ait.,and Salix matsudana Koidz.f.pendula Schneid,grow well on the Xilin campus of Northwest A&F University.Results indicated that photosynthetic available radiation,air temperature and relative humidity can affect xylem embolism by daily adjustment of stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and water relations of a tree.Embolism was a common case in the daily growth of the plants,and there was some correlation between xylem embolism and photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stornatal conductance,and water use efficiency.Embolism may thus be an adaptive mechanism by some tree species to water stress.

  4. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  5. Elevated CO2 does not offset greater water stress predicted under climate change for native and exotic riparian plants

    Perry, Laura G.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Morgan, Jack A.; LeCain, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    * In semiarid western North American riparian ecosystems, increased drought and lower streamflows under climate change may reduce plant growth and recruitment, and favor drought-tolerant exotic species over mesic native species. We tested whether elevated atmospheric CO2 might ameliorate these effects by improving plant water-use efficiency. * We examined the effects of CO2 and water availability on seedlings of two native (Populus deltoides spp. monilifera, Salix exigua) and three exotic (Elaeagnus angustifolia, Tamarix spp., Ulmus pumila) western North American riparian species in a CO2-controlled glasshouse, using 1-m-deep pots with different water-table decline rates. * Low water availability reduced seedling biomass by 70–97%, and hindered the native species more than the exotics. Elevated CO2 increased biomass by 15%, with similar effects on natives and exotics. Elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ13Cleaf), but did not increase biomass more in drier treatments than wetter treatments. * The moderate positive effects of elevated CO2 on riparian seedlings are unlikely to counteract the large negative effects of increased aridity projected under climate change. Our results suggest that increased aridity will reduce riparian seedling growth despite elevated CO2, and will reduce growth more for native Salix and Populus than for drought-tolerant exotic species.

  6. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  7. Study on Characteristics of Calcium Uptake by Young Fruit of Apple (Malus pumila) and Its Regulation by Hormone

    2000-01-01

    Field trial, pot experiment with 45Ca tracer, plant analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of calcium uptake by young fruit of apple and its regulation by IAA, GA and NAA. The results indicated that calcium should be applied directly on the surface of young fruits because calcium applied on leaves could be hardly transfered to fruits. The proper Ca applying period was the first month of young fruits formation, and the proper concentration of CaCl2 applied was 0. 5%. Applying Ca directly on the surface of young fruits could increase the weight and quality of fruits. The process of transfering Ca2+ from fruit surface into pulp tissue could be accelerated by IAA, GA or NAA, which also led to an increment on 2% HOAc extractable Ca. Meanwhile, the Ca existed in the stalk and leaves could be strongly transported into fruits by applying IAA on the fruit surface, resulting in too much accumulation of Ca in fruit and bad quality of fruit, while no such sighs were observed with GA or NAA.

  8. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Laccaria B. & Br. Laccaria amethystea, L. fraterna, L. laccata, L. pumila, and their synonyms

    Mueller, Gregory M.; Vellinga, Else C.

    1986-01-01

    Laccaria amethystea, not L. amethystina nor L. calospora, is shown to be the correct name for the amethyst colored Laccaria. A neotype for L. amethystea is proposed and a complete list of its synonyms is given. Data which support placing L. ohiensis and L. tetraspora in synonymy with L. laccata are

  9. Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)

    Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

  10. Formulasi Gel Hair Tonic Ekstrak Kulit Buah Apel (Malus pumila Mill.) Dan Uji Aktivitas Pertumbuhan Rambut Marmut

    Margaretha, Lidya

    2015-01-01

    Background : The function of hair are beutifying and making people more confident. Characteristic features of healthy hair are shiny and unwrinkled. Hair Tonic is a cosmetic which compound of chemicals or other ingredients used to strengthen and to improve growing. Apple’s rind contains procyanidin B-2 which is helpful for hair growth can improve hair follicle growth activity and stimulate hair cycle from telogen phase to anagen phase by lowering kinase C protein level inside cytocol. Purp...

  11. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  12. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  13. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  14. 沈阳地区美国白蛾危害树种及分布研究%Tree Species Damaged by Hyphantria cunea and its Distribution in Shenyang Region

    刘士军

    2015-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea,which belongs to Lepidoptera,Arctiidae,was listed as an international phytosanitary pests.The damage status of Hyphantria cunea were investigated.Result shows that Hyphantria cunea mainly damaged green belt and residential area trees in Shenyang City.Hyphantria cunea mainly damage the farmland shelterbelts and trees in resident sub-district Xinmin City and Liaozhong County.Occurrence is rarely found in Kan-gping County and Faku County.The favorite species mainly areAcernegundo,Cornusalba,Crataeguspinnatifida, fast-growing poplar,Ulmus pumila,Ailanthusaltissima,Prunussalicina.The unfavorite species are Ginkgobiloba, Juglans mandshurica & Phellodendron amurense.It provides a reference for selecting resistant species on Hyphantria cunea and silvicultural techniques to against Hyphantria cunea.%美国白蛾(Hyphantria cunea Drury)系鳞翅目灯蛾科,被列为国际植物检疫害虫。通过对沈阳地区美国白蛾为害情况的调查,结果表明:在沈阳市美国白蛾主要为害绿化带和居民小区树木,在辽中县和新民市主要为害农田防护林和村屯绿化树木,而康平县和法库县危害较轻;美国白蛾喜食的树种主要是糖槭、红瑞木、山楂、速生杨、家榆、臭椿、李子,不喜食树种有银杏、胡桃楸和黄檗。研究结果可为城市和社区绿化选择美国白蛾抗性树种和营林技术防治美国白蛾提供参考。

  15. Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the Botanical Garden in Beijing

    LIU Yan-ju; DING Hui; ZHU Yong-guan

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory(BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden(BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni,and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index(MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes:strongly accumulated(SA or grade Ⅰ), moderately accumulated(MA or grade Ⅱ), intermediately accumulated( IA or grade Ⅲ), and weakly accumulated(WA or grade Ⅳ). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarro sa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza

  16. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability. PMID:25796887

  17. Análisis de la invasión del hábitat ribereño por tres árboles exóticos en España

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasión de las especies exóticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en hábitats ribereños españoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los ríos Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del río Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intención de determinar el grado de invasión de cada zona y especie, así como las características de los rodales y de los hábitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anotó el origen (plantado/espontáneo, tamaño, densidad y características del hábitat (bióticas, abióticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasión fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antrópica y densidad de fuentes de propágulos. Cada especie presentó un mayor grado de invasión en una zona diferente. Los rodales espontáneos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son pequeños comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en hábitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antrópica, pero también pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arbórea. Las diferentes condiciones del hábitat en que se plantaron las especies y el hábitat donde se naturalizan podrían explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersión utilizados por cada una.

  18. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China. PMID:27025220

  19. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven , Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 (ycf9) gene, parti ...

  20. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Geosmithia species on European elms

    Pepori, A.L.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Bettini, P.P.; Vettraino, A.M.; Santini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 11 (2015), s. 1063-1074. ISSN 1878-6146 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Geosmithia spp. * Geosmithia omnicola * Geosmithia ulmacea Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  1. 兰州盆地早第三纪植物及古气候意义%Early Tertiary fossil plants and paleoclimate of Lanzhou Basin

    耿宝印; 陶君容; 颉光普

    2001-01-01

    化石采自甘肃省兰州盆地咸水河组底部, 经研究认为有29种, 归属20属12科。它们是:樟科Lauraceae (Daphnogene), 木通科Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), 小檗科Berberidaceae (Berberis), 榆科Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova),桦木科Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus),杨梅科 Myricaceae(Myrica),杨柳科Salicaceae (Populus,Salix),紫金牛科Myrsinaceae(Ardisia),蔷薇科Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea),豆科 Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora),漆树科 Anacardiaceae (Rhus),忍冬科Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum)等。经植物区系组成与叶相分析显示, 该植物区系的大多数成员是落叶阔叶乔、灌木, 少数为常绿灌木。其中特殊的分子是Rhus turcomanica Korov. ex Vassilvesk, 该成分是早第三纪中、晚期的标志化石植物。另一化石植物Sorbaria callicomifolia Kornilova 曾出现在中亚的早渐新世, 最晚至早中新世。同一层位采集的孢粉样分析结果显示:该组合仅约20种, 种类相对贫乏, 并以被子植物的花粉占优势。其中出现裸子植物的麻黄粉, 被子植物的白刺粉及蒿粉等, 这几个类型均指示沉积时期经历干旱气候。综合植物大化石及孢粉分析研究, 均出现一些指示气候为亚热带干旱或周期性干旱气候的特点, 并据Rhus turcomanica出现的最晚记录, 推测咸水河组底部的地质时代大约是早渐新世晚期。%Fossil plants from the lower part of Xianshuihe Formation in the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province were studied. The flora contains 29 species, representing 20 genera and 12 families, which include Lauraceae (Daphnogene), Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), Berberidaceae (Berberis), Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova), Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus), Myricaceae(Myrica), Salicaceae (Populus,Salix), Myrsinaceae(Ardisia), Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea), Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora), Anacardiaceae (Rhus), Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum). An analysis of the floristic elements and their

  2. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it

  3. Comparison of relative illuminance, relative photosynthetic photon flux and relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation in apple [Malus pumila] tree canopy

    Relative light intensities in an apple (Malus domestice Borkh.) tree canopy were determined by measuring light quantity: Photometrically (illuminance, lx), radiometrically (radiation, W. m-2), and in quantum terms (photosynthetic photon flux, mumol. m-2. s-1). There was a strong positive correlation between relative illuminance and relative photosynthetic photon flux, measured on an overcast day. Relative photosynthetic photon flux was, however, 6.0 % higher than relative illuminance. A strong correlation was also found between relative illuminance and relative cumulative photosynthetic photon for one day; the latter was higher by 6.7 % on an overcast day and 6.8 % on a clear day. There was a strong positive correlation between the relative cumulative photosynthetic photon and the relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation for one day, while that of relative cumulative photosynthetic photon was 11 % lower than relative cumulative amount of global solar radiation

  4. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored

  5. Estimation of tree transpiration and response of tree conductance to meteorological variables in desert-oasis system of Northwest China

    CHEN; Rensheng; KANG; Ersi; ZHANG; Zhihui; ZHAO; Wenzhi; S

    2004-01-01

    Transpirations of three dominated tree species, namely Mongol Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litvin), White elm (Ulmus pumila) and Gansu Poplar (Populus gansuensis Wang et Yang) in oasis shelter forest (Linze site) and of two dominated tree species,namely Euphrates Poplar (Populus euphratica Oliv.) and Russia olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn.) in lowland desert (Erjinaqi site) have been estimated using measured sapflow in summer,autumn and winter, 2002 and in spring, 2003. An ENVIS System was used for each site to measure microclimate variables, soil moisture and sapflow every half an hour, and the study time scale is one day. In the 104 days of observation during the growing season at the Linze site, the average daily sapflow of Gansu Poplar is 9.93L·d-1,and the average transpiration per unit leaf area is 1.99mm·d-1.For White elm tree,the daily average sapflow is 4.08L·d-1,while the daily average transpiration per unit leaf area is 0.49mm·d-1.The values for Mongol Scotch Pine are 3.91L·d-1 and 0.25mm·d-1,respectively.In the total 73 days of observation during the growing season at the Erjinaqi site, the daily average sapflows of Russia olive and Euphrates Poplar are 12.1 and 20.97L·d-1,respectively,and the average transpirations per unit leaf area are 0.22 amd 0.31mm·d-1,respectively.In the observation period of the growing season,tree conductances of Mongol Scotch Pine, White elm, Gansu Poplar or Russia olive show an exponential relationship with the daily average air temperature or vapour pressure deficit, but the relationship is not so obvious between tree conductance and global radiation. The transpiration process of each tree species is affected by all the observed four environmental variables. The response of tree conductance to different climatic factors changes with tree species. The effect of the same factor to the same tree species is also variable in different growing stages. The sapflow of every tree species is relatively large

  6. 吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落树种组成与α多样性%Species Composition and Alpha Diversity of Woody Plant Community in Green Space along Songhua River in Jilin City

    马赛; 孙晓刚; 丁言

    2015-01-01

    采用样方法,对吉林市松花江沿江绿地木本植物群落进行了调查研究。结果表明:共调查木本植物998棵,隶属于20科、34属、56种。裸子植物门中松科物种最多,被子植物门中蔷薇科物种最多。在绿化带群落乔木、灌木中东北杏、玫瑰分别具有最大的重要值,在游园群落乔木、灌木中家榆、接骨木分别具有最大的重要值,在亲水群落乔木、灌木中旱柳、茶条槭分别具有最大的重要值。 Menhinick、Margalef、Shannon-Wiener和Simpson指数均表现为绿化带群落>亲水群落>游园群落,而修正的Hill指数和Pielou指数表现为亲水群落>绿化带群落>游园群落。%The author investigated the species composition and alpha diversity of woody plant community in green space along the Songhua River in Jilin city through using quadrat method .The results indicated that a total of 998 woody plants were investiga-ted, and they belonged to 56 species, 34 genera and 20 families.In gymnosperm, Pinaceae had the most species .In angiosperm, Rosaceae had the most species .Armeniaca mandshurica and Rosa rugosa had the highest importance value in green belt community;Ulmus pumila and Sambucus williamsii had the highest importance value in garden community;Salix matsudana and Acer ginnalahad the highest importance value in waterfront community .The Menhinick index , Margalef index , Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of various woody plant communities all showed the following sequence :green belt community>waterfront community>garden community, while the modified Hill index and the Pielou index revealed the following order:waterfront community>green belt com-munity>garden community .

  7. 黄土高原半干旱丘陵区不同树种纯林土壤性质极化研究%SOIL POLARIZATION UNDER PURE STANDS OF DIFFERENT TREE VARIETIES IN SEMI-ARID HILLY AREAS OF THE LOESS PLATEAU

    刘增文; 段而军; 刘卓玛姐; 冯顺煜

    2009-01-01

    to polarization (I = P/R) were proposed for polarization analysis based on results of determination of soil properties of soil samples collected from a variety of mature stands of pure and mixed forests using a multi-point mixed sampling method at multiple sites in the semi-arid, hilly area of loess plateau. Results show very strong polarization (P>0.20) of the following soil properties: chemical properties under Pinus tabulaeformis forest; chemical and biological properties under Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Hippophae rhamnoides forests; chemical, biological properties and trace elements content under Ulmus pumila forest; biological properties under Betula platyphylla forest; and biological and physical properties under Acer ginnala forest. Among the species in this study, pure stands of P. tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacia resulted in serious depletion of soil nutrient reserves; Pure stands of P. orientalis increased soil fertility; Pure stands of U. pumila increased soil fertility but decreased trace elements content; Pure stands of B. platyphylla worsened soil biological properties; Pure stands of A. ginnala led to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and deterioration of soil biological properties; and Pure stands of H. rhamnoides did to depletion of soil nutrient reserves and degradation of soil biological and physical properties. The anti-polarization capacities of P. simonii and P. tabulaeformis were the highest and of U. pumila the lowest. Relative to anti-polarization capacity, the ratios of polarization resistance to polarization of the stands fell into the category of more than "medium" (I_a>0.40)including chemical and physical properties under P. tabulaeformis forest, all the soil properties as a whole under P. orientalis, R.pseudoacia and U. pumila forests, and biological, physical and chemical properties under B. platyphylla forest.

  8. 不同植被恢复模式下煤矸石山复垦土壤性质及煤矸石风化物的变化特征%Reclaimed soil properties and weathered gangue change characteristics under various vegetation types on gangue pile

    王丽艳; 韩有志; 张成梁; 裴宗阳

    2011-01-01

    many studies on eco-environmental effects of vegetation on gangue piles. Study of the relationship between environment and vegetation on gangue piles is helpful to reveal the stability and dynamic development of existing ecosystem, and to build up the foundation for vegetation regulation on gangue piles. In this study, different reclaimed lands from 280 gangue piles of No. 3 coal mine of Yangquan Coal Industry Group in Shanxi Province were included. The effect of different vegetation restoration patterns were analyzed on reclaimed soil and weathered coal gangue. The soil, physical and chemical properties of weathered coal gangue and heavy metals under 6 different vegetation types ( platation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. , mixed plantation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. And Caragana intermedia, mixed plantation of Ulmus pumila L. And Amorpha fruticosa L. , mixed plantation of Platycladus orientals (L. ) Franco and Robinia pseudoacacia L. , Vitex negundo var. Heterophylla and grass vegetation of Medicago saliva L. ) on coal gangue piles were compared. The results showed: (1) The vegetation, particularly the tree plantation on coal gangue piles significantly influenced the soil bulk density, soil water holding capacity and porosity. As the vegetation was recovered, the nutrient content in the soil significantly increased. Soil nutrient content varied with the difference between vegetation restoration types. The mixed plantation of R. Pseudoacacia and C. Intermedia was much better than other vegetation types. The order of different vegetation types according to their positive effects on soil bulk density and mechanical components of coal gangue were; coniferous> mixed shrub and tree forest> broad-leaf tree pure forest> shrub> grass; (2) The vegetation order according to the accumulation of organic matter and total nitrogen were: mixed plantation of P. Orientalis and R. Pseudoacacia > R. Pseudoacacia plantation > mixed plantation of R. Pseudoacacia and C. Intermedia > mixed

  9. Effect of Slope Micro-topography on Spatial Distribution of Trees in Loess Area of North Shaanxi Province,China%陕北黄土区坡面微地形对乔木空间分布的影响

    任正颵; 朱清科; 张恰咛; 马欢; 黄正佳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of this research is to analyze the coupling between gully,collapse,platform and other micro-topography with spatial distribution of exising forest stand,which can provide references for near-natural vegetation restoration and the structure configuration of soil and water conservation tree-shrub mixed stand.[Meth-od]Based on the investigaition data of the vegetations in Sandaochuan valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, the effects of slope micro-topography on spatial distribution of trees were analysed by using spatial analysis tools of software Arcgis 9 .3 .[Result]The results showed that the area of all types of micro-topography account for 2 1 .03%in undisturbed slope area,but the amount of trees on micro-topography account for 5 1 .77% of the total amount. Trees were distributed mainly in various type of micro-topography,and showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,but showed a random distribution at collapse and scrap.The trees in different micro-topography dis-played very significant difference,Ulmus pumila,Populus simonii,and Prunus sibirica showed an aggregated distri-bution at gully;Populus hopeiensis showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,while Robinia pseud-oacacia showed an aggregated distribution at platform.[Conclusion]The soil moisture of various slope micro-topog-raphy and its microhabitat have significant effects on the spatial distribution of trees.It is necessary to maintain the long term point of configuration trees planted in near-natural vegetation restoration according to various slope micro-topography habitats and spatial distributions of trees.Therefore,Populus hopeiensis,Populus simonii,Ulmus pumila and other tree species could be planted on gully,Populus hopeiensis,and Robinia pseudoacacia could be planted on platform,and the tree specvies such like Populus hopeiensis and Populus simonii should be planted on scrap.%[目的]传统造林树木种植点设计忽略了黄土坡面

  10. 苹果过氧化氢酶的纯化及性质研究%Purification and properties of catalase from apple (Malus pumila cv. FuJi)

    邓向军; 余筱洁

    2006-01-01

    新鲜苹果经匀浆、抽提、硫酸铵盐析、DEAE-Cellulose柱层析,获得纯化苹果过氧化氢酶(CAT)液.纯化CAT酶液蛋白含量26.8mg/mL,活力843Units/mL,比活力31.5Units/mg.经过温度和pH考察,酶的最适温度为50℃、最适pH值为5.0.金属离子影响为:Cu2+和Mn2+对该酶有不同程度的激活作用,Na+对该酶有一定程度的抑制作用.以过氧化氢为底物,Lineweaver-Burk双倒数作图法求得此酶的Km和Vmax分别为2.27mmol/L和2.5μmol/min.

  11. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  12. Propagation Velocity of Stress Wave and Ultrasonic Wave Transmitting on Indefectible Cross Section of Standing Trees%应力波和超声波在立木无缺陷断面的传播速度

    徐华东; 王立海; 游祥飞; 刘铁男; 杨学春

    2011-01-01

    In order to make nondestructive evaluation of the health of standing trees, 120 standing trees including 4 species were detected by Arobotom, Resistograph and RSM-SY5 ultrasonic instrument respectively. The data on the propagation velocity of stress wave and ultrasonic wave transmitting in indefectible cross section of standing trees were analyzed. Results showed that: when standing tree was detected with 8 testing points, stress and ultrasonic wave transmitted most slowly along Path A (adjacent point) and most quickly along Path D( radial direction) on indefectible cross section, the propagation velocity was increasing from Path A to Path D. For indefectible Populus simonii, Ulmus pumila, Salix matsudana and Fraxinus mandshurica, the radial propagation velocity of stress wave tested by Arobotom was 788.46,1 025.45,940. 62 and 1 146. 06 m·s-1 respectively; the corresponding radial propagation velocity of ultrasonic wave tested by RSM-SY5 was 1 159.57,1 537.5,1 323.15 and 1 558. 6 m· s -1 respectively. Through regression analysis,the correlation between the radial propagation velocity of stress wave and ultrasonic wave was significant, R2 > 0.77, so it was feasible to non-destructive test standing trees with these two instruments.%为进行立木无损健康检测,采用Arbotom应力波成像系统、Resistograph针式阻抗仪和RSM-SY5超声仪对4个树种共计120株树分断面进行测试,研究超声波和应力波在立木108个无缺陷断面传播速度变化规律,并对比分析二者的差异和相关性.结果表明:1)采用8个测点对立木测试时,超声波和应力波在立木无缺陷断面具有类似的传播规律,即沿Path A(相邻两传感器)传播时速度最低,沿Path D(径向传播)传播时速度最高,从Path A到Path D传播速度呈递增的变化趋势;2)对于小叶杨、愉树、早柳、水曲柳4种立木,Arbotom测得的无缺陷断面应力波径向传播速度平均值分别为788.46,1 025.45,940.62和1 146.06m·s(-1

  13. Comparative study of three Marantodes pumilum varieties by microscopy, spectroscopy and chromatography

    Nor-Ashila Aladdin; Jamia Azdina Jamal; Noraini Talip; Nur Ain M. Hamsani; Mohd Ruzi A. Rahman; Carla W. Sabandar; Kartiniwati Muhammad; Khairana Husain; Juriyati Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Marantodes pumilum (Blume) Kuntze (synonym: Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill), Primulaceae, is well known for its traditional use as a post-partum medication among women in Malaysia. Three varieties of M. pumilum, var. alata Scheff., var. pumila and var. lanceolata (Scheff.) Mez. are commonly used. Nowadays, M. pumilum powder or extracts are commercially available as herbal supplements and beverages. Authentication of the variety is an important component of product quality control....

  14. Spring Ephemerals Adapt to Extremely High Light Conditions via an Unusual Stabilization of Photosystem II

    Tu, Wenfeng; Li, Yang; Liu, Wu; Wu, Lishuan; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wilhelm, Christian; Yang, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    Ephemerals, widely distributed in the Gobi desert, have developed significant characteristics to sustain high photosynthetic efficiency under high light (HL) conditions. Since the light reaction is the basis for photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy, the photosynthetic performances in thylakoid membrane of the spring ephemerals in response to HL were studied. Three plant species, namely two C3 spring ephemeral species of Cruciferae: Arabidopsis pumila (A. pumila) and Si...

  15. Celtisanin, a novel sulphonated phenolic from Celtis australis L. fruits.

    Badoni, Ruchi; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Rawat, Usha; Singh, Gur Jas Preet

    2010-08-01

    A novel sulphonated phenolic named celtisanin, elucidated as 3-[8'-hydroxy-prop-6'-ene-6'-yl]-5-hydroxymethyl-4-methoxy-2-[penta-1',4'-diene-1'-yl-5'-sulphonic acid]-5,6-dihydrobenzofuran, has been isolated from the fruits of Celtis australis (Ulmaceae), together with three known compounds: apigenin, quercetin and its glucoside. Their structures were characterised by means of chemical and spectral methods, including advanced 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. PMID:20645217

  16. Contribution to the biosystematics of Celtis L. (Celtidaceae) with special emphasis on the African species

    Sattarian, A.

    2006-01-01

    CeltisL. (Celtidaceae, earlier part of the Ulmaceae) is a genus mainly of tree species, which has its natural distribution in Africa, the Mediterranean region, Asia, North and South America, and northernAustralia. Outside this natural distribution various species are planted in temperate areas, but they occur in many different ecological habitats, tropical and temperate regions in all continents. Some species are ornamental; some are used for timber and reforestation.This thesis is focused on...

  17. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    Michael Buenor Adinortey; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Nicholas Oteng Asamoah

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for futu...

  18. Contribution à l’étude d’une plante haploïde de pommier (Malus pumila, Mill.). Etude descriptive et comparaison avec des clones de ploïdie différente. II. - Aptitude à la reprise au greffage

    NOITON, Dominique; Coquen, Claude; LESPINASSE, Yves

    1986-01-01

    La multiplication en serre de la plante haploïde de pommier par greffage sur des porte-greffes diploïdes issus de semis pose de nombreux problèmes. L’originalité du clone haploïde nous a conduits à comparer ses réactions au greffage avec celles de clones apparentés diploïde et tétraploïde. L’étude histologique des phénomènes de cicatrisation a permis d’écarter, d’une part, la possibilité de l’existence d’une anomalie dans la structure de la tige du sujet haploïde et, d’autre part, l’hypot...

  19. Vergleichende Studien des Pinus-Krummholzes in den japanischen und europäischen Alpen

    Wilmanns, Otti; Bogenrieder, Arno; Nakamura, Yukito

    1985-01-01

    Die Formation des von Nadelhölzern beherrschten Krummholzes ist sowohl in den japanischen als auch in den europäischen Alpen landschaftsprägend entwickelt; die beiden Ausbildungen werden hier vergleichend-autökologisch und vergleichend-pflanzensoziologisch betrachtet. Schlüsselart des (Nadel-) Krummholzes ist in Japan Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel, in Europa Pinus mugo Turra. P. pumila unterscheidet sich bei an sich gleichem Wuchs durch die Fähigkeit, an älteren Ästen Nebenwurzeln und damit Poly...

  20. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  1. Allelopathic activity of tree species leaf litter, soil and coprolites in the dnepropetrovsk parks

    Крючкова, Анжелина Илларионовна; Кульбачко, Юрий Люцинович

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the impact of leaf litter allelopathic properties and earthworms trophy metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the soil allelopathic properties under the Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. In the Dnepropetrovsk parks. It was established that earthworms trophy metabolic activity positively influenced on soils allelopathic status.

  2. 76 FR 52541 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas and Regulated Articles

    2011-08-23

    ..., firewood, stumps, roots, branches, and wood debris of half an inch or more in diameter are subject to...), Fraxinus (ash), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus...), Fraxinus (ash), Koelreuteria (golden rain tree), Platanus (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix...

  3. Nieuwe autochtone herkomsten van fladderiep en boskers op de Rassenlijst Bomen

    Buiteveld, J.; Vries, de, H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    De aanbevelende Rassenlijst Bomen bevat twee nieuwe herkomsten van fladderiep (Ulmus laevis) en een nieuwe herkomst van boskers (Prunus avium). De Raad voor plantenrassen en het Bosschap maakten dit bekend. Het gaat in alle drie de gevallen om genenbankmateriaal dat is opgenomen in de categorie 'naar herkomst geïdentificeerd'.

  4. Nieuwe autochtone herkomsten van fladderiep en boskers op de Rassenlijst Bomen

    Buiteveld, J.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    De aanbevelende Rassenlijst Bomen bevat twee nieuwe herkomsten van fladderiep (Ulmus laevis) en een nieuwe herkomst van boskers (Prunus avium). De Raad voor plantenrassen en het Bosschap maakten dit bekend. Het gaat in alle drie de gevallen om genenbankmateriaal dat is opgenomen in de categorie 'naa

  5. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other...

  6. Environ: E00505 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available E00505 Grinded paste of Ulmus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf Ulmi pasta Crude drug U ... mus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf (in time ... mud) left for several days to rot and ferment, sha ...

  7. Comparison of photosynthesis and water use efficiency between three plant functional types in Hunshandak sandland%浑善达克沙地不同植物功能型光合作用和水分利用特征的比较

    牛书丽; 蒋高明; 高雷鸣; 李永庚; 姜闯道; 刘美珍; 崔红霞; 丁莉; 彭羽

    2005-01-01

    为了比较不同植物功能型在沙地生境下光合作用和水分利用效率的差异,测定了浑善达克沙地3种功能型的代表种的气体交换特征来比较它们的光合碳固定能力和水分利用状况.3个代表种的气体交换日变化结果表明乔木的光合速率和水分利用效率比草本和灌木的低,而蒸腾速率和气孔导度较高,经过中午的光合午休后,乔木的光合速率在下午没有恢复,而草本和灌木都有不同程度的恢复.在所测定的所有代表物种中,研究地全部的乔木(3种)和灌木(6种)以及典型的草本(25种),气孔导度与光合速率和蒸腾速率都成显著的正相关关系;另外,在同样的叶片水势情况下,乔木植物的气孔导度最低,在同样的蒸腾速率情况下,乔木植物的光合速率最低.这些结果表明乔木在CO2同化和H2O蒸腾平衡上具有低的水分利用效率.从这个角度考虑,我们认为在对沙地进行恢复时,一些草本和灌木种比乔木更合适.%Stomata controls carbon-water balance in plants by acting as transport for diffusive CO2 uptake and water vapor loss.Plants with lower photosynthesis and higher transpiration rate may function with less stomatal control and inefficient water usage. To test the hypothesis that tree is improper for the purpose of degraded land restoration in arid or semi-arid environment, we investigated gas exchanges of three plant functional types (PFTs) (3 tree species, 6 shrub species and 25 herb species) in Hunshandak Sandland, China, to compare their carbon assimilation ability and water use efficiency. Our research aimed to look into how those plants with different PFTs design carbon and water cycling in semi-arid areas in order to select the ecologically and economically suitable species for the seek of controlling of sandland degradation.We investigated the typical species of each PFT, I.e. Ulmus pumila (tree), Salix gordejevii (shrub) and Leymus chinensis(herb) to compare

  8. 刺槐与其他树种枯落叶混合分解对微量元素释放的影响%Influences of mixed leaf litter decomposition of Robinia pseudoacacia with other trees on microelements release

    杜良贞; 刘增文; 祝振华; 李茜

    2012-01-01

    whole Loess Plateau, through collecting leaf litter of R. pseudoacacia and other 10 trees at the end of autumn,cutting the leaf to some fragments (a=l cm) or 1 cm needles,and gathering humus soil (0-20 cm) of no forested land as medium,the incubation of mixed leaf litter decomposition had been carried out for 345 d with the method of nylon mesh bag buried with soil in the same condition of tem- perature and moisture. Then,the microelements (Cu,Zn,Ni,Cd) contents before and after leaf litter de-composition were determinated with the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS)method. [Result] The re- lease rates of Cu,Zn,Ni and Cd during unique leaf litter decomposition of Populus simonii ,Hippophae rh- amnoides ,Platycladus orientalis and Quercus liaotungensis are all the fastest and the turnover period is 1 year or a little more. Mixing litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with P. simonii,Ulmus pumila, H. rh- amnoides separately would produce promoted actions on release of the microelements, whereas mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, P. orientalis, Betula platyphylla and Caragana microphylla separately would produce inhibitory actions on release of the 4 microelements. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Pinus tabulaeformis and Larix principis-rupprechtii separately would promote release of Cu, but inhibit releases of Zn, Ni and Cd. Mixed litter decomposition of R. pseudoacacia with Q. liaotungensis would promote releases of Zn and Cd,but inhibit releases of Cu and Ni. [Conclusion] Mixed forestation of R. pseudoacacia with other trees which promote release of microele- ments after mixed litter decomposition would be helpful for the microelement cycling and utilization in for- estland.

  9. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Caribbean Zamia clade: an integrated systematic approach with SSRs and single copy nuclear genes

    The Zamia pumila L. complex (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) is a monophyletic, diploid (2n = 16) and distinctive assemblage of cycad populations restricted to the West Indies and southeastern U. S. that has been treated as comprising one to nine species. Our research project seeks to simultaneously investi...

  10. Revision of the genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae)

    Sunarno, B.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Seven species are recognised. Several earlier described species are synonymous to L. pumila and reduced to varieties of that species: var. alata, var. lanceolata, var. neriifolia and var. sessilifolia. A new record of L. longistyla is mentioned. Labisia malouiana and L. obtusifolia are excluded from the genus.

  11. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  12. Variation in life-cycle between three rare and endangered floodplain violets in two regions: implications for population viability and conservation

    Eckstein, R. L.; Danihelka, Jiří; Otte, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2009), s. 69-80. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Viola elatior * Viola pumila * Viola stagnina Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  13. fRNAdb Summary: FR183814 [

    Full Text Available FR183814 AF110534,AF110535,AF110536,AF110537,AF110539,AF110540,AF110542,AF110543,AF110545,AF1105 ... ium graveolens,Conium maculatum,Pseudorlaya pumila,Laser pitium siler,Scandix pecten-veneris,Crithmum mariti ... lica sylvestris,Bifora radians,Cymopterus globosus,Laser pitium hispidum,Lomatium californicum,Thaspium trif ...

  14. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  15. Post-emergence weed control through abrasion with an approved organic fertilizer

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) is an approved organic fertilizer and preemergence herbicide that can be manufactured in the form of grit. This grit was tested for its ability to abrade seedlings of the summer annual weedy grass, Setaria pumila, when plants were in the 1- to 5-leaf stages of growth. It was p...

  16. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  17. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila

  18. КЕДРОВЫЙ СТЛАНИК (PINUS PUMILA) ДРЕВОВИДНОЙ ФОРМЫ НА СЕВЕРЕ ЗАБАЙКАЛЬСКОГО КРАЯ

    Бобринев, В.; Пак, Л.

    2014-01-01

    Изложены эколого-морфологические признаки кедрового стланика древовидной формы, произрастающего на севере Забайкальского края в бассейне р. Чара (левый приток р. Лены). Для сравнения приводятся описания кедрового стланика, произрастающего вместе с древовидным и кедром сибирским, произрастающим в 200 км севернее места исследования кедрового стланика. Анализ морфологических признаков трех представителей рода Pinus дает основание утверждать, что кедровый стланик древовидной формы является гибрид...

  19. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake of woody angiosperm seedlings

    Noland, T.L.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on stomatal aperture and sulfur uptake varied with SO/sub 2/ dosage and plant species. Fumigation of Ulmus americana L. seedlings with 1 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 8 h inhibited stomatal closure and fumigation with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 12 h induced stomatal closure. Sulfur uptake of fumigated Ulmus americana seedlings depended on stomatal aperture and was much higher in the light than in the dark. Fumigation of water-stressed Ginkgo biloba L. seedlings with 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 6.5 h tended to prevent stomatal closure. However, the effects of SO/sub 2/ on stomatal aperture were modulated and often overridden by environmental stresses such as low light intensity and drought.

  20. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Poznań, 2003-2004

    Alicja Stach; Magdalena Kluza-Wieloch; Alicja Zientarska

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated,...

  1. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  2. Protoilludane, Illudane, Illudalane, and Norilludane Sesquiterpenoids from Granulobasidium vellereum.

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Scott-Brown, Alison; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2016-06-24

    Two new and seven known sesquiterpene compounds were isolated from an agar plate culture of Granulobasidium vellereum, isolated from a log of Ulmus sp. The two new structures were elucidated with spectroscopic methods as an illudalane derivative, granulolactone (1), and a 15-norilludane, granulodione (9). The acaricidal and insecticidal activities of the isolated compounds were examined in vitro against two major horticultural pests, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the glasshouse thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, respectively. PMID:27227966

  3. On the egg parasitoids of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae, an invasive pest species from Japan

    Emilian Pricop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the parasitic Hymenoptera reared from Aproceros leucopodaTakeuchi, 1939 eggs and also we give notes regarding the different parasitoids of this invasive saw fly.Asecodes (Teleopterus erxias (Walker, 1848 was reared for the first time from the eggs of Aprocerosleucopoda. From unidentified eggs on Ulmus minor we also reared Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy,1785. From pupae of A. leucopodae emerged also few specimens of an ichneumonid wasp.

  4. Rapportage onderzoek aantasting van de bast bij laanbomen

    Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre; Ruiter, N.C.A.; Kieft, H

    2009-01-01

    In dit verslag zijn aantastingen op de stam onderzocht van Carpinus betulus ‘Frans Fontaine’, Fagus sylvatica “ Atropurpurea”, Fraxinus excelsior ‘Atlas’, Quercus palustris, Quercus robur, Sorbus latifolia “Henk Vink” en Ulmus ‘Clusius’ Daarbij is aandacht besteed aan het voorkomen en de aard en ontwikkeling van bastknobbels, baststrepen, bastscheuren, verkleuringen en het effect van epifyten zoals schimmels en korstmossen

  5. Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees

    Schink, Bernhard; James C. Ward; Zeikus, J. Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (≤0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from th...

  6. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  7. Interactive Effects of Imazapyr plus Triclopyr ester and Imazapyr plus Glyphosate Mixtures on Woody Weed Seedlings

    Nespeca, Mathew C.

    1997-01-01

    A rapid primary herbicide screening experiment was conducted to determine if synergism or antagonism occurs with imazapyr(Arsenal®) plus triclopyr ester (Garlon 4®) and imazapyr plus glyphosate(Accord®) mixtures applied to woody weed seedlings. Using a booth sprayer, 66 herbicide treatments were applied to greenhouse grown black cherry (Prunus serotina), winged elm (Ulmus alata), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), red maple (Acer rubrum), black ...

  8. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  9. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odont

  10. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961