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Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Fenología de la floración de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in Bahía Blanca city (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la floración de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de Bahía [...] Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in Bahía Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

  2. Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María L., Bakker; Patricia I., Alvarado.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el conteni [...] do y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the conten [...] t and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

  3. Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods

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    Wheeler E A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods might be identified to an infrageneric category, selected wood anatomical features of 21 extant species of Ulmus are summarized to evaluate whether any sections within the genus have distinctive anatomy. Porosity type in extant Ulmus is related to leaf longevity; extant evergreen species are diffuse porous and have relatively narrow rays. Other extant Ulmus species are deciduous and predominantly ring porous, only rarely semi-ring porous, with clustered latewood vessels that are tangentially arranged. Sometimes earlywood characteristics have systematic value and allow recognition of groups. However, in some species earlywood characteristics are variable, apparently being much affected by growing conditions. Eastern U.S. species belonging to Sections Chaetoptelea and Trichoptelea of Subgenus Oreoptelea consistently have thick-walled fibers, single rows of small-medium diameter earlywood vessels, and little difference between the diameters of the solitary earlywood vessels and latewood vessels. The late Eocene Ulmus woodii sp. nov. shares more features with this group than any other. Another of these late Post Eocene woods is referable to Ulmus danielii, a species previously known only from the Middle Eocene Clarno Formation. A third fossil wood type resembles diffuse porous Ulmus, but its lower preservational quality obscures some diagnostic features and precludes secure assignment.

  4. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  5. The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 ?M, 50 ?M and 90 ?M. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  6. Ecophysiological and Growth Responses of Elm, Ulmus pumila, to Different Water Tables

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    Xiongwen Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and underground water table need to be studied because a huge number of trees died in arid and semi-arid area during recent years for the decreasing water table due to increasing water consumption. In this study, the water table was represented by the distance from soil surface to water surface. Study on the effect of water tables on the ecophysiological characteristics and growth of Ulmus pumila saplings was conducted by a short-term experiment. Saplings at water tables of -5 (under water, 3, 9, 15 and 22 cm were abbreviated as U-5, U3, U9, U15 and U22. Present results indicated that water table did affect the ecophysiological and growth response of U. pumila. All U-5 died after one week. U9 and U15 had higher net photosynthesis rates than those of U3 and U22. The diurnal mean transpiration rate of U3 was significantly lower than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. The diurnal mean stomatal resistance of U3 was significantly higher than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. U22 had the highest increment in main root length and there was good correlation between water level and main root length. U15 had the highest increment in stem height. Maintaining proper water table would result in higher net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, plant height and root length, but relative lower transpiration rate for U. pumila saplings. These results would have implications for water management at arid and semi-arid area for vegetation survival and regeneration. Seedlings and saplings should not be submerged for a long time during irrigating. Ecophysiological measurements can indicate the underground water table. Maintaining proper underground water table at arid and semi-arid area would be helpful to the growth of plant species and vegetation.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-hong; Wang, Zhi-li; Shi, Bao-lin; Wei, Dong; Chen, Jian-xin; Wang, Su-li; Gao, Bao-jia

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB), the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite. PMID:26457083

  8. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae = Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling

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    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas emcâmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-seque a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais comcistólitos.Celtis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná Riverfloodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith.

  9. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Gava; Joelma Lucioli; Fernando Henrique Furlan; Maurício Buss Leal; Sandra Davi Traverso

    2010-01-01

    Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae), uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padr...

  10. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

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    Aleksi? Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  11. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

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    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalancho? pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  12. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  13. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land, northeastern, China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and aggregated patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ? DBH ? 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm ? DBH ? 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in class 1, class 2 and class 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, in distances larger than 67.72 m there were a negative association between class 1 and class 2, which was also the case between class 2 and class 3 and between class 1 and class 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only with distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of Northern China.

  14. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina / Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aldo, Gava; Joelma, Lucioli; Fernando Henrique, Furlan; Maurício Buss, Leal; Sandra Davi, Traverso.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae), uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alter [...] ações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos. Abstract in english Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, [...] head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  15. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  16. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400?mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17?-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  17. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  18. Specific heat of the wood and bark of some tree species. [Spruce, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Abies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, S.; Raichev, A.; Barzova, R.

    1975-01-01

    Tabulated data are given minimum, mean, and maximum values of the specific heat of wood of 13 tree species grown in Bulgaria, i.e. Fagus sylvatica, Quercus rubra, Fraxinus excelsor, Ulmus campestris, Acer platanoides, A. negundo, Tilia tomentosa, Salix babylonica, Populus deltoides, P. nigra var. italica, Picea abies, Abies albs, and Pinus heldreichii. In most species the value quoted is for ripewood or heatwood, but for Quercus rubra and Pinus heldreichii the data relate to sapwood and heartwood. Data are also given for the bark of 13 species, 4 of which are different from the species of woods listed above. In general, the values found were somewhat higher than those given in the literature. The specific heat of bark was higher than that of wood. Specific heat depended on the species, but average values of 1.52 kJ/kg/sup 0/K for wood and 1.68 kJ/kg/sup 0/K for bark are proposed.

  19. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria; Fezah Othman

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showe...

  20. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ehsan, Karimi; Hawa ZE, Jaafar; Ali, Ghasemzadeh; Mahdi, Ebrahimi.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty a [...] cids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant revealed that L. pumila var. alata contained higher anti-oxidative activities compared to var. pumila and var. lanceolata. However, these values were lower than the tested anti-oxidant standards. On the other hand, the aqueous leaf extracts in all three varieties of L. pumila were also found to inhibit a variable degree of antibacterial activities against eight bacteria (four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was observed the leaves of three varieties of L. pumila exhibited variable patterns of fatty acids and the microwave aqueous extraction possess anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.

  1. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MINERALS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Labisia pumila var. alata OF SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Ade Chandra Iwansyah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationships between physic-chemical, mineral and antioxidant properties of water-soluble extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata are proposed. A wide range of analytical parameters were studied including physic-chemical viz., proximate composition, yield, pH, total solid, total acidity, solubility; minerals content (Ca, Fe, and Zn) and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, and Pb); total phenolic content (TPC), tannin content, gallic acid (GA) content, and free scavenging activity of DPPH ...

  3. Exploring phenotypic floral integration in Iris pumila L.: A common-garden experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tuci? Branka; Vuleta Ana; Manitaševi?-Jovanovi? Sanja

    2013-01-01

    The angiosperm flower is a complex integrated phenotype, but within this structure there are partly independent units or modules. The interconnections among floral organ traits are hypothesized to be mostly generated by pollinatormediated selection. In this study, we explore whether floral dry mass per area (DMA) in an insect-pollinated herb, Iris pumila, exhibits a modular correlation pattern as has been reported for some size-related traits. We found that the overall pattern of floral...

  4. Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Sadeghi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6±8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (? (female/female/day was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

  5. Optimization and characterization of Tl(I) adsorption onto modified ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjarani, Neda [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S. Norollah [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves were successfully used to remove Tl(I) from aqueous solution in a batch system. In order to improve the uptake capacity of sorbent, it was modified by various chemical agents such as NaOH, HNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, NaCl, NaHCO{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}. Among the modifiers, NaCl was the best. Equilibrium behavior of sorbent with Tl(I) was examined by the several isotherms. Considering modified U. carpinifolia equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 54.6 mg/g. The other isotherms such as: Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) models were also examined. The central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for optimization of biosorption process. An empirical model was given through using response surface methodology. Also its validation was recognized by using relevant statistical tests such as ANOVA. The optimum conditions of biosorption: pH, m (amount of sorbent) and C (initial concentration) were found to be 7.9, 11.4 g/L, and 8.8 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand thermodynamic parameters: {Delta}G, {Delta}H, and {Delta}S were evaluated: the obtained results show that biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Eventually, FT-IR analysis confirmed that the main functional groups of sorbent have been involved through the biosorption process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  7. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  8. First Record of a Hyalid Species, Protohyale pumila (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalidae), from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Myung-Hwa Shin; Won Kim

    2012-01-01

    A hyalid amphipod, Protohyale pumila (Hiwatari and Kajihara, 1981), collected from Jeju Island is reported for the first time in the Korean fauna. The species is characterized by the presence of a short apical spine on the palp article 4 of maxilliped, a distinctly large and blunt cusp on the propodus of male gnathopod 1, and a distal truncate process on the palm of male gnathopod 2. Herein, the present species is described and illustrated. Korean hyalid amphipods now are composed of four spe...

  9. Malus pumila 'Spy 227' and Apple stem pitting virus: graft incompatibility and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakta, Ajay; Handa, Anil; Thakur, P D; Tomar, Manica; Kumar, Pardeep

    2015-06-01

    Apple stem pitting foveavirus (ASPV) is one of the most important and widespread virus infecting apples in the world. Of late, the virus has been found to be invariably associated with most of the apple plantations of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh based on DAS-ELISA results. Bioassay of viruses in vegetatively propagated crops including apple is considered to be an essential component in indexing programmes for the production of virus free propagating material. Woody indicator Malus pumila 'Spy 227' was used for the detection of ASPV through double grafting method. Graft incompatibility and epinasty symptoms were observed on Malus pumila Spy 227 indicator plants. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolate was done by cloning and sequencing of the test isolate. Partial sequence analysis of the coat protein gene showed 89 % nucleotide identity in BLASTN analysis with ASPV isolate from China (Accession No. JF895517). This is the first record of ASPV producing Graft incompatibility on Spy 227 indicator plants. PMID:26436128

  10. Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady / Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Loyola; Paula, Pavéz; Sergio, Lillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo va [...] lor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pectina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los [...] Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

  11. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    OpenAIRE

    Miljkovi? Danijela; Avramov Stevan; Vuji? Vukica; Rubinjoni Luka; Klisari?-Barisi? Nataša; Živkovi? Uroš; Tarasjev Aleksej

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI) on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD) increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ram...

  12. Morfoanatomia da plântula de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051 Morphology and anatomy of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sarg. (Ulmaceae seedling - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1051

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemari Pilati

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Celtis iguanaea é uma espécie pioneira, típica de mata ciliar. O presente estudo visa a investigação da morfoanatomia da plântula dessa espécie, pertencente à Ulmaceae. As sementes, coletadas na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, foram germinadas em câmara de germinação com temperatura constante de 30ºC e mantidas sob luz fluorescente contínua. O desenvolvimento das plântulas ocorreu em casa de vegetação. A análise anatômica foi feita em plântulas fixadas em FAA 50. Esse material foi secionado transversalmente e as seções obtidas foram coradas em safranina e azul de astra. Verificou-se que a plântula é fanerocotiledonar, epigéia, e apresenta raiz ramificada, hipocótilo desenvolvido, cotilédones obovados e persistentes, epicótilo verde e piloso e eofilo oblongo ou lanceolado. A raiz é tetrarca ou diarca. O hipocótilo possui crescimento secundário com periderme de origem profunda. O epicótilo também apresenta crescimento secundário com periderme de origem subepidérmica. Os cotilédones e o eofilo são folhas dorsiventrais com cistólitosCeltis iguanaea it is a typical arboreal species of ciliar forest, belonging to the family Ulmaceae. This work intends to investigate the morphology and anatomy of seedling species. The seeds used were collected from several trees, in fragments of the Semideciduous Seasonal Alluvial and Submontane Forest located on Upper Paraná River floodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures (30ºC, using germination chambers and kept under continuous fluorescent light. Seedling development occurred in a greenhouse. Anatomical analysis was made in seedlings fixed in FAA 50. The botanical material was sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. The seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal, presents ramified root, developed hypocotyl, obovate and persistent cotyledons, green and hairy epicotyl and the first leaf in a shape oblong or lanceolate. Root is tetrarch or diarch. Hypocotyl has secondary growth with deep-origin periderm. Epicotyl also shows secondary growth with periderm of subepidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophyll are dorsiventral leaves with cystolith

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  15. Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods

    OpenAIRE

    Trémolières, Michèle; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-Pérez, José-Miguel; Schmitt, Diane

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

  16. Aboveground biomass relationships for mixed ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus glabra Hudson) stands in Eastern Prealps of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, Giorgio; Candido, Patrick; Peressotti, Alessandro; Turco, Sheera; Piussi, Pietro; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    About 5% of forest area of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) is covered by mixed ash stands. In most cases, these are secondary forest established on former pastures and grasslands in the last fifty years and they constitute an important resource from an economic point of view. This paper presents allometric equations describing tree size-shape relationships for ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and wych elm (Ulmus glabra Hudson). Diameter at breast height explained most of the variability of the depen...

  17. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  18. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of the hybrid. Compared to the Siberian Stone Pine, the Japanese Stone Pine had higher dark respiration rate.The hybrid respiration rate was similar to that of the Japanese Stone Pine suggesting that the hybrid inherited mitochondria from thisspecies. Our findings indicated that the P. pumila exhibited particular ecological plasticity and this phenomenon is attributable to its high potential activity of photosynthetic and respiratory processes. These physiological features explained the large transcontinental naturalhabitat of Japanese Stone Pine.

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia, M E; Nazrun, A S; Norazlina, M; Isa, N M; Norliza, M; Ima Nirwana, S

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-? production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis. PMID:22611381

  20. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Petrova; S.N. Goroshkevich; Y.S. Belokon; D.V. Politov

    2008-01-01

    Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin) by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca...

  1. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

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    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  2. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using Ulmus carpinifolia and Fraxinus excelsior tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangi, Mohammad Reza; Shahmoradi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Azimi, Gholam Hassan; Ghorbandoost, Morteza

    2008-07-15

    Ulmus carpinifolia and Fraxinus excelsior tree leaves, which are in great supply in Iran, were evaluated for removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. Maximum biosorption capacities for U. carpinifolia and F. excelsior were measured as 201.1, 172.0 mg/g for Pb(II), 80.0, 67.2 mg/g for Cd(II) and 69.5, 33.1 mg/g for Cu(II), respectively. For both sorbents the most effective pH range was found to be 2-5 for Pb(II), 3-5 for Cd(II) and 4-5 for Cu(II). Metal ion biosorption increased as the ratio of metal solution to the biomass quantity decreased. Conversely, biosorption/g biosorbent decreased as the quantity of biomass increased. The biosorption of metal ions increased as the initial metal concentration increased. Biosorption capacities of metal ions were in the following order: Pb(II)>Cd(II)>Cu(II). The equilibrium data for Pb(II) and Cu(II) best fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the biosorption rates could be described by a second-order expression. Both the sorbents could be regenerated using 0.2 M HCl during repeated biosorption-desorption cycles with no loss in the efficiency of the Cu(II) removal observed. Biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) was investigated in the presence of Na, K, Mg and Ca ions. The results from these studies show a novel way of using U. carpinifolia and F. excelsior tree leaves to remove Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from metal-polluted waters. PMID:18191021

  3. Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare events, and were absent in most populations of Wiebesia sp. 1 and 2. Further studies are needed to distinguish between mechanisms potentially generating this rarity, such as purifying selection, genetic drift or amplification failure.

  4. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor’s transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Venturas, Martin; Cervera, María Teresa; Gil, Luis; Collada, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Elms, especially Ulmus minor and U. americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED). This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i) obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii) perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii) identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv) develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 27,359). In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87% of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations. PMID:26257751

  5. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  6. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  7. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (? and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  8. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  9. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  10. Late Holocene expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in Kamchatka in response to increased snow cover as inferred from lacustrine oxygen-isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Dan; Klimaschewski, Andrea; St. Amour, Natalie A.; Andrén, Elinor; Self, Angela E.; Solovieva, Nadia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Barnekow, Lena; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2015-11-01

    Holocene records of cellulose-inferred lake-water ?18O were produced from two lake-sediment sequences obtained in central and northern Kamchatka, Russian Far East. The sediment records share similar fluctuations in ?18O during the interval of ca. 5000-800 cal yr BP that correspond (inversely) with changes in K+ content of the GISP2 ice-core record from Greenland, a proxy for the relative strength of the Siberian High, suggesting control by climate-related variability in ?18O of regional precipitation. The dramatic expansion of Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila) in northern and central Kamchatka between ca. 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP, as inferred from pollen records from the same and neighbouring sites, appears to have occurred at a time of progressively declining ?18O of precipitation. This development is interpreted as reflecting a regional cooling trend accompanied by increasing winter snowfall related to gradual intensification of the Siberian High from ca. 5000 to ca. 3000 cal yr BP. A thicker and more long-lasting snow cover can be assumed to have favoured P. pumila by providing a competitive advantage over other boreal and subalpine tree and shrub species in the region during the later part of the Holocene. These results, which are the first of their kind from Kamchatka, provide novel insight into the Holocene vegetational and climatic development in easternmost Asia, as well as long-term atmospheric circulation dynamics in Beringia.

  11. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

  12. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  13. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gómez; Michael J., Wynne.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  14. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Reyes-Gómez, Viviana P; Wynne, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350,000 km2. However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37 m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5 mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions. PMID:24027904

  15. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta, a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gavio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta, Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length, its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae, its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  16. Toponymic Data Helps to Reveal the Occurrence of Previously Unknown Populations of Wild Zamia pumila L. on Volcanic Substrates in South Central Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the Taínos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought. 

  17. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Nissen, S J; Sutter, E G

    1989-02-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using (13)[C(6)]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 +/- 6.5 versus 166.6 +/- 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 +/- 4.4 versus 263.7 +/- 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  18. Causes and consequences of exotic tree invasion in the Iberian peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    González Muñoz, Noelia

    2012-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en el estudio de especies de árboles nativos y exóticos coexistentes en bosques de ribera del centro de la Península Ibérica y en bosques mésicos del noroeste peninsular. En el caso de los bosques de ribera del centro peninsular, las especies estudiadas fueron las nativas Fraxinus angustifolia, Populus alba y Ulmus minor y las exóticas Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. En los bosques del noroeste, las ...

  19. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  20. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  1. Development of Nuclear Microsatellites for the Arcto-Tertiary Tree Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira H. Maharramova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The current study aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers for the relict tree species , which is threatened in its natural range in the South Caucasus. Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library on the Roche FLX platform using the 454 Titanium kit produced 86,058 sequence reads, most of which contained short tandem repeats. Eighty microsatellite loci identified using the software package QDD version 1 were selected and tested for proper PCR amplification. Of these, 13 allowed proper amplification and were shown to be polymorphic among a sample of 25 Z. carpinifolia specimens from various geographic origins. Conclusions: The set of microsatellite markers will be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in Z. carpinifolia. They will allow for an examination of phylogeographic patterns as well as of population structure and gene flow within this species.

  2. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

  3. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia, Allegrucci; Lorena, Elíades; Ana María, Bucsinszky; Marta, Cabello; Angélica, Arambarri.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales [...] durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad. Abstract in english In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were [...] isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  4. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  5. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  6. Integración de impactos ecológicos causados por plantas exóticas invasoras: propuesta metodológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castro-Díez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto en España como en Europa existen demasiadas plantas exóticas invasoras para poder afrontar la gestión de todas ellas, por lo que es necesario priorizar las más nocivas. Sin embargo, ello requiere disponer de medidas cuantitativas, sistemáticas y comparables de su impacto. La información disponible es desigual en cuanto a los criterios y variables para medir impactos y por tanto difícil de integrar. Proponemos el siguiente método para integrar medidas de impactos procedentes de distintos estudios: 1 Búsqueda de casos de estudio, 2 cálculo de tamaños del efecto; 3 clasificación de los casos por nivel de organización, 4 integración de los tamaños del efecto para cada especie y nivel de impacto con técnicas de meta-análisis, y 5 estima de un índice de fiabilidad (basado en el número de casos y otro de consistencia (basado en la heterogeneidad entre casos. Aplicamos este método para estimar los impactos en España de tres árboles invasores (Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. Encontramos 50 casos para A. altissima, 39 para R. pseudoacacia y 15 para U. pumila. Los impactos en el nivel de ecosistema (fertilidad fueron los más estudiados, mientras que los de comunidad e individuo están menos documentados. Robinia pseudoacacia tiende a incrementar la fertilidad, mientras que A. altissima no altera esta propiedad. La metodología propuesta tiene la ventaja de permitir estimar el impacto con datos de estudios diversos, pero su aplicación está limitada por la disponibilidad de casos de estudio.

  7. Anti-proliferative effect of Ficus pumila Linn. on human leukemic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Larbie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that crude extracts of FPS and FPL have anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells. The antioxidant properties of the plant including phenolics may be partly responsible for the anti-proliferative activity. Further studies are required to isolate chemical components of the plant and establish their anti-proliferative activities and mechanism of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 330-336

  8. Biological Flora of Central Europe: Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckstein, R. L.; Hölzel, N.; Danihelka, Ji?í

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 8, - (2006), s. 45-66. ISSN 1433-8319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ecology * species biology * Viola persicifolia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2006

  9. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ima Nirwana; Norliza, M.; N.M. Isa; Norazlina, M.; Nazrun, A. S.; M. E. Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these ...

  10. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. Zotikova; G. Vasilieva

    2013-01-01

    A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to i...

  11. Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trac ... (bittersweet family) Euonymus fortunei, Vitaceae (grape ... family) Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Rubiaceae (ma ...

  12. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yata?an basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Mu?la province, western Turkey). In the Yata?an basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yata?an Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yata?an basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae, Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yata?an basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  13. Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos / Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R., Trevisan; C.P., Lima; C.M.S., Miyazaki; F.A., Pesci; C.B., Silva; B.C.K., Hirota; A.L.L., Lordello; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; S.M.W., Zanin.

    Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urin [...] árias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos) foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico. Abstract in english The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infec [...] tions and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes) were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

  14. Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Trevisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urinárias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico.The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infections and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

  15. In vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple (M. pumila Miller cv Annurca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ritieni, Alberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2013-12-15

    The in vitro bioaccessibility, bioavailability and plasma protein interaction of polyphenols from Annurca apple and other conventional cultivars were evaluated. Salivary digestion concentrated into the medium 27-35% of native apple polyphenols, suggesting the potential bioavailability through the oral mucosal epithelium of significant amounts of bioactive compounds that could be gastric sensitive and/or poorly absorbed in the intestine. Annurca flesh revealed the highest content and provided the best intestinal bioaccessibility and bioavailability of oligomeric procyanidins among all of the apple peel and flesh tested. Since 49.4% of native procyanidins were not absorbed, they are expected to accumulate in the intestinal lumen where a potential inhibition capacity of cellular cholesterol uptake could be assumed. The permeated procyanidins (6.7% of their native pattern, 12.0% of intestinal procyanidins) significantly bound (58.7%) to plasma HDLs, suggesting a major role in cholesterol metabolism. Our results would indicate Annurca apple and its potential nutraceuticals as effective in the regulation of plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:23993515

  16. Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

  17. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...35 in) long with whitish or yellowish-cream stellate (star-shaped) hairs on the lower surfaces. The bark is light...cambium all the way around the infected area. This results in the death of most of the above-ground portion of the tree. After...

  18. ???????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ????????, ????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ?. ??????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ???????????? ????????

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? (Lumbricidae ?? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???????? Acer platanoides L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Ulmus minor Mill. ? ?????? ?. ??????????????. ???????????, ??? ??????????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ?????? ????.

  19. Adaptation to different host plant ages facilitates insect divergence without a host shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Segraves, Kari A; Xue, Huai-Jun; Nie, Rui-E; Li, Wen-Zhu; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2015-09-22

    Host shifts and subsequent adaption to novel host plants are important drivers of speciation among phytophagous insects. However, there is considerably less evidence for host plant-mediated speciation in the absence of a host shift. Here, we investigated divergence of two sympatric sister elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and P. aenescens, which feed on different age classes of the elm Ulmus pumila L. (seedling versus adult trees). Using a field survey coupled with preference and performance trials, we show that these beetle species are highly divergent in both feeding and oviposition preference and specialize on either seedling or adult stages of their host plant. An experiment using artificial leaf discs painted with leaf surface wax extracts showed that host plant chemistry is a critical element that shapes preference. Specialization appears to be driven by adaptive divergence as there was also evidence of divergent selection; beetles had significantly higher survival and fecundity when reared on their natal host plant age class. Together, the results identify the first probable example of divergence induced by host plant age, thus extending how phytophagous insects might diversify in the absence of host shifts. PMID:26378220

  20. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  1. Análisis de la invasión del hábitat ribereño por tres árboles exóticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio diagnostica y valora la invasión de las especies exóticas Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, Robinia pseudoacacia L. y Ulmus pumila L. en hábitats ribereños españoles. Se recorrieron las riberas de los ríos Henares, Oria y el tramo medio del río Ebro en busca de rodales de estas tres especies, con la intención de determinar el grado de invasión de cada zona y especie, así como las características de los rodales y de los hábitats que ocupan cada una de ellas. Se anotó el origen (plantado/espontáneo, tamaño, densidad y características del hábitat (bióticas, abióticas e influencia humana de todos ellos. El grado de invasión fue mayor en la ribera del Henares, donde existe una mayor influencia antrópica y densidad de fuentes de propágulos. Cada especie presentó un mayor grado de invasión en una zona diferente. Los rodales espontáneos de las riberas del Henares y del Ebro son pequeños comparados con los del Oria. Las tres especies coexisten en hábitats con alta disponibilidad de luz, baja competencia y fuerte influencia antrópica, pero también pueden ocupar zonas de mayor cobertura arbórea. Las diferentes condiciones del hábitat en que se plantaron las especies y el hábitat donde se naturalizan podrían explicarse en gran medida por los mecanismos de dispersión utilizados por cada una.

  2. The effect of microbial inocula on the growth of black locust, Siberian elm and silver maple seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of forest plants depend mostly on the soil microbial activity since no mineral or organic fertilizers are applied. Microbial processes can be activated and conditions for plants development improved with the introduction of selected microorganisms in the soil. With the aim of obtaining quality planting material in a shorter period of time, the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Streptomyces sp. on the early growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila and silver-leaf maple (Acer dasycarpum were investigated in this study. Microorganisms were applied individually and in a mixture (1:1. Plant height was measured on the 90th, 120th and 180th day after planting. Plant diameter, as well as the number of actinomycetes and azotobacters was measured at the end of the vegetation period (180 days after planting. Applied microorganisms had a positive effect on the seedling height in all three plant species, with the best effect found in the black locust. Effectiveness of applied microorganisms on seedling diameter was the highest in the silver-leaf maple. The largest number of azotobacters was found in the rhizosphere of black locust. Number of microorganisms from both groups was increased in the inoculated variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002

  3. Two new species of celtis (Celtidaceae) from Australia and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarian, A.; Maesen, L.J.G., van der

    2005-01-01

    Celtis australiensis Sattarian is described from Australia and Celtis madagascariensis Sattarian is new for Madagascar. Both new Celtidaceae (formerly Ulmaceae-Celtidoideae) are illustrated with a photograph.

  4. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...biological resources. This subunit meets the definition of critical...pumila for resources, from human foot and...and from development. Please...pumila for resources, human encroachment...potential development. Please...meets the definition of...

  5. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongqiu; Wang, Lianhua; Bai, Zhongke; Pan, Ziguan; Wang, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Afforestation of native tree species is often recommended for ecological restoration in mining areas, but the understanding of the ecological processes of restored vegetation is quite limited. In order to provide insight of the ecological processes of restored vegetation, in this study, we investigate the development of the population structure and spatial distribution patterns of restored Robinia pseudoacacia (ROPS) and Pinus tabuliformis (PITA) mixed forests during the 17 years of the mine spoil period of the Pingshuo opencast mine, Shanxi Province, China. After a 17-year succession, apart from the two planted species, Ulmus pumila (ULPU), as an invasive species, settled in the plot along with a large number of small diameter at breast height (DBH) size. In total, there are 10,062 living individual plants, much more than that at the plantation (5105), and ROPS had become the dominant species with a section area with a breast height of 9.40 m(2) hm(-2) and a mean DBH of 6.72 cm, much higher than both PITA and ULPU. The DBH size classes of all the total species showed inverted J-shaped distributions, which may have been a result of the large number of small regenerated ULPU trees. The DBH size classes of both ROPS and PITA showed peak-type structures with individuals mainly gathering in the moderate DBH size class, indicating a relatively healthy DBH size class structure. Meanwhile, invasive ULPU were distributed in a clear L shape, concentrating on the small DBH size class, indicating a relatively low survival rate for adult trees. Both ROPS and PITA species survival in the plantation showed uniform and aggregated distribution at small scales and random with scales increasing. ULPU showed a strong aggregation at small scales as well as random with scales increasing. Both the population structure and spatial distribution indicated that ROPS dominates and will continue to dominate the community in the future succession, which should be continuously monitored. PMID:26071680

  6. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini L; Santini A

    2009-01-01

    European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.) have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED). Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these colle...

  7. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Surender Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, anal...

  8. 76 FR 30377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California, Nevada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ...62 FR 40957; 07/31/ confertiflora. 1997 Showy indian clover...pertaining to the biology or ecology of these species; information...414-6600. San Diego ambrosia.............. Ambrosia pumila... No status...

  9. Population biology of rare plants : the effects of ecological and genetic processes for the growth and viability of populations of three endangered floodplain violets

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    This work contains studies on various aspects of the population biology of the congeneric plants Viola elatior Fries, V. pumila Chaix and V. stagnina Kit.. These are endangered and red listed in many countries. They show a continental distribution range. In Central Europe the species reach their western range margin. These violets have a complex life-cycle, a mixed mating system with chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers and a persistent seed bank. Viola pumila and V. stagnina o...

  10. Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina: aspectos Morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae.Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia: morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

  11. Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina): aspectos Morfológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alicia, Forcone; Silvina, Ruppel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, [...] Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae. Abstract in english Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia): morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. [...] Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

  12. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barth Ortrud M.; Barreto Cíntia F.; Coelho Luciane G.; Luz Cynthia F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed...

  13. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos; Heleno Dias Ferreira; Walter Santos de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) e Ulmaceae (4) as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elips...

  14. Macromycetes occurring in floodplain forests near Ithaca, New York, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    1985-01-01

    Mycocoenological s?udies were carried out in 1982 on three permanent plots in floodplain forests of Ulmus-Fraxinus type. In one growing season 151 species of macrofungi were recorded during 13 collecting trips. Inspite of floristic differences in vascular plants, the forests studied have the majority of macrofungi in common with European alluvial forests.

  15. Environ: E00505 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00505 Grinded paste of Ulmus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf Ulmi pasta Crude drug U ... mus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf (in time ... mud) left for several days to rot and ferment, sha ...

  16. Variation in life-cycle between three rare and endangered floodplain violets in two regions: implications for population viability and conservation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckstein, R. L.; Danihelka, Ji?í; Otte, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 1 (2009), s. 69-80. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Viola elatior * Viola pumila * Viola stagnina Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  17. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks / Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; José Itamar, Boneti; Rubens Onofre, Nodari; Miguel Pedro, Guerra.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) e Malus pumila (M9) depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1) e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1). Embriões originado [...] s do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA), ácido giberélico (GA3), cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%), originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1), principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais. Abstract in english The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from inters [...] pecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1), mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%). Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.

  18. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Ortrud M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  19. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, Cíntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

    2004-09-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region. PMID:15334253

  20. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ortrud M., Barth; Cíntia F., Barreto; Luciane G., Coelho; Cynthia F.P., Luz.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais [...] freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Atividades agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pol [...] len grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  1. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  2. Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro / Assessment of extinction risk of Urticineae from sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Cardoso, Pederneiras; Andrea Ferreira da, Costa; Jorge Pedro Pereira, Carauta; Sergio, Romaniuc Neto.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados o georreferenciamento e as análises de avaliação de risco de extinção seguindo os critérios e categorias da IUCN para 32 espécies de Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae e Moraceae) ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Materiais correspondentes a essas espé [...] cies foram examinados nos principais herbários brasileiros, sendo selecionados 2524 registros para a avaliação. Dentre as 32 espécies, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis e Phyllostylon brasiliense encontraram-se ameaçadas de extinção, já Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana e S. hilarii deixaram de ser consideradas ameaçadas de extinção pelo recente estudo. Os resultados apontaram, como localidades de importância conservacionista, os municípios de Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro e Saquarema. Abstract in english This paper conducted georeferencing and analyzes of extinction risk assessments following the criteria and categories from IUCN for 32 species of Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae) occurring in the sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Materials corresponding [...] to these species were examined in major Brazilian herbaria and 2524 records were selected for evaluation. Among the 32 species, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis and Phyllostylon brasiliense fall into endangered category, and Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana and S. hilarii were not considered threatened. The locations of conservation importance belong to the municipalities of Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro and Saquarema.

  3. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  4. Allométrie du bois de cœur et de l'aubier pour sept espèces d'arbres tempérées chinoises

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Zhang, Quanzhi; Quan, Xiankuai

    2010-01-01

    * Allometry of sapwood/heartwood is essential for understanding tree growth, water transport and carbon allocation, timber production and use, but such an allometry is lacking for Chinese temperate tree species.* We studied the allometry and development of heartwood and sapwood for seven Chinese temperate tree species: Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.), Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana Planch var. japonica (Rehd.) Nakai), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus...

  5. Leaf Anatomical Acclimation of Six Tree Species to Low Soil Water Content

    OpenAIRE

    Xiongwen Chen; JieWen

    2005-01-01

    Whether plant adaptation to soil water stress is related to their anatomical change is important to ecophysiological research. The leaf anatomical changes of six coexisting tree species (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Ulmus japonica (Rehd) Sarg. and Quercus mongolica Fisch.) from a typical community of the mixed coniferous and broadleaved Korean pine forest in Northeast China acclimated to Relative Soil Water Conten...

  6. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  7. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    OpenAIRE

    Büchel Kerstin; McDowell Eric; Nelson Will; Descour Anne; Gershenzon Jonathan; Hilker Monika; Soderlund Carol; Gang David R; Fenning Trevor; Meiners Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms a...

  8. Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Diez, P.; González-Muñoz, N; A. Alonso; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the native trees Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia, respectively. Naturally senesced leaves of each species were collected and C:N ratio, N and lignin content assessed. We prepared 64 litter bags per sp...

  9. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of incorporation of elm leaves (Ulmus glabra) into an agricultural sandy loam soil by earthworms (Lumbricus festivus) on the bacterial and protozoan populations were investigated. Three model systems consisting of soil, soil with leaves, and soil with leaves and earthworms, respectively, were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions...

  10. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

  11. Dynamic Simulation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency in Apple Tree Canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoquan Gao; Shezhang Feng; Zhiqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    We developed a model that couples canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration and canopy Water Use Efficiency (WUE) in an apple orchard (Malus pumila Mill. ‘Fuji’). The model used the Penman-Monteith equation to compute effects of the interaction between canopy transpiration rate (Tr) and microclimatic factors. For convenience, WUE was expressed as the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration rate; we simulated the relationship between WUE and microclimatic factors. Models developed were teste...

  12. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the...

  13. Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciornea; Gabriela Vasile

    2008-01-01

    The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass), Festuca pratensis (hair grass) and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass), as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzym...

  14. Flora and segetal vegetation of the Bolimów Nature Park. Part II. Segetal vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula A. Warcholi?ska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of researches on the segetal vegetation of the Bolimów Nature Park. In the area of research, 10 segetal associations and 1 community - 5 associations and 1 community of the Secalietea class and 5 associations of the Chenopodietea class - have been found. Among them following ones are quite interesting: Community with Saxifraga tridactylites, Galio-Ranunculetum arvensis, Veronico-Setarietum pumilae and Bilderdykio-Lamietum amplexicuule.

  15. Biocatalytic asymmetric formation of tetrahydro-?-carbolines

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Peter; Usera, Aimee R.; O'Connor, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    Strictosidine synthase triggers the formation of strictosidine from tryptamine and secologanin, thereby generating a carbon-carbon bond and a new stereogenic center. Strictosidine contains a tetrahydro-?-carboline moiety ? an important N-heterocyclic framework found in a range of natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Stereoselective methods to produce tetrahydro-?-carboline enantiomers are greatly valued. We report that strictosidine synthase from Ophiorrhiza pumila utilizes a range...

  16. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Curkovic; Brunner, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reducti...

  17. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajir Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  18. Correlation between auditory sensitivity and vocalization in anabantoid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladich, F; Yan, H Y

    1998-06-01

    Several anabantoid species produce broadband sounds with high-pitched dominant frequencies (0.8-2.5 kHz), which contrast with generally low-frequency hearing abilities in (perciform) fishes. Utilizing a recently developed auditory brainstem response recording-technique, auditory sensitivities of the gouramis Trichopsis vittata, T. pumila, Colisa lalia, Macropodus opercularis and Trichogaster trichopterus were investigated and compared with the sound characteristics of the respective species. All five species exhibited enhanced sound-detecting abilities and perceived tone bursts up to 5 kHz, which qualifies this group as hearing specialists. All fishes possessed a high-frequency sensitivity maximum between 800 Hz and 1500 Hz. Lowest hearing thresholds were found in T. trichopterus (76 dB re I microPa at 800 Hz). Dominant frequencies of sounds correspond with the best hearing bandwidth in T. vittata (1-2 kHz) and C. lalia (0.8-1 kHz). In the smallest species, T. pumila, dominant frequencies of acoustic signals (1.5-2.5 kHz) do not match lowest thresholds, which were below 1.5 kHz. However, of all species studied, T. pumila had best hearing sensitivity at frequencies above 2 kHz. The association between high-pitched sounds and hearing may be caused by the suprabranchial airbreathing chamber, which, lying close to the hearing and sonic organs, enhances both sound perception and emission at its resonant frequency. PMID:9631554

  19. Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wolfgang, Volkheimer; Martín G., Novara; Paula L., Narváez; Rosa A., Marquillas.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

  20. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 e Ulmaceae (4 as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical.In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 and Ulmaceae (4 having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  1. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetakovi? Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  2. REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE / REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastián, Teillier; Felipe, Escobar.

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaulther [...] ia es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con amplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaulth [...] eria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa among species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

  3. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    OpenAIRE

    N. Zapata; M. Vargas; Medina, P

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas...

  4. Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass, Festuca pratensis (hair grass and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass, as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzyme plays an at least as equally important role as the ?-amylase and, on the other, the considerable differences observed among the three Poaceae species from cultivated and, respectively, spontaneous flora.

  5. Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

  6. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  7. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  8. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo R Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conocimiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA. The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  9. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino / Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo R, Torres; Liliana C, Lupo; Ana C, Sánchez; Karsten, Schittek.

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conoc [...] imiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA). Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis. Abstract in english The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of [...] high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA). The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  10. Late Quaternary vegetation of Chukotka (Northeast Russia), implications for Glacial and Holocene environments of Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Two lake records from the Kankaren region of southern Chukotka, when combined with other palynological and macrofossil data, document spatial and temporal variations in the regional vegetation history since ˜21,000 14C/25,400 cal yr BP. Full-glacial environments were severely cold and arid in central and northern Chukotka, whereas southern sites experienced conditions that were relatively moist, although still drier than present. Southern Chukotka may represent a western extension of environments of the land bridge proper, including a possible 'moisture' barrier to intercontinental migration. Shrub Betula tundra established earliest in southern Chukotka (˜15,800-14,000 14C/19,000-16,700 cal yr BP; ˜13,000 14C/15,300 cal yr BP central and north), Pinus pumila earliest in the north (˜9600 14C/11,100 cal yr BP; ˜7600 14C/8400 cal yr BP south), and shrub Alnus earliest in both the south and north (˜12,000-11,000 14C/13,800-12,900 cal yr BP). These patterns support the presence of cryptic refugia for Betula and Alnus in Chukotka during the full glaciation. In contrast, P. pumila probably migrated into Chukotka from populations located in the northern coastal lowlands and from mountainous regions of southwestern Beringia. Evidence for a thermal optimum (˜11,000-8000 14C/12,900-9000 cal yr BP) is strong in northern Chukotka but is absent in central and southern areas.

  11. A NEW SPECIES OF CASTILLEJA (OROBANCHACEAE) FROM THE PÁRAMOS OF THE COLOMBIAN EASTERN CORDILLERA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLANTAGO RIGIDA (PLANTAGINACEAE) / Una especie nueva de Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) de los páramos de la cordillera Oriental de Colombia, con comentarios acerca de su asociación con Plantago rigida (Plantaginaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FAVIO, GONZÁLEZ; NATALIA, PABÓN-MORA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, una especie de hierbas perennes pequeñas propias de páramos de Santander, Boyacá y Cundinamarca, en la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana, es descrita y detalladamente ilustrada con fotografías de la colección tipo. La especie nueva es morfológica- y ecoló [...] gicamente similar a C. nubigena, C. pumila y C. virgata, tres especies perennes de zonas altoandinas de Ecuador, Perú y norte de Chile y Argentina. Castilleja paramensis se distingue claramente de sus especies afines por el tamaño pequeño de los individuos, las hojas y las brácteas ancho-elípticas (las cuales son enteras a levemente 3-lobadas), el pedicelo extremadamente corto ( Abstract in english Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically si [...] milar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relatives by the small size of the individuals, the broadly elliptic leaves and bracts (which are entire to slightly trilobed), the short (

  12. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  13. Detección y abundancia de especies del género Frankliniella en una zona protegida de San José de las Lajas en la provincia de Mayabeque, Cuba / Detection and abundance of species of the genus Frankliniella in a protected zone of San José de las Lajas in Mayabeque province, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, González; Neisy, Castillo; Axel P., Retana-Salazar.

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un ecosistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella, el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, l [...] o que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch, con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor incidencia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae. Abstract in english During the period between April and August of 2009, 29 species of plants, located in 21 botanical families were sampled in an ecosystem protected in Mayabeque province. Nine species were determined inside the genus Frankliniella, the one that impacted in 23 of the botanical species, with 79.31%. Of [...] the trips species, the one that bigger incidence had was Frankliniella williamsi Hood with 62.06% and Frankliniella tritici Fitc with 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura associated to six and five species of plants, reaching 20.68 and 17.24% of incidence respectively. The botanical species with more trips incidence was Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich, and Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. The most abundant species were Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. The botanical families with more trips incidence were Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae and Rubiaceae. In the families' Bombacaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae and Ulmaceae were not found any species of trips.

  14. STRUCTURE OF CONSORTIUM DESTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KRIVYI RIG BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ?he structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortiums and their use in monitoring should be based on regulation of energy balance, material parameters and biomass of determinants of consortium, changes in components of autotrophic and heterotrophic blocks of consortium, estimation of function of biogeochemical threshold by coefficients that reflect the intensity of allocation of acids and contrast of destruction and acid-base conditions.

  15. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

  16. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghelardini L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus. This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

  17. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  18. Functioning haemoglobin genes in non-nodulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, D; Appleby, C A; Landsmann, J; Dennis, E S; Trinick, M J; Peacock, W J

    1988-01-14

    Haemoglobin has previously been recorded in plants only in the nitrogen-fixing nodules formed by symbiotic association between Rhizobium or Frankia and legume or non-legume hosts. Structural similarities amongst these and animal haemoglobins at the protein and gene level suggested a common evolutionary origin. This suggests that haemoglobin genes, inherited from an ancestor common to plants and animals, might be present in all plants. We report here the isolation of a haemoglobin gene from Trema tomentosa, a non-nodulating relative of Parasponia (Ulmaceae). The gene has three introns located at positions identical to those in the haemoglobin genes of nodulating plant species, strengthening the case for a common origin of all plant haemoglobin genes. The data argue strongly against horizontal haemoglobin gene transfer from animals to plants. The Trema gene has a tissue-specific pattern of transcription and translation, producing monomeric haemoglobin in Trema roots. We have also found that the Parasponia haemoglobin gene is transcribed in roots of non-nodulated plants. These results suggest that haemoglobin has a role in the respiratory metabolism of root cells of all plant species. We propose that its special role in nitrogen-fixing nodules has required adaptation of the haemoglobin-gene regulation pathway, to give high expression in the specialized environment of the nodule. PMID:2448639

  19. Detección y abundancia de especies del género Frankliniella en una zona protegida de San José de las Lajas en la provincia de Mayabeque, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un ecosistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella, el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, lo que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch, con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor incidencia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae.

  20. Influence of fumes from industrial works on the seasonal development of trees and shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, V.G.

    1957-01-01

    Phenological observations were made at Leningrad in 1953 and 1954 on woody species growing near three chemical works. Controls were observed in an unpolluted park. Data on the relative incidence of the main phenological phases (flushing, flowering, fruiting, autumn coloration and leaf-fall) are tabulated separately for each works. Pollution curtailed the growing season to some degree in all species; its effect in hastening coloration and leaf-fall was more marked than in retarding the spring phases. The least susceptible species were Populus balsamifera, P. suaveolens, Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Amelanchier rotundifolia and Lonicera tatarica. Species unsuited for cultivation in these conditions are Caragana arborescens, Prunus padus, Tilia cordata, Ulmus laevis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa.

  1. Evaluation of the choice of forest tree species for the generation of clearings caused by pollution of forests of Ostrava Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richtar, V.

    1971-01-01

    One of the serious problems in the Ostrava basin forests is the clearings caused by the activity of solid and fluid pollutants. For examining the choice of forest tree species for such clear-cut areas, two sample plots were established in April 1964, each covering an area of 0.18 ha. The following tree species were used for the establishment of plantations: Picea excelsa Link, Pinus silvestris L., Larix decidua Mill., Pinus strobus L., Fagus silvatica L., Quercus robur L., Quercus rubra L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Tilia cordata Mill., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Ulmus carpinifolia Gled. and Carpinus betulus L. Each year by 1 October assessments were made on the losses caused by dying off, height and diameter increments of plants and their total viability and state of health were evaluated.

  2. Causes of the dying of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the Okhta training-cum-experimental forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podzorov, N.V.

    1961-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the health of these stands on the outskirts of Leningrad, where there has been considerable and increasing mortality since 1880. The chief causes are air pollution (especially from the Okhta chemical industry), climatic upsets, and periodic excesses of soil moisture. Counter measures recommended include: creating a protective belt 300-350 m wide of the most smoke resistant trees (Larix sibirica, Betula pubescens, Populus X canadensis, Tilia cordata, Acer negundo, Ulmus glabra and U. laevis) in the areas closest to the city, with the rows at 90/sup 0/ to the direction of the prevailing wind. Site improvement measures should be undertaken on level ground, heavy soils, and areas with excess soil moisture, and mixtures of conifers and broadleaved species should be planted. 7 references.

  3. [Dynamic changes of dominant tree species in broad-leaved Korean pine forest at different succession stages in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-ping; Ji, Lan-zhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zhi-xuan

    2011-04-01

    Taking the broad-leaved Korean pine forest stands at four different succession stages after clear-cutting in Changbai Mountains as test objects, this paper studied the change characteristics of community composition and dominant species. The tree species richness, Shannon diversity index, and Simpson dominance index at different succession stages had less change, but the evenness and abundance changed greatly. As succession progressed, the community composition changed constantly, i.e., species number decreased, while the basal area sum and the maximum importance value of dominant tree species increased, suggesting that the dominance of dominant species was continuously improved with succession. In the succession process of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Ulmus japonica, and other intolerant or semi-intolerant tree species decreased, while Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Acer mono, and other shade-tolerant species increased. PMID:21774305

  4. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  5. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  6. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiki? V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  7. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  8. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  9. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).

  10. [Effects of topography on seedling regeneration in a mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Guang-Ze

    2013-11-01

    To explore the responses of forest seedlings to topographic heterogeneity, nine hundreds of 4 m2 (2 m x 2 m) quadrats with perennial seedlings (H > or = 30 cm, DBH 90% of the total. Topography had significant effects on the seedling distribution of the 8 major tree species. For Syringa reticulate var. mandshurica, Abies nephrolepis, Acer mono, Ulmus japonica, A. ukurunduense, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum, the spatial distribution of the seedlings was consistent with that of grown trees; but for Pinus koraiensis, the spatial distribution of seedlings was inconsistent with that of the grown trees. The mortality of S. reticulate var. mandshurica, A. nephrolepis, U. laciniata, A. tegmentosum, and T. amurensis seedlings was significantly correlated with the topography. The recruitment of S. reticulate var. mandshurica, U. japonica, P. koraiensis, A. nephrolepis, Fraxinus mandshurica, A. mono, and T. amurensis seedlings was also significantly correlated with the topography. PMID:24564129

  11. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T?icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcle? fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcle? is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcle? fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  12. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  13. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

  14. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  15. Dalby Söderskog revisited: long-term vegetation changes in a south Swedish deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Goddert; Brunet, Jörg

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we report on 67 years of secondary succession in the temperate deciduous forest Dalby Söderskog, southern Sweden. In 2002 vegetation analyses were conducted in 74 systematically distributed plots and the results compared with similar investigations during the years 1935, 1969 and 1976. Additionally, a floristic survey of the forest was made and compared with inventories of the years 1925, 1935 and 1970. From 1970 to 2002, overall species richness of the forest continued to decline, but at a lower rate than before. In 2002, for the first time, shade-tolerant forest species constituted the largest group. In the upper tree layer Fraxinus excelsior became the most important species, at the expense of Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra. In the herb layer, no changes in total or mean species richness were exhibited at plot scale between 1976 and 2002. In contrast to the lack of quantitative changes in species richness, we observed major changes in species composition at the plot level. In particular, the former dominant species Mercurialis perennis had declined markedly. After release from a historical regime of livestock grazing and irregular cuttings, the predicted steady-state community dominated by Ulmus and Mercurialis only prevailed for a few decades before unexpected external events, in this particular case Dutch elm disease and invasion by the slug Arion lusitanicus, initiated a successional change. We conclude that unexpected diseases or pests or rare climatic extremes can play a decisive role in forest dynamics and strongly interact with more gradual autogenic changes of forest structure and composition.

  16. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  17. Early Bashkirian Rugosa (Anthozoa) from the Donets Basin, Ukraine. Part 4. Cordibia, a new protocolonial genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy; Ogar, Viktor V.

    2013-09-01

    Cordibia pumila gen. et sp. nov. (Aulophyllidae, Dibunophyllinae) from the Lower Bashkirian E 1 Limestone of the Donets Basin, Ukraine is described. The term "protocolony" is formally defined as a growth form intermediate between the solitary and colonial. Protocolonies consist of protocorallites and verticils of non-reproductive offsets [i.e., the lost structures]. The early ontogeny of a protocorallite is compared to the blastogeny in the same species in order to establish characters in common during both processes and to document the usefulness of blastogeny for phylogenetic reconstructions. The short duration and abundance of the occurrence (Limestones E1up acme, E11 ) of that species also makes it a good marker for the lowest Feninian (= Krasnopolyanian) strata in the Donets Basin.

  18. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. PMID:25952870

  19. Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

    2012-01-01

    Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

  20. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  1. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas / Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Zapata; M., Vargas; P., Medina.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germ [...] inación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of w [...] eeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

  2. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

  3. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                     &n

  4. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

  5. Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis, red apple (Mallus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, pear (Pyrus calleryana, golden apple (Mallus pumila, pawpaw (Carica papaya, pineapple (Ananas comosus and banana (Musa acuminate} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS, Nitric Oxide (NO and hydroxyl (OH radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3 were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  6. Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, González Rodríguez; Israel, Cantú Silva; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Marco Vinicio, Gómez Meza; Marisela, Pando Moreno; Juan Manuel, López Hernández.

    Full Text Available Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parki [...] nsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) i [...] s influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

  7. Fifteen years' record of airborne allergenic pollen and meteorological parameters in Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Balafoutis, Christos; Damialis, Athanasios; Papakosta, Despoina; Gioulekas, George; Patakas, Dimitrios

    2004-02-01

    A pollen calendar has been constructed for the area of Thessaloniki and relationships between pollen transport and meteorological parameters have been assessed. Daily airborne pollen records were collected over a 15-year period (1987-2001), using a Burkard continuous volumetric pollen trap, located in the centre of the city. Sixteen allergenic pollen types were identified. Simultaneously, daily records of five main meteorological parameters (mean air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine, wind speed) were made, and then correlated with fluctuations of the airborne pollen concentrations. For the first time in Greece, a pollen calendar has been constructed for 16 pollen types, from which it appears that 24.9% of the total pollen recorded belong to Cupressaceae, 20.8% to Quercus spp., 13.6% to Urticaceae, 9.1% to Oleaceae, 8.9% to Pinaceae, 6.3% to Poaceae, 5.4% to Platanaceae, 3.0% to Corylus spp., 2.5% to Chenopodiaceae and 1.4% to Populus spp. The percentages of Betula spp., Asteraceae (Artemisia spp. and Ambrosia spp.), Salix spp., Ulmaceae and Alnus spp. were each lower than 1%. A positive correlation between pollen transport and both mean temperature and sunshine was observed, whereas usually no correlation was found between pollen and relative humidity or rainfall. Finally, wind speed was generally found to have a significant positive correlation with the concentrations of 8 pollen types. For the first time in the area of Thessaloniki, and more generally in Greece, 15-year allergenic pollen records have been collected and meteorological parameters have been recorded. The airborne pollen concentration is strongly influenced by mean air temperature and sunshine duration. The highest concentrations of pollen grains are observed during spring (May). PMID:14505161

  8. Competition by Bradyrhizobium Strains for Nodulation of the Nonlegume Parasponia andersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinick, M J; Hadobas, P A

    1989-05-01

    Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from the nonlegume Parasponia spp. formed a group of strains that were highly competitive for nodulation of P. andersonii when paired with strains isolated from legumes. Strains from legumes, including those of similar effectiveness to NGR231 and CP283, were not able to form nodules as single occupants on P. andersonii in the presence of Parasponia strains. However, NGR86, an isolate from Macroptilium lathyroides, jointly occupied one-third of the nodules formed with each of the three strains isolated from Parasponia spp. Time taken for nodules to appear may have influenced the outcome of competition, since CP283 and all isolates from legumes were slow to nodulate P. andersonii. Among the Parasponia strains, competitiveness for nodulation of P. andersonii was not associated with effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. The highly effective strain CP299 was a poor competitor when paired with the least effective strain NGR231. CP283 was the least competitive of the Parasponia strains but was still able to dominate nodules when paired with legume isolates. Dual occupancy was high, up to 67% when the inoculum contained CP299 and CP273. Both the Muc and Muc types of CP283 form a symbiosis of similar effectiveness and were similarly competitive at high inoculation densities, but the Muc form was more competitive at low inoculum densities. Both forms frequently occupied the same nodule. Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Parasponia spp. may have specific genetic information that favor their ability to competitively and effectively infect plants in the genus Parasponia (Ulmaceae) outside the Leguminosae. PMID:16347913

  9. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14°C), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4°C) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  10. Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

  11. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

  12. Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

  13. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Male Control in Washington State (USA Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU. Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Curkovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1 homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill. orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1, aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.. Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula

  14. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tomislav, Curkovic; Jay, F. Brunner.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

  15. Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

  16. THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY

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    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  17. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  18. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

  19. [Quantitative analysis of urban forest structure: a case study on Shenyang arboretum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenquan; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yunhao; Zhang, Yue; Ning, Zhuhua

    2003-12-01

    The spatial features and attribute data of urban forests in Shenyang arboretum were acquired by using aerial photographs and field investigation. After systemic and quantitative analysis of the species composition and spatial distribution pattern of urban forest community based on geographic information system (GIS), the following results were achieved: 1) the vegetation in the arboretum was rich and in a good condition. Phellodendron amurense, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Ulmus punita were the main species according to their abundant individuals and relative dominance. The spatial distribution pattern of this vegetation indicated that it was in a growing level and in the best state for ecological benefits; 2) the tree species relative dominance based on vegetation quantity had no distinct relationship with the species abundance, and the species having abundant individuals might have a low relative dominance; and 3) the curve displayed in the relationship diagram between tree individuals and tree height showed ascending and protruding. With the increment of tree height class, the individuals were unchanged nearly at the beginning, but when the height was more than 12 m, the individuals reduced distinctly, and the curve displayed a quickly declined trend. The relationship between tree individuals and tree diameter at the breast height (DBH) showed the same result. PMID:15031894

  20. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  1. Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

  2. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  3. Malacological and palynological evidence of the Lower Pleistocene cold phase at the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stworzewicz, Ewa; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Wójcik, Antoni

    2012-05-01

    Early Pleistocene sediments bearing gastropod shells and pollen flora were found during coring at Jawornik (South Poland) at a depth interval of 54.30-39.00 m, beneath the oldest till of the Carpathians. Thirteen land-snail taxa identified in 55 samples of the core formed two molluscan assemblages. In the bottom part, typical cold-loving snails were found (e.g. Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla loessica, Vertigo genesii, Columella columella), whereas in the upper part only Semilimax kotulae was present. The succession of molluscan assemblages may suggest that at the site of deposition, after a phase of tundra, steppe-tundra or forest-steppe landscape with patches of wet habitats in cold climate, the climate became slightly milder but still cool, favourable to the spreading of boreal (coniferous) woodlands. Pollen analysis was performed only for the upper part of the profile. The pollen spectra, besides the Tertiary (Miocene) elements, contained sporomorphs common to the Tertiary and Quaternary floras. Among them, the highest percentages were noted for Pinus haploxylon t., P. diploxylon t., Picea, Quercus, Ericaceae, Betula, and Ulmus. The fact that the sediments with organic remains underlie the oldest Scandinavian till suggests that they are older than the oldest glacial unit of the South-Polish Complex (Narevian = Menapian, ~ 1.2 Ma).

  4. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  5. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  6. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  7. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  8. Quantitative evaluation by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the chemical composition of decayed wood preserved in waterlogged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Benedetto; Pecoraro, Elisa; Alves, Ana; Macchioni, Nicola; Rodrigues, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the assessment of lignin and holocellulose by means of ATR-FTIR analysis and multivariate PLS regression. The analysis was conducted on 59 samples coming from different excavations where wood had been preserved in waterlogged conditions. A range of results from different wood species (Alnus sp.p., Cupressus sempervirens, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sp.p., Quercus sp.p., Ulmus sp.p.), states of preservation, waterlogged environments, and burial times are presented. A calibration model was selected after comparing different reference data (samples extracted and not-extracted, and ash-rich and ash-free bases of calculation for the calibration values), and two different post-acquisition spectroscopic manipulations (both in terms of normalisation procedures and of spectral ranges used for the calibration). Results showed that the best models were different depending on which considered component (lignin or holocellulose) was measured and to which data set (softwood or hardwood) the samples belonged. It is shown that the predictive ability of the models is affected by high ash content (too contaminated samples had to be excluded in order to attain good results, because of excessive overlapping of bands related to the inorganic fraction) but not by the preliminary extraction of sample. Furthermore, the stability of best models is also demonstrated and a procedure of external validation carried out on an external set of samples confirmed the general validity of the identified models. PMID:25281067

  9. From buds to litter: seasonal changes in leaf wax concentrations and carbon isotopes and implications for the geologic past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Y. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition (?13C) of leaf waxes, such as n-alkanes, have extensively been used in paleoenvironmental studies for reconstruction of the past vegetation, climate and carbon cycling. There is however little information available on the seasonal variation of leaf wax concentration and ?13C in modern plants and when the ?13C signal is set. This lack of information confounds interpretations of leaf wax ?13C in sedimentary archives. To address this gap, this study investigates temporal changes in n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid ?13C values in several species (Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Ulmus Americana, Sassafras albidum, and Juniperus virginiana) within a single temperate deciduous forest stand in southern Ohio. We sampled atmospheric air, buds, leaves, leaf litter, and surface soil weekly during leaf flush and biweekly thereafter. In A. rubrum, A. saccharum, and U. Americana, buds had one or two dominant n-alkanes, such as C29 and C31. After leaf flush, the concentrations of shorter n-alkanes (C23~C27) significantly increased relative to the longer chain-lengths. We are currently analyzing remaining samples from the growing season and are analyzing bulk leaf and leaf wax (n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids) ?13C values. This information will be important for identifying environmental and physiological controls on leaf wax ?13C and will improve interpretations of leaf wax ?13C preserved in the geologic record.

  10. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

  11. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  12. Physiological dissection of blue and red light regulation of apical dominance and branching in M9 apple rootstock growing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleo, Rosario; Morini, Stefano

    2008-11-28

    This paper presents the results of the interaction of red light (R) with blue light (B), applied to shoots of M9 apple (Malus pumila paradisiaca Schmid) rootstock, on the regulation of stem growth, apical dominance and branching. These results are compared with the active form of phytochromes (PHYs) under monochromatic and dichromatic light treatments. The inhibition of internode elongation was determined by PHY photoequilibrium, with the additional effect of B, by means of a separate photoreceptor. The development of phytomers appeared to be primarily due to the active form of PHY, with a marginal effect from B. Shoot growth, which combines internode elongation and development of the phytomer, was highest under R and lowest under B and far red light (FR), showing the largely positive role of PHY photoequilibrium. Under FR, reduced stem elongation was due to the very small number of phytomers formed. Apical dominance was inhibited, while branching was increased under R, corresponding to the highest values of PHY photoequilibrium determined. Apical dominance was increased and branching was reduced by B, indicating a complex interaction between PHY and B receptor. In the shoot cluster system, photomorphogenic behavior was dependent on the time of exposure to the different light qualities. The information gained from the study will be helpful in improving the set up of in vitro growth light conditions, and in providing useful insights into research of the development of the woody plant canopy, an important factor in ecological plant communities. PMID:18423933

  13. Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

  14. Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Williams

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

  15. Dynamic Simulation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency in Apple Tree Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoquan Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a model that couples canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration and canopy Water Use Efficiency (WUE in an apple orchard (Malus pumila Mill. ‘Fuji’. The model used the Penman-Monteith equation to compute effects of the interaction between canopy transpiration rate (Tr and microclimatic factors. For convenience, WUE was expressed as the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration rate; we simulated the relationship between WUE and microclimatic factors. Models developed were tested against observational data from an apple orchard (latitude 40° 13' N, longitude 116° 13? E, altitude 79 m. The models and parameters well simulated Tr and WUE in apple trees. The mathematical simulation showed strong interactions among various microclimatic factors and indicated that transpiration was driven mainly by Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and stomatal conductance. During the course of 1 day, transpiration increased (decreased as net radiation and stomatal conductance increased (decreased. Maximum transpiration rates of experimental trees (leaf area index, LAI = 2.53 were about 8 mmol/m2/s on clear days and about 3 mmol/m2/s on cloudy days. Over 24 h, an apple tree (leaf area = 37.95 m-2 lost 50 to 70 L of water in clear weather and about 15 L in cloudy weather. On clear days, the peak of WUE was reached early after sunrise; it then decreased to a stable level maintained through most of the day until falling to zero at sunset.

  16. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed. PMID:15010615

  17. Analysis of Central European Corydalis species by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Sonja; Seger, Christoph; Stuppner, Hermann

    2007-08-01

    In the presented study, Central European Corydalis species, namely C. cava, C. intermedia, C. pumila, and C. solida were investigated by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (NACE-ESI-MS) utilizing an electrolyte consisting of 50 mM ammonium acetate, 1 M acetic acid and 10% methanol in acetonitrile, applying a separation voltage of 30 and 20 kV for 1 s for injection. Isopropanol-water (1:1) was used as sheath liquid at a flow-rate of 3 microl/min. Peak assignment was assisted by multistage-ESI-mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The optimized method was fully validated (RSD inter- and intraday 98.8%) and subsequently applied for the qualitative and quantitative determination of isoquinoline alkaloids in single plant tubers (sample size < 0.5 g) of the four Central European Corydalis species, each of them showing a characteristic and unique alkaloid pattern. Application of a principal component analysis (PCA) to the complete dataset of 39 analytes and 79 samples allowed the identification of 8 analytes responsible for lot discrimination. Hierarchical cluster analysis and descriptive statistical methods were used to confirm the findings of the explorative PCA. PMID:17395190

  18. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sarah Zanon, Agapito-Tenfen; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Frederico, Denardi; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need [...] for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  19. Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jeom-Sook

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

  20. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  1. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (?lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (?lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding po

  2. Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

  3. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

    2012-03-15

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

  4. Review of the symbiotic genus Haplosyllides (Polychaeta: Syllidae), with a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Aguado, Maria Teresa; Britayev, Ternir A

    2009-09-01

    The genus Haplosyllides was considered as monotypic, with H. floridana as the only valid species. The present revision Includes two more species in this genus: H. aberrans comb. nov. and H. ophiocomae sp. nov. Syllis (Haplosyllis) aberrans (from Vietnam) was considered a Junior synonym of H. floridana (from the Caribbean). The finding of additional specimens from Vietnam and Indonesia, and the study of the type series, allowed us to redescribe H. aberrans comb. nov. on the basis of morphological, ecological and biogeographical characteristics. Haplosyllides aberrans comb. nov. differs from H. floridana in having posterior simple chaetae with tips twice as long, a pharyngeal tooth in all non-reproductive Individuals, and the granules Inside the dorsal cirri oval, elongated, and roughly distributed in longitudinal parallel rows. Haplosyllides ophiocomae sp. nov. was previously reported (as H. aberrans) from Puerto Rico. Although geographically close, It differs from H. floridana in having serration on the upper edge of the major teeth of simple chaetae, relatively shorter dorsal cirri, and a distinct mode of life. Haplosyllides floridana lives as an endosimbiont of Xetospongia muta, H. aberrans comb. nov. as a facultative parasite of Platycaris latirostris, and H. ophiocomae sp. nov. as a commensal of Ophiocoma pumila and other brittle stars. The meaning of these associations is discussed in light of the available Information. The remaining records of "Haplosyllides aberrans" from the Marshall Islands (associated with corals of the genus Heliopora) and from Brazil (among corals and calcareous algae) are considered as doubtful. PMID:19799516

  5. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosza?ka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  6. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos / Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Quattrocchio; J., Durango de Cabrera; C., Galli.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones R [...] ío Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (3 [...] 00m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  7. Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa / Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regiane F., Travensolo; Luciane P., Ciapina; Eliana G. M., Lemos.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oli [...] gonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCC [...] IGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.

  8. Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane F. Travensolo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD in grapes (Vitis vinifera. The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3' using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3' which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus, citrus (Citrus spp., coffee (Coffea arabica, elm (Ulmus americana, mulberry (Morus rubra, oak (Quercus rubra, periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus, plums (Prunus salicina and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD em videira (Vitis vinifera. Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3' utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3', que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus, citros (Citrus spp., café (Coffea arabica, olmo (Ulmus americana, amora (Morus rubra, carvalho (Quercus rubra, vinca (Catharantus roseus, ameixa (Prunus salicina e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira.

  9. Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México / Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jasinto, Robles-Camacho; Pedro, Corona-Chávez; Miguel, Morales-Gámez; Ana Fabiola, Guzmán; Óscar J., Polaco; Gabriela, Domínguez-Vázquez; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Arturo, Oliveros-Morales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmento [...] s óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástica asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, w [...] hich was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironment ofthe Pátzcuaro lake during late Pleistocene was s

  10. Recent Changes in the Riparian Forest of a Large Regulated Mediterranean River: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; González-Sanchis, María; Cabezas, Álvaro; Comín, Francisco A.; Muller, Etienne

    2010-04-01

    The structure of the floodplain forests of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined at patch and landscape scales along a three-step chronosequence defined according to the extent of flow regulation-induced hydrogeomorphic changes, with the ultimate purpose of producing baseline information to guide through management and restoration plans. At patch scale, a total of 6,891 stems within 39 plots were registered for species, diameter and health status. The stem density, size class distribution, canopy dieback and mortality were further compared by means of non-parametric tests. At landscape scale, the temporal evolution of the area occupied by forest stands of different ages in the floodplain along the chronosequence was evaluated using four sets of aerial photographs dated in 1927, 1957, 1981 and 2003. The within-patch structure of pioneer forests (pioneer species ( Populus nigra, Salix alba and Tamarix spp.), but the area occupied by these forest types has progressively decreased (up to 37%) since the intensification of river regulation (ca. 1957). In contrast, non-pioneer forests (>25-30 years old) were characterized by declining and sparse P. nigra- S. alba- Tamarix spp. stands, where late-seral species such as Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia were frequent, but only as small-size stems. At landscape scale, these type of senescent forests have doubled their surface after river regulation was intensified. Populus alba only appeared in the oldest plots recorded (colonized before 1957), suggesting sexual regeneration failure during the last five decades, but usually as healthy and dense stands. Based on these findings, measures principally aimed at recovering some hydrogeomorphic dynamism are recommended to guarantee the self-sustainability of the floodplain forest ecosystem.

  11. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  12. Dynamics of Salix caprea L. populations during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falinski, J.B. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Bialowieza Geobotanical Station

    1998-02-01

    Broadleaved forest communities degenerated through strong pressure from large herbivores. Relief of this pressure led to regeneration, in particular of Salix caprea and other light/seeded pioneer trees: Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. This regeneration proceeded following conservation protection of degenerate stands in a nature reserve and later in Bialowieza National Park. The emergence and development of the Salix caprea population proceeded following the expansion of Picea abies, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on the broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand after the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915). The species also appeared abundantly in old, at the time unforested, clearings and felled areas. Here, S. caprea developed large populations with certain trees in good condition, with a growth form typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50/60 years old at the time of death, although some individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the Salix population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots with marked trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of S. caprea from the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the last 4-9 years of their life. The development of populations of permanent constituents of the forest, notably Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra, under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the absence of a new generation of pioneer trees points to the end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bialowieza National Park 30 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  13. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  14. A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard SØrensen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

  15. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  16. Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Wynne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

  17. [Simulating climate change effect on aboveground carbon sequestration rates of main broadleaved trees in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains area, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Bu, Rencang; Deng, Hua-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Qin, Qin; Han, Feng-Lin

    2014-09-01

    LANDIS Pro 7.0 model was used to simulate the dynamics of aboveground biomass of ten broadleaved tree species in the Xiao Xing' an Mountains area under current and various climate change scenarios from 2000 to 2200, and carbon content coefficients (CCCs) were coupled to cal- culate the aboveground carbon sequestration rates (ACSRs) of these species. The results showed that in the initial year of simulation, the biomasses and their proportions of Fraxinus mandshurica, Phellodendron amurense, Quercus mongolica, Ulmus propinqua, and Acer mono were relatively low, while those of Betula costata, Betula platyphylla, and Populus davidiana were higher. A trend of rise after decline occurred in ACSR for pioneer species in the mid and late periods of simulation years, but ACSRs for the other broadleaved tree species were considerably complex. The ACSRs of Q. mongolica and Tilla amurensis fluctuated in the ranges of -0.05-0.25 t · hm(-2) · 10 a(-1) and 0.16-1.29 t · hm(-2) · 10 a(-1) in simulation years, respectively. The ACSRs of F. mandshurica, U. propinqua, A. mono, and B. costata showed a trend of decline after rise in late simulation years. There were significant differences in ACSR for P. amurense and B. davurica among various climate change scenarios in the periods of 2050-2100 and 2150-2200, while no significant difference in ACSR for the other species would be detected. Difference of sensitivity of various species in ACSR for future climate scenarios in the Small Khingan Mountains area existed. However, the un- certainty of future climates would not yield significant difference in ACSR for most broadleaved tree species. Moreover, a time lag would exist in the process of climate change effects on temperate forest's ACSR. PMID:25757292

  18. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostra, Swantje [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Dept. of Landscape Planning; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2006-10-15

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction < 2 mm. Root biomass <5 mm in diameter) and its proportion in the forest floor and mineral soil varied between tree species. There was a vertical gradient under all species, with the highest concentrations of SOC, TN and base cations in the O-horizon and the lowest in the 10-20 cm layer. The tree species differed with respect to SOC, TN and soil acidity in the O-horizon and mineral soil. For SOC and TN, the range in the O-horizon was spruce> hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate.

  19. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anulewicz, Andrea C; McCullough, Deborah G; Cappaert, David L; Poland, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding pest, was identified as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 2002. A. planipennis reportedly colonizes other genera in its native range in Asia, including Ulmus L., Juglans L., and Pterocarya Kunth. Attacks on nonash species have not been observed in North America to date, but there is concern that other genera could be colonized. From 2003 to 2005, we assessed adult A. planipennis landing rates, oviposition, and larval development on North American ash species and congeners of its reported hosts in Asia in multiple-choice field studies conducted at several southeast Michigan sites. Nonash species evaluated included American elm (U. americana L.), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.), black walnut (J. nigra L.), shagbark hickory [Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch], and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata Bl.). In studies with freshly cut logs, adult beetles occasionally landed on nonash logs but generally laid fewer eggs than on ash logs. Larvae fed and developed normally on ash logs, which were often heavily infested. No larvae were able to survive, grow, or develop on any nonash logs, although failed first-instar galleries occurred on some walnut logs. High densities of larvae developed on live green ash and white ash nursery trees, but there was no evidence of larval survival or development on Japanese tree lilac and black walnut trees in the same plantation. We felled, debarked, and intensively examined >28 m2 of phloem area on nine American elm trees growing in contact with or adjacent to heavily infested ash trees. We found no sign of A. planipennis feeding on any elm. PMID:18348815

  20. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

  1. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition.

  2. Vegetation and climate in the Miocene deposits of southern side of the Büyük Menderes Graben, ?ahinali-2 core, SW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkiraz M S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lower-Middle Miocene succession from the ?ahinali coalfield (SW Turkey was analyzed to reconstruct climate and vegetation. The sediments mainly represent a lacustrine facies and consist of a mudstone-marl dominated succession, including limited coarse-grained clastics. Results of microfloral and published macrofloral records have been considered. The main vegetation types were mixed mesophytic forest dominated by evergreen Quercus and coniferous forest consisting mainly of indeterminate Pinaceae, Pinus and Cupressaceae. In this belt riparian vegetation incorporates high proportions of Alnus, and less amounts of deciduous Salix, Ulmus, Pterocarya, Carya, Platanus, Zelkova and Liquidambar. Herbaceous components in the pollen spectra are in low frequencies, and consist of Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedra, Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also three local pollen zones can be recognized based on the changes in relative abundances of palynomorphs. The micro- and published macrofloral records have been subjected to the Coexistence Approach method to obtain the palaeoclimate. Mean annual temperature is estimated to be over 14 °C and mean annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm. In combination with other climate parameters (temperatures of warmest and coldest months, precipitation of the wettest, driest and warmest months, the data indicate very stable warm-temperate with high annual precipitation. Results of the Coexistence Approach using both sporomorph and leaf datasets are good in agreement, implying internal consistency in the method. Compared with modern meteorological records, surroundings of the Büyük Menderes Graben had similar temperature and higher precipitation during the Early–Middle Miocene. This study contributes to an understanding of the Miocene vegetation and climate evolution in southeastern Mediterranean area.

  3. Viabilidad de polen, receptividad del estigma y tipo de polinización en cinco especies Echeveria en condiciones de invernadero / Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination type in five Echeveria species under greenhouse conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa J., Rodríguez-Rojas; María, Andrade-Rodríguez; Jaime, Canul-Ku; Antonio, Castillo-Gutiérrez; Edgar, Martínez-Fernández; Dagoberto, Guillén-Sánchez.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echeveria, género representativo de Crassulaceae por representar 97% de especies endémicas; sus plantas tienen características morfológicas atractivas para la horticultura ornamental. El conocimiento de las características reproductivas es útil para el mejoramiento genético, necesario para ser utili [...] zado en las polinizaciones y aumentar la posibilidad de éxito de la fecundación. El objetivo fue conocer la viabilidad de polen, receptividad del estigma y tipo de polinización de cinco especies de Echeveria, con fines de mejoramiento genético. El trabajo se realizó de 2011 a 2013, en Cuernavaca, Morelos. Se usaron cinco especies E. agavoides, E. elegans, E. runyonii, E. pumila, E. perle. La viabilidad de polen se determinó mediante el método de tinción con ácido ácetico-carmín. La receptividad del estigma se evaluó con el método de Osborn; la evaluación fue a las 8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, y 18:00 h. Para tipo de polinización se realizaron cuatro modalidades: 1) autopolinización; 2) emascular y cubrir flores; 3) polinización cruzada intra específica; y 4) polinización cruzada inter específica; se evaluo amarre de fruto y viabilidad de semillas. E. agavoides tuvo mayor porcentaje de polen viable (72.7%). La mayor receptividad se tuvo de 12:00 a 14:00 h (94.6 a 98%). En las cuatro modalidades de polinización se obtuvó 100% de amarre de fruto; solo hubo semilla viable en los frutos de polinización cruzada intra-específica (12.3%) y polinización cruzada inter-específica (11.3 a 12.3%). La polinización de las especies estudiadas fue cruzada. E. perle y E. runyonii no pueden fungir como hembras por no formar semillas viables. Abstract in english Echeveria, is a representative genus from Crassulaceae to represent 97% of endemic genus; its plants have attractive morphological characteristics for ornamental horticulture. Knowledge of reproductive characteristics are useful for genetic improvement, necessary to be used in pollination and increa [...] se the chance of successful fertilization. The objective was to determine pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination type of five species of Echeveria, for breeding purposes. The work was done from 2011 to 2013, in Cuernavaca, Morelos. Five species E. agavoides, E. elegans, E. runyonii, E. pumila, E. perle were used. Pollen viability was determined by staining with carmine acetic acid. Stigma receptivity was assessed with the Osborn method; assessment was at 8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, and 18:00 h. For pollination type four modes were performed: 1) self-pollination; 2) emasculating and cover flowers; 3) intra-specific cross-pollination; and 4) inter-specific cross-pollination; fruit set and seed viability was evaluated. E. agavoides had higher percentage of viable pollen (72.7%). Greater receptivity was from 12:00 to 14:00 hrs (94.6 to 98%). In the four modes of pollination 100% of fruit set was obtained; there was only viable seeds in fruits of intra-specific cross pollination (12.3%) and inter-specific cross pollination (11.3 to 12.3%). The pollination of the species studied were crossed E. perle and E. runyonii can not serve as females by not forming viable seeds.

  4. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

  5. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  6. Cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-04-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (K(m) sorbitol of 0.81 mM for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mM for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  7. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  8. [Spatial pattern of forest biomass and its influencing factors in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Jiao, Lin-Lin; Feng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Wen; Wu, Hai-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Based on field inventory data and vegetation index EVI (enhanced vegetation index), the spatial pattern of the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province was quantitatively analyzed. Using the spatial analysis and statistics tools in ArcGIS software, the impacts of climatic zone, elevation, slope, aspect and vegetation type on the spatial pattern of forest biomass were explored. The results showed that the forest biomass in the Great Xing'an Mountains was 350 Tg and spatially aggregated with great increasing potentials. Forest biomass density in the cold temperate humid zone (64.02 t x hm(-2)) was higher than that in the temperate humid zone (60.26 t x hm(-2)). The biomass density of each vegetation type was in the order of mixed coniferous forest (65.13 t x hm(-2)) > spruce-fir forest (63.92 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus pumila-Larix gmelinii forest (63.79 t x hm(-2)) > Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest (61.97 t x hm(-2)) > Larix gmelinii forest (61.40 t x hm(-2)) > deciduous broadleaf forest (58.96 t x hm(-2)). With the increasing elevation and slope, the forest biomass density first decreased and then increased. The forest biomass density in the shady slopes was greater than that in the sunny slopes. The spatial pattern of forest biomass in the Great Xing' an Mountains exhibited a heterogeneous pattern due to the variation of climatic zone, vegetation type and topographical factor. This spatial heterogeneity needs to be accounted when evaluating forest biomass at regional scales. PMID:25011288

  9. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  10. Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nemesio, Villa-Ruano; Guilibaldo G, Zurita-Vásquez; Yesenia, Pacheco-Hernández; Martha G, Betancourt-Jiménez; Ramiro, Cruz-Durán; Horacio, Duque-Bautista.

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphyll [...] a, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  11. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  12. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Fali?ski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Bia?owie?a National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park.

  13. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

  14. Holocene climate variability in south-western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D.; Naughton, F.; Trigo, R.; Rodrigues, T.; Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation and climate changes in western France/northern Spain are documented for the last c. 9000 cal. yr BP in a well dated shelf core, KS05-10, retrieved in the southwestern margin of the Bay of Biscay (Basque country) (43°22'765N, 2°16'744W). The continuous high resolution pollen record shows orbital and suborbital climate fluctuations similar to those noticed for the North Atlantic region and Greenland. A long-term Pinus, Quercus and Corylus forest reduction follows the cooling trend in Greenland and the general decrease of mid-latitude summer insolation until approximately 350 yr cal. BP. Within the millennial scale variability, the southwestern Bay of Biscay pollen record shows 6 main phases: The first phase, c. 9000 and 6600 cal. yr BP, is marked by a Pinus and deciduous Quercus forest with Corylus, indicating a humid and temperate climate. During the phase, c. 6600 - 4500 cal. yr BP, the pollen record shows a stable period of rich, mixed Quercus forest. During this interval occurred the establishment of Alnus, Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus excelsior-type and Fagus trees and the reduction of Pinus forest. This vegetation assemblage probably indicates an increase in moisture in relatively mild conditions. Fagus became continuously present in the region after c. 4500 c. cal. yr BP in agreement with what have been noticed by continental pollen sequences. An important contraction of Pinus, deciduous Quercus and Corylus forest occur after c. 3600 cal. yr BP. This evolution is contemporaneous to the maximum expansion of Fagus and the increase of heaths, which may be linked to a weakening of seasonality and more humid summer conditions. A strong forest reduction, involving all trees except pine, and a marked spread of herbaceous plants took place after c. 1400 cal. years BP. The presence of Juglans, Cerealia type and Castanea after c. 550 cal. yr BP and the re-expansion of Pinus after c. 350 cal. yr BP testify the increasing role played by the human activity in the region.

  15. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

    2009-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree communities (e.g. Quercetum mixtum) and low ostracod-inferred water levels at Lago della Costa correspond to the cold Heinrich events H-2 (LGM; 23,000-19,000 cal. BP) and H-3 (around 28,000 cal. BP), as recorded in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic. Similar patterns of significant temperate tree population collapses during cold Heinrich events are recorded at southern Mediterranean sites (e.g. Monticchio and the Alboran Sea). These findings suggest close linkages between Northern Atlantic and South-Central European climates during the past Glacial.

  16. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

  17. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

  18. Contrasting secondary growth and water-use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia González-Muñoz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leading these species to success (Basal Area Increment (BAI and water-use efficiency (iWUE. We also aimed to describe the main environmental variables controlling studied species BAI. Area of study: Riparian forests of central Spain Material and Methods: We measured tree-ring width and converted it to basal area increment (BAI; intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE was estimated from tree ring carbon isotopes (?13C. We compared the BAI and iWUE of the last 20 years between origins (native vs exotic and among species. For each species, we evaluated iWUE and BAI relationships. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to identify the main environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, river flow affecting BAI. Main result: Native trees showed higher mean BAI than invaders, mainly due to the rising growth rate of U. minor. Invaders showed higher mean iWUE than natives. We did not find significant correlations between iWUE and BAI in any case. Warm temperatures in autumn positively affected the BAI of the natives, but negatively that of the invaders. Research highlights: The contrasting effect of autumn temperatures on native and invasive species BAI suggests that invaders will be more hampered by the rising temperatures predicted for this century. The higher iWUE found for the invaders did not translate into increased radial growth, suggesting that drought stress may have prevented them of taking advantage of increased atmospheric CO2 for a faster growth. These findings point out that neither climate change nor rising CO2 seem to enhance the success of study invasive species over the natives in riparian forests of central Spain. Furthermore, the low BAI of R. pseudoacacia, and its climate-growth model suggest that climate change may especially hamper the success of this invader.

  19. Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

    2012-11-01

    Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

  20. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs.

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

  2. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (?13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased ?13C and low TOC values between ?12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ?11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ?8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ?4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ?1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with marshy elements i.e. Polygonum and Liliaceae between ?6732 and 3337 cal yr BP marked warm and wet Holocene climate optimum (HCO) period. The warm and moist climate from ?1158-647 cal yr BP corresponded with global Medieval Warm Period (MWP).

  3. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP, wet conditions dominate as dry indicating testate amoebae decrease. After 1800 cal yr BP soil conditions become more variable again but this time with dry dominating testate amoebae. In contrast to surrounding regions, there is no evidence of trees such as spruce or larch growing in the surroundings of the site even though those trees are characteristic of many eastern Siberian sites. This difference might be because of the maritime influence of the Okhotsk Sea. Even dwarf pine (Pinus pumila), which is currently widely dispersed in northern Kamchatka, became part of the local vegetation only during the last 700 yr.

  4. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

  5. Seasonal contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, D.; Alonso-Pérez, F.; Castro, C. G.; Arbones, B.; Figueiras, F. G.

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of living phytoplankton carbon to vertical fluxes in a coastal upwelling system as a key piece to understand the coupling between primary production in the photic layer and the transfer mechanisms of the organic material from the photic zone. Between April 2004 and January 2005, five campaigns were carried out in the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberian Peninsula) covering the most representative oceanographic conditions for this region. Measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll- a (chl a), phaeopigments (phaeo), and identification of phytoplankton species were performed on the water column samples and on the organic material collected in sediment traps. The POC fluxes measured by the sediment traps presented no seasonal variation along the studied period ranging around a mean annual value of 1085±365 mg m -2 d -1, in the upper range of the previously reported values for other coastal systems. The fact that higher POC fluxes were registered during autumn and winter, when primary production rates were at their minimum levels points to a dominant contribution of organic carbon from resuspended sediments on the trap collected material. On the contrary, fluxes of living phytoplankton carbon (C phyto) and chl a clearly presented a seasonal trend with maximum values during summer upwelling (546 mg m -2 d -1 and 22 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively) and minimum values during winter (22 mg m -2 d -1 and 0.1 mg chl a m -2 d -1, respectively). The contribution of C phyto to the vertical flux of POC ranged between 2% and 49% in response to the pelagic phytoplankton community structure. Higher values of C phyto fluxes were registered under upwelling conditions which favour the dominance of large chain-forming diatoms ( Asterionellopsis glacialis and Detonula pumila) that were rapidly transferred to the sediments. By contrast, C phyto fluxes decreased during the summer stratification associated with a pelagic phytoplankton community dominated by single-cell diatoms and flagellates. Minimal C phyto fluxes were observed during the winter mixing conditions, when the presence of the benthic specie Paralia sulcata in the water column also points toward strong sediment resuspension.

  6. Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka: A synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. J.; Diekmann, B.; Jones, V. J.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present a synthesis of the results of a multiproxy, multisite, palaeoecological study of Holocene environmental change in Kamchatka, Far East Russia, details of which are presented elsewhere in the volume. We summarise the results of the analyses of pollen, diatom, chironomid, and testate amoebae assemblages, together with stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon, and sediment characteristics from the sediments of five lakes and a peat succession on a latitudinal gradient of the Kamchatka Peninsula, to infer environmental change and establish the major climate forcers and climatic teleconnections. There are synchronous shifts in the assemblage composition of most of the biota and across most sites at 6.5-6.2 ka BP, 5.2 ka BP, 4.0 ka BP, and 3.5 ka BP, suggesting a response to strong regional climate forcing at these times. These dates correspond to the warmest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) (6.5-6.2 ka BP), the beginning of the Neoglacial cooling (5.2 ka BP), the coolest and wettest part of the Neoglacial (4.0 ka BP), and a switch to warmer and drier conditions at 3.5 ka BP. Our results provide evidence for the penetration and domination of different air masses at different periods during the Holocene. Cool and dry periods in winter (e.g., at 6.0 ka BP) were driven by a relatively weak pressure gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low, whereas cool, wet periods in winter (e.g., the Neoglacial and during the LIA) developed when these two systems increased in strength. Warm, dry, continental periods in summer (e.g., at 2.5 ka BP) were driven by a weakening of the Siberian High. We find that the timing of the HTM in Kamchatka is later than in the Eurasian arctic but similar to northern Europe and the sub-arctic part of eastern Siberia. This progressive onset of the HTM was due to the effects of postglacial ice-sheet decay that modulated the routes of westerly storm tracks in Eurasia. A major ecosystem driver was the Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila, which spread northward during the Holocene in response to increasing winter snow, and caused water chemistry changes on arrival in the catchments of our study lakes and a response in diatom and chironomid assemblages. We also detect short-term responses, especially in diatom assemblages, to water chemistry changes following volcanic ash deposits.

  7. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct response to the changes of summer air temperature. Instead, it appears to thrive during the periods of increased winter precipitation, thicker ice and late spring turn-over periods, i.e., shows indirect response to climate. The clearest effect of tephra deposition on the lake ecosystem is above 908 cm (ca. 3800 cal yr BP) where the tephra deposit might have caused the shift from Stephanodiscus-dominated planktonic assemblages to the Fragilariaceae complex of benthic species. Tephra deposits might have also contributed towards the development of eutrophic plankton from about 6300 cal yr BP. It is not certain if several tephra deposits influenced diatom and chironomid changes during the last 300 years.

  8. Lateglacial-Holocene Environment History, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremenetski, K.; Velichko, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kazakhstan is located in central Asia between Caspian Sea and Tiang-Shang Mountains. Few well dated holocene sequences from the forest-steppe and steppe belt of Kazakhstan provided information about the vegetation and climate history. Mokhovoe mire was studied in the watershed of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. That's the most thick peat mire in northern Kazakhstan. Sedimentation in the Mokhovoe sequence started ca. 7800 BP. At that time regional vegetation was represented by steppes and birch-poplar forests. Pine penetrated in the Tobol region likely between 6500 and 6000 BP. Pine grew on sand terraces of Tobol River together with birch. At 3000-2900 BP Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus grew in north-west Kazakhstan.The general structure of vegetation was the same as at 6500-6000 BP. At 1900-1500 BP climate became less continental and pine forests with pure pine canopy expanded on sandy terraces of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. Soon after 1500 BP broad-leaved trees were extinct from the regional forests. Pashennoe lake is located in Karkaralinsk mountains in the most elevated part in the south-east part of the Kazakhstan lowhills. Dry grass-wormwood and wormwood steppes were spread in the region at 10500-8200 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in protected parts in intermountain valleys of Karkaralinsk mountains. Salix and Betula also occurred in valleys. Between 8000 and 6000 BP forest vegetation in Karkaralinsk mountains was represented by birch forests. Pine penetrated to Karkaralinsk mountains between 6000 and 5500 BP, but it didn't formed large forests. At the same time the maximal spread of Alnus glutinosa was reconstructed. The general structure of regional vegetation was stable up to. At 1500 BP pure pine forests expanded over Karkaralinsk mountains and around Pashennoe lake. Few lakes were investigated in Borovoe mountains in south of Kokchetav region of Kazakhstan. In early Holocene birch forests dominated in regional vegetation. Pine expanded in Borovoe at ca 7000 BP. Pine forests have been dominating in regional vegetation since 5300-5200 BP. The section of lake-bog sediment of Ozerki mire in the Irtysh river valley represents the history of vegetation and climate in southern margin of the West Siberian Lowland since 14,000 BP. Dry cold steppes grew in the Irtysh valley at 14,000 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in the Irtysh valley together with Betula and Salix. Climate became slightly warmer between 12,000 and 9500 BP. After 9500 BP Picea was extinct in the Irtysh valley and regional vegetation was represented by dry steppes and birch forests with willows near streams and lakes. At 6300-6200 BP pine penetrated to the Irtysh valley around Ozerki. Pure pine forests have been dominating in the Ozerki region since 5500 BP and the general structure of regional vegetation is very similar to the modern one.

  9. Rapid responses of the prairie-forest ecotone to early Holocene aridity in mid-continental North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Shuman, Bryan; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2009-04-01

    The prairie-forest transition in midcontinental North America is a major physiognomic boundary, and its shifts during the Holocene are a classic example of climate-driven ecotonal dynamics. Recent work suggests asymmetrical Holocene behavior, with a relatively rapid early Holocene deforestation and more gradual reforestation later in the Holocene. This paper presents a new synthesis of the Holocene history of the Great Plains prairie-forest ecotone in the north-central US and central Canada that updates prior mapping efforts and systematically assesses rates of change. Changes in percent woody cover (%WC) are inferred from fossil pollen records, using the modern analog technique and surface-sediment pollen samples cross-referenced against remotely sensed observations. For contemporary pollen samples from the Great Plains, %WC linearly correlates to percent arboreal pollen (%AP), but regression parameters vary interregionally. At present, %AP is consistently higher than %WC, because of high background levels of arboreal pollen. Holocene maps of the eastern prairie-forest ecotone agree with prior maps, showing a rapid decrease in %WC and eastward prairie advance between 10,000 and 8000 ka (1 ka = 1000 calibrated years before present), a maximum eastward position of the ecotone from 7 to 6 ka, and increased %WC and westward prairie retreat after 6 ka. Ecotone position is ambiguous in Iowa and southeastern Minnesota, due to a scarcity of modern analogs for early-Holocene samples with high Ulmus abundances and for samples from alluvial sediments. The northern prairie-forest ecotone was positioned in central Saskatchewan between 12 and 10 ka, stabilized from 10 to 6 ka despite decreases in %WC at some sites, then moved south after 6 ka. In both east and north, ecotonal movements are consistent with a dry early Holocene and increasing moisture availability after 6 ka. Sites near the ecotone consistently show an asymmetric pattern of abrupt early Holocene deforestation (pollen types that blur temporal variations in %AP. For example, at Elk Lake, the %AP decline lasts 1000 years, whereas the %WC decline occurs between adjacent pollen samples, approximately 300 years apart. Thus, early Holocene deforestation may have been even more abrupt than previously recognized. Rapid deforestation likely was promoted both by rapid climate changes around 8.2 ka and positive fire-vegetation feedbacks. Non-linear vegetational responses to hydrological variability are consistent with 1) other paleorecords showing rapid die-offs of some eastern tree species in response to aridity and 2) observations of threshold-type ecological responses to recent climate events. The 21st-century trajectory for the Great Plains prairie-forest ecotone is uncertain, because climate models differ over the direction of regional precipitation trends, but future drying would be more likely to trigger threshold-type shifts in ecotone position.

  10. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae (Pyrus sp., Prunus sp., etc.), Tilia sp. (Linden), Morus sp. (mulberry), Taxus baccata (yew), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas etc.), Labiata (Lavandula sp.), Cannabaceae (Humulus sp. etc.), Liliaceae (Lilium sp.), Echium sp. (viper's bugloss). The most abundant taxa, detected in the highest quantities (grains/m3 air), by order of counting were as follows: holm-oak, olive, grasses, Plantago and Parietaria. With the data obtained we have established a pollen calendar for Salamanca and report the period in which each type of pollen is found along the years and the periods with the highest airborne concentrations of such pollens. The diversity and the spectrum of the pollen in the city of Salamanca correspond to the typical plant communities found on the dehesas (large ranges of grasslands) of Castile, where Salamanca is located, although the wind directions and the peculiar climatic characteristics of the area govern the peaks of maximum presence of the different taxa. As examples, in the case of olive, which is cultivated at some distance from the city, its maximum presence coincides with south-westerly winds; in the case of grasses, the peaks of maximum counts coincide with a sharp rise in mean temperature, close to or higher than 20 degrees C and between five and six weeks after rainfall equal to or greater than 5 L/m2. PMID:9885728

  11. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil / Composición y conservación de Orchidaceae en un inselberg en el bosque Atlántico brasileño y sus relaciones florísticas con áreas del este de Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Soares Pessanha; Luiz, Menini Neto; Rafaela, Campostrini Forzza; Marcelo, Nascimento.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La Mata Atlántica brasileña presenta altos niveles de riqueza y endemismo de varios grupos taxonómicos. Los inselbergs de la Mata Atlántica de Brasil son, en su mayoría, desconocidos en cuanto a su composición florística. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron hacer un análisis comparativo de las espe [...] cies de Orchidaceae en el Macizo de Itaoca, un inselberg ubicado en la región norte del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con otros sitios en el este de Brasil, y discutir la distribución geográfica, las relaciones florísticas y el estado de conservación de las especies de orquídeas presentes en los inselbergs. La composición florística de la zona de estudio se comparó con otras 24 localidades en el este de Brasil (13 de las cuales son inselbergs) y la influencia de los tipos de vegetación aledaña en la composición de la flora de Orchidaceae en los inselbergs. En Macizo de Itaoca registramos 18 especies de 17 géneros. La mayor similitud florística fue con la Pedra da Botelha (0,43), en Espírito Santo. Al parecer, los tipos de vegetación aledaña ejercen poca influencia sobre la flora de los inselbergs. Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the [...] Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Holocene paleoenvironments of Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur, III; Schwert, D.R.; Horton, D.G.; Chumbley, C.A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Reagan, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the biotic. sedimentary, geomorphic, and climatic history of the upper part of the Roberts Creek Basin, northeastern Iowa for the late-glacial and Holocene, and compares these records with a C-O isotopic sequence from Coldwater Cave. 60 km northwest of Roberts Creek. The biotic record (pollen, vascular plant and bryophyle macrofossils. and insects) is preserved in floodplain alluvium that underlies three constructional surfaces separated by low scarps. Each surface is underlain by a lithologically and temporally distinct alluvial fill. The highest surface is underlain by the Gunder Member of the Deforest Formation, dating from 11 000 to 4000 yr BP; beneath the intermediate level is the Roberts Creek Member, dating from 4000 to 400 yr BP; and the lowest level is underlain by the Camp Creek Member, deposited during the last 380 yr. Pollen and plant macrofossils in the alluvial fill show that a typical late-glacial spruce forest was replaced by Quercus and Ulmus in the early Holocene. This early-to-middle Holocene forest became dominated by mesic elements such as Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Ostrya virginiana, and Carpinus caroliniana as late as 5500 yr BP; in contrast, the closest sites to the west and north were at their warmest and driest and were covered by prairie vegetation between 6500 and 5500 yr BP. After 5500 yr BP, the forest in the Roberts Creek area was replaced by prairie, as indicated by a rich assemblage of plant macrofossils, although only Ambrosia and Poaceae became abundant in the pollen record. The return of Quercus ??? 3000 BP (while nonarboreal pollen percentages remained relatively high) indicates that oak savanna prevailed with little change until settlement time. The bryophyte assemblages strongly support the vascular plant record. Rich fen species characteristic of boreal habitats occur only in the late-glacial. They are replaced by a number of deciduous-forest elements when early-to-middle Holocene forests were present, but mosses of forest habitats completely disappear when prairie became dominant. A few deciduousforest taxa return during the late-Holocene, when oak savanna prevailed. The C-O isotopic record from stalagmite "s" in Coldwater Cave indicates a relatively stable environment from ??? 8000 to 5100 yr BP, when the 813C values indicate a change in vegetation dominated by C3 (predominantly forest) to C4 (predominantly prairie) plants. About 4900 yr BP, the rise in 18O values indicates a temperature increase of ??? 1.5??C. The fact that the vegetational change suggested by the ??13C values preceded the temperature increase suggests that fire may have been an important factor in converting forest to prairie. Abundant charred seeds and other plant material at Roberts Creek 4830 yr BP support this hypothesis. The 18O values remain constant from ???5100 to ???3000 yr BP. but the ??13C values gradually rise, indicating that soil formed under forest takes at least 2000 yr for its carbon to reach equilibrium after replacement by prairie vegetation. The return of oak to form savanna is reflected in the gradual decline of ??13C values in the last 3000 yr BP: O isotopic values drop sharply by ??? 1??C ??? 2800 yr BP and then were relatively stable. In contrast to the vegetational and isotopic records, the insect assemblages suggest little change in the local environments throughout most of the Holocene. All of the beetle taxa presently occur in eastern Iowa. The relative stability through the Holocene indicates that both open grassland and riparian woodland elements were present throughout. Settlement, land clearing, and land cultivation by EuroAmericans in the region caused rapid erosion of the upland landscape, the deposition of 1-2 m of sediment across the floodplain, a replacement of the native vegetation with ruderal species, a decimation of the native insect fauna, and a degradation of water quality in the stream. These changes in the landscape, vegetation, and insect faunas

  13. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest – 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak – 10.7%, SB1OP (dry oak-pine – 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak – 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak – 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril’ Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5 ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8 ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  14. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest – 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak – 10.7%, SB1OP (dry oak-pine – 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak – 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak – 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril’ Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5 ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8 ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.