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Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Fenología de la floración de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in Bahía Blanca city (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la floración de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de Bahía [...] Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in Bahía Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

  2. Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María L., Bakker; Patricia I., Alvarado.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el conteni [...] do y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the conten [...] t and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

  3. Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler E A; Manchester S R

    2007-01-01

    Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods migh...

  4. Review of the wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae as context for new reports of late Eocene Ulmus woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler E A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of extant Ulmaceae is briefly reviewed to provide context for descriptions of corresponding fossil woods, with attention to newly recognized woods from the late Eocene of Oregon, USA. The extant genera can be distinguished from one another using porosity type, presence or absence of vessel clusters, axial parenchyma type, ray width, and crystal occurrence. The late Eocene woods from Post, Oregon, conform anatomically with those of extant Ulmus. To assess whether fossil woods might be identified to an infrageneric category, selected wood anatomical features of 21 extant species of Ulmus are summarized to evaluate whether any sections within the genus have distinctive anatomy. Porosity type in extant Ulmus is related to leaf longevity; extant evergreen species are diffuse porous and have relatively narrow rays. Other extant Ulmus species are deciduous and predominantly ring porous, only rarely semi-ring porous, with clustered latewood vessels that are tangentially arranged. Sometimes earlywood characteristics have systematic value and allow recognition of groups. However, in some species earlywood characteristics are variable, apparently being much affected by growing conditions. Eastern U.S. species belonging to Sections Chaetoptelea and Trichoptelea of Subgenus Oreoptelea consistently have thick-walled fibers, single rows of small-medium diameter earlywood vessels, and little difference between the diameters of the solitary earlywood vessels and latewood vessels. The late Eocene Ulmus woodii sp. nov. shares more features with this group than any other. Another of these late Post Eocene woods is referable to Ulmus danielii, a species previously known only from the Middle Eocene Clarno Formation. A third fossil wood type resembles diffuse porous Ulmus, but its lower preservational quality obscures some diagnostic features and precludes secure assignment.

  5. Effects of Sand Burial on Survival, Growth, Gas Exchange and Biomass Allocation of Ulmus pumila Seedlings in the Hunshandak Sandland, China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, C. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decade, the number of young plants of Ulmus pumila in the Hunshandak Sandland has decreased sharply because of severe sand burial, and their ecological protective function has been weakened. In order to develop an understanding of the tolerance of U. pumila to sand burial and to suggest reasonable measures to protect the sparse-elm–grassland ecosystem, the effects of burial on the survival, growth, photosynthesis and biomass allocation in U. pumila were s...

  6. Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

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    Solla A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

  7. Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly U. pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to de...

  8. Reactive oxygen species-provoked mitochondria-dependent cell death during ageing of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ying; Xue, Hua; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that controlled deterioration treatment (CDT) induces programmed cell death in elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds, which undergo certain fundamental processes that are comparable to apoptosis in animals. In this study, the essential characteristics of mitochondrial physiology in elm seeds during CDT were identified by cellular ultrastructural analysis, whole-body optical imaging, Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The alteration in mitochondrial morphology was an early event during CDT, as indicated by progressive dynamic mitochondrial changes and rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane; loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??(m)) ensued, and mitochondrial ATP levels decreased. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A effectively suppressed these changes during ageing. The in situ localization of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and evaluation of the expression of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel and cyclophilin D indicated that the levels of mitochondrial permeability transition pore components were positively correlated with ROS production, leading to an imbalance of the cellular redox potential and ultimately to programmed cell death. Pre-incubation with ascorbic acid slowed loss of mitochondrial ??(m), and decreased the effect of CDT on seed viability. However, there were no significant changes in multiple antioxidant elements or chaperones in the mitochondria during early stages of ageing. Our results indicate that CDT induces dynamic changes in mitochondrial physiology via increased ROS production, ultimately resulting in an irreversible loss of seed viability. PMID:25439659

  9. Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Heidi; Wypior, Catherina; Von Wehrden, Henrik; Wesche, Karsten; Renison, Daniel; Hensen, Isabell

    2012-01-01

    Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phen...

  10. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

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    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  11. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Lee, Soon Leong; Ng, Chin Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. • Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. • Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling. PMID:25202631

  12. Development of Microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, an Economically Important Malaysian Herb

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    Lee Hong Tnah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling.

  13. Bradyrhizobia isolated from root nodules of Parasponia (Ulmaceae) do not constitute a separate coherent lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Bénédicte; Bullier, Erika; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2006-05-01

    Rhizobial bacteria almost exclusively nodulate members of the families Fabaceae, Mimosaceae and Caesalpiniaceae, but are found on a single non-legume taxon, Parasponia (Ulmaceae). Based on their host-range, their nitrogen-fixing ability and strain competition experiments, bacterial strains isolated from Parasponia were thought to constitute a separate lineage that would account for their exceptional host affinity. This hypothesis was investigated by focusing on four isolates that are representative of the morphological and cultural types of Parasponia-nodulating bradyrhizobia. Their evolutionary relationships with other rhizobia were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequences and their nodulation properties were explored using the nodA gene as a proxy for host-range specificity. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and nodA gene sequences revealed that bacterial isolates from Parasponia species are embedded among other bradyrhizobia. They did not cluster together in topologies based on the 16S rRNA or nodA gene sequences, but were scattered among other bradyrhizobia belonging to either the Bradyrhizobium japonicum or the Bradyrhizobium elkanii lineages. These data suggest that the ability of some bradyrhizobia to nodulate species of the genus Parasponia does not represent a historical relationship that predates the relationship between rhizobia and legumes, but is probably a more recent host switch for some rhizobia. PMID:16627647

  14. Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Bora; Lee Hee Jung; Kim Min Chul; Kim Byung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC) is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization w...

  15. Removal of chromium (VI from aqueous solution by Ulmus leaves

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    F. Gholami, A. H. Mahvi, Gh. A. Omrani, Sh. Nazmara

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cr (VI adsorption characteristics of Ulmus leaves (UL and their ash were examined as a function of contact time, initial pH, and initial metal ion concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ on adsorption were studied. Maximum removal was achieved in the pH=7, contact time of 60 minutes and with initial Cr (VI concentration of 2 mg/L. Because at pH ?6.5 ,precipitation of chromium may take place, optimum pH was selected at 6. Maximum adsorption rate values were found at the first 60 min at pH= 6. The effect of the adsorbent on COD removal from aqueous solution showed that 2g/L of adsorbent caused 130 and 75 mg /L increase in COD of deionized water in 60 min for UL and its ash, respectively. The chromium adsorption data obtained under the optimum condition were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Studies showed that the Langmuir adsorption model better fitted than Freundlich, with R2 >0.99. Also UL ash was more efficient than living leaves in removing chromium from aqueous solution.

  16. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2014-10-31

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 ?M 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2?×?10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 ?M thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 ?M GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies. PMID:25359187

  17. Developmental stability of Iris pumila flower traits: A common garden experiment

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    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I. pumila natural populations usually occur in two different habitat types: dune and forest. These I. pumila habitats differ in many abiotic environmental factors, but mostly in available light intensity and quality. The effects of different light intensity on the developmental stability of I. pumila floral traits were analyzed on clones taken from two different natural light habitat types that were raised in contrasting light treatments in experimental garden conditions (common garden experiment. As an indicator of developmental stability, we used two fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA1 and FA8a of three bilateral symmetric traits of I. pumila flower (FW-fall width, SW-standard width and STW- style branch width. In addition, statistically significant treatment x population interaction was observed for style width. According to the presented results, the observed FA patterns of particular traits did not reflect the whole organism buffering capacity under the given environmental conditions.

  18. Genetic relationship among Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae) species based on ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, E; Jaafar, H Z E; Aziz, M A; Taheri, S; AzadiGonbad, R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is a popular medicinal plant in Malaysia. We examined the genetic relationship among three varieties of L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata, L. pumila var. lanceolata and Labisia paucifolia using an ISSR assay. Fifty-eight primers were tested, among which 18 gave reliable polymorphic banding patterns; these yielded 264 polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Jaccard's similarity coefficient among species ranged from 0.09 to 0.14. At a similarity of 0.117%, species were divided into two main clusters. The mean value of the observed number of alleles, the effective number of alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 1.98, 1.64, 0.38, and 0.57, respectively. PMID:24841662

  19. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulati...

  20. Efficacy and safety of Labisia pumila var alata water extract among pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; George, Annie; Hazlina, Nik Hussain Nik; Azidah, Abdul Kadir; Idiana, Hassan Intan; Law, Kim Sooi; Bahari, Ismail Shaiful; Zahiruddin, Wan Mohamed Wan; Liske, Eckehard; Azreena, Abas

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of Labisia pumila var alata (L. pumila) water extract for improving quality of life, cardiovascular and hormonal balance. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 16-week study in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. The subjects were randomized to 400?mg propriety extract of L. pumila or placebo. A Women's Health Questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the data. A total of 197 subjects (L. pumila: n=102 and placebo: n=95) were analyzed. Subjects in the herbal group showed improved memory/concentration, vasomotor symptoms, menstrual symptoms, and sleep problems by 8.3%, 15.9%, 11.8%, and 31.0%, respectively. The greatest improvement was observed for the question: "I get frightened or panic feelings for apparently no reason at all" with a 53% decrease as compared with placebo. Improvements were also seen in the cardiovascular parameters, and the safety profiles were normal. Postmenopausal women supplemented with L. pumila showed no changes in gynecological relevant hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and 17?-Estradiol. Water extract of L. pumila was shown to be safe and effective for improving several parameters of quality of life and cardiovascular risks factors (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]). PMID:25000151

  1. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  2. [Characteristics of gene pools of three Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel populations at the range margins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechnaia, O V; Kholina, A B; Koren', O G; Jane?ek, V; Kohutka, A; Gebauer, R; Zhuravlev, Iu N

    2010-12-01

    Genetic variation of Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel was characterized in three marginal populations in southwestern, southern and eastern parts of the natural species range (Transbaikalia, Primorye, Kamchatka) using isozyme analysis. Analysis involving 16 isozyme loci encoding ten enzyme systems was conducted. Our results confirm that P. pumila is among the most polymorphic species in the family Pinus. Three marginal populations exhibited high genetic variation (P95 = 68.8%, Ho = 0.247, He = 0.291). Populations heterogeneity and significantly high level of divergence in coniferous (F(ST) = 0.050, D(N) = 0.044) reflect their genetic originality. In summary, it was shown that the level of genetic variation characteristic for P. pumila in other parts of the not only is reproduced in the populations examined but even is close to maximum there. PMID:21434414

  3. Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bora; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Byung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex(UPC) is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.

  4. Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Bora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.

  5. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ehsan, Karimi; Hawa ZE, Jaafar; Ali, Ghasemzadeh; Mahdi, Ebrahimi.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty a [...] cids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant revealed that L. pumila var. alata contained higher anti-oxidative activities compared to var. pumila and var. lanceolata. However, these values were lower than the tested anti-oxidant standards. On the other hand, the aqueous leaf extracts in all three varieties of L. pumila were also found to inhibit a variable degree of antibacterial activities against eight bacteria (four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was observed the leaves of three varieties of L. pumila exhibited variable patterns of fatty acids and the microwave aqueous extraction possess anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.

  6. Phytoplasma associated with witches´-broom disease of Ulmus minor in the Czech Republic. Electron microscopy and molecular characterization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafá?ová, D.; Válová, P.; Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 1 (2009), s. 37-42. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ulmus minor * Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi * PCR * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  7. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VamshikrishnaManda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

  8. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  9. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Vamshi K.; Dale, Olivia R.; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Khan, Shabana I.

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

  10. Cryopreservation of the non-dormant orthodox seeds of Ulmus glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielarz, P

    2010-06-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of cryopreservation of Wych elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) seeds, we evaluated the seeds sensitivity to extreme desiccation and/or the ultra-low temperature of liquid nitrogen (LN; -196 degrees C). We also determined the critical water content (WC) of desiccated seeds and the high-moisture freezing limit of seeds desiccated or moistened to various WCs and frozen for 24 h or up to two years in LN. Germination tests revealed no critical WC for seeds to 0.03 g H 2 O g -1 dry mass, g g -1 . Seeds tolerated freezing in LN within safe ranges of WC 0.03-0.21 g g -1 (nuts). Seeds desiccated to the safe WC and stored in LN for two years had similar germination as seeds stored at -3 degrees C for two years. Therefore, long-term cryopreservation of U. glabra seeds in gene banks is feasible. PMID:20519176

  11. Co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza pumila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Ji, Qian; Teng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yanru; Wu, Chao; Zekria, David; Zhang, Dasheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were separately and simultaneously introduced into Ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. Overexpression of individual G10H (G lines) significantly improved CPT production with respect to non-transgenic hairy root cultures (NC line) and single STR overexpressing lines (S lines), indicating that G10H plays a more important role in stimulating CPT accumulation than STR in O. pumila. Furthermore, co-overexpression of G10H and STR genes (SG Lines) caused a 56% increase on the yields of CPT compared to NC line and single gene transgenic lines, showed that simultaneous introduction of G10H and STR can produce a synergistic effect on CPT biosynthesis in O. pumila. The MTT assay results indicated that CPT extracted from different lines showed similar anti-tumor activity, suggesting that transgenic O. pumila hairy root lines could be an alternative approach to obtain CPT. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enhancement of CPT production in O. pumila employing a metabolic engineering strategy. PMID:25648209

  12. Co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Ji, Qian; Teng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yanru; Wu, Chao; Zekria, David; Zhang, Dasheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were separately and simultaneously introduced into Ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. Overexpression of individual G10H (G lines) significantly improved CPT production with respect to non-transgenic hairy root cultures (NC line) and single STR overexpressing lines (S lines), indicating that G10H plays a more important role in stimulating CPT accumulation than STR in O. pumila. Furthermore, co-overexpression of G10H and STR genes (SG Lines) caused a 56% increase on the yields of CPT compared to NC line and single gene transgenic lines, showed that simultaneous introduction of G10H and STR can produce a synergistic effect on CPT biosynthesis in O. pumila. The MTT assay results indicated that CPT extracted from different lines showed similar anti-tumor activity, suggesting that transgenic O. pumila hairy root lines could be an alternative approach to obtain CPT. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enhancement of CPT production in O. pumila employing a metabolic engineering strategy. PMID:25648209

  13. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  14. First Record of a Hyalid Species, Protohyale pumila (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalidae, from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hwa Shin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hyalid amphipod, Protohyale pumila (Hiwatari and Kajihara, 1981, collected from Jeju Island is reported for the first time in the Korean fauna. The species is characterized by the presence of a short apical spine on the palp article 4 of maxilliped, a distinctly large and blunt cusp on the propodus of male gnathopod 1, and a distal truncate process on the palm of male gnathopod 2. Herein, the present species is described and illustrated. Korean hyalid amphipods now are composed of four species belonging to three genera. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Marine Arthropod Depository Bank of Korea, Seoul National University.

  15. Genetic transformation of apple (Malus pumila Mill.) using a disarmed Ti-binary vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D J; Passey, A J; Barbara, D J; Bevan, M

    1989-03-01

    The disamed Ti-binary vector pBIN 6 in Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been used in leaf disc transfomations to produce transgenic apple (Malus pumila Mill.) plants with a nomal phenotype except for a somewhat reduced capacity to root. The presence of the genes for nopaline synthase and neomycin phosphotrans ferase (conferring kanamycin resistance), inserted into the host genome by the vector, was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, the detection of nopaline synthase activity and rooting in the presence of the antibiotic.The nopaline synthase gene continued to be expressed in glasshouse-grown plants several months after removal from in vitro growth conditions. PMID:24240455

  16. Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Sadeghi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6±8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (? (female/female/day was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

  17. Effects of Temperature, Light and Storage on Seed Germination of Ulmus glabra Huds. and U. laevis Pall

    OpenAIRE

    Emrah Cicek; Fahrettin Tilki

    2006-01-01

    The effects of temperature, light and storage on the germination of Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis seeds were studied. Germination tests were carried out under constant temperatures of 20°C and alternating temperatures of 30/20°C. Temperature significantly affected seed germination of U. glabra not stored, and seed germination was the highest at 30/20°C under dark or light. Temperature and light (0 or 8 h) did not significantly affect germination of U. laevis seeds not stored. When seeds we...

  18. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharah Abdul Rahman; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Asmah Rahmat

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was ...

  19. Effects of Temperature, Light and Storage on Seed Germination of Ulmus glabra Huds. and U. laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Cicek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, light and storage on the germination of Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis seeds were studied. Germination tests were carried out under constant temperatures of 20°C and alternating temperatures of 30/20°C. Temperature significantly affected seed germination of U. glabra not stored, and seed germination was the highest at 30/20°C under dark or light. Temperature and light (0 or 8 h did not significantly affect germination of U. laevis seeds not stored. When seeds were stored for 2 years, seed germination of U. glabra and U. laevis was significantly affected by temperature and light (0, 8, 6 and 24 h. Two years storage of U. glabra seeds increased light demands for germination percentage, and the seeds could be stored at 4°C for 2 years without losing its viabilities when germinated at 30/20°C under light. Although germination percentage and germination rate of U. laevis seeds reduced after 2 years of storage, germination parameters were still quite high when seeds were germinated at 30/20°C under light.

  20. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005. PMID:20082444

  1. Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

  2. Airborne-pollen pool and mating pattern in a hybrid zone between Pinus pumila and P. parviflora var. pentaphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Megumi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2008-12-01

    The reproductive isolation barriers and the mating patterns among Pinus pumila, P. parviflora var. pentaphylla and their hybrids were examined by flowering phenology and genetic assays of three life stages: airborne-pollen grains, adults and seeds, in a hybrid zone on Mount Apoi, Hokkaido, Japan. Chloroplast DNA composition of the airborne-pollen was determined by single-pollen polymerase chain reaction. Mating patterns were analysed by estimating the molecular hybrid index of the seed parent, their seed embryos and pollen parents. The observation of flowering phenology showed that the flowering of P. pumila precedes that of P. parviflora var. pentaphylla by about 6 to 10 days within the same altitudinal ranges. Although this prezygotic isolation barrier is effective, the genetic assay of airborne-pollen showed that the two pine species, particularly P. pumila, still have chances to form F(1) hybrid seeds. Both parental species showed a strong assortative mating pattern; F(1) seeds were found in only 1.4% of seeds from P. pumila mother trees and not at all in P. parviflora var. pentaphylla. The assortative mating was concluded as the combined result of flowering time differentiation and cross-incompatibility. In contrast to the parental species, hybrids were fertilized evenly by the two parental species and themselves. The breakdown of prezygotic barriers (intermediate flowering phenology) and cross-incompatibility may account for the unselective mating. It is suggested that introgression is ongoing on Mount Apoi through backcrossing between hybrids and parental species, despite strong isolation barriers between the parental species. PMID:19120991

  3. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  4. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  5. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were sol...

  6. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 ?mol/m2/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 ?mol/m2/s, the production ...

  7. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Mohd Effendy; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using severa...

  8. Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady / Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Loyola; Paula, Pavéz; Sergio, Lillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo va [...] lor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pectina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los [...] Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

  9. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  11. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

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    Lyu Jeonghyeon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

  12. Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah

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    Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

  13. Involvement of nitrogen on flavonoids, glutathione, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities of Malaysian medicinal plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah; Rahman, Zaharah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use. PMID:22312260

  14. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

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    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of the hybrid. Compared to the Siberian Stone Pine, the Japanese Stone Pine had higher dark respiration rate.The hybrid respiration rate was similar to that of the Japanese Stone Pine suggesting that the hybrid inherited mitochondria from thisspecies. Our findings indicated that the P. pumila exhibited particular ecological plasticity and this phenomenon is attributable to its high potential activity of photosynthetic and respiratory processes. These physiological features explained the large transcontinental naturalhabitat of Japanese Stone Pine.

  15. [Inductive activity of the posterior tip of planula in the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

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    Nadia, M E; Nazrun, A S; Norazlina, M; Isa, N M; Norliza, M; Ima Nirwana, S

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that estrogen reduction is able to stimulate focal inflammation in bone. Labisia pumila (LP) which is known to exert phytoestrogenic effect can be used as an alternative to ERT which can produce positive effects on bone without causing side effects. LP contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as free radical scavenger, thus inhibiting TNF-? production and COX-2 expression which leads to decline in RANKL expression, resulting in reduction in osteoclast activity which consequently reduces bone loss. Hence, it is the phytoestrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties that make LP an effective agent against osteoporosis. PMID:22611381

  17. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol?1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g?1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g?1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

  18. Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods

    OpenAIRE

    Tre?molie?res, Miche?le; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel; Schmitt, Diane

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

  19. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

  20. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO? enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO? levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O?), hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO? > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > stem 800 µmol/mol CO? > stem 400 µmol/mol CO? > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > root 800 µmol/mol CO? > root 400 µmol/mol CO?. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO? might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO?, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O?, H?O?, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

  1. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

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    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  2. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  3. Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare events, and were absent in most populations of Wiebesia sp. 1 and 2. Further studies are needed to distinguish between mechanisms potentially generating this rarity, such as purifying selection, genetic drift or amplification failure.

  4. Impact of genet size and flowering stage on fruit set in Iris pumila L. clones in wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasjev, Aleksej

    2005-03-01

    The interplay between vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction in clonal plants affects the fitness of individuals as well as the structure of genetic diversity. The relevance of studies of that interaction depends on how well chosen genotypes and environmental conditions reflect the real situation in natural populations. In order to analyze the relationship between genet size (and consequently its vegetative success) and fruit set (its female reproductive success) under undisturbed natural conditions I utilized 2916 ramets that bear hermaphrodite flowers on 137 naturally growing Iris pumila clones in a protected area of Deliblato Sand, Serbia. The number of flowers (i.e. flowering ramets) served as a fair estimator of genet size and the larger clones produced more fruits than the smaller ones. However, the smaller clones had significantly higher fruit to flower ratio compared to the larger ones and that difference was detectable in later flowering stages of a clone but not in the earlier ones. In the large clones, flowers that opened later had significantly lower fruit to flower ratio. Since the deleterious effect of geitonogamy on fruit set in I. pumila was documented by hand pollinations, the reduction of fruit to flower ratio in more abundant genets and in later flowering stages is most likely the result of increased geitonogamy. That reduction could lead to a different genetic structure in the seed bank compared to the structure in aboveground population, which can imply important ecological and micro-evolutionary consequences.

  5. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 ?mol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 ?mol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 ?mol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  6. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  7. Micropropagation and germplasm conservation of Central Park Splendor Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. 'A/Ross Central Park') trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, R C; Karnosky, D F

    2007-08-01

    Micropropagation offers opportunities to propagate, preserve and ship tree germplasm. It also reduces the risk of moving pathogens and insects with the germplasm due to built-in pathogen detection capabilities of aseptic cultures. For the past few decades, our laboratory has been involved in a project to preserve and restore a large, cold hardy, and historically important Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. 'A/Ross Central Park') tree. Here we present three simple and efficient systems for its micropropagation, germplasm conservation and distribution: (1) in vitro plant formation from meristematic nodules (MNs), (2) plantlet generation from axillary buds, and (3) in vitro rooting of micro-cuttings from 20-years-old hedged stock plants. Newly flushed nodal segments were used as explants. WPM with 0.5 mg/l BA was found to be the best medium for meristematic shoot development and WPM supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 4-CPPU and 0.5 mg/l TDZ was best for meristematic nodule formation. Rhizogenesis of regenerants and micro-cuttings was best achieved on WPM with 1.0 mg/l NAA and 2% sucrose. Rooted plants were readily acclimatized to the greenhouse ambient environment and continued to grow well under greenhouse conditions. The survival rate of acclimatized plantlets under ex vitro conditions was 100% after 4 weeks. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variation based on observation of about 1,000 plants. Cycling of shoot explants and MNs through repetitive cultures was effective in scaling-up propagules. PMID:17431632

  8. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-07-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

  9. Ultrafine particles of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells via activation of caspase and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Joungjwa; Lee, Jong Suk; Yang, Kyung Mi

    2014-01-01

    Small-sized particles are more suitable for targeted delivery and are therapeutically more effective than large-sized particles. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of ultrafine particles of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (ufUJ) on human gastric cancer cell lines SNU-1, SNU-216, and SNU-484. ufUJ induced apoptosis by the proteolytic activation of caspase-9, caspase-6, and caspase-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulu...

  10. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberianstone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the lessproductive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structureshowed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with thespecies' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generativecycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo.The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiatedembryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the UpperAngara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however,it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine andSiberian stone pine species occurred.

  11. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

  12. Range extension, habitat and conservation status of three rare mallees, Eucalyptus castrensis, Eucalyptus fracta and Eucalyptus pumila from the Hunter Valley, NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Lachlan M.; Hunter, John T.

    2013-01-01

    New populations of three threatened mallee species, Eucalyptus castrensis K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus fracta K.D.Hill and Eucalyptus pumila Cambage (all Myrtaceae), have recently been found in the Singleton Military Area in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales (32°45’S, 151°15’E). Each population is significant as they increase the known distribution and total numbers of three highly restricted species. Details of the habitat and size of each additional population are given and conservation no...

  13. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  14. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

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    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  15. [Dynamics of allozyme heterozygosity in Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel populations of the Russian Far East: comparison of embryos and maternal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politov, D V; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S

    2006-10-01

    Siberian dwarf pine, or Japanese stone pine, Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel is widespread in eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East; the species is bird-dispersed and has a unique spreading or shrub living form. A mixed mating system (predominant outcrossing with self-pollination and matings of close relatives) leads to the formation of partly inbred progenies in P. pumila, as in the majority of other conifers. The question arises as to whether inbred individuals persist in the reproductive part of a population, which can have negative genetic consequences. The ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MNR, MDH, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SKDH, and SOD isozyme systems were analyzed to study the dynamics of heterozygosity in four P. pumila natural populations from the Pacific region, optimal for the species. Samples were collected in northern Koryakia, southern Kamchatka (two samples), and the Kunashir Island (Kurils). Wright's fixation index was used to estimate the level of inbreeding in embryos from dormant seeds resulting from free pollination and in maternal plants. A substantial level of inbreeding (F(IS) = 0.124-0.342) was observed in the embryo samples but not in three out of the four adult samples. The inbreeding level at the reproductive age was high only in the sample from Koryakia, which was explained by a relatively young age of plants in the population frequently affected by fires. A general increase in heterozygosity, characteristic of other conifers as well, was attributed to elimination of inbred progenies and by balancing selection for heterozygotes, which is a key factor maintaining allozyme polymorphism in populations. PMID:17152705

  16. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (? and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  17. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (Rd), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

  18. The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila

    OpenAIRE

    Gili, Josep Maria; Rossi, Sergio; Hughes, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    The spatial distribution patterns of two species of epiphytic hydrozoans, Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila, on the intertidal alga Ascophyllum nodosum were studied in adjacent wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas. Clava were more abundant on the wave-sheltered algae than on the wave-exposed fronds, and in both areas occupied the basal and middle sections of the algae. There was no difference in the abundance of Dynamena between the wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas, but in both area...

  19. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

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    Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population. Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

  20. Chloroplast microsatellites and mitochondrial nad1 intron 2 sequences indicate congruent phylogenetic relationships among Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra), Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica), and Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerli, F; Senn, J; Anzidei, M; Madaghiele, A; Büchler, U; Sperisen, C; Vendramin, G G

    2001-06-01

    We studied the phylogenetic relationships among the three stone pine species, Pinus cembra, P. sibirica, and P. pumila, using chloroplast microsatellites and mitochondrial nad1 intron 2 sequences. The three chloroplast microsatellite loci combined into a total of 18 haplotypes. Fourteen haplotypes were detected in 15 populations of P. cembra and one population of P. sibirica, five of which were shared between the two species, and the two populations of P. pumila comprised four species-specific haplotypes. Mitochondrial intron sequences confirmed this grouping of species. Sequences of P. cembra and P. sibirica were identical, but P. pumila differed by several nucleotide substitutions and insertions/deletions. A repeat region found in the former two species showed no intraspecific variation. These results indicate a relatively recent evolutionary separation of P. cembra and P. sibirica, despite their currently disjunct distributions. The species-specific chloroplast and mitochondrial markers of P. sibirica and P. pumila should help to trace the hybridization in their overlapping distribution area and to identify fossil remains with respect to the still unresolved postglacial re-colonization history of these two species. PMID:11412370

  1. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  2. Allocation of Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in Response to CO2 and Light Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200??mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900??mol/m2/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200??mol/mol?+?light intensity at 225??mol/m2/s. Meanwhile, at 400??mol/mol CO2?+?900??mol/m2/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200??mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, fv/fm (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

  3. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

  4. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP), a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL), sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomised control (OVXC), ovariectomised (OVX) and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT), ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20) and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100). The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property. PMID:25195641

  5. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a signi?cantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  6. Needle traits of an evergreen, coniferous shrub growing at wind-exposed and protected sites in a mountain region: does Pinus pumila produce needles with greater mass per area under wind-stress conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S; Nakano, T; Hikosaka, K; Maruta, E

    2009-11-01

    Snow depth is one of the most important determinants of vegetation, especially in mountainous regions. In such regions, snow depth tends to be low at wind-exposed sites such as ridges, where stand height and productivity are limited by stressful environmental conditions during winter. Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila Regel) is a dominant species in mountainous regions of Japan. We hypothesized that P. pumila produces needles with greater mass per area at wind-exposed sites than at wind-protected sites because it invests more nitrogen (N) in cell walls at the expense of N investment in the photosynthetic apparatus, resulting in increased photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). Contrary to our hypothesis, plants at wind-exposed site invested less resources in needles, as exhibited by lower biomass, N, Rubisco and cell wall mass per unit area, and had higher photosynthetic capacity, higher PNUE and shorter needle life-span than plants at a wind-protected site. N partitioning was not significantly different between sites. These results suggest that P. pumila at wind-exposed sites produces needles at low cost with high productivity to compensate for a short leaf life-span, which may be imposed by wind stress when needles appear above the snow surface in winter. PMID:19778373

  7. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra...

  8. [An experimental study on the formation of anterior-posterior polarity in the early development of the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Iu A; Cherdantsev, V G

    2003-01-01

    Elements of evolutionarily initial morphogenesis providing for the formation of main body axes could have been preserved in embryogenesis of lower Metazoa animals, Cnidaria. However, the information on the morphological bases of axes formation in their normal development is not yet complete. When studying the normal development of Dynamena pumila (Hydrozoa, Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), it has been proposed that the region, where the embryonic ectoblast remained unclosed for the longest time, determines the position of the posterior pole of the larval anteroposterior axis. In the experiments, the formation of closed ectoblast in an arbitrarily chosen region of the embryonic surface was delayed artificially, for example, by incisions. The fate of this region was traced with the help of a mark consisting of carmine particles. It was shown that the posterior pole did differentiate near the region of surface, which was the last to epithelize and redetermination of the anteroposterior axis orientation was only possible before the formation of closed ectoblast in the normal development. The morphogeneses involved in the formation of anteroposterior axis and its poles in Dynamena embryos were reconstructed by means of observations over the displacement of mark particles. It was shown that the establishment of this axis and appearance of morphological differences between the anterior and posterior planula poles are morphogenetic consequences of the closed ectoblast formation. The region, in which the closure of ectoblast is delayed, is a functional analog of the blastopore of higher Metazoa. PMID:14714453

  9. Protective Effects of Labisia pumila var. alata on Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations of Cardiac Muscle Cells in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Amran, Athirah Z; Jalil, Juriyati

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the standardized aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The extracts were administered to Wistar rats orally for 28 days with three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight) prior to ISO (85 mg/kg)-induced MI in two doses on day 29 and 30. The sera and hearts were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis after the rats were sacrificed 48 h after the first induction. The main components of the extracts, gallic acid, alkylresorcinols and flavonoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The extracts showed significant protective effects as pretreated rats showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (p transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), when compared with ISO-control rats. There were significant rises (p < 0.05) in the activity of oxidase enzymes, i.e., glutathione peroxide (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the pretreated rats, when compared with ISO-control group. Histopathological examination showed an improvement in membrane cell integrity in pre-treated rats compared to untreated rats. The major components of LPva extracts can be used as their biomarkers and contributed to the cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI rats. PMID:25786162

  10. Causes and consequences of exotic tree invasion in the Iberian peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez Mun?oz, Noelia

    2012-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral se centra en el estudio de especies de árboles nativos y exóticos coexistentes en bosques de ribera del centro de la Península Ibérica y en bosques mésicos del noroeste peninsular. En el caso de los bosques de ribera del centro peninsular, las especies estudiadas fueron las nativas Fraxinus angustifolia, Populus alba y Ulmus minor y las exóticas Ailanthus altissima, Acer negundo, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Robinia pseudoacacia y Ulmus pumila. En los bosques del noroeste...

  11. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Vincent G M; Laurens, François N D; van de Weg, W Eric; Rusholme, Rachel L; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather C M; Kodde, Linda P; Plummer, Kim M

    2005-06-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 gene in Malus pumila Russian apple R12740-7A, at the lower end of linkage group 2 of Malus. Race 8 isolate NZ188B.2 is compatible with Vh8, suggesting the loss or modification of the complementary AvrVh8 gene, while isolate 1639 overcomes both Vh2 and Vh8, but is incompatible with at least one other gene not detected by any of the other race isolates tested. Our research is the first to differentiate scab-resistance genes in a putative gene cluster in apple with the aid of races of V. inaequalis. PMID:15869661

  12. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  13. Development of Nuclear Microsatellites for the Arcto-Tertiary Tree Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira H. Maharramova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The current study aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers for the relict tree species , which is threatened in its natural range in the South Caucasus. Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library on the Roche FLX platform using the 454 Titanium kit produced 86,058 sequence reads, most of which contained short tandem repeats. Eighty microsatellite loci identified using the software package QDD version 1 were selected and tested for proper PCR amplification. Of these, 13 allowed proper amplification and were shown to be polymorphic among a sample of 25 Z. carpinifolia specimens from various geographic origins. Conclusions: The set of microsatellite markers will be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in Z. carpinifolia. They will allow for an examination of phylogeographic patterns as well as of population structure and gene flow within this species.

  14. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a chain of behavioral events that leads to advantageous host colonization and development by S. schevyrewi. PMID:20388298

  15. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia, Allegrucci; Lorena, Elíades; Ana María, Bucsinszky; Marta, Cabello; Angélica, Arambarri.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales [...] durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad. Abstract in english In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were [...] isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  16. Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

  17. Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

  18. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  19. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  1. Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina in Austria, Czechia and Slovakia: a story of decline.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danihelka, Ji?í; Niklfeld, H.; Šípošová, H.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 81, ?. 2 (2009), s. 151-171. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : changes in frequency * conservation * herbarium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2009 http://www. ibot .cas.cz/preslia/P092Danihelka.pdf

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ima Nirwana, S.; Norliza, M.; Isa, N. M.; Norazlina, M.; Nazrun, A. S.; Nadia, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these...

  3. Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos / Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R., Trevisan; C.P., Lima; C.M.S., Miyazaki; F.A., Pesci; C.B., Silva; B.C.K., Hirota; A.L.L., Lordello; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; S.M.W., Zanin.

    Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urin [...] árias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos) foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico. Abstract in english The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infec [...] tions and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes) were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

  4. How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2010-05-01

    Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

  5. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

  6. Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

  7. The effect of microbial inocula on the growth of black locust, Siberian elm and silver maple seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of forest plants depend mostly on the soil microbial activity since no mineral or organic fertilizers are applied. Microbial processes can be activated and conditions for plants development improved with the introduction of selected microorganisms in the soil. With the aim of obtaining quality planting material in a shorter period of time, the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Streptomyces sp. on the early growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila and silver-leaf maple (Acer dasycarpum were investigated in this study. Microorganisms were applied individually and in a mixture (1:1. Plant height was measured on the 90th, 120th and 180th day after planting. Plant diameter, as well as the number of actinomycetes and azotobacters was measured at the end of the vegetation period (180 days after planting. Applied microorganisms had a positive effect on the seedling height in all three plant species, with the best effect found in the black locust. Effectiveness of applied microorganisms on seedling diameter was the highest in the silver-leaf maple. The largest number of azotobacters was found in the rhizosphere of black locust. Number of microorganisms from both groups was increased in the inoculated variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002

  8. Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilanda, D. D.; Atibu, E. K.; Tshibangu, D. S. T.; Mudogo, V.; Ngbolua, K. N.; Mpiana, P. T.; Misengabu, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings indicated antisickling activity of anthocyanins from plants used in the management of sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins extracts from Trema orientalis on sickle cell. So, Emmel, Itano and hypoxic induced sickle erythrocyte haemolysis bioassays were used to evaluate the influence of these extracts on haemoglobin S aggregation and sickle erythrocyte haemolysis. Anthocyanins extracts were found to...

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment ... Station, New Haven, Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 ...

  10. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  11. Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the botanical garden in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Ding, Hui; Zhu, Yong-guan

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory (BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden (BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni, and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index (MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes: strongly accumulated (SA or grade I), moderately accumulated (MA or grade II), intermediately accumulated (IA or grade III), and weakly accumulated (WA or grade IV). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza tomentosa. PMID:16295909

  12. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A

    OpenAIRE

    Bus, V. G. M.; Laurens, F. N. D.; Weg, W. E.; Rusholme, R. L.; Gardiner, S. E.; Bassett, H. C. M.

    2005-01-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 g...

  13. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Surender Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, anal...

  14. Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina): aspectos Morfológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alicia, Forcone; Silvina, Ruppel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, [...] Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae. Abstract in english Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia): morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. [...] Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

  15. INTER-FAMILY VARIATION IN FIBRE DIMENSIONS OF SIX TROPICAL HARDWOODS IN RELATION TO PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Antwi-boasiako, Charles; Ayimasu, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Fibre characteristics determine utilizationpotentials of timbers. Fibre dimensions influencewood pulpability, durability and physico-mechanicalproperties. Fibre length, width, lumen width and wallthickness of six tropical timbers from three families(Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae) wereinvestigated from heartwood splinters (20×2×2mm)delignified in 1:1 glacial acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide [at 600C], teased out and stained. Fibrelengths range from 0.79mm for Holoptelea grandis(Ulmac...

  16. Antioxidant Properties of the Methanol Extracts of the Leaves and Stems of Celtis africana

    OpenAIRE

    Adedapo, Adeolu A.; Jimoh, Florence O.; Afolayan, Anthony J.; Masika, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts from the leaves and stems of Celtis africana(Ulmaceae) were assessed in an effort to validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the herb.The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the stem as determined by the DPPH, proanthocyanidins, totalphenols, the flavonoids, and total flavonols were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the FRAPcontents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem. The ABTS scav...

  17. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barth Ortrud M; Barreto Cíntia F.; Coelho Luciane G.; Luz Cynthia F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed...

  18. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    OpenAIRE

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for futu...

  19. Genetic diversity of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesen; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate genetic relationships using qualitative and/or quantitative differentiation of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.) and to acquire basic data for the conservation and utilization of the species, aroma components in ripe fruit of M. sieversii obtained from 30 seedlings at Mohe, Gongliu County, Xinjiang Autonomic Region, China, and in ripe fruit of 4 M. pumila cultivars ('Ralls', 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji') were analyzed using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the values of similarity coefficient concerning volatile types between the two species were in accordance with the evolution of M. pumila cultivars (forms), and that M. sieversii seedlings showed considerable genetic variations in these aspects: the total content of volatile components, the classes and contents of each compound classes, the segregation ratio, and content of main components. The results showed significant difference among seedlings and wide genetic diversity within the populations. Comparison of the volatile components in M. sieversii with those in M. pumila cultivars showed that the common compounds whose number were larger than five with the contents over 0.04 mg/L simultaneously between M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars belonged to esters, alcohols, aldehydes or ketones. This suggests fundamental identity in main volatile components of M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars. The results above sustained the conclusion "M. sieversii is probably the ancestor of M. pumila". However, there were 48 compounds present in M. pumila that were not detected in M. sieversii, including 6 character impact components (i.e., propyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-methyl-1-butanol acetate, pentyl acetate, 3-furanmethanol, and benzene acetaldehyde). This suggested that in the domestication of M. pumila, introgression of other apple species, except for M. sieversii, by interspecies hybridization was possible. There were 177 compounds in total belonging to 11 classes detected in 30 M. sieversii seedlings, including esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, benzene ramifications, terpenes, heterocycles, hydrocarbon derivates, acetals, and lactones. Among them, acetals and lactones were not detected in M. pumila cultivars, 90 compounds were unique to M. sieversii, and 7 components (1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, 1-hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-octen-1-ol, ethyl octanoate, and damascenone) belonged to character impact odors. Thus, the potential of M. sieversii in "utilization conservation" is enormous as a rare germplasm on genetic improvement of M. pumila cultivars. PMID:17469789

  20. Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Bohmann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two coexisting species of African molossids the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumila, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumila and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate their habitat utilisation. The results confirmed that both of these species selected to forage over sugarcane fields instead of over the other habitats available in the area: savanna, riparian forest and urban areas. Foraging ranges were relatively large with C. pumila travelling on average a maximum of 4.2 km from the roost and M. condylurus covering 4.8 km. The mean activity areas ranged from 976 ha (Minimum convex polygon to 1319 ha (95% Kernel for C. pumila and from 1190 ha (MCP to 1437 ha (95% Kernel for M. condylurus. Interspecific differences in the mean activity area or maximum distance travelled were not found. The results of this study suggest that these species have a potential role as pest controlling agents over sugarcane fields.

  1. Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro / Assessment of extinction risk of Urticineae from sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Cardoso, Pederneiras; Andrea Ferreira da, Costa; Jorge Pedro Pereira, Carauta; Sergio, Romaniuc Neto.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados o georreferenciamento e as análises de avaliação de risco de extinção seguindo os critérios e categorias da IUCN para 32 espécies de Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae e Moraceae) ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Materiais correspondentes a essas espé [...] cies foram examinados nos principais herbários brasileiros, sendo selecionados 2524 registros para a avaliação. Dentre as 32 espécies, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis e Phyllostylon brasiliense encontraram-se ameaçadas de extinção, já Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana e S. hilarii deixaram de ser consideradas ameaçadas de extinção pelo recente estudo. Os resultados apontaram, como localidades de importância conservacionista, os municípios de Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro e Saquarema. Abstract in english This paper conducted georeferencing and analyzes of extinction risk assessments following the criteria and categories from IUCN for 32 species of Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae) occurring in the sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Materials corresponding [...] to these species were examined in major Brazilian herbaria and 2524 records were selected for evaluation. Among the 32 species, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis and Phyllostylon brasiliense fall into endangered category, and Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana and S. hilarii were not considered threatened. The locations of conservation importance belong to the municipalities of Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro and Saquarema.

  2. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ortrud M., Barth; Cíntia F., Barreto; Luciane G., Coelho; Cynthia F.P., Luz.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais [...] freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Atividades agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pol [...] len grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  3. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA, ácido giberélico (GA3, cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%, originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1, principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais.

  4. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks / Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; José Itamar, Boneti; Rubens Onofre, Nodari; Miguel Pedro, Guerra.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) e Malus pumila (M9) depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1) e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1). Embriões originado [...] s do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA), ácido giberélico (GA3), cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%), originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1), principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais. Abstract in english The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from inters [...] pecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1), mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%). Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.

  5. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matthew R., Thomas; Lúcia H. Rapp, Py-Daniel.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio N [...] egro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul. Abstract in english Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by [...] having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  6. An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

    2013-11-01

    The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

  7. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

  8. Microbial Decomposition of Elm and Oak Leaves in a Karst Aquifer †

    OpenAIRE

    Eichem, Angela C.; Dodds, Walter K.; Tate, Cathy M.; Edler, Chris

    1993-01-01

    Dry Chinquapin oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and American elm (Ulmus americana) leaves were placed in four microcosms fed by groundwater springs to monitor changes in dry mass, ash-free dry mass, and microbial activity over a 35-day period. Oxygen microelectrodes were used to measure microbial activity and to estimate millimeter-scale heterogeneity in that activity. Oak leaves lost mass more slowly than elm leaves. Generally, there was a decrease in total dry weight over the first 14 days, after w...

  9. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  10. Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-diez, P.; Gonza?lez-mun?oz, N.; Alonso, A.; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the native trees Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia, respectively. Naturally senesced leaves of each species were collected and C:N ratio, N and lignin content assessed. We prepared 64 litter bags per sp...

  11. Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; Ward, James C.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase ('0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from th...

  12. Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acatay, A.

    1968-01-01

    As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

  13. The phytogeographical regions of Slovenia: a consequence of natural environmental variation or prehistoric human activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Andric, M.; Willis, Kj

    2003-01-01

    1. Slovenia is a small but floristically diverse country with at least six distinctive phytogeographical regions. 2. The palaeoecological record was used to examine the vegetational history of this diverse landscape, using cores from four of the phytogeographical regions. 3. All contain records that extend back to at least 9000 cal. BP and indicate that the early Holocene vegetation of Slovenia was rather uniform and that broadleaved woodland containing Corylus, Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia preva...

  14. Antioxidant Properties of the Methanol Extracts of the Leaves and Stems of Celtis africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts from the leaves and stems of Celtis africana(Ulmaceae were assessed in an effort to validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the herb.The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the stem as determined by the DPPH, proanthocyanidins, totalphenols, the flavonoids, and total flavonols were higher than that of the leaves. On the other hand, the FRAPcontents of the leaves were higher than that of the stem. The ABTS scavenging activities of both the stem andleaves were similar and comparable to that of BHT, the standard antioxidant used. This study, has to someextent, validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and stems of Celtis africana.

  15. The role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, J. G.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    The profiles of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the two highly polyphagous arctiids Estigmene acrea and Grammia geneura and their potential PA sources in southeastern Arizona were compiled. One of four species of Boraginaceae, Plagiobothrys arizonicus, contained PAs; this is the first PA record for this plant species. The principle PA sources are Senecio longilobus (Asteraceae) and Crotalaria pumila (Fabaceae). The known PA pattern of S. longilobus was extended; the species was found to cont...

  16. BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen 1995 Leaf Area Index Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. These data are LAI measurements made by the TF-11 team throughout the 1995 growing season. The data include the LAI of plants that fall into six categories: total, Carex spp., Betula pumila, Menyanthes trifoliata, Salix spp., and other vascular plants. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  17. Biocatalytic asymmetric formation of tetrahydro-?-carbolines

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Peter; Usera, Aimee R.; O Connor, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    Strictosidine synthase triggers the formation of strictosidine from tryptamine and secologanin, thereby generating a carbon-carbon bond and a new stereogenic center. Strictosidine contains a tetrahydro-?-carboline moiety ? an important N-heterocyclic framework found in a range of natural products and synthetic pharmaceuticals. Stereoselective methods to produce tetrahydro-?-carboline enantiomers are greatly valued. We report that strictosidine synthase from Ophiorrhiza pumila utilizes a r...

  18. Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, A. R.; Gunning, A. P.; Waldron, K. W.; Morris, V. J.; Ng, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to visualize the ultrastructure of hydrated plant cell wall material from prepared apple (Malus pumila MILL; Cox orange pippin), water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Bintje), and carrot (Daucus carota L.; Amsterdamse bak) parenchyma. Samples of cell wall material in aqueous suspension were deposited onto freshly cleaved mica. Excess water was blotted away and the moist samples were imaged in air at ambient temperature and h...

  19. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajir Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  20. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 e Ulmaceae (4 as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical.In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 and Ulmaceae (4 having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  1. Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wolfgang, Volkheimer; Martín G., Novara; Paula L., Narváez; Rosa A., Marquillas.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

  2. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-06-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  3. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  4. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  5. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhao, Rui; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Compton, Stephen G; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila) in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators. PMID:24849458

  6. Genetic variations in the chloroplast genome and phylogenetic clustering of Lycoris species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tada-aki; Hayashi, Akiko; Sasanuma, Tsuneo; Kurita, Siro

    2006-08-01

    The genus Lycoris of Amaryllidaceae comprises approximately 20 species that are distributed only in the moist warm temperate woodlands of eastern Asia. The objectives of this study were: (1) to clarify the phylogeny of the Lycoris species by using the definitive DNA sequencing method and (2) to examine the possible maternal donor of the hybrid origin Lycoris species and the Japanese triploid strains of Lycoris radiata var. radiata. The nucleotide sequence of the maturase K (matK) gene and the noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) between the atpB and rbcL genes in the chloroplast genome were determined in a total of 27 strains of 11 species of the genus Lycoris. Variation among taxa was mainly due to nucleotide substitution, although deletions and an insertion were found in the IGS. For two chloroplast regions, the phylogenetic trees showed essentially similar topology, indicating the existence of four clades, I, II, III, and IV. For all the species except L. radiata, intraspecific variation was smaller than interspecific variation. For L. radiata, triploid strains were divided into clades I and II, and diploid strains were divided into clades I and IV. This implies that the diploid species of L. radiata var. pumila is a probable ancestral species. The clustering indicated that the chloroplast genome has not evolved in parallel with the karyotype in genus Lycoris. Regarding the hybrid origin species, the maternal parents of L. squamigara, L. albiflora and L. rosea were revealed to be L. longituba, L. radiata and L. radiata var pumila, respectively. We also suggest that a diploid strain of L. radiata var. pumila in clade I might be a candidate of the maternal donor of the Japanese triploid strains. A possible model of the maternal donor of Lycoris species is proposed. PMID:17038796

  7. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetakovi? Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  8. Visualization of plant cell walls by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A R; Gunning, A P; Waldron, K W; Morris, V J; Ng, A

    1996-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to visualize the ultrastructure of hydrated plant cell wall material from prepared apple (Malus pumila MILL; Cox orange pippin), water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Bintje), and carrot (Daucus carota L.; Amsterdamse bak) parenchyma. Samples of cell wall material in aqueous suspension were deposited onto freshly cleaved mica. Excess water was blotted away and the moist samples were imaged in air at ambient temperature and humidity. The three-dimensional images obtained highlighted the layered structure of the plant cell walls and revealed features interpreted as individual cellulose microfibrils and plasmodesmata. PMID:8785273

  9. Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

  10. REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE / REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastián, Teillier; Felipe, Escobar.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaulther [...] ia es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con amplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaulth [...] eria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa among species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

  11. Dating the introduction of cereal cultivation to the British Isles: early palaeoecological evidence from the Isle of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Davey, Peter J.

    2003-10-01

    The adoption of cereal cultivation is a key benchmark in the transition from Mesolithic hunter-gatherer foraging to Neolithic farming economies, but the nature, timing and ecological-cultural context of the earliest cereal use in the British Isles and northwest Europe is still uncertain. We present AMS radiocarbon dating and fine-resolution pollen evidence from the Isle of Man for cereal growing in the latter stages of a distinct episode of forest disturbance at almost 6000 yr BP (uncalibrated). The coherent ecological structure of this phase at the fine resolution level suggests that it records cereal cultivation well before the Ulmus decline, rather than wild grass pollen grains. This example is one of a cluster of early dates for cereal-type pollen near the start of the sixth millenium BP, including several around the Irish Sea, which indicate that the introduction of cereal agriculture probably occurred as early in the central British Isles as in the northern European plain. This early cereal phase is followed later by a probable phase of pre-Ulmus decline pastoral activity. We also report Mesolithic age woodland disturbance around 7000 yr BP (uncalibrated) and the first radiocarbon dates for mid-Holocene forest history of the Isle of Man. Copyright

  12. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  13. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo R Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conocimiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA. The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  14. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  15. Late Quaternary vegetation of Chukotka (Northeast Russia), implications for Glacial and Holocene environments of Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Two lake records from the Kankaren region of southern Chukotka, when combined with other palynological and macrofossil data, document spatial and temporal variations in the regional vegetation history since ?21,000 14C/25,400 cal yr BP. Full-glacial environments were severely cold and arid in central and northern Chukotka, whereas southern sites experienced conditions that were relatively moist, although still drier than present. Southern Chukotka may represent a western extension of environments of the land bridge proper, including a possible 'moisture' barrier to intercontinental migration. Shrub Betula tundra established earliest in southern Chukotka (?15,800-14,000 14C/19,000-16,700 cal yr BP; ?13,000 14C/15,300 cal yr BP central and north), Pinus pumila earliest in the north (?9600 14C/11,100 cal yr BP; ?7600 14C/8400 cal yr BP south), and shrub Alnus earliest in both the south and north (?12,000-11,000 14C/13,800-12,900 cal yr BP). These patterns support the presence of cryptic refugia for Betula and Alnus in Chukotka during the full glaciation. In contrast, P. pumila probably migrated into Chukotka from populations located in the northern coastal lowlands and from mountainous regions of southwestern Beringia. Evidence for a thermal optimum (?11,000-8000 14C/12,900-9000 cal yr BP) is strong in northern Chukotka but is absent in central and southern areas.

  16. Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem II of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fu, Pei-Li; Jiang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2013-02-01

    Drought stress can induce closure of stomata, thus leading to photoinhibition. The effects of prolonged severe drought under natural growing conditions on photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and cyclic electron flow (CEF) in drought-tolerant tree species are unclear. In spring 2010, southwestern China confronted severe drought that lasted several months. Using three dominant evergreen species, Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis philippensis Bl. (Ulmaceae) and Pistacia weinmannifolia J. Poisson ex Franch. (Anacardiaceae) that are native to a tropical limestone forest, we investigated the influence of this stress on PSI and PSII activities as well as light energy distribution in the PSII and P700 redox state. By the end of the drought period, predawn leaf water potential (?(pd)) largely declined in each species, especially in C. sumatranus. Photosystem I activity strongly decreased in the three species, especially in C. sumatranus which showed a decrease of 65%. The maximum quantum yield of PSII after dark adaptation remained stable in P. weinmannifolia and C. philippensis but significantly decreased in C. sumatranus. Light response curves indicated that both linear electron flow and non-photochemical quenching were severely inhibited in C. sumatranus along with disappearance of CEF, resulting in deleterious excess light energy in PSII. We conclude that PSI is more sensitive than PSII to prolonged severe drought in these three drought-tolerant species, and CEF is essential for photoprotection in them. PMID:23329334

  17. Antineoplastic activity of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch bark extracts (in vitro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiqin; Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Amir; Xu, Rui-Hua; Mansoor, Najia; Tiwari, Amit K; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Cancer remains the major public health concern with a number of cancer patients relying on chemotherapy as a treatment option. Although, advances in biomedical research have led to increased anticancer agents in recent years, the treatment is not always effective due to resistance, toxicity or other factors. Phytochemicals and their active components isolated from plants have provided diversified effective drugs many of them are currently used against cancer and other diseases. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is a widely distributed plant in many parts of the world, also grown in gardens of Pakistan. It is an ornamental plant with certain medicinal characteristics due to many valuable and active phyto constituents in various parts of the plant. We looked at in vitro antineoplastic effects of four different extracts, in butanol (BMBU), hexane (BMHx), ethyl acetate (BMET) and chloroform (BMCHF), from bark of Holoptelea integrifolia on small cell lung cancer, breast, prostate, coloretal and hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Plant extracts BMHx and BMET showed significant cytotoxic effects on breast and prostate cancer cells. These preliminary studies are encouraging to proceed further this research in future, regarding the isolation of active phytoconstituents in these extracts as well as its mechanism in chemoprevention and combination anticancer therapy. PMID:24191320

  18. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ? -amyrin, stigmasterol, ? -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  19. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08?±?0.01 ?g/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 ?g/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

  20. Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimo, T; Ngueguim, F T; Kamtchouing, P; Dongo, E; Tan, P V

    2006-03-01

    The glucose-lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) was evaluated both in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normoglycemic rats, the single oral administration of the aqueous extract of T. orientalis failed to reduce blood glucose levels while in STZ-diabetic rats, the plant extract (38-300 mg/kg) exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity with a maximum effect of 29.67%, 5 hours after administration of the 75 mg/kg dose when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in STZ-diabetic rats, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycemic rats. The hypoglycaemic property of T. orientalis was also assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in STZ-diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of T. orientalis and the reference drug, glibenclamide, (10 mg/kg) produced significant blood glucose lowering effects in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic controls. One week after repeated administration of T. orientalis extract, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased (p orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence that the use of this plant extract in traditional medicine for cardiovascular disease can be of benefit particulary in diabetic patients. PMID:16599266

  1. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  2. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within each pair and a new argument is added in favor of the polyphyletic origin hypothesis for modern subsection Cembrae of the genus Pinus. The more important is one or another feature for species survival: the less it is connected with its phylogenesis, and the more it is related to modern climatic conditions. For species taxonomy, neutral features in the adaptive sense are relevant where they possiblydo not absolutely influence the real plants' life. A juvenile shoot is a shoot without bud scales. It has obviously remained in the Pinus ontogeny from the time when the ancestors of the modern species grew in a climate with weakly marked seasons. For P. parviflora from the region with a temperate maritime climate, a two-year cycle of juvenile shoot development, apparently, is quite organic. For P. pumila which may be related to it and grows on an enormous area including north-eastern Siberia, it is an undesirable property that would limit the adaptive ability of species. The P. pumila seedlings demonstrate an extraordinarily high level of juvenile shoot diversity. This suggests the relatively recent origin of the species and its current active evolution.

  3. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghelardini L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus. This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

  4. STRUCTURE OF CONSORTIUM DESTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KRIVYI RIG BASIN

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    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ?he structural organization and a biological variety of ground mesofauna on consortium level of the organization of ecosystems are considered. The analysis of indicators of the structural organization and a biodiversity of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of territories of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin is carried out. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterized by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence in morfo-ecological structure of hortobiontes and herpetobiontes testifies about faunae considerable attachment to consortium determinants and influences of a steppe climate on its structure. Prevalence of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by combination of determinants specificity of consortium and zone source of fauna formations. The structural organization of ground mesofauna in consortium Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterized simplified taxonomical structure with a low biodiversity at all levels. It was suggested that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortium of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites are simplified and determined by biogeochemical patterns of pedogenic and leaf litter layer of consortium and type of anthropogenic impact. Management and sustainable use of consortium under technogenic pressure should be based on the effects of extreme and critical components in the evolution of consortium. These critical points are the type of leading man-made factors and pedogenic and leaf litter biogeochemical conditions of consortium determinants, which results in inhibition of development and simplification of the structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block. The elaboration of measures to restore and maintain that structural and functional organization of destructive components of the block consortiums and their use in monitoring should be based on regulation of energy balance, material parameters and biomass of determinants of consortium, changes in components of autotrophic and heterotrophic blocks of consortium, estimation of function of biogeochemical threshold by coefficients that reflect the intensity of allocation of acids and contrast of destruction and acid-base conditions.

  5. Long-term CO2 enrichment of a forest ecosystem: implications for forest regeneration and succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Jacqueline E; Clark, James S; Schlesinger, William H

    2007-06-01

    The composition and successional status of a forest affect carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity, yet it remains unclear whether elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will impact rates and trajectories of forest succession. We examined how CO2 enrichment (+200 microL CO2/L air differential) affects forest succession through growth and survivorship of tree seedlings, as part of the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in North Carolina, USA. We planted 2352 seedlings of 14 species in the low light forest understory and determined effects of elevated CO2 on individual plant growth, survival, and total sample biomass accumulation, an integrator of plant growth and survivorship over time, for six years. We used a hierarchical Bayes framework to accommodate the uncertainty associated with the availability of light and the variability in growth among individual plants. We found that most species did not exhibit strong responses to CO2. Ulmus alata (+21%), Quercus alba (+9.5%), and nitrogen-fixing Robinia pseudoacacia (+230%) exhibited greater mean annual relative growth rates under elevated CO2 than under ambient conditions. The effects of CO2 were small relative to variability within populations; however, some species grew better under low light conditions when exposed to elevated CO2 than they did under ambient conditions. These species include shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Liquidambar styraciflua, intermediate-tolerant Quercus velutina, and shade-tolerant Acer barbatum, A. rubrum, Prunus serotina, Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis. Contrary to our expectation, shade-intolerant trees did not survive better with CO2 enrichment, and population-scale responses to CO2 were influenced by survival probabilities in low light. CO2 enrichment did not increase rates of sample biomass accumulation for most species, but it did stimulate biomass growth of shade-tolerant taxa, particularly Acer barbatum and Ulmus alata. Our data suggest a small CO2 fertilization effect on tree productivity, and the possibility of reduced carbon accumulation rates relative to today's forests due to changes in species composition. PMID:17555228

  6. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

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    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

  7. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of ?-irradiation 14,000-16,000 ?R/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of ?-irradiation 10,000-13,000 ?R/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of ?-irradiation 3,600-8,000 ?R/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of ?-irradiation of 60-200 ?R/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregationts yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic parts, remains of concrete constructions and debris; To fill up trenches on the slopes of the hills, make even soil surface; It is necessary to apply phyto-remediation technology to clear the hills from radiation pollution. Lichens developing on the outcrops accumulate Cs137 up to 54,000 Bq/kg. Coverage of their aggregations reaches 40-45 %. Mosses developing on fine earth in cracks of stones accumulate Cs137 up to 4,100 Bq/kg, Am241 - 1,830 Bq/kg, Eu152,154 - 211 Bq/kg. 4 For prevention of water and wind erosion it is necessary to sow in addition seeds of Caragana pumila, Spiraea hypericifolia, Artemisia frigida, Psathyrostachys juncea

  8. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

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    Nicolae T?icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcle? fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcle? is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcle? fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  9. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

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    Žiki? V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  10. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  11. Lichens of the Knyszy?ska Forest (NE Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeczuga, B; Lengiewicz, I

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the Knyszy?ska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves. PMID:11780570

  12. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

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    Mihajlovi? Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  13. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  14. Is Remusatia (araceae) monophyletic? Evidence from three plastid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yi, Tingshuang; Li, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The genus Remusatia (Araceae) includes four species distributed in the tropical and subtropical Old World. The phylogeny of Remusatia was constructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from three plastid regions (the rbcL gene, the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and the rps16 intron). Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated plastid data suggested that the monophyly of Remusatia was not supported because R. hookeriana did not form a clade with the other three species R. vivipara, R. yunnanensis, and R. pumila. Nevertheless, the topology of the analysis constraining Remusatia to monophyly was congruent with the topology of the unconstrained analysis. The results confirmed the inclusion of the previously separate genus Gonatanthus within Remusatia and disagreed with the current infrageneric classification of the genus. PMID:22312239

  15. Is Remusatia (Araceae Monophyletic? Evidence from Three Plastid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Remusatia (Araceae includes four species distributed in the tropical and subtropical Old World. The phylogeny of Remusatia was constructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from three plastid regions (the rbcL gene, the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and the rps16 intron. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated plastid data suggested that the monophyly of Remusatia was not supported because R. hookeriana did not form a clade with the other three species R. vivipara, R. yunnanensis, and R. pumila. Nevertheless, the topology of the analysis constraining Remusatia to monophyly was congruent with the topology of the unconstrained analysis. The results confirmed the inclusion of the previously separate genus Gonatanthus within Remusatia and disagreed with the current infrageneric classification of the genus.

  16. University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gerald D.

    Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur Cronquistâ??s classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant familiesâ?? are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

  17. Spider records from East Macedonia and Thrace (NE Greece

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    Buchholz, Sascha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study summarises spider records from East Macedonia and Thrace (NE Greece. Spiders were mainly collected by hand sampling and to a smaller extent by pitfall trapping during field trips in 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009. 171 species from 23 families were sampled. Pelecopsis pavida (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872 (Linyphiidae and Xysticus kaznakovi Utochkin, 1968 (Thomisidae were new to the European spider fauna and ten further species, Diaea livens Simon, 1876, Heriaeus graminicola (Doleschall, 1852, Meioneta ressli Wunderlich, 1973, Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851, Philodromus albidus Kulczynski, 1911, Pocadicnemis pumila Keyserling, 1880, Sitticus saltator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1868, Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Synageles scutiger Prószynski, 1979 and Thanatus coloradensis Keyserling, 1880, could be added to the Greek fauna for the first time. 21 and 38 species were new to East Macedonia and Thrace, respectively. Based on previous work, plus the present study, the Greek spider fauna now includes 1,108 species.

  18. Variability of egg envelopes in Korean spined loaches (Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Young; Kim, Ik-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen Korean cobitid species were investigated by the light and electron microscope to clarify the structure on the egg envelope of the oocyte. The egg envelope (zona radiata) consists of two layers: 1) zona radiata externa which is the site for attachment of various adhesive materials, and 2) zona radiata interna which consists of heterogeneous electron-dense multi layers. The external appearances ofthe egg envelope could be classified into seven types as follow: 1) granule (Cobitis sinensis, C. lutheri, C. tetralineata and Iksookimia yongdokensis), 2) villi (C. pacifica, I. koreensis, I. pumila, I. hugowolfeldi and Niwaella multifasciata), 3) papilla (I. longicorpa). 4) grapevine (I. choii), 5) hillock (Kichulchoia brevifasciata), 6) sawtooth-like form (Koreocobitis naktongensis) and 7) unadorned form (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, M. mizolepis). PMID:15303362

  19. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi GHIYASI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  20. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  1. Stubble field plant communities of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park

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    Teresa Skrajna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of communities found in unploughed stubble fields of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park and its agricultural buffer zone are presented in the paper. The association Echinochloo-Setarietum divided into a typical variant, the variant with Galinsoga parviflora, and the variant with Bidens tripartite, was the most frequently noted and floristically differentiated association. Patches of Digitarietum ischaemi were also frequently observed in stubble fields on the poorest habitats. Rarely, on fertile soils, small patches of floristically rich communities with Veronica agrestis were recorded. Periodically, excessively wet habitats were seldom occupied by the speciesrichest phytocoenoses of Centunculo-Anthoceretum punctati. Single patches of the community with Setaria pumila, the form with Aphanes arvensis, were observed only in the south-eastern part of the Park.

  2. Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj ?a?aný

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain. The most frequent species (more than 75% sites were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%, Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%, Petasina unidentata (25 sites, Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites, Alinda biplicata (23 sites, and Clausilia pumila (21 sites. The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous, hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian, euryecious species (16%, semi-steppe (8% and open-country species (5%.

  3. Cotyledonal chloroplasts in the hypogeal seeds of clementine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadoro, G; Rascio, N

    1987-03-01

    Clementine (Citrus nobilisxCitrus aurantium amara pumila) is a chloroembryophyte with green quiescent embryos and hypogeal germination. The cotyledonal chloroplasts have been studied during germination in the dark and under two different irradiances 120 and 240 ?mol·m(-2)·s(-1) throughout a period of three weeks. The plastids of the outer adaxial and inner regions develop differently. In the light, the former differentiate a photosynthetically active thylakoid system with an ultrastructural organization and a polypeptide composition resembling that of leaf chloroplasts. The "inner" chloroplasts maintain an organization reminiscent of chloroplasts of the quiescent embryo and never get beyond the photosynthesis/respiration compensation point; their differentiation pattern appears essentially the same under the two different irradiances. These observations and the germination in the dark indicate that the above differentiation is not strictly photodependent. The greening ability of the cotyledons provides, on occasion, an additional photosynthetic supply to this plant. PMID:24232958

  4. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

  5. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

  6. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  7. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts. PMID:18244941

  8. Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, González Rodríguez; Israel, Cantú Silva; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Marco Vinicio, Gómez Meza; Marisela, Pando Moreno; Juan Manuel, López Hernández.

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parki [...] nsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) i [...] s influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

  9. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino / Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo R, Torres; Liliana C, Lupo; Ana C, Sánchez; Karsten, Schittek.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conoc [...] imiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA). Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis. Abstract in english The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of [...] high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA). The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  10. Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas in a mixed pine forest on sand dune soil in Niigata Prefecture, central Honshu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matekwor Ahulu, Evelyn; Nakata, Makoto; Nonaka, Masanori

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are the most widespread mycorrhiza in nature and form two morphologies, Arum- and Paris-type. The determining factors defining the two different morphologies are not well understood. In this study, the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type AM was determined in a mixed pine forest. A total of 35 plant species belonging to 20 families and 32 genera were identified and examined for AM colonization and morphological types. AM morphological types in 14 families were confirmed as follows: Arum-type in Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Lauraceae, Vitaceae and Compositae, Paris-type in Aquifoliaceae, Ulmaceae, Araliaceae, Theaceae, Magnoliaceae, Rubiaceae and Dioscoraceae, and both and/or intermediate types in Caprifoliaceae and Gramineae. Plant families whose AM morphological status was previously unknown were clarified as follows: Polygonaceae and Commelinaceae showed Arum-type morphology; Celastraceae, Menispermaceae and Elaeagnaceae had typical Paris-type morphology. The proportion of Arum-type to Paris-type species decreased in the following order: annuals > perennials > deciduous species > evergreen species, and pioneer group > early successional group > late successional group. Evergreen plants had a higher tendency to form Paris-type AM than annuals, perennials and deciduous plants. The results indicate that environmental changes, such as shade during plant succession, control the distribution of plant growth forms in mixed pine forest and may also play a part in the distribution of Arum- and Paris-type morphology. The identity of the plant seems to strongly influence AM morphology, though control by the fungal genome cannot be ruled out. PMID:15290409

  11. Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

  12. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show geographical patterns similar to those in North America, although Betula and Ericaceae are more important in pollen spectra in the Soviet Union. Picea pollen is less important and Pinus pollen is more widespread in the USSR. Deciduous pollen types such as Quercus, Tilia, and Ulmus are less important than in North America.

  13. Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

  14. As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) do Brasil / The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta) from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo H, Labiak; Jefferson, Prado.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. [...] & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran) que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações. Abstract in english This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch) A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst.) Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, [...] L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran). In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

  15. EFEITO DA POLINIZAÇÃO DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp.) NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM SÃO JOAQUIM-SC / EFFECT OF THE ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION AMONG APPLE ROOTSTOCK (Malus spp.) IN THE EFFECTIVE FRUIT SET AND FRUIT DEVELOPMENT IN SÃO JOAQUIM/SC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA, DANTAS; JÚLIO CÉSAR DE OLIVEIRA, NUNES; EMÍLIO, BRIGHENTI; LUIZ GONZAGA, RIBEIRO; RUBENS ONOFRE, NODARI.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo específico de obter uma população segregante, visando à avaliação na frutificação efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e diâmetro de frutos oriundos de polinização aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus pruni [...] folia Borkh.) e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill.) na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificação efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de pólen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior número de sementes atípicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinização aberta. O mesmo não ocorreu no cruzamento recíproco. O peso e o diâmetro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinização dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo não acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente à polinização aberta. A análise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos também para número de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinização em 'M.9'. Abstract in english This work had as objective to evaluate the fruit set, fruit weight and diameter and amount of normal and atypical seeds of two apple rootstocks in both open and artificial pollination conditions. Crosses among 'Marubakaido' (Malus prunifolia Borkh.) and 'M.9' (Malus pumila Mill) and reciprocal were [...] performed at Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' required least cool temperatures to blooming and kept longer than M.9 cultivar. The percentage of effective fruit set when 'M.9' were used as female was 26% and 32% and when it was used as pollen donor, 5% e 25%, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The cross 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' produced deformed fruits, with a higher number of atypical seeds, in comparison with the open pollination system. The same results did not occurred in the reciprocal cross. The 'M.9' fruit weight and diameter were larger in the artificial crosses than in those produced by open pollination. No differences among pollination systems for the same variables were found in 'Marubakaido'. In addition, orthogonal contrast analyses revealed significant F values for number of normal seeds, number of atypical seeds when pollination systems in 'M.9' were compared.

  16. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Male Control in Washington State (USA Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU. Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Curkovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1 homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill. orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1, aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.. Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula

  17. Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

  18. As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta do Brasil The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H Labiak

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações.This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran. In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

  19. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tomislav, Curkovic; Jay, F. Brunner.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

  20. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos / Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Quattrocchio; J., Durango de Cabrera; C., Galli.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones R [...] ío Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (3 [...] 00m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  1. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio, Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos Anta Formation (Miocene, Metán Subgroup (Orán Group, in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quattrocchio

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno. A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán, constituído por las formaciones Río Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno. Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex, en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano. Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos.Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (300m thick in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  2. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertil that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  3. Late Wisconsinan Vegetation and Environment of the Tunica Hills Region, Louisiana/Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephen T.; Givens, Charles R.

    1994-05-01

    Pollen, plant macrofossil, and radiocarbon-dating studies of seven exposures of fluvial sediments in the Tunica Hills region of southeastern Louisiana and southwestern Mississippi provide new information on late Wisconsinan vegetation, flora, and environment of the region. The assemblages date between 25,250 and 17,530 yr B.P. Pollen and macrofossil assemblages are dominated by Picea, which comprises 40-70% of the pollen assemblages. Abies and Larix pollen and macrofossils are absent, in contrast to sites to the north in the central Mississippi Valley. Deciduous hardwoods ( Quercus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Carya, Juglans nigra, Acer, Ulmus) are minor components of both pollen and macrofossil assemblages. Radiocarbon dates of Picea and Quercus wood indicate that these two genera grew contemporaneously in the region. Regional upland forests were dominated by Picea. Picea cones and cone fragments are not typical of any extant North American species, and probably represent either an extinct species or an extinct variety or subspecies of Picea glauca. Late Wisconsinan climate of the region was cooler than present, but not necessarily as cool as implied by P. glauca or other "boreal" taxa.

  4. Acoustic emission analysis and experiments with physical model systems reveal a peculiar nature of the xylem tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschimke, Ralf; Burger, Maria; Vallen, Hartmut

    2006-10-01

    Advanced acoustic emission analysis, special microscopic examinations and experiments with physical model systems give reasons for the assumption that the tension in the water conducting system of vascular plants is caused by countless minute gas bubbles strongly adhering to the hydrophobic lignin domains of the xylem vessel walls. We ascertained these bubbles for several species of temperate deciduous trees and conifers. It is our hypothesis that the coherent bubble system of the xylem conduits operates as a force-transmitting medium that is capable of transporting water in traveling peristaltic waves. By virtue of the high elasticity of the gas bubbles, the hydro-pneumatic bubble system is capable of cyclic storing and releasing of energy. We consider the abrupt regrouping of the wall adherent bubble system to be the origin of acoustic emissions from plants. For Ulmus glabra, we recorded violent acoustic activity during both transpiration and re-hydration. The frequency spectrum and the waveforms of the detected acoustic emissions contradict traditional assumptions according to which acoustic emissions are caused by cavitation disruption of the stressed water column. We consider negative pressure in terms of the cohesion theory to be mimicked by the tension of the wall adherent bubble system. PMID:16872717

  5. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  6. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

  7. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed pattern would challenge the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records. The arctic regions may therefore not always be optimal for detecting past climate changes.

  8. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

  9. Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorleny Badilla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica, eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus, pino patula (Pinus patula, pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa, roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis,jaul (Al- nus acuminata, cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii y tirra (Ulmus mexicana. De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad «15% y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50% y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

  10. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give no clear indication of post-depositional disturbance, although a possible short-lived hiatus occurs around 6500 cal.BP. The early pollen record from thermophilous trees could indicate that there may have been some downwash following sediment desiccation through wood peat layers deposited between c. 6500 and 10,000 cal. BP, but the overall biostratigraphy is consistent with other Danish small hollow records.

  11. Malacological and palynological evidence of the Lower Pleistocene cold phase at the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stworzewicz, Ewa; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Wójcik, Antoni

    2012-05-01

    Early Pleistocene sediments bearing gastropod shells and pollen flora were found during coring at Jawornik (South Poland) at a depth interval of 54.30-39.00 m, beneath the oldest till of the Carpathians. Thirteen land-snail taxa identified in 55 samples of the core formed two molluscan assemblages. In the bottom part, typical cold-loving snails were found (e.g. Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla loessica, Vertigo genesii, Columella columella), whereas in the upper part only Semilimax kotulae was present. The succession of molluscan assemblages may suggest that at the site of deposition, after a phase of tundra, steppe-tundra or forest-steppe landscape with patches of wet habitats in cold climate, the climate became slightly milder but still cool, favourable to the spreading of boreal (coniferous) woodlands. Pollen analysis was performed only for the upper part of the profile. The pollen spectra, besides the Tertiary (Miocene) elements, contained sporomorphs common to the Tertiary and Quaternary floras. Among them, the highest percentages were noted for Pinus haploxylon t., P. diploxylon t., Picea, Quercus, Ericaceae, Betula, and Ulmus. The fact that the sediments with organic remains underlie the oldest Scandinavian till suggests that they are older than the oldest glacial unit of the South-Polish Complex (Narevian = Menapian, ~ 1.2 Ma).

  12. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  13. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  14. Vegetation history of the English chalklands: a mid-Holocene pollen sequence from the Caburn, East Sussex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martyn P.; Hamilton, Sue

    2000-03-01

    A pollen diagram has been produced from the base of the Caburn (East Sussex) that provides a temporally and spatially precise record of vegetation change on the English chalklands during the mid-Holocene (ca. 7100 to ca. 3800 cal. yr BP). During this period the slopes above the site appear to have been well-wooded, with vegetation analogous to modern Fraxinus-Acer-Mercurialis communities in which Tilia was also a prominent constituent. However, scrub and grassland taxa such as Juniperus communis, Cornus sanguinea and Plantago lanceolata are also regularly recorded along with, from ca. 6000 cal. yr BP onwards, species specific to Chalk grassland (e.g. Sanguisorba minor). This supports suggestions that elements of Chalk grassland persisted in lowland England through the Holocene. Such communities are most likely to have occupied the steepest slopes, although the processes that maintained them are unclear. Human interference with vegetation close to the site may have begun as early as ca. 6350 cal. yr BP and initially involved a woodland management practice such as coppicing. From the primary Ulmus decline (ca. 5700 cal. yr BP) onwards, phases of limited clearance accompanied by cereal cultivation occurred. Taxus baccata was an important component of the woodland which regenerated between these phases.

  15. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  16. Seasonal habitat selection of the red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) in the Helan Mountains, China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mingming, Zhang; Zhensheng, Liu; Liwei, Teng.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the seasonal habitat selection of the red deer, Cervus elaphus alxaicus Bobrinskii & Flerov, 1935, in the Helan Mountains, China, from December 2007 to December 2008. Habitat selection varied widely by season. Seasonal movements between high and low elevations were attributed to changes i [...] n forage availability, alpine topography, the arid climate of the Helan Mountains, and potential competition with blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur (Hodgson, 1833). The use of vegetation types varied seasonally according to food availability and ambient temperature. Red deer used montane coniferous forest and alpine shrub and meadow zones distributed above 2,000 m and 3,000 m in summer, alpine shrub and meadows above 3,000 m in autumn, being restricted to lower elevation habitats in spring and winter. The winter habitat of C. elaphus alxaicus was dominated by Ulmus glaucescens Franch. and Juglans regia Linnaeus, deciduous trees, and differed from the habitats selected by other subspecies of red deer. Cervus elaphus alxaicus preferred habitats with abundant vegetation coverage to open habitats in winter, but the reverse pattern was observed in summer and autumn. Red deer preferred gentle slopes (

  17. Fluctuation of bacteria isolated from elm tissues during different seasons and from different plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Bertelli, Emanuela; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Mengoni, Alessio; Sfalanga, Alessandra; Viliani, Francesca; Caciotti, Anna; Tegli, Stefania; Surico, Giuseppe; Fani, Renato

    2003-03-01

    In this work we isolated a culturable endophytic aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community from the stem and root tissues of elm trees (Ulmus spp.) and analyzed its fluctuations. A total of 724 bacterial isolates were collected at different times (April, June, September and December) from two elm trees, one infected with Elm Yellows phytoplasmas, and one which was healthy-looking. The isolates were grouped into 82 haplotypes, identified by means of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using the restriction enzyme AluI, suggesting that the genetic diversity of the bacterial community was very high. The taxonomic position of the isolates belonging to the twelve main haplotypes, representing more than 72% of the total population, was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. The main genera were Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas, Enterobacter, and Staphylococcus. The fluctuations in the bacterial community, determined by different parameters (seasonal changes, plant organ, presence of phytoplasmas) were studied, revealing that they were influenced both by variations in temperature (warm or cold according to the season) and by the organ examined (roots or stems). The role of the phytopathogenic status in these fluctuations was also discussed. PMID:12648725

  18. Radiosensitivity and recovery of tree crowns in a gamma-irradiated northern forest community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crown mortality was observed on 13 tree species in a gamma-irradiated forest community located near Rhinelander, Wis. Observations at the end of the first (1973) and second (1974) postirradiation growing seasons are presented for each species. Crown mortality was most severe during 1973 for Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Populus tremuloides, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. For some species, however, crown mortality was most severe during 1974. These were Betula alleghaniensis, B. papyrifera, Tilia americana, and possibly Fraxinus americana and F. nigra. These differences in year of primary response are explained on the basis of bud differentiation and mortality. The most resistant species were A. saccharum, O. virginiana, and Populus tremuloides, and the most sensitive were T. americana and U. americana. Others were intermediate in sensitivity. Taken collectively, exposures less than 2 or 3 kr did not seriously affect crowns of most species, whereas exposures exceeding about 40 kr were lethal to the crowns of all tree species. The observed zonation of tree mortality closely approximated predictions published by others except for underestimating the resistance of A. saccharum and overestimating the resistance of T. americana, F. americana, and Prunus serotina. Not surprisingly, the tree stratum of the northern forest community was found to be more radiosensitive than lichen, grassland, or herbaceous communities in other irradiation sbaceous communities in other irradiation studies

  19. Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seyedoleslami

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D, on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

  20. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  1. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  2. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. [Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.

  3. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  4. Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

  5. THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  6. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ?46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ?3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  7. Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Williams

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

  8. Relationship between the heat tolerance of photosynthesis and the thermal stability of rubisco activase in plants from contrasting thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Michael E; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J

    2004-04-01

    Inhibition of net photosynthesis (Pn) by moderate heat stress has been attributed to an inability of Rubisco activase to maintain Rubisco in an active form. To examine this proposal, the temperature response of Pn, Rubisco activation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and the activities of Rubisco and Rubisco activase were examined in species from contrasting environments. The temperature optimum of Rubisco activation was 10 degrees C higher in the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) compared with the Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica), resembling the temperature response of Pn. Pn increased markedly with increasing internal CO(2) concentration in Antarctic hairgrass and creosote bush plants subjected to moderate heat stress even under nonphotorespiratory conditions. Nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion (DeltaF/F(m)') and the maximum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) were more sensitive to temperature in Antarctic hairgrass and two other species endemic to cold regions (i.e. Lysipomia pumila and spinach [Spinacea oleracea]) compared with creosote bush and three species (i.e. jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis], tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum], and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum]) from warm regions. The temperature response of activity and the rate of catalytic inactivation of Rubisco from creosote bush and Antarctic hairgrass were similar, whereas the optimum for ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation by recombinant creosote bush, cotton, and tobacco activase was 8 degrees C to 10 degrees C higher than for Antarctic hairgrass and spinach activase. These results support a role for activase in limiting photosynthesis at high temperature. PMID:15084731

  9. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha-1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha-1, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha-1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha-1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China

  10. EFEITO DA POLINIZAÇÃO DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp. NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM SÃO JOAQUIM-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANTAS ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo específico de obter uma população segregante, visando à avaliação na frutificação efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e diâmetro de frutos oriundos de polinização aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh. e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill. na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificação efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de pólen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior número de sementes atípicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinização aberta. O mesmo não ocorreu no cruzamento recíproco. O peso e o diâmetro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinização dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo não acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente à polinização aberta. A análise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos também para número de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinização em 'M.9'.

  11. Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jeom-Sook

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

  12. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (?lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (?lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding po

  13. Species association among predaceous and phytophagous apple mites (Acari: Eriophyidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D H; Croft, B A

    2001-01-01

    Predator-predator, predator-prey, and prey-prey associations among nine species of mites were studied in a plot of 100 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus pumila Miller) trees from 1990 to 1997. In 1990, seven-year-old trees were inoculated with Panonychus ulmi (Koch), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) or both, and sprayed with azinphosmethyl (alone or plus endosulfan), or nothing. The species Zetzellia mali (Ewing) (Acari: Stigmaeidae), Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eotetranychus sp., Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) (Acari: Tetranychidae), and Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyidae) were already present or immigrated into plots, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) and Tvphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were introduced. Yule's V association index was used to measure positive, neutral, or negative interspecific associations for each species pair, because of its robustness with spatially autocorrelated data. We found that pesticide and release treatments did not greatly affect the association results, but there were strong seasonal differences. Predator-predator associations were the strongest and most consistent, showing negative associations in the early and mid seasons, and neutral ones in late season. Negative associations of T pyri with other predators were the strongest, which is consistent with evidence that this mite can detect other predators on a leaf. Predatorprey seasonal associations were mixed, with some positive and others negative, with most significant associations occurring in the mid season. One prey-prey interaction was positive, again in mid season, most likely because of similar habitat preferences. PMID:11513362

  14. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  15. Weed communities of root crops in the Pamir Alai Mts, Tajikistan (Middle Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Nowak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of weed vegetation conducted on root crops in Tajikistan (Middle Asia, one of the world cradles of weed flora. The main research was conducted in the Zeravshanian, southern Tajikistan and Hissar-Darvasian geobotanical regions in 2011. The study was based on 107 phytosociological relevés obtained in various geobotanical regions of the country. The collected material probably presents the majority of variations among the weed communities of root cultivations in the Middle Asia. As a result of numerical analyses, 7 associations were distinguished: Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi, Daturo stramonii-Hibiscetum trioni, Setario pumilae-Sorghetum halepensi, Galinsogo-Setarietum, Equiseto arvensi-Xanthietum italici, Portulacetum oleracei and Brassico campestris-Lamietum amplexicauli. The last mentioned is new to science. Additionally, one subassociation has been proposed (Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi kochietosum scopariae. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. The study shows that root-crop plantations with segetal vegetation may harbor a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some, which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. However, most of the recorded species are widespread weeds typical for the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian geobotanical provinces.

  16. Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  17. Review of the symbiotic genus Haplosyllides (Polychaeta: Syllidae), with a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Aguado, Maria Teresa; Britayev, Ternir A

    2009-09-01

    The genus Haplosyllides was considered as monotypic, with H. floridana as the only valid species. The present revision Includes two more species in this genus: H. aberrans comb. nov. and H. ophiocomae sp. nov. Syllis (Haplosyllis) aberrans (from Vietnam) was considered a Junior synonym of H. floridana (from the Caribbean). The finding of additional specimens from Vietnam and Indonesia, and the study of the type series, allowed us to redescribe H. aberrans comb. nov. on the basis of morphological, ecological and biogeographical characteristics. Haplosyllides aberrans comb. nov. differs from H. floridana in having posterior simple chaetae with tips twice as long, a pharyngeal tooth in all non-reproductive Individuals, and the granules Inside the dorsal cirri oval, elongated, and roughly distributed in longitudinal parallel rows. Haplosyllides ophiocomae sp. nov. was previously reported (as H. aberrans) from Puerto Rico. Although geographically close, It differs from H. floridana in having serration on the upper edge of the major teeth of simple chaetae, relatively shorter dorsal cirri, and a distinct mode of life. Haplosyllides floridana lives as an endosimbiont of Xetospongia muta, H. aberrans comb. nov. as a facultative parasite of Platycaris latirostris, and H. ophiocomae sp. nov. as a commensal of Ophiocoma pumila and other brittle stars. The meaning of these associations is discussed in light of the available Information. The remaining records of "Haplosyllides aberrans" from the Marshall Islands (associated with corals of the genus Heliopora) and from Brazil (among corals and calcareous algae) are considered as doubtful. PMID:19799516

  18. Wild flora of mine tailings: perspectives for use in phytoremediation of potentially toxic elements in a semi-arid region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Díaz-Garduño, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify wild plant species applicable for remediation of mine tailings in arid soils. Plants growing on two mine tailings were identified and evaluated for their potential use in phytoremediation based on the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in roots and shoots, bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). Total, water-soluble and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in rhizospheric and bulk soil were determined. Twelve species can grow on mine tailings, accumulate PTEs concentrations above the commonly accepted phytotoxicity levels, and are suitable for establishing a vegetation cover on barren mine tailings in the Zimapan region. Pteridium sp. is suitable for Zn and Cd phytostabilization. Aster gymnocephalus is a potential phytoextractor for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu; Gnaphalium sp. for Cu and Crotalaria pumila for Zn. The species play different roles according to the specific conditions where they are growing at one site behaving as a PTEs accumulator and at another as a stabilizer. For this reason and due to the lack of a unified approach for calculation and interpretation of bioaccumulation factors, only considering BCF and TF may be not practical in all cases. PMID:25495938

  19. Similarity and diversity of the Desmodesmus spp. microalgae isolated from associations with White Sea invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, Olga A; Baulina, Olga I; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Chekanov, Konstantin A; Chivkunova, Olga B; Fedorenko, Tatiana A; Lobakova, Elena S

    2015-03-01

    Similarity and diversity of the phenotype and nucleotide sequences of certain genome loci among the single-celled microalgae isolated from White Sea benthic invertebrates were studied to extend the knowledge of oxygenic photoautotrophs forming microbial communities associated with animals. We compared four Desmodesmus isolates (1Hp86E-2, 1Pm66B, 3Dp86E-1, 2Cl66E) from the sponge Halichondria panicea, trochophore larvae of the polychaete Phyllodoce maculata, and the hydroids Dynamena pumila and Coryne lovenii, respectively. The microalgae appeared to be very similar featuring the phenotypic and genetic traits characteristics of unicellular representatives of the genus Desmodesmus. At the same time, isolates from different animal species displayed certain differences in (i) the epistructure morphology; (ii) type and number of the inclusions such as interthylakoid starch grains and cytoplasmic oil bodies and (iii) fatty acid composition; in Desmodesmus sp. 1Hp86E-2, these differences were most pronounced. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 and rbcL sequences showed that all isolates studied differ from known classified representatives of Desmodesmus combining a deletion in the conservative 5.8S rRNA gene and long AC-microsatellite repeats in the ITS1 whereas 1Hp86E-2 represented a distinct branch within this group. PMID:25189657

  20. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40°10'S, 73°30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  1. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 ?g/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 ?g/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 ?g/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents. PMID:21184195

  2. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, which are strongly related to the type of the initial material used and pyrolysis conditions, is crucial to identify the most suitable application of biochar in soil. A selection of organic wastes with different characteristics (e.g., rice husk (RH), rice straw (RS), wood chips of apple tree (Malus pumila) (AB), and oak tree (Quercus serrata) (OB)) were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) in order to optimize the physicochemical properties of biochar as a soil amendment. Low-temperature pyrolysis produced high biochar yields; in contrast, high-temperature pyrolysis led to biochars with a high C content, large surface area, and high adsorption characteristics. Biochar obtained at 600 °C leads to a high recalcitrant character, whereas that obtained at 400 °C retains volatile and easily labile compounds. The biochar obtained from rice materials (RH and RS) showed a high yield and unique chemical properties because of the incorporation of silica elements into its chemical structure. The biochar obtained from wood materials (AB and OB) showed high carbon content and a high absorption character.

  3. Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

  4. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  5. Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I Becerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizada, naturalizada, invasora, abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural, y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las m?s abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes.In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader, abundance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

  6. Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central / Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo I, Becerra.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizad [...] a, naturalizada, invasora), abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural), y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes. Abstract in english In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader), abu [...] ndance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration) and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

  7. Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México / Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jasinto, Robles-Camacho; Pedro, Corona-Chávez; Miguel, Morales-Gámez; Ana Fabiola, Guzmán; Óscar J., Polaco; Gabriela, Domínguez-Vázquez; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Arturo, Oliveros-Morales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmento [...] s óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástica asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, w [...] hich was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironme

  8. Fluctuación diaria del fitoplancton en la capa superficial del océano durante la primavera de 1997 en el norte de Chile (20°18´S): II. Composición específica y abundancia celular / Daily fluctuation of phytoplankton in the upper layer of the ocean during the spring of 1997 in the north of Chile (20°18´S): II. Specific composition and cellular abundance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgardo, Santander; Liliana, Herrera; Carlos, Merino.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la respuesta de la comunidad microfitoplanctónica a los cambios en la estructura física y química producidos por un evento de surgencia sobre una escala diaria. La época en la cual se realizó el estudio coincidió con la presencia de “El Niño” 1997-1998, pero los resultados no evidenciaron [...] una condición anómala asociada a dicho evento. Los valores del índice de surgencia permitieron dividir el período de estudio en dos fases, la primera, entre el 26 de agosto y el 7 de septiembre, cuando las magnitudes de los eventos estuvieron centradas en los 1.000 m³s-1, y la segunda entre el 9 y el 17 de septiembre, cuando los valores superaron los 2.000 m³s-1. La estructura comunitaria del microfitoplancton estuvo fuertemente acoplada a las fluctuaciones físicas y químicas ocasionadas por la variabilidad de los eventos de surgencia. Durante la primera fase hubo una predominancia absoluta de Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle, la cual contribuyó con un 82,8% al total de las abundancias celulares, resultando en una comunidad con un carácter monoespecífico. La declinación y desaparición de T. subtilis estuvieron relacionadas con un cambio en las condiciones oceanográficas de la capa superficial, producido por la intensificación de la surgencia. En la segunda fase, la diversidad se incrementó en directa relación con un cambio en la componente específica de la comunidad fitoplanctónica, que condujo a la dominancia de Detonula pumila (Cleve) Grunow y Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve. La salinidad resultó ser la variable que influyó significativamente la estructura comunitaria observada Abstract in english The response of the microphytoplanktonic community to the physical and chemical changes during an upwelling event is analyzed on a daily scale. The study coincided with the “El Niño” 1997-1998 presence, but the results did not show the anomalous condition associated with this event. The Upwelling In [...] dex values allowed us to divide the study period in two phases, the first one, from August 26 to September 7, when the events magnitudes were about 1,000 m³s-1, and the second from September 9 through 17, when the values were higher than 2,000 m³s-1. The microphytoplanktonic community structure was strongly coupled with the physical and chemical fluctuations caused by the variability of the upwelling events. During the first phase, Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle was absolutely dominant, contributing 82.8% to the total cellular abundance, resulting in a community with a monospecific character. The decline and disappearance of T. subtilis was related to a change in the oceanographic conditions of the superficial layer, produced by the change in the upwelling intensity. In the second phase, the diversity increased in direct relation to a change in the specific composition of the microphytoplanktonic community, which led to Detonula pumila and Leptocylindrus danicus dominance. Salinity was the variable that significantly affected the observed community structure

  9. Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stager prevention at initiation stage

  10. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper. PMID:14675842

  11. A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard SØrensen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

  12. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which they feed. PMID:18488251

  13. The subfossil tree deposits from the Garonne Valley and their implications on Holocene alluvial plain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, Jean-Michel; Carozza, Laurent; Valette, Philippe; Llubes, Muriel; Py, Vanessa; Galop, Didier; Danu, Mihaela; Ferdinand, Laurie; David, Mélodie; Sévègnes, Laurent; Bruxelles, Laurent; Jarry, Marc; Duranthon, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Subfossil tree trunks deposits are common in large rivers, but their status as a source for dating alluvial sequences and palaeoenvironmental studies is still discussed. Particularly their origin and the process(es) of deposition as well as a possible remobilization were pointed as a limit to their use to document river alluvial changes. In this work we report the discovery of the largest subfossil trunks deposits in the Garonne valley. These new data are compared to the previous ones. A set of 17 tree trunks and more than 300 smaller wood fragments were collected. The xylologic study shows the prevalence of Quercus and a single occurrence of Ulmus. These two hardwood species are commonly associated with riparian forest. The 14C dating carried out on seven trunks and a single branch of Quercus on the outermost identified growth rings, indicates age ranging from 8400-8000 cal. BP for the oldest fragment (bough) to 4300-4000 cal. BP for the most recent tree trunk. Radiocarbon ages of the trunks are aggregated into two main periods: 5300-5600 cal. BP (four trunks) and 4300-4000 cal. BP (three trunks). The radiocarbon (charcoal) dating of the top of the alluvial sequence overlaying the trunks gives an age between 1965-1820 and 1570-1810 cal. BP, i.e. between the 2nd and the 5th c. AD. In addition, the discovery of two unpublished subfossil tree trunks deposits in Finhan are reported (six trunks). At the light of these results, we discuss previously proposed models for the Garonne floodplain building.

  14. Vegetation and climate in the Miocene deposits of southern side of the Büyük Menderes Graben, ?ahinali-2 core, SW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkiraz M S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lower-Middle Miocene succession from the ?ahinali coalfield (SW Turkey was analyzed to reconstruct climate and vegetation. The sediments mainly represent a lacustrine facies and consist of a mudstone-marl dominated succession, including limited coarse-grained clastics. Results of microfloral and published macrofloral records have been considered. The main vegetation types were mixed mesophytic forest dominated by evergreen Quercus and coniferous forest consisting mainly of indeterminate Pinaceae, Pinus and Cupressaceae. In this belt riparian vegetation incorporates high proportions of Alnus, and less amounts of deciduous Salix, Ulmus, Pterocarya, Carya, Platanus, Zelkova and Liquidambar. Herbaceous components in the pollen spectra are in low frequencies, and consist of Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedra, Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also three local pollen zones can be recognized based on the changes in relative abundances of palynomorphs. The micro- and published macrofloral records have been subjected to the Coexistence Approach method to obtain the palaeoclimate. Mean annual temperature is estimated to be over 14 °C and mean annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm. In combination with other climate parameters (temperatures of warmest and coldest months, precipitation of the wettest, driest and warmest months, the data indicate very stable warm-temperate with high annual precipitation. Results of the Coexistence Approach using both sporomorph and leaf datasets are good in agreement, implying internal consistency in the method. Compared with modern meteorological records, surroundings of the Büyük Menderes Graben had similar temperature and higher precipitation during the Early–Middle Miocene. This study contributes to an understanding of the Miocene vegetation and climate evolution in southeastern Mediterranean area.

  15. Essiac tea: scavenging of reactive oxygen species and effects on DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephen S; Keil, Deborah; Mehlman, Tracey; Proper, Steven; Shi, Xianglin; Harris, Gabriel K

    2006-01-16

    Essiac, a tea reportedly developed by the Ojibwa tribe of Canada and widely publicized as a homeopathic cancer treatment, is prepared from a mixture of four herbs Arctium lappa, Rumex acetosella, Ulmus rubra and Rheum officinale. Each of these herbs has been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-cancer activity. Essiac itself has also been reported to demonstrate anti-cancer activity in vitro, although its effects in vivo are still a matter of debate. We prepared an extract of Essiac tea from a concentration of 25mg/mL and boiled it for 10 min. From this preparation we used concentrations of 5, 10, 25 and 50% to measure Essiac effects. In this study, we examined the effects of Essiac on free radical scavenging and DNA damage in a non-cellular system, as well as the effects Essiac on lipid peroxidation using the RAW 264.7 cell line. We observed, using electron spin resonance, that Essiac effectively scavenged hydroxyl, up to 84% reduction in radical signal at the 50% tea preparation concentration, and superoxide radicals, up to 82% reduction in radical signal also at the 50% tea preparation concentration, as well as prevented hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. In addition, Essiac inhibited hydroxyl radical-induced lipid peroxidation by up to 50% at the 50% tea preparation concentration. These data indicate that Essiac tea possesses potent antioxidant and DNA-protective activity, properties that are common to natural anti-cancer agents. This study may help to explain the mechanisms behind the reported anti-cancer effects of Essiac. PMID:16226859

  16. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition.

  17. Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernier L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp. and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi. Genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification, cloning and characterization of a few genes that contribute to parasitic fitness in the pathogens. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput methods, such as expressed sequence tag analysis, have been used for measuring gene expression and identifying subsets of elm genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of O. novo-ulmi. These analyses have also helped identify genes that were differentially expressed in DED fungi grown under defined experimental conditions. Until recently, however, functional analysis of the DED fungi was hampered by the lack of protocols for efficient gene knockout and by the unavailability of a full genome sequence. While the selective inactivation of Ophiostoma genes by insertional mutagenesis remains a challenge, an alternative approach based on RNA interference is now available for down-regulating the expression of targeted genes. In 2013, the genome sequences of O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi were publicly released. The ongoing annotation of these genomes should spark a new wave of interest in the DED pathosystem, as it should lead to the formal identification of genes modulating parasitic fitness. A better understanding of DED, however, also requires that omic approaches are applied to the study of the other biotic components of this pathosystem.

  18. Could canopy forests survive agricultural colonization in the Polabi lowland (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B?ízová E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Polabi lowland is one of the most important agricultural areas in Central Europe. Since the Neolithic Age, agriculture has prevented full expansion of the mixed deciduous forest. We studied the succession of molluscan assemblages and/or fossil pollen in this area to answer the question as to how long the canopy forest could survive ongoing human impact. Environments suitable for the fossilization of these two fossil types differ, and the joint occurrence of both is rare. However, the 0.75 m deep profile of alluvial loams and clays situated in the irregularly inundated floodplain area of the Dubanka stream yielded material rich in both mollusc shells and pollen. Very rich molluscan assemblages occur only in a 45 cm thick layer, which was dated using the AMS radiocarbon method to the Bronze Age (1796 - 1258 BC. The molluscan assemblages consist of continuously occurring rare deciduous woodland species (such as Discus perspectivus, Platyla polita, Cochlodina orthostoma, Ruthenica filograna and species of relict wetlands (e.g. Perpolita petronella, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, Vallonia enniensis. Pollen analyses also suggest the presence of wetland assemblages, with a huge proportion of alder in the central part of the succession followed by willow. The deciduous forests consist of elm (Ulmus, oak (Quercus, lime tree (Tilia, maple (Acer and hazel (Corylus. Pollen grains of spruce (Picea, white fir (Abies and beech (Fagus confirm the late Holocene age of the profile. These results provide evidence of a woodland and wetland mosaic which still covered this landscape during the Bronze Age, in contrast with the present-day monotonous open lowland.

  19. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow plus salvage logging as to wind disturbance alone, by most vegetative measures.

  20. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  1. a Gamma-Ray Study of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Relative Water Content of Tree STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zainal Abidin B.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The importance and role of water in plant growth have been studied for many years. The water is stored in various parts of the plant and is known to vary from one species to another, and with time of the year and some environmental factors. Most of the present methods of water content determination are destructive, and continuous monitoring of water content is not possible since the plant will be altered thereby. In this thesis, a non-destructive method of estimating water content in a live standing tree stem based on the computed tomography technique is described and verified. A portable gamma-ray scanner specifically designed for parallel computed tomography data collection was constructed and tested both in the laboratory and on actual field experiments. The cross-sectional images of the object under study, represented as a spatial variation of linear attenuation coefficients, were reconstructed using the filtered back-projection method. Experiments on small stem sections in the laboratory were found to show a linear decrease in attenuation coefficients as the water content decreased. The spatial change in water content can be obtained by taking the difference between two corresponding images. Scans on Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) and Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) trees in the field have shown significantly low attenuation coefficient values at the central region indicating low water content of the heartwood. However, for the Elm (Ulmus wheatlyii) tree the central heartwood was not well defined. Small fluctuations of relative water content (about 1%) were observed in overnight measurements for both on the Rowan and the Elm. Measurements over an extended period have also indicated seasonal variations in water content. Lower water contents were observed for scans made during the end of summer months.

  2. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  3. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Misael, Chinchilla-Carmona; Olga Marta, Guerrero Bermúdez; Giselle, Tamayo-Castillo; Ana, Sittenfeld Appel; Alberto, Jiménez-Somarribas; Idalia, Valerio-Campos.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado [...] determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the [...] extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  4. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  5. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  6. Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nemesio, Villa-Ruano; Guilibaldo G, Zurita-Vásquez; Yesenia, Pacheco-Hernández; Martha G, Betancourt-Jiménez; Ramiro, Cruz-Durán; Horacio, Duque-Bautista.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphyll [...] a, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  7. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  8. Riego parcial de la raíz en manzano `golden delicious´ en un mbiente semi-árido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Zegbe-Dom\\u00EDnguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua para riego es un recurso limitado y costoso en la producción de manzano (Malus pumila Mill. en las regiones semi-áridas del mundo, como en la región Norte de México donde se cultivan 44 mil hectáreas. Se ha demostrado que el riego parcial de la raíz (RPR es una técnica que ahorra agua en manzano cultivado en regiones húmedas, pero en climas semi-áridos aún no se evalúa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto del RPR sobre el rendimiento y calidad de fruto del manzano ?Golden Delicious? cultivado en un clima semi-árido donde la demanda evapotranspiratoria del cultivo es mayor que en un ambiente húmedo. Los tratamientos fueron: riego completo (RC, testigo y RPR; en éste se aplicó 50 % del RC, pues el riego se alternó del lado húmedo al seco del sistema radical cada 8 d o cuando el contenido del agua en el suelo alcanzó un umbral de abatimiento. En general, el rendimiento y componentes del rendimiento fueron estadísticamente iguales en ambos tratamientos, pero la eficiencia en el uso del agua fue significativamente mejorada en 70 % con el RPR en relación al RC. El RPR ahorró 44 % del agua. El peso medio, la firmeza y la concentración de sólidos solubles totales del fruto fueron estadísticamente iguales entre tratamientos. La concentración de la materia seca del fruto fue significativamente mayor en árboles con RPR que en aquéllos con RC. El RPR necesita ser validado en otros cultivares de manzano y ambientes agro-ecológicos antes de que esta técnica sea comercialmente difundida.

  9. Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1-a novel symbiotic chlorophyte capable of growth on pure CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Gorelova, Olga; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Chivkunova, Olga; Baulina, Olga; Lobakova, Elena

    2014-10-01

    A novel chlorophyte Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 isolated from a White Sea hydroid Dynamena pumila was cultivated at CO2 levels from atmospheric (the 'low-CO2' conditions) to pure carbon dioxide (the 5, 20, and 100 % CO2 conditions) under high (480 ?E/(m(2) s) PAR) light. After 7 days of cultivation, the '100 % CO2' (but not 5 or 20 % CO2) cells possessed ca. four times higher chlorophyll content per dry weight (DW) unit than the low-CO2 culture. The rate of CO2 fixation under 100 % CO2 comprised ca. 1.5 L/day per L culture volume. After a lag period which depended on the CO2 level, biomass accumulation and volumetric fatty acid (FA) content of the Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 bubbled with CO2-enriched gas mixtures increased and was comparable to that of the culture continuously bubbled with air. Under the low-to-moderate CO2 conditions, the FA percentage of the algal cells increased (to 40 % DW) whereas under high-CO2 conditions, FA percentage did not exceed 15 % DW. A strong increase in oleate (18:1) proportion of total FA at the expense of linolenate (18:3) was recorded in the '100 % CO2' cells. Electron microscopy and pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence investigation revealed no damage to or significant downregulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in '100 % CO2' cells grown at the high-PAR irradiance. Possible mechanisms of high-CO2 tolerance of Desmodesmus sp. 3Dp86E-1 are discussed in view of its symbiotic origin and possible application for CO2 biomitigation. PMID:24807746

  10. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl2, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ?g/ Cd/cm2 with CdCl2 (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plbtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place

  11. Widespread Expansion of Boreal Shrublands in the Siberian Low Arctic Is Linked to Cryogenic Disturbance and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Declassified imagery from the KH-4B "Corona" and KH-7 "Gambit" Cold War satellite surveillance systems (1963-1972) are a unique, high-resolution dataset that establishes a baseline for landcover-change studies in the Russian Arctic spanning 6 decades. We co-registered Corona/Gambit and modern high-resolution imagery for seven ~65 km2 Low Arctic sites in northwest Siberia and Chukotka and quantified changes in the extent of tall shrublands dominated by Siberian alder (Alnus fruticosa) using a point-intercept sampling approach. We made ground observations at two sites to identify important geomorphic processes and physiographic units associated with shrub expansion. Alder shrubland cover increased at all sites; relative to the 1960s extent, shrubland extent increased by 5-31% at the northwest Siberian sites and by 9% at both Chukotkan sites,. In northwest Siberia, alder expansion was closely linked to cryogenic disturbances related to patterned-ground and active-layer detachments. At the Chukotkan sites, most alder expansion occurred on hillslope colluvium and floodplains; we also observed modest increases in Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila). The close correspondence between expanding shrub patches and disturbance processes indicates that sparsely-vegetated, mineral-rich seedbeds strongly facilitate alder recruitment, and that the spatio-temporal attributes of disturbance mechanisms are a key determinant of landscape susceptibility to shrub expansion. Shrub expansion, in turn, initiates a cascade of effects on permafrost thermal regime and disturbance, promoting the accumulation of biomass and potentially buffering permafrost from climate warming.; Recently-established alder shrubs growing on non-sorted circles in patterned ground near Obskaya, northwest Siberia.

  12. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

  13. Characteristics of Plant Distribution in the Reclaimed Dredging Area in Gwangyang Bay, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam, Woong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the mechanisms affecting plant distributions in the reclaimed dredging areain the Gwangyang steelworks, in the Gwangyang Bay, Korea, we examined soil characteristics and plant distributionsin four study sites and a control site in the study area. Desalination occurring along a gradient withincreasing elevation, resulting in decrease of soil pH, EC, P, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and salt and an increase in soilT-N, silt, clay contents. From site 1 (the lowest-elevation site to site 5 (the highest-elevation site, halophytesdecreased in abundance and nonhalophytes increased. The dominant species in each site were: Phragmitescommunis, Limonium tetragonum, and 12 additional species at site 1, Carex pumila, Suaeda japonica, and 15additional species at site 2, Spergularia marina, Scirpus planiculmis, and 22 additional species at site 3,Miscantus sinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, and 26 additional species at site 4 and Pinus thunberii, Rhododendronmucronulatum, and 39 additional species at site 5, which resembled a naturally-occurring P. thinbergii community.Cluster analysis of the vegetation data matrix grouped the 35 plots into 5 major groups, and cluster analysisusing the soil environment data matrix revealed 4 major groups. CCA of the floristic and environmental datamatrix showed a positive relationship of SAR, EC, Na, Cl, and Ca, which are related to salt, in the 1st axis and2nd axis, but negative relationships for altitude, organic contents, silt, and clay contents. Notably, plant speciesin the reclaimed dredging area that were separated along the 1st axis showed strong relationships with factorsthat related to salt. Long-term exposure to natural rainfall in the reclaimed dredging area changed the soilcharacteristics, such as salinity. This change in soil characteristics might alter the SAR, which affects plantsurvival strategies in a given habitat. These results strongly indicated that factors related to salt and elevationplay important roles in determining the overall plant distribution in the reclaimed dredging area.

  14. Acaricidal properties of spinosad against Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to characterize the activity of the insecticide spinosad against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). T. urticae females and larvae were individually placed on bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae), leaf disks treated with four rates of spinosad (25, 55, 121, and 266 ppm) and a water control. Significantly fewer T. urticae completed development on any spinosad rates (85%), whereas spinosad exhibited no significant effects on P. ulmi development; 72.5 and 83.1% of P. ulmi completed development on apple (Malus pumila P. Mill, Rosaceae) leaf disks treated with 75 ppm spinosad and the control, respectively. T. urticae adult females placed on spinosad-treated disks had significantly higher mortality and lower oviposition rates compared with the water control; no significant mortality effects were observed until 3 d after placing adults on leaf disks. In choice tests where half of a bean leaf was treated with 55 ppm spinosad transversally or longitudinally, T. urticae females were repelled by spinosad and largely oviposited and fed on nonspinosad treated areas. Spinosad did not affect the behavior of P. ulmi females. When T. urticae females were released on potted bean plants (two-leaf stage) in which leaves received spinosad sprays on the adaxial or abaxial leaf surfaces, or complete spinosad coverage on one or two of the leaves, mite population increase lagged significantly behind those released on control plants. These results indicate that spinosad has significant acaricidal effects against T. urticae but not P. ulmi. PMID:16813320

  15. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  16. Component and whole-system respiration fluxes in northern deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolstad, P V; Davis, K J; Martin, J; Cook, B D; Wang, W

    2004-05-01

    We measured component and whole-system respiration fluxes in northern hardwood (Acer saccharum Marsh., Tilia americana L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest stands in Price County, northern Wisconsin from 1999 through 2002. Measurements of soil, leaf and stem respiration, stem biomass, leaf area and biomass, and vertical profiles of leaf area were combined with biometric measurements to create site-specific respiration models and to estimate component and whole-system respiration fluxes. Hourly estimates of component respiration were based on site measurements of air, soil and stem temperature, leaf mass, sapwood volume and species composition. We also measured whole-system respiration from an above-canopy eddy flux tower. Measured soil respiration rates varied significantly among sites, but not consistently among dominant species (P 0.1). Annual soil respiration ranged from 8.09 to 11.94 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Soil respiration varied linearly with temperature (P 0.1). Stem respiration rates per unit volume and per unit area differed significantly among species (P < 0.05). Stem respiration per unit volume of sapwood was highest in F. pennsylvanica (up to 300 micro mol m(3) s(-1)) and lowest in T. americana (22 micro mol m(3) s(-1)) when measured at peak summer temperatures (27 to 29 degrees C). In northern hardwood stands, south-side stem temperatures were higher and more variable than north-side temperatures during leaf-off periods, but were not different statistically during leaf-on periods. Cumulative annual stem respiration varied by year and species (P < 0.05) and averaged 1.59 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). Leaf respiration rates varied significantly among species (P < 0.05). Respiration rates per unit leaf mass measured at 30 degrees C were highest for P. tremuloides (38.8 nmol g(-1) s(-1)), lowest for Ulmus rubra Muhlenb. (13.1 nmol g(-1) s(-1)) and intermediate and similar (30.2 nmol g(-1) s(-1)) for T. americana, F. pennsylvanica and Q. rubra. During the growing season, component respiration estimates were dominated by soil respiration, followed by leaf and then stem respiration. Summed component respiration averaged 11.86 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). We found strong covariance between whole-ecosystem and summed component respiration measurements, but absolute rates and annual sums differed greatly. PMID:14996654

  17. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

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    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs.

  18. Holocene environmental changes in the Alashan Gobi, NW China: Evidence from a pollen record in comparison to modern pollen spectra

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    Herzschuh, U.; Tarasov, P.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.

    2003-04-01

    Pollen data of an early to mid-Holocene sediment record from the centre of the present dry Eastern Juyan lake, Alashan Gobi, northwestern China and comparisons with modern pollen spectra provide information about vegetation and climatic changes in a desert dominated region. The arid Alashan Plateau receives less than 80 mm annual precipitation and is covered by a typical desert vegetation comprising Calligonum mongolicum, Nitraria sphaerocarpa, Zygophyllum xanthoxylon, Ephedra przewalskii, Reaumuria soogorica, Artemisia tschernerviana, Haloxylon ammodendron and some other Chenopodiaceae being the main plant taxa. An 8.25 m long sediment core taken from the northwestern part of Juyan lake covers the the early and the mid-Holocene (11.0 to 2.0 cal. ka BP). Altogether 64 samples with a total of ca. 400 grains per sample were analysed. The most abundant taxa and their probable origin are the following: Betula (far transport from the adjacent mountains), Ulmus (riparian vegetation), Artemisia, Poaceae, Ephedra distachya-type, Ephedra fragilis-type (steppe vegetation or indefinable), Chenopodiaceae, Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria (desert vegetation). According to 5 AMS datings and pollen spectra the record can be subdivided into two parts: 11.0 to 5.5 cal. ka BP with higher abundances of Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra and 5.5 to 2.0 cal. ka BP with more Artemisia and less Ephedra. Due to the varying Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae ratio and the similarly changing abundance of some desert taxa (Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria) a division in periods with steppe vegetation mainly indicate wetter conditions while the abundance of desert vegetation may reflect somewhat drier conditions. According to the age model wetter conditions prevailed between about 8.2 7.5, 6.6 - 6.2, 5.6 4.8, 4.3 4.0 and 3.2 2.8 cal. ka BP. Many pollen surface samples from the Alashan Gobi and the adjacent areas (the Qilian Mountains in the south and Mongolia in the north) supply this investigation with Recent pollen spectra from several vegetation types with known climatic conditions, which were used to understand the fossil pollen spectra and to identify and to verify the pollen indicator species and pollen indicator ratios.

  19. The Physics of Pollen and Spore Rebound from Plant Surfaces.

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    Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    1980-12-01

    The problem of particle rebound from plant surfaces has been examined. Particle rebound is a component of net deposition; the other components are reentrainment and impingement. I carried out several sets of wind tunnel experiments to examine the nature of rebound, reentrainment and impingement. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out on the data. A simple computer model was created to predict particle deposition in wind tunnel conditions. My work confirms that rebound is an important process in the wind tunnel, and implies the existence of a process I call 'rebound/reentrainment'. I tested several major hypotheses. The first was that biological materials exhibit the same physical rebound characteristics as artificial materials. The second was that particles rebound in a manner predicted by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. The third was that rebound is a dominant component of net deposition. The fourth was that surface characteristics may seriously influence rebound. I carried out my experiments in a low-speed wind tunnel. For surfaces I used glass and the leaves of tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Coleus (Coleus blumeii) and American elm (Ulmus americana). For particles I used glass microbeads, lycopodium spores (Lycopodium spp.), and ragweed pollen (Ambrosia trifida). Four main sets of experiments were carried out. I examined rebound, as a function of particle speed, of particles impinging upon leaf surfaces, reentrainment of spores and pollen as a function of wind speed and time, net deposition, as a function of wind speed, and adhesion of pollen and spores to the leaf surfaces. From these experiments I concluded that in general, pollen and spore rebound can be described well by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. Particle differences are far more significant than surface differences in the rebound process. I postulate the existence of rebound/reentrainment when particles impinge on surfaces with tangential fluid flow present. Particles will bounce initially, be drawn back to the surface, but if the fluid flow is sufficiently strong, the particles will be reentrained. Rebound processes, if they are defined to include rebound and rebound/reentrainment, are generally more important than reentrainment in limiting net deposition. I used experimental and theoretical work to form a simple net deposition model for large particles in wind tunnel flow. Further development of similar models is necessary for more accurate results, and for linkage to macroscale deposition and transport models.

  20. Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

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    Buiteveld J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: “Commelin” (relatively susceptible and “Lobel” (relatively resistant. In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with “Columella”, “Sapporo Autumn Gold”’ and “Rebella” being highly resistant and significantly different from “Lobel” and “Regal”, “Urban”, “Belgica”, “Den Haag” and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to “Commelin”. The non-released clones performed comparable to “Lobel’”or even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.

  1. Forest Reproductive Material and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in Croatia

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    Davorin Kajba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of genetic diversity of forest tree species represents the foundation for sustainable forest management and preservation of natural structure of forest stands in Croatia. Diversity of geographical regions in Croatia has generated various ecological conditions and thus diverse forest communities which are directly affected by habitat degradation, various anthropogenic effects like pollution of air and water, excessive use of certain more valuable species of forest trees and by the increasing impact of global climatic changes. The need for conservation of genetic diversity is related to the species pertaining to social broadleaves—the prevailing species in terms of economic utilization as Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur, Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica. Among the conifers Silver Fir (Abies alba is the most endangered species, with more than 70% of its population being seriously damaged. Other native coniferous species must be preserved from a decrease in genetic diversity as well. Conservation of the noble broadleaves should encompass a larger number of species from various genera (Fraxinus, Alnus, Ulmus, Prunus, Juglans, Castanea, Sorbus, Acer, Malus, Pyrus, Tilia. These are partially endangered because of their exposure to different pests and diseases, as well as by permanent exploitation due to their technical value. Changes in hydrological conditions of rivers have led difficulties in regeneration of the riparian forests and decreased the genetic variability of European Black and White Poplar in their habitats (Populus nigra, P. alba. In Croatia’s Adriatic coastal areas, there is a need for conservation of genetic resources of Dalmatian Black Pine (P. nigra ssp. dalmatica and Mediterranean Oaks (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens. Conservation of genetic diversity of various forest tree species is conducted within the programmes that include in situ and ex situ methods with ensuring quality forest reproductive materials. In Croatia, a total of 125 seed stands have been selected, covering a total area of 3885.53 ha. The ex situ method is implemented by establishment of a total of 50 plots (clonal seed orchards, provenances and progeny trials, clonal archives, covering 114.85 ha.

  2. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

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    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

  3. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (?13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased ?13C and low TOC values between ?12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ?11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ?8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ?4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ?1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with marshy elements i.e. Polygonum and Liliaceae between ?6732 and 3337 cal yr BP marked warm and wet Holocene climate optimum (HCO) period. The warm and moist climate from ?1158-647 cal yr BP corresponded with global Medieval Warm Period (MWP).

  4. Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 ?mol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface-controlled mineral dissolutions. It is shown that the Si release rate from the above-ground forest biomass is capable of producing the Si concentrations observed in soil solutions of surficial horizons and contribute significantly to the Si flux from the soil to the river.

  5. Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives

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    Collin E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs. Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall. selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED. Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill. selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual maturity and exchange pollen with elms in the neighborhood, hence contributing new genotypes that will be submitted to natural selection and provide fuel for ongoing adaptation processes. Initiatives assembling a large consortium of stakeholders, including habitat conservationists and hedge re-constructors, are needed to trigger new conservation projects.

  6. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

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    Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

  7. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

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    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

  8. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

  9. Rapid responses of the prairie-forest ecotone to early Holocene aridity in mid-continental North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Shuman, Bryan; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2009-04-01

    The prairie-forest transition in midcontinental North America is a major physiognomic boundary, and its shifts during the Holocene are a classic example of climate-driven ecotonal dynamics. Recent work suggests asymmetrical Holocene behavior, with a relatively rapid early Holocene deforestation and more gradual reforestation later in the Holocene. This paper presents a new synthesis of the Holocene history of the Great Plains prairie-forest ecotone in the north-central US and central Canada that updates prior mapping efforts and systematically assesses rates of change. Changes in percent woody cover (%WC) are inferred from fossil pollen records, using the modern analog technique and surface-sediment pollen samples cross-referenced against remotely sensed observations. For contemporary pollen samples from the Great Plains, %WC linearly correlates to percent arboreal pollen (%AP), but regression parameters vary interregionally. At present, %AP is consistently higher than %WC, because of high background levels of arboreal pollen. Holocene maps of the eastern prairie-forest ecotone agree with prior maps, showing a rapid decrease in %WC and eastward prairie advance between 10,000 and 8000 ka (1 ka = 1000 calibrated years before present), a maximum eastward position of the ecotone from 7 to 6 ka, and increased %WC and westward prairie retreat after 6 ka. Ecotone position is ambiguous in Iowa and southeastern Minnesota, due to a scarcity of modern analogs for early-Holocene samples with high Ulmus abundances and for samples from alluvial sediments. The northern prairie-forest ecotone was positioned in central Saskatchewan between 12 and 10 ka, stabilized from 10 to 6 ka despite decreases in %WC at some sites, then moved south after 6 ka. In both east and north, ecotonal movements are consistent with a dry early Holocene and increasing moisture availability after 6 ka. Sites near the ecotone consistently show an asymmetric pattern of abrupt early Holocene deforestation (< 300 years) and gradual reforestation after 6 ka. Early Holocene decreases in %WC are faster than the corresponding drops in %AP, because the analog-based %WC reconstructions correct for the high background levels of arboreal pollen types that blur temporal variations in %AP. For example, at Elk Lake, the %AP decline lasts 1000 years, whereas the %WC decline occurs between adjacent pollen samples, approximately 300 years apart. Thus, early Holocene deforestation may have been even more abrupt than previously recognized. Rapid deforestation likely was promoted both by rapid climate changes around 8.2 ka and positive fire-vegetation feedbacks. Non-linear vegetational responses to hydrological variability are consistent with 1) other paleorecords showing rapid die-offs of some eastern tree species in response to aridity and 2) observations of threshold-type ecological responses to recent climate events. The 21st-century trajectory for the Great Plains prairie-forest ecotone is uncertain, because climate models differ over the direction of regional precipitation trends, but future drying would be more likely to trigger threshold-type shifts in ecotone position.

  10. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Salerno area (southern Italy). Quaternary International, 190: 146-157. Follieri, M., Giardini, M., Magri, D., Sadori, L. (1998): Palynostratigraphy of the last glacial period in the volcanic region of central Italy. Quaternary International, 47/48: 3-20. Zander, A., Fülling, A., Brückner, H. & Mastronuzzi, G. (2006): OSL dating of Upper Pleistocene littoral sediments: a contribution to the chronostratigraphy of raised marine terraces bordering the Gulf of Taranto, South Italy. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

  11. Vegetation, climate and environment variability at Spicer Pond, Indiana, during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Gill, J. L.; Alhambra, D.; Hernandez, S.; Kohrs, K.; Marsicek, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Many paleoclimate studies have shown that the midcontinent of North America experienced a warmer and drier-than-present climate during the early and middle Holocene and relatively humid climate during the late Holocene with several megadroughts. In response to this climate variability, Holocene vegetation changes in the Great Lake forests are broadly composed of two shifts: the moving northward and retreating of ecotone between mixed forest and deciduous forest - mainly composed of Quercus and Pinus, and the east-western gradient in prairie composition developed between 7,000 and 5,000 years BP. Superimposed on these ecotonal shifts are the range shifts of individual taxa and episodic declines in abundance of individual tree taxa, which appear to be linked to hydroclimatic variability (e.g. Fagus decline centering around 1,000 years B.P., Booth and Jackson, 2003). Most Holocene paleoecological research has been carried out in the northern Great Lakes states (MI, MN, WI) and the Holocene climate and vegetation dynamics in the south-central Great Lakes (IN, OH) remains relatively unknown. This study focuses on climate and vegetation changes during the Holocene at Spicer Pond in Indiana (41°44'52" N, 86°31'19" W, 237 m elevation), which is a kettle lake located in New Carlisle, north of Indiana, near the southeastern edge of Michigan. This study reports loss-on-ignition, pollen, and charcoal analyses to reconstruct the vegetation, climate and environment at Spicer Pond. Loss-on-ignition data indicate seven shifts of sharp increase of mineral and decrease of organic carbon that separately happened at about 300 years B.P., 1,800 years B.P., 2,800 years B.P., 5,000 years B.P., 6,700 years B.P., 8,000 years B.P. and 11,000 years B.P. during the Holocene. The most recent LOI peak is believed to be linked to changes sedimentation rates caused by Euroamerican land use. The cause of these Holocene peaks in mineral content at Spicer Pond is not yet known, and we have several working hypothesis: 1) the LOI variability is a signal of local to regional droughts, with fast responses recorded in the pollen and charcoal; 2) the LOI variability is a signal of aridity, but vegetation response times were slow enough that significant time lags will be recorded between the LOI variations and pollen record; and 3) the LOI variability is not caused by aridity but local shifts in sediment , and the pollen or the charcoal record will be stable during the Holocene or will show changes that do not correspond to the LOI changes. Initial pollen counts indicate that the main pollen types in Spicer Pond are Acer (maple), Fagus (beech) Quercus (oak) and Ulmus (elm). Acer abundances were stable during the Early Holocene with slight changes, but there were increases of Fagus around 1,500 years B.P. and 2,500 years B.P. with declines of Quercus. These changes seem to correspond to LOI shifts around 1,800 years B.P. and 2,800 years B.P. Further time-series analyses will be done after counting all pollen records in the sediment during the Holocene. Charcoal analyses are underway.

  12. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae (Pyrus sp., Prunus sp., etc.), Tilia sp. (Linden), Morus sp. (mulberry), Taxus baccata (yew), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas etc.), Labiata (Lavandula sp.), Cannabaceae (Humulus sp. etc.), Liliaceae (Lilium sp.), Echium sp. (viper's bugloss). The most abundant taxa, detected in the highest quantities (grains/m3 air), by order of counting were as follows: holm-oak, olive, grasses, Plantago and Parietaria. With the data obtained we have established a pollen calendar for Salamanca and report the period in which each type of pollen is found along the years and the periods with the highest airborne concentrations of such pollens. The diversity and the spectrum of the pollen in the city of Salamanca correspond to the typical plant communities found on the dehesas (large ranges of grasslands) of Castile, where Salamanca is located, although the wind directions and the peculiar climatic characteristics of the area govern the peaks of maximum presence of the different taxa. As examples, in the case of olive, which is cultivated at some distance from the city, its maximum presence coincides with south-westerly winds; in the case of grasses, the peaks of maximum counts coincide with a sharp rise in mean temperature, close to or higher than 20 degrees C and between five and six weeks after rainfall equal to or greater than 5 L/m2. PMID:9885728

  13. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest – 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak – 10.7%, SB1OP (dry oak-pine – 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak – 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak – 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril’ Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5 ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8 ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  14. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By estimations of scientific biogeochemists and geochemists hollow of the Issyk Kul is a natural uranium biogeochemical province. However uranium ores consists other microelements. In the given uranium region the biogeochemistry of uranium, etc. microelements are studied poorly. Considering the social and economic and ecological importance of subregion of Issyk-Kul for republic and value of uranium for alive organisms, we have aim - to research biogeochemistry of uranium in territory hollow of Issyk Kul. Uranium waste is located in 2,5 km to the east from inhabited settlement, but natural factors (rains, underground waters, landslips) are dangerous for ecology of Issyk Kul lake and the nearest settlements. But after closing of mining combine of the Kadji-Say a lot of not conserving radioactive-industrial waste in coastal of Dzhili-Bulak, underwent intensive destruction, carry of its part to a exit of natural boundary. The reason was frequent storm rains. For 40 years there was an intensive raising a coastal part in area of industry zone. It was made by formation of terraces in highest natural boundaries of Dzhil-Bulak. On the kept terraces it is possible to meet here and there the radioactive-industrial waste, combined by ashed material mixed up with gravel material. The part of radioactive ashes achieved to Issyk Kul Lake, but it is not so important, because that is makes a drop in the sea for Issyk Kul Lake (we shall remind, that in the lake contains abouall remind, that in the lake contains about 100 thousand tons of uranium). By radiometric shooting turn out that a level of radiation in hollow of the Issyk-Kul and in around territory of the Kadji-Sai settlement is low and about from 15 up to 47 nZv/hour. In province of E-circumflexadji-Say and around territory the soil and covered ground are characterized by the various contents of uranium -from 0,1x10-6 g/g to 35,0x10-6 g/g. The analysis of 20 samples of soils and ground has shown, that on the uranium deposit in the upper horizon of a covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm, except of some technogenic territories