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Fenología de la floración de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in Bahía Blanca city (Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la floración de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de Bahía [...] Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in Bahía Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el conteni [...] do y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the conten [...] t and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

María L., Bakker; Patricia I., Alvarado.

2006-07-01

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Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia(Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila(Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus Americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

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Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total ...

Bakker, Mar U. Eda L.; Alvarado, Patricia I.

2006-01-01

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Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

Solla A

2014-12-01

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Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China  

Science.gov (United States)

Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly U. pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to de...

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-provoked mitochondria-dependent cell death during ageing of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that controlled deterioration treatment (CDT) induces programmed cell death (PCD) in elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds, which undergo certain fundamental processes that are comparable to apoptosis in animals. In this study, the essential characteristics of mitochondrial physiology in elm seeds during CDT were identified by cellular ultrastructural analysis, whole-body optical imaging, western blotting, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The alteration of mitochondrial morphology was an early event during CDT, as indicated by progressive dynamic mitochondrial changes and rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane; mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m ) loss ensued, and mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels became depleted. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) effectively suppressed these changes during ageing. The in situ localisation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the evaluation of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) and cyclophilin D (cyp D) expression indicated that the levels of MPTP components were positively correlated to ROS production, leading to an imbalance of the cellular redox potential and ultimately to PCD. Pre-incubation with ascorbic acid (AsA) retarded mitochondrial ??m loss and diminished the effect of CDT on seed viability. However, there were no significant changes in multiple antioxidant elements or chaperones in the mitochondria during early stages of ageing. Our results indicate that CDT can induce dynamic changes in mitochondrial physiology via increased ROS production, ultimately resulting in an irreversible loss of seed viability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25439659

Wang, Yu; Li, Ying; Xue, Hua; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

2014-12-01

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Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations  

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Germination is a crucial step for invasive plants to extend their distribution under different environmental conditions in a new range. Therefore, information on germination characteristics of invasive plant species provides invaluable knowledge about the factors which might contribute to the invasion success. Moreover, intra-specific comparisons under controlled conditions will show if different responses between non-native and native populations are caused by evolutionary changes or by phen...

Hirsch, Heidi; Wypior, Catherina; Von Wehrden, Henrik; Wesche, Karsten; Renison, Daniel; Hensen, Isabell

2012-01-01

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The Tertiary relict tree Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae): distribution, population structure and conservation status on Crete  

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Relict species provide a unique opportunity to understand past and recent biogeographical and evolutionary processes. Zelkova abelicea (Ulmaceae), which is endemic to the island of Crete (Greece), is one of the most prominent Tertiary relict trees of the Mediterranean region. We collected distribution, threat and population structure data by reviewing literature and herbaria and through field surveys at 14 study plots throughout the range of the species. The present distribution of Z. abelice...

Kozlowski, Gregor; Frey, David; Fazan, Laurence; Egli, Bernhard; Be?trisey, Se?bastien; Gratzfeld, Joachim; Garfi?, Giuseppe; Pirintsos, Stergios

2013-01-01

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Removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by Ulmus leaves  

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The Cr (VI) adsorption characteristics of Ulmus leaves (UL) and their ash were examined as a function of contact time, initial pH, and initial metal ion concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ on adsorption were studied. Maximum removal was achieved in the pH=7, contact time of 60 minutes and with initial Cr (VI) concentration of 2 mg/L. Because at pH ?6.5 ,precipitation of chromium may take place, optimum pH was selected at 6. Maxim...

F Gholami, A. H. Mahvi

2006-01-01

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Effects of induced water stress on leaf trichome density and foliar nutrients of three elm (Ulmus) species: implications for resistance to the elm leaf beetle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seedlings of three elm species with variable susceptibility to the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were subjected to three water stress treatments (no stress, low stress, and high stress) in a greenhouse experiment. The species tested were Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm = highly susceptible), U. parvifolia Jacq. (Chinese elm = resistant), and U. americana L. (American elm = intermediate). The seedlings were analyzed for changes in the levels of selected host traits (trichome density, foliar concentration of nitrogen [N], phosphorus [P], potassium [K], calcium [Ca], magnesium [Mg], iron [Fe], and manganese [Mn]), some of which had previously been implicated in resistance to the elm leaf beetle. Density of leaf abaxial surface trichomes (simple, bulbous, and total trichomes) and foliar Fe and Mg concentrations increased significantly in the highly susceptible Siberian elms under water stress. In contrast, stress reduced trichome density in the moderately susceptible American elms, but it had no effect on levels of foliar mineral nutrients. The stress treatments had no influence on host traits in the resistant Chinese elms. The results suggest that environmental stress can alter plant traits that are likely involved in determining resistance of elms to the elm leaf beetle. PMID:17540070

Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

2007-06-01

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Removal of chromium (VI from aqueous solution by Ulmus leaves  

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Full Text Available The Cr (VI adsorption characteristics of Ulmus leaves (UL and their ash were examined as a function of contact time, initial pH, and initial metal ion concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed. The effects of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ on adsorption were studied. Maximum removal was achieved in the pH=7, contact time of 60 minutes and with initial Cr (VI concentration of 2 mg/L. Because at pH ?6.5 ,precipitation of chromium may take place, optimum pH was selected at 6. Maximum adsorption rate values were found at the first 60 min at pH= 6. The effect of the adsorbent on COD removal from aqueous solution showed that 2g/L of adsorbent caused 130 and 75 mg /L increase in COD of deionized water in 60 min for UL and its ash, respectively. The chromium adsorption data obtained under the optimum condition were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Studies showed that the Langmuir adsorption model better fitted than Freundlich, with R2 >0.99. Also UL ash was more efficient than living leaves in removing chromium from aqueous solution.

F. Gholami, A. H. Mahvi, Gh. A. Omrani, Sh. Nazmara

2006-04-01

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Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 ?M 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2?×?10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 ?M thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 ?M GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies. PMID:25359187

Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

2014-10-31

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Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells  

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Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC) is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization w...

Lim Bora; Lee Hee Jung; Kim Min Chul; Kim Byung Joo

2013-01-01

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Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.)  

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The structure of Kalancho? pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type) mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndro...

Mykhaylo Chernetskyy; El?bieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

2008-01-01

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Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

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One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

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Developmental stability of Iris pumila flower traits: A common garden experiment  

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Full Text Available I. pumila natural populations usually occur in two different habitat types: dune and forest. These I. pumila habitats differ in many abiotic environmental factors, but mostly in available light intensity and quality. The effects of different light intensity on the developmental stability of I. pumila floral traits were analyzed on clones taken from two different natural light habitat types that were raised in contrasting light treatments in experimental garden conditions (common garden experiment. As an indicator of developmental stability, we used two fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA1 and FA8a of three bilateral symmetric traits of I. pumila flower (FW-fall width, SW-standard width and STW- style branch width. In addition, statistically significant treatment x population interaction was observed for style width. According to the presented results, the observed FA patterns of particular traits did not reflect the whole organism buffering capacity under the given environmental conditions.

Miljkovi? Danijela

2012-01-01

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Effect of Water Extract of Labisia pumila Var Alata on Aorta of Ovariectomized Sprague Dawley Rats  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila var alata, locally known Kacip Fatimah, is a traditional herb used by Malay women to induce and facilitate childbirth as well as to increase a woman's libido. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Labisia pumila consumption on maintaining the integrity of the aortic wall in ovariectomized rats. Thirty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats, 6 months old, were used in the experiment. Rats were divided into Normal (NOR and ovariectomized (OVXC, KF and ERT groups. Body weight was checked and recorded monthly. After four months, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and tissue samples from the aorta were collected for histological studies. Results showed that water extract of Labisia pumila-treatment maintained the elastic lamellae architecture of the ovariectomized rat aortae in a manner comparable to that of the normal rats. Results implied a possible role for Labisia pumila in modulating postmenopausal cardiovascular risks.

Ayida Al-Wahaibi

2008-01-01

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Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia  

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Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

2010-02-05

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Potential Role of Labisia pumila in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases  

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Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae, also called Kacip Fatimah, is a herbal medicine that has been widely used in South East Asian communities mainly for women’s health. The extensive use of this plant has led to many speculations and studies on its phytoestrogenic properties. This review highlights the studies that involved Labisia pumila, which include phytochemical profiling and its safety. In addition, we also look into its use as an alternative to hormonal therapy in postmenopausal women, and its role in cardiovascular protection and osteoporosis. Further studies are needed to highlight the potential benefits of this plant in promoting advantageous health properties.

Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain

2013-06-01

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Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.  

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Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

Jasreet Kaur

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
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Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

2011-01-01

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Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells  

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The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showe...

Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria; Fezah Othman

2012-01-01

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL, MINERALS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Labisia pumila var. alata OF SELECTED GEOGRAPHIC ORIGINS  

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Full Text Available In this study, relationships between physic-chemical, mineral and antioxidant properties of water-soluble extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata are proposed. A wide range of analytical parameters were studied including physic-chemical viz., proximate composition, yield, pH, total solid, total acidity, solubility; minerals content (Ca, Fe, and Zn and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As, and Pb; total phenolic content (TPC, tannin content, gallic acid (GA content, and free scavenging activity of DPPH (EC50. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA. Based on PCA analysis, TPC, GA content, moisture content, crude protein, and zinc content were found to have a significant positive correlation (r close to 1 to antioxidant activity. Cluster analysis (CA resulted in four groups of L.pumila (LP. These results provide useful data about the relationships and chemical patterns in LP leaves.

Mashitah M Yusoff

2012-02-01

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Lipophilic extracts from needles and defoliated twigs of Pinus pumila from two different populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexane extracts of needles and defoliated twigs of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel from two distant populations, located in the southwest and the east (i.e., Lake Baikal region and Sakhalin Island) of the species distribution range were studied by GC/MS analysis. Composition and retention indices of major components were determined. A drastic composition divergence for the extracts of P. pumila needles and defoliated twigs, depending on growth location, was established. Needle extracts from the eastern population sample contained mainly labdane-type acids (anticopalic acid derivatives), whereas the predominant components of needle extracts from the other population sample were abietane-type acids (abietic, neoabietic acids) and isopimarane-type diterpenoids (sandaracopimaric acid, sandaracopimaradien-3?-ol). The main components of defoliated twig extracts from Sakhalin Island population sample were abietane-type acids and cembrane-type diterpenoids, while content of these compounds in the extracts of the southwestern marginal population sample was remarkably lower. PMID:23418167

Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Shmidt, Emma N; Kang, Suk Woo; Kim, Sang Min; Um, Byung Hun

2013-02-01

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Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation  

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Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

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Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.  

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Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae), commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along wi...

Jasreet Kaur

2012-01-01

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On the activity of alpha-glucanphosphorylase in Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis  

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The main objective of the present study involves determination of the ?-glucanphosphorylase in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis, through dosing of the anorganic phosphorous, seed germination being performed in Petri plates, at room temperature, for 10 days, while taking over of the samples occurred at intervals of 24 hours. In the enzymatic extracts thus obtained, starch concentration was also determined, by the polarimetric method, while the concentration of tota...

Gabriela Vasile; Elena Ciornea

2008-01-01

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Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice  

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Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC) is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of UR...

Lyu Jeonghyeon; Kim Byung-Joo; Kim Hyungwoo

2013-01-01

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Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from a decayed tree (Ulmus nigra).  

Science.gov (United States)

A bacterial strain, designated XIL07T, isolated from a decayed tree, Ulmus nigra, in Salamanca (Spain) produced abundant cellulases and xylanases. The micro-organism was Gram-positive, aerobic, coccoid and non-motile. Growth was observed on many carbohydrates, including cellulose and xylan as the sole carbon sources. No growth was observed with acetate, citrate, gluconate, inositol, malate or mannitol as carbon sources. The strain showed very weak catalase activity. HPLC analysis of menaquinones revealed two peaks: the main peak corresponded with MK-9(H4) and the smaller one with MK-8(H4). The major fatty acid found was anteiso-C15:0 (12-methyl tetradecanoic acid). Mycolic acids were absent. The polar lipids detected were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. Peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, L-Lys-D-Asp. The cell-wall sugars detected were galactose and rhamnose. The complete 16S rDNA sequence of strain XIL07T was obtained and phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbour-joining method indicated that this bacterium belongs to the high-G + C-content Gram-positive bacteria and that the closest related genera are Promicromonospora and Cellulosimicrobium. The DNA G + C content was 73 mol%. According to the data obtained in this work, this bacterium belongs to a new genus in the family Promicromonosporaceae and the name Xylanimonas cellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is strain XIL07T (=LMG 20990T =CECT 5975T). PMID:12656159

Rivas, Raúl; Sánchez, Manuel; Trujillo, Martha E; Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquis; Velázquez, Encarna

2003-01-01

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Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions  

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Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6±8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (? (female/female/day was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

S. E. Sadeghi

2007-10-01

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Susceptibility of 32 elm species and hybrids (Ulmus spp.) to the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) under field conditions in Arizona.  

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We evaluated elm leaf beetle, Pyrhalta luteola (Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), defoliation of 32 elm species or hybrids (taxa) established under field conditions in Holbrook, AZ. Percentage of defoliation, number of eggs, and number of larvae were estimated on randomly selected 15-cm shoot lengths annually in July, from 1996 to 2001. The following nine taxa consistently sustained 15-46% mean overall defoliation: 1) Siberian elm, U. pumila L.; 2) 'Dropmore' elm, U. pumila; 3) 'Camperdownii' elm, U. glabra Huds.; 4) 'Regal' elm, U. glabra x U. carpinifolia Gledisch x U. pumila); 5) 'Sapporo Autumn Gold' elm (U. pumila x U. japonica Sang.); 6) 'New Horizon' elm (U. pumila x U. japonica); 7) 'Charisma' elm [(U. japonica x U. wilsoniana Schneid.) x (U. japonica x U. pumila)]; 8) 'W2115-1' elm (U. parvifolia Jacq. x U. procera Salisb.); and 9) 'Homestead' elm [(U. hollandica Mill. x U. carpinifolia) x (U. pumila-racemosa Dieck x U. carpinifolia)]. Percentage of defoliation was significantly low on four Chinese elm (U. parvifolia) cultivars ('Allee', 'Athena', 'Glory'/lace bark, and 'Kings Choice'). Percentage of defoliation was also low on seven Asian elms (including U. chemnoui Cheng, U. bergmaniana Sneid., U. szechuanica Fang, and species of the U. davidiana Planch. complex [U. davidiana, U. japonica, U. wilsoniana, and U. propinqua Koidz.]) and the American elm (U. americana L.) 'Valley Forge'. Percentage of defoliation and the number of eggs or larvae per plant were highly correlated. The results of this study are generally consistent with results of past laboratory screening trials. PMID:18232397

Bosu, Paul P; Miller, Fredric; Wagner, Michael R

2007-12-01

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Optimization and characterization of Tl(I) adsorption onto modified ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves  

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Ulmus carpinifolia tree leaves were successfully used to remove Tl(I) from aqueous solution in a batch system. In order to improve the uptake capacity of sorbent, it was modified by various chemical agents such as NaOH, HNO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, NaCl, NaHCO{sub 3}, and CaCl{sub 2}. Among the modifiers, NaCl was the best. Equilibrium behavior of sorbent with Tl(I) was examined by the several isotherms. Considering modified U. carpinifolia equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 54.6 mg/g. The other isotherms such as: Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) models were also examined. The central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for optimization of biosorption process. An empirical model was given through using response surface methodology. Also its validation was recognized by using relevant statistical tests such as ANOVA. The optimum conditions of biosorption: pH, m (amount of sorbent) and C (initial concentration) were found to be 7.9, 11.4 g/L, and 8.8 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand thermodynamic parameters: {Delta}G, {Delta}H, and {Delta}S were evaluated: the obtained results show that biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Eventually, FT-IR analysis confirmed that the main functional groups of sorbent have been involved through the biosorption process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Zolgharnein, Javad; Asanjarani, Neda [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S. Norollah [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-03-15

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Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats  

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A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

2005-01-01

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Effects of Temperature, Light and Storage on Seed Germination of Ulmus glabra Huds. and U. laevis Pall  

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Full Text Available The effects of temperature, light and storage on the germination of Ulmus glabra and Ulmus laevis seeds were studied. Germination tests were carried out under constant temperatures of 20°C and alternating temperatures of 30/20°C. Temperature significantly affected seed germination of U. glabra not stored, and seed germination was the highest at 30/20°C under dark or light. Temperature and light (0 or 8 h did not significantly affect germination of U. laevis seeds not stored. When seeds were stored for 2 years, seed germination of U. glabra and U. laevis was significantly affected by temperature and light (0, 8, 6 and 24 h. Two years storage of U. glabra seeds increased light demands for germination percentage, and the seeds could be stored at 4°C for 2 years without losing its viabilities when germinated at 30/20°C under light. Although germination percentage and germination rate of U. laevis seeds reduced after 2 years of storage, germination parameters were still quite high when seeds were germinated at 30/20°C under light.

Emrah Cicek

2006-01-01

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Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings  

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A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF) and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely cont...

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

2011-01-01

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On the activity of alpha-glucanphosphorylase in Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis  

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Full Text Available The main objective of the present study involves determination of the ?-glucanphosphorylase in germinated caryopses of Setaria pumila and Festuca pratensis, through dosing of the anorganic phosphorous, seed germination being performed in Petri plates, at room temperature, for 10 days, while taking over of the samples occurred at intervals of 24 hours. In the enzymatic extracts thus obtained, starch concentration was also determined, by the polarimetric method, while the concentration of total soluble proteins - necessary for the calculation of the specific phosphorolytic activity - was established by the Bradford method. In both graminaceae species, the enzymatic activity was highly reduced in the impregnated seed stage, after which it progressively increases, in parallels with the intensification of starch hydrolysis, for producing the energy and precursors necessary for various metabolic processes.

Gabriela Vasile

2008-08-01

37

Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice  

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Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

Lyu Jeonghyeon

2013-06-01

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Labisia pumila Prevents Complications of Osteoporosis by Increasing Bone Strength in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis  

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Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is the main treatment postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, ERT causes serious side effects, such as cancers and thromboembolic problems. Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) is a herb with potential as an alternative to ERT to prevent complications of osteoporosis, especially fragility fractures. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LPva on the biomechanical strength of femora exposed to osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency, using the postmen...

Siti Noor Fathilah; Shahrum Abdullah; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

2012-01-01

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Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

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A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Sahida Ahmad

2011-01-01

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Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

Ehsan Karimi

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Essential oil content of some Pinus and Cedrus species. [Pinus sibirica, P. pumila, P. Koraiensis, and Cedrus libani  

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Over 30 different terpenes and their oxidized derivations and related compounds were identified in essential oils from the needles and bark of annual shoots of P. sibirica, P. pumila and P. Koraiensis collected from plantations in Lipetsk province (Russia) and natural stands of P. cembra in Ivanco-Frankovsk province (Ukraine). Only alfa-pinene (69% of bark oil) and n-heptane (90% of needle oil) were present in Cedrus libani shoots from the Yalta area.

Kolesnikova, R.D.; Chernodubov, A.L.; Deryuzhkin, R.I.

1980-01-01

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Pre-dispersal Seed Predation by a Granivorous Bird, the Masked Grosbeak (Eophona personata, in Two Bird-dispersed Ulmaceae Species  

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Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird, the masked grosbeak (Eophona personata,Fringillidae, was investigated in two bird-dispersed trees, Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera (Ulmaceae.The objectives of this study were to 1 measure direct damage of predation by grosbeaks on plant crops, 2reveal the temporal pattern of predation within each tree species and its causal factors, and 3 test whetherforaging grosbeaks hinder foraging of frugivorous birds, thereby indirectly impacting the reproduction of both treespecies. A substantial amount of fruit and seed crop was consumed by grosbeaks (24.3% in Celtis; 55.5% inAphananthe, and only 17.7% (Celtis and 16.7% (Aphananthe were removed by frugivorous birds. At the studysite, the grosbeak population size fluctuated greatly during the fruiting seasons of both plant species. As forCeltis, predated seed density also fluctuated temporally, and the local population size of grosbeaks was responsiblefor predated seed density. In Aphananthe, predation was not fully explained by grosbeak populationsor plant phenology, but its peak coincided with that of grosbeak population. These results suggest that predispersalseed predation by granivorous birds can have large negative impacts on the bird-dispersed plants.Changes in local population size of granivorous birds can influence predatation and can affect reproductivesuccess of the bird-dispersed plants available to the birds.

Tetsuro Yoshikawa

2009-08-01

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Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells  

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The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

2012-01-01

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Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-08-01

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Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids  

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Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of the hybrid. Compared to the Siberian Stone Pine, the Japanese Stone Pine had higher dark respiration rate.The hybrid respiration rate was similar to that of the Japanese Stone Pine suggesting that the hybrid inherited mitochondria from thisspecies. Our findings indicated that the P. pumila exhibited particular ecological plasticity and this phenomenon is attributable to its high potential activity of photosynthetic and respiratory processes. These physiological features explained the large transcontinental naturalhabitat of Japanese Stone Pine.

A.P. Zotikova

2013-12-01

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Changes in foliar nutrient content and resorption in Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. after prevention of floods  

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This paper focuses on the impact of flood on tree mineral nutrition through measurement of resorption (i.e. transfer of nutrients from leaves to perennial organs). Nutrient (N, P, K, Mg, Ca) concentrations in leaves of three representative species, Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill. and Clematis vitalba L. were measured before and after abscission on flooded and unflooded hardwood forests of the upper Rhine plain. The nutrient concentrations in the soils, which were measured in the top ...

Tre?molie?res, Miche?le; Schnitzler, Annik; Sanchez-pe?rez, Jose?-miguel; Schmitt, Diane

1999-01-01

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Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore  

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Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P. sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3, Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analyses. Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees. This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

E.A. Petrova

2013-12-01

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Involvement of Nitrogen on Flavonoids, Glutathione, Anthocyanin, Ascorbic Acid and Antioxidant Activities of Malaysian Medicinal Plant Labisia pumila Blume (Kacip Fatimah  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP, total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.

Zaharah Abdul Rahman

2011-12-01

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Anatomical and nutritional factors associated with susceptibility of elms (Ulmus spp.) to the elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

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A wide range of susceptibility exists across elm (Ulmus) species and hybrids to the elm leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta luteola (Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We evaluated various elm species, hybrids, or cultivars (taxa) growing in an experimental plantation in the city of Holbrook, AZ, for leaf anatomical (toughness and trichome density) and nutritional (minerals and sugars) traits that may be associated with host resistance. Leaf toughness and percentage of defoliation (susceptibility) were not correlated. However, we found weak negative correlations between percentage of defoliation and density of trichomes on the leaf abaxial surface. Of the 11 leaf nutrients examined, concentrations of iron and phosphorus correlated inversely with percentage of defoliation. The remaining nine traits did not show any correlation with percentage of defoliation. We concluded that individual anatomical and nutritional traits of elm species/hybrids do not seem to create a strong barrier to elm leaf beetle defoliation. However, the results from a stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that collectively, these traits may play an important role in determining susceptibility. PMID:18613598

Bosu, Paul P; Wagner, Michael R

2008-06-01

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Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol?1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g?1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g?1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

2012-05-01

51

Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-07-01

52

Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.  

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Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

Vuleta Ana

2011-01-01

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Distribution of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes in three pollinator fig wasps associated with Ficus pumila  

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Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs) are nuclear sequences transferred from mitochondrial genomes. Although widespread, their distribution patterns among populations or closely related species are rarely documented. We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene to check for NUMTs in three fig wasp species that pollinate Ficus pumila (Wiebesia sp. 1, 2 and 3) in Southeastern China using direct and cloned sequencing. Unambiguous sequences (332) of 487 bp in length belonging to 33 haplotypes were found by direct sequencing. Their distribution was highly concordant with those of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Obvious signs of co-amplification of NUMTs were indicated by their uneven distribution. NUMTs were observed in all individuals of 12 populations of Wiebesia sp. 3, and 13 individuals of three northern populations of Wiebesia sp. 1. Sequencing clones of potential co-amplification products confirmed that they were NUMTs. These NUMTs either clustered as NUMT clades basal to mtDNA Cytb clades (basal NUMTs), or together with Cytb haplotypes. Basal NUMTs had either stop codons or frame-shifting mutations resulting from deletion of a 106 bp fragment. In addition, no third codon or synonymous substitutions were detected within each NUMT clade. The phylogenetic tree indicated that basal NUMTs had been inserted into nuclei before divergence of the three species. No significant pairwise differences were detected in their ratios of third codon substitutions, suggesting that these NUMTs originated from one transfer event, with duplication in the nuclear genome resulting in the coexistence of the 381 bp copy. No significant substitution differences were detected between Cytb haplotypes and NUMTs that clustered with Cytb haplotypes. However, these NUMTs coexisted with Cytb haplotypes in multiple populations, suggesting that these NUMT haplotypes were recently inserted into the nuclear genome. Both basal and recently inserted NUMTs were rare events, and were absent in most populations of Wiebesia sp. 1 and 2. Further studies are needed to distinguish between mechanisms potentially generating this rarity, such as purifying selection, genetic drift or amplification failure.

Chen, Yan; Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G.; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2014-05-01

54

Micropropagation and germplasm conservation of Central Park Splendor Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. 'A/Ross Central Park') trees.  

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Micropropagation offers opportunities to propagate, preserve and ship tree germplasm. It also reduces the risk of moving pathogens and insects with the germplasm due to built-in pathogen detection capabilities of aseptic cultures. For the past few decades, our laboratory has been involved in a project to preserve and restore a large, cold hardy, and historically important Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. 'A/Ross Central Park') tree. Here we present three simple and efficient systems for its micropropagation, germplasm conservation and distribution: (1) in vitro plant formation from meristematic nodules (MNs), (2) plantlet generation from axillary buds, and (3) in vitro rooting of micro-cuttings from 20-years-old hedged stock plants. Newly flushed nodal segments were used as explants. WPM with 0.5 mg/l BA was found to be the best medium for meristematic shoot development and WPM supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 4-CPPU and 0.5 mg/l TDZ was best for meristematic nodule formation. Rhizogenesis of regenerants and micro-cuttings was best achieved on WPM with 1.0 mg/l NAA and 2% sucrose. Rooted plants were readily acclimatized to the greenhouse ambient environment and continued to grow well under greenhouse conditions. The survival rate of acclimatized plantlets under ex vitro conditions was 100% after 4 weeks. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variation based on observation of about 1,000 plants. Cycling of shoot explants and MNs through repetitive cultures was effective in scaling-up propagules. PMID:17431632

Thakur, R C; Karnosky, D F

2007-08-01

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Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

Jones A Maxwell P

2012-05-01

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Range extension, habitat and conservation status of three rare mallees, Eucalyptus castrensis, Eucalyptus fracta and Eucalyptus pumila from the Hunter Valley, NSW  

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New populations of three threatened mallee species, Eucalyptus castrensis K.D.Hill, Eucalyptus fracta K.D.Hill and Eucalyptus pumila Cambage (all Myrtaceae), have recently been found in the Singleton Military Area in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales (32°45’S, 151°15’E). Each population is significant as they increase the known distribution and total numbers of three highly restricted species. Details of the habitat and size of each additional population are given and conservation no...

Copeland, Lachlan M.; Hunter, John T.

2013-01-01

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Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions  

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A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2012-01-01

58

Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings  

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Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

59

Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones  

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Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

Miljkovi? Danijela

2013-01-01

60

[Dynamics of allozyme heterozygosity in Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel populations of the Russian Far East: comparison of embryos and maternal plants].  

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Siberian dwarf pine, or Japanese stone pine, Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel is widespread in eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East; the species is bird-dispersed and has a unique spreading or shrub living form. A mixed mating system (predominant outcrossing with self-pollination and matings of close relatives) leads to the formation of partly inbred progenies in P. pumila, as in the majority of other conifers. The question arises as to whether inbred individuals persist in the reproductive part of a population, which can have negative genetic consequences. The ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MNR, MDH, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SKDH, and SOD isozyme systems were analyzed to study the dynamics of heterozygosity in four P. pumila natural populations from the Pacific region, optimal for the species. Samples were collected in northern Koryakia, southern Kamchatka (two samples), and the Kunashir Island (Kurils). Wright's fixation index was used to estimate the level of inbreeding in embryos from dormant seeds resulting from free pollination and in maternal plants. A substantial level of inbreeding (F(IS) = 0.124-0.342) was observed in the embryo samples but not in three out of the four adult samples. The inbreeding level at the reproductive age was high only in the sample from Koryakia, which was explained by a relatively young age of plants in the population frequently affected by fires. A general increase in heterozygosity, characteristic of other conifers as well, was attributed to elimination of inbred progenies and by balancing selection for heterozygotes, which is a key factor maintaining allozyme polymorphism in populations. PMID:17152705

Politov, D V; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (? and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

Ali Ghasemzadeh

2012-11-01

62

Primary, secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) exposed to potassium fertilization under greenhouse conditions.  

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A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) (C(i)), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (R(d)), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant. PMID:23203128

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2012-01-01

63

The effects of exposure to wave action on the distribution and morphology of the epiphytic hydrozoans Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila  

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The spatial distribution patterns of two species of epiphytic hydrozoans, Clava multicornis and Dynamena pumila, on the intertidal alga Ascophyllum nodosum were studied in adjacent wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas. Clava were more abundant on the wave-sheltered algae than on the wave-exposed fronds, and in both areas occupied the basal and middle sections of the algae. There was no difference in the abundance of Dynamena between the wave-sheltered and wave-exposed areas, but in both area...

Gili, Josep Maria; Rossi, Sergio; Hughes, R. G.

2000-01-01

64

Allocation of secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) in response to CO2 and light intensity.  

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A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites, soluble sugar, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity (DPPH), and lipid peroxidation under three levels of CO2 (400, 800, and 1200 ? mol/mol) and four levels of light intensity (225, 500, 625, and 900 ? mol/m(2)/s) over 15 weeks in Labisia pumila. The production of plant secondary metabolites, sugar, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, and malondialdehyde content was influenced by the interactions between CO2 and irradiance. The highest accumulation of secondary metabolites, sugar, maliondialdehyde, and DPPH activity was observed under CO2 at 1200 ? mol/mol + light intensity at 225 ? mol/m(2)/s. Meanwhile, at 400 ? mol/mol CO2 + 900 ? mol/m(2)/s light intensity the production of chlorophyll and maliondialdehyde content was the highest. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1200 ? mol/mol the photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, f v /f m (maximum efficiency of photosystem II), and PAL activity were enhanced. The production of secondary metabolites displayed a significant negative relationship with maliondialdehyde indicating lowered oxidative stress under high CO2 and low irradiance improved the production of plant secondary metabolites that simultaneously enhanced the antioxidant activity (DPPH), thus improving the medicinal value of Labisia pumila under this condition. PMID:24683336

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

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The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization  

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Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2010-12-01

66

Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth  

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Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

2012-06-01

67

A novel flavonoid isolated from the steam-bark of Ulmus wallichiana planchon stimulates osteoblast function and inhibits osteoclast and adipocyte differentiation.  

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(2S,3S)-Aromadendrin-6-C-?-d-glucopyranoside (AG) is a novel flavonol isolated from the extract of Ulmus wallichiana (Himalayan Elm). Extract of U. wallichiana is used as a traditional medicine for rapid fracture repair in India. We characterized the mechanism of action of AG in mouse bone cells by investigating its effect on the precursors of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and adipocytes. At nanomolar concentrations, AG increased differentiation of preosteoblasts obtained from neonatal mouse calvaria. The gene expression of osteogenic markers, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), type I collagen and osteocalcin were elevated in the preosteoblasts. The extracellular matrix mineralization was higher in preosteoblast and bone marrow cells when AG was present in the medium. Furthermore, AG protected the differentiated osteoblasts from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis, and increased the expression of the anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine, osteoprotegerin. It inhibited osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells to osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Additionally, in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, AG decreased the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBP/?), and induced apoptosis of differentiated adipocytes. Induction of adipogenic differentiation was also inhibited in the presence of AG. AG exhibited no estrogenic/antiestrogenic effect. Together, our data show that AG has potent osteogenic, anti-osteoclastogenic and anti-adipogenic effects, which may translate to a better skeletal outcome in postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:21376034

Swarnkar, Gaurav; Sharan, Kunal; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Chakravarti, Bandana; Rawat, Preeti; Kumar, Manmeet; Arya, Kamal R; Maurya, Rakesh; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

2011-05-11

68

Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model  

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Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

Nadia Mohd Effendy

2014-08-01

69

Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gómez; Michael J., Wynne.

1015-10-01

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Toponymic Data Helps to Reveal the Occurrence of Previously Unknown Populations of Wild Zamia pumila L. on Volcanic Substrates in South Central Puerto Rico  

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Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the Taínos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought. 

Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez

2013-03-01

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Involvement of Carbohydrate, Protein and Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase in Up-Regulation of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila under Various CO2 and N2 Level  

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Full Text Available A split plot factorial 2 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationships among secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, protein synthesis and L–phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5 activity in the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila (Blume Fern-Vill. under different CO2 concentrations (400 = ambient and 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 and three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90 and 270 kg N ha?1 for 15 weeks. The interaction between CO2 and nitrogen levels imposed a significant impact on plant secondary metabolite production, protein, PAL activity and fructose levels. Highest TP and TF were recorded under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 when N fertilizer was not applied; lowest values were obtained at 400 µmol mol?1 CO2 fertilized with the highest N level. Concurrently, fructose contents increased tremendously. Increase in fructose content might also enhance erythose-4-phosphate production (substrate for lignin and phenolic compounds, which shares a common precursor transdalolase in the pentose phosphate pathway. PAL activity was noted to be highest under 1,200 µmol mol?1 CO2 + 0 kg N ha?1 coinciding with subsequent recording of the lowest protein content. The results implied that the increase in plant secondary metabolites production under the tested conditions might be due to diversion of phenylalanine for protein synthesis to production of secondary metabolites. It was also found that the sucrose to starch ratio was also high under high levels of nitrogen fertilization, indicating an enhanced sucrose phosphate synthase activity (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14 under such condition.

Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

2011-05-01

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Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle  

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Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and six of them died. Clinical signs were observed 16 hours after administration and included apathy, anorexia, drooling, progressive weakness, coma and death. Neurological signs as pressing the head against obstacles and head shaking were observed in four animals . Death occurred between 67 and 153 hours after the end of plant ingestion. The main gross lesions were observed in the liver, and included friable consistency, pronounced lobular pattern and areas of haemorrhages. The liver of one bovine was homogeneously dark reddened. Petechial hemorrhages in serosal membranes and edema in the gall bladder were frequently seen. Pale kidneys with red spots in the cortex were observed in one animal. Microscopically, the most striking lesion in the liver was massive coagulative necrosis, associated with centrolobular haemorrhages, observed in four animals. In the liver of one bovine centrolobular necrosis was observed . Tubular renal necrosis was noted in two animals. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the central nervous system of five bovines, especially in the frontal cortex, and included perineuronal and perivascular edema with basophilia and retraction of the neurons. T T. micrantha caused clinical signs with 50g/kg and death with doses of 54g/kg or higher. The fractionated administration of the green leaves as well as the dried leaves did not cause poisoning.

Sandra Davi Traverso

2004-12-01

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Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle  

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Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra...

Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

2004-01-01

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Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats  

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Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.Green leaves of Trema micrantha were ground and mixed with water in a domestic blender and then administered by stomach tube to seven goats. One additional goat was fed ad libidum with the green leaves of T. micrantha. Clinical signs were observed in six goats that became ill 2 days after having been dosed with or fed the plant. There were five deaths, which occurred until 4 days after ingestion. Affected goats remained static during long periods and kept their heads low. Incoordination, rhythmical movements of the head, apathy, anorexia, and tenesmus were also noticed. Paddling movements and coma were seen in one goat. T. micrantha was toxic at dosages of 30 g/kg or higher. The most significant gross lesions were observed in the livers, which were yellowish, friable, and with pronounced lobular pattern. Their cut surfaces were reddened and depressed areas alternated with whitish ones. The liver of one goat was slightly but homogeneously reddened but did not show accentuated lobulation. Petechial haemorrhages in the region between the chest and scapula, in the epicardium, mediastinum and serosal membranes of the abdominal organs were also observed. The most important histologic finding was hepatic centrilobular coagulative necrosis, which was associated with congestion, haemorrhages and degenerative changes in the circumjacent hepatocytes. Additional microscopic lesions were found in the nervous system and included perineuronal and perivascular edema and swollen neurones, especially those of the frontal cortex.

Sandra Davi Traverso

2002-10-01

75

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in goats  

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Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram ...

Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Caroline Argenta Pescador; Edson Moleta Colodel; Cláudio Estêvão Farias da Cruz; David Driemeier

2002-01-01

76

Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos  

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Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram ...

Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

2002-01-01

77

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

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In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored), leaves shape (jaggy) and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L.) and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.) Seedlings. The t...

?uki? Matilda; Grbi? Mihailo; Sko?aji? Dragana; ?unisijevi? Danijela

2006-01-01

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Preliminary studies of gastroprotective effect of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent leaves (Ulmaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Celtis iguanaea leaves (CEE) was observed with experimental models such as ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers. Results obtained from indomethacin-induced ulcer showed the hexane fraction (HF) as the active fraction of CEE. This fraction inhibits the gastric acid secretion, increasing the gastric pH, decreasing the gastric acidity and total gastric contents. Neither the CEE nor the HF alters intestinal motility, thereby excluding a cholinergic antagonist mechanism. Further studies need to be conducted with HF in order to elucidate the active principle and the pharmacological mechanism involved. PMID:22712542

de Sousa, Fábio Borges; Martins, José Luís Rodrigues; Florentino, Iziara Ferreira; do Couto, Renê Oliveira; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; Galdino, Pablinny Moreira; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves

2013-01-01

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Comparative study of rooting of leaf-bud and straight softwood elm cuttings  

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Parallel propagation tests of nine elm taxa - 6 species (Ulmus americana L., U. chenmoui Cheng, U. japonica (R) Sarg., U. laciniata (Tr) Mayr, U. laevis Pall. and U. parvifolia Jacq), 2 clones (U. 'Regal', U. 'Sapporo Autumn Gold') and 1 hybrid (U. pumila x japonica), by leaf bud cuttings and standard straignt softwood showed the results which point to the possibility of wider application of leaf bud cuttings. In some elm taxa, leaf bud cuttings can be the main method of propagation, and it c...

Grbi? Mihailo

2003-01-01

80

Comparative study of rooting of leaf-bud and straight softwood elm cuttings  

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Full Text Available Parallel propagation tests of nine elm taxa - 6 species (Ulmus americana L., U. chenmoui Cheng, U. japonica (R Sarg., U. laciniata (Tr Mayr, U. laevis Pall. and U. parvifolia Jacq, 2 clones (U. 'Regal', U. 'Sapporo Autumn Gold' and 1 hybrid (U. pumila x japonica, by leaf bud cuttings and standard straignt softwood showed the results which point to the possibility of wider application of leaf bud cuttings. In some elm taxa, leaf bud cuttings can be the main method of propagation, and it can be used as an additional method in other taxa, because the seasonal timing is extended compared to standard cuttings.

Grbi? Mihailo

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a chain of behavioral events that leads to advantageous host colonization and development by S. schevyrewi. PMID:20388298

Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

2010-04-01

82

Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).  

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Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P shoot explants grew under optimized conditions using melatonin-enriched media. Shoot tips of dormant winter buds consistently produced nearly 100% regrowth with both techniques. The main steps of the optimized protocol are14-day cold-acclimated cultures exposed to preculture medium with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin for 24 hr, application of PVS2 for 10 min, rapid cooling in LN, rapid rewarming, removal of cryoprotectants, and recovery on a medium supplemented with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the antioxidant melatonin for long-term storage of naturally resistant elm germplasm. PMID:24117864

Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

2013-11-01

83

Protoplast isolation from Ulmus americana l. Pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores  

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Meiotic protoplasts of U. amerciana are potentially valuable for producing interspecific elm hybrids through protoplast fusion. Meiotic cells(pollen mother cells, tetrads, and microspores) were incubated in either a cellulase, hemicellylase and pectinase enzyme solution of a beta-1,3-glucanase (lainarinase) solution. Respective protoplast isolation frequencies for the three meiotic cell types were 100, 50, and 10%. Exclusion staining with 0.2% Evans blue and 0.1% methyl blue suggested protoplast viability. Some of the microspore protoplasts were vacuolated, which is an important condition for cell division. Although attempts of regenerating cell walls and inducing cell division were unsuccessful, these two problems may be superceded by protoplast fusion with more regenerative protoplasts.

Redenbaugh, M.K.; Westfall, R.D.; Karnosky, D.F.

1980-01-01

84

Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

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Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota) presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala) en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales [...] durante dos años (2004-2005) y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '). Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '). Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad. Abstract in english In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005), and fungi were [...] isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´) was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´) was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Natalia, Allegrucci; Lorena, Elíades; Ana María, Bucsinszky; Marta, Cabello; Angélica, Arambarri.

2007-07-01

86

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analizó la diversidad de microhongos que constituyen la comunidad fúngica saprótrofa (anamorfos de Ascomycota presente en hojarasca y suelo en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (tala en el partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante dos años (2004-2005 y se aislaron e identificaron los hongos presentes. Se calculó la frecuencia relativa porcentual de cada taxón; estos datos fueron utilizados para evaluar la diversidad fúngica mediante el cálculo del Indice de Diversidad de Shanon y Weaver ( H '. Para discriminar las comunidades fúngicas se utilizó el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen ( S '. Se identificaron 104 taxones de anamorfos de Ascomycota, de los cuales 54 fueron aislados de hojarasca y 58 de suelo, registrándose 8 especies en común para ambos tipos de muestra. De las especies compartidas, las que presentaron frecuencias más altas para hojarasca fueron las menos representadas en suelo y viceversa. El resultado del cálculo del coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen fue de 0.14, indicando que la comunidad de hongos saprótrofos que crece en la hojarasca de tala está integrada por diferentes especies a las que caracterizan la micobiota del suelo de la misma área. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el índice de diversidad.In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena , located in the province of Buenos Aires . Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005, and fungi were isolated and identified. The relative frequencies of fungi were calculated. To compare the similarity of the fungi composition between different habitats, Sorensen's index of similarity (S´ was applied. The frequencies of occurrence of these fungi were recorded and Shannon Weaver index (H´ was applied to evaluate fungal diversity. A total of 104 taxa of anamorphic fungi were identified from which 54 were isolated from leaf litter, 58 from soil, and 8 species common for both types of substrate. From the taxa identified, those that had higher frequencies for leaf litter were the less represented in soil and vice versa. Sorensen´s index of similarity resulted 0.14, which means that the saprotrophic fungi community that grows in leaf litter of Celtis tala is composed by different species than those that characterized the mycobiota from the soil of the same area. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found in the index of diversity.

Natalia Allegrucci

2007-07-01

87

Development of Nuclear Microsatellites for the Arcto-Tertiary Tree Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing  

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Premise of the study: The current study aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers for the relict tree species , which is threatened in its natural range in the South Caucasus. Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library on the Roche FLX platform using the 454 Titanium kit produced 86,058 sequence reads, most of which contained short tandem repeats. Eighty microsatellite loci identified using the software package QDD version ...

Maharramova, Elmira H.; Muller, Ludo A.; Nadja Korotkova; Thomas Borsch

2014-01-01

88

Evaluación de la actividad tóxica y antifúngica del extracto etéreo de la corteza de Celtis trinervia Lam (Ulmaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

A la fracción evaluada biológicarnente se encontró actividad toxica sobre Artemia salina mostrando una CL50 de 430 ppm y antifúngicas contra Fusarium oxysporum ssp dianthi en donde mostro CL50 de 0.25 mg/mL. La fracción evaluada del extracto etéreo de la corteza del rallo de Celtis trinervia Lam. Se identificaron sustancias de tipo terpénicas como santaleno, además se identificaron ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados de interés biológico, como el linoleico y oleico. Los compuestos aislados se identificaron can métodos físicos. químicos y espectroscópicos.

Torrenegra R. D.

2000-12-01

89

Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon  

Full Text Available apple Malus ... pumila Malus _pumila_L.png Malus _pumila_NL.png Malus _pumila_S.png Malus _pumila_NS.png ... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus +pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i ... con.cgi?i=Malus +pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ ...

90

Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

?uki? Matilda

2006-01-01

91

Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

92

Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

Mar\\u00EDa L. Bakker

2006-01-01

93

Antifungal effect and reduction of Ulmus minor symptoms to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi by carvacrol and salicylic acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are still no effective means to control Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the vascular fungi Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi. Plant phenolics may provide a new strategy for DED control, given their known antifungal activity against pathogens and their involvement in plant defence mechanisms. The in vitro antifungal activity of salicylic acid, carvacrol, thymol, phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, and 2,5-xylenol against the DED pathogens was tested. Also, the protective effect of wa...

Marti?n, Juan A.; Solla, Alejandro; Witzell, Johanna; Gil, Luis; Garci?a-vallejo, Mari?a C.

2010-01-01

94

Variabilidad del ADN cloroplástico y su contribución al conocimiento del estado de conservación de Ulmus glabra en el Sistema Central  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la diversidad existente en el ADN cloroplástico (ADNcp) de 16 poblaciones distribuidas a lo largo del Sistema Central. Para ello, se ha empleado la técnica de PCR-RFLP (amplificación de fragmentos específicos y posterior digestión con enzimas de restricción) sobre 38 regiones del ADNcp (Grivet et al., 2001).

Martin Del Puerto, Maria; Martinez Garcia, Felipe; Martin Clemente, Juan Pedro

2011-01-01

95

Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent findings indicated antisickling activity of anthocyanins from plants used in the management of sickle cell disease in Democratic Republic of Congo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins extracts from Trema orientalis on sickle cell. So, Emmel, Itano and hypoxic induced sickle erythrocyte haemolysis bioassays were used to evaluate the influence of these extracts on haemoglobin S aggregation and sickle erythrocyte haemolysis. Anthocyanins extracts were found to possess antisickling activity. Indeed, the treated sickle erythrocyte indicated the re-appearance of the normal and classical biconcave form of red blood cells with a radius value of 3.50.2 m similar to that of normal erythrocytes values. The solubility of Deoxyhemoglobin S and the rate of inhibition of hypoxic induced haemolysis, increased upon treatment with anthocyanins extracts. Anthocyanins would cross the erythrocytes membrane for either interfering with intracellular polymerization hemoglobin S or to scavenge the free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or haemolysis.

D.D. Tshilanda

2011-01-01

96

Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urinárias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O e...

Trevisan, R. R.; Lima, C. P.; Miyazaki, C. M. S.; Pesci, F. A.; Silva, C. B.; Hirota, B. C. K.; Lordello, A. L. L.; Miguel, O. G.; Miguel, M. D.; Zanin, S. M. W.

2012-01-01

97

Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urinárias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico.The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq. Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infections and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

R.R. Trevisan

2012-01-01

98

Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Full Text Available Zelkova carpinifolia belongs to the Ulmaceae. It is the only species from Zelkova genus that has been distributed and is native to Iranian forests. This tree species is one of the valuable species that is comprised of endangered plants. Nevertheless, the most of reservoirs of this species have been faced to problems that fungal disease is one of the important and lethal disturbance. This study was conducted to identify the main disturbance which has been resulted in Z. carpinifolia decadence in Daland forest reservoir, North of Iran. The study has ensured that O. novo-ulmi is the fungal pathogen in this forest reservoir. It can be reminded that this pathogen had been previously found in Ulmus genus which has been created devastating event in these noteworthy reservoirs. Some symptoms which were observed in field comprising flagging and wilting of leaves. Bark beetle galleries and occlusion of xylem vessels were the other evidence of fungal disease. In light of laboratory results, the fungi colony was fluffy, light-colored and fast-growing. The different shapes of fungi growth like white fibrous and flower shape or dark petaloid shape were observed. Mean colony diameters of O. novo-ulmi were 3.72 ±0.16 mm/day in the dark at 20 °C. Simultaneously, Microscopic analysis of sexual and asexual systems of O. novo-ulmi using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Sporothix, Pesotum, yeast-like and Perithecium synanon morphology.

AKRAM AHMADI1,?,

2014-11-01

99

Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Full Text Available Ahmadi A, Kavosi MR, Soltanloo H. 2014. Zelkova carpinifolia reservoir from Hyrcanian Forests, Northern Iran, a new sacrifice of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Biodiversitas 15: 46-50. Zelkova carpinifolia belongs to the Ulmaceae. It is the only species from Zelkova genus that has been distributed and is native to Iranian forests. This tree species is one of the valuable species that is comprised of endangered plants. Nevertheless, the most of reservoirs of this species have been faced to problems that fungal disease is one of the important and lethal disturbance. This study was conducted to identify the main disturbance which has been resulted in Z. carpinifolia decadence in Daland forest reservoir, North of Iran. The study has ensured that O. novo-ulmi is the fungal pathogen in this forest reservoir. It can be reminded that this pathogen had been previously found in Ulmus genus which has been created devastating event in these noteworthy reservoirs. Some symptoms which were observed in field comprising flagging and wilting of leaves. Bark beetle galleries and occlusion of xylem vessels were the other evidence of fungal disease. In light of laboratory results, the fungi colony was fluffy, light-colored and fast-growing. The different shapes of fungi growth like white fibrous and flower shape or dark petaloid shape were observed. Mean colony diameters of O. novo-ulmi were 3.72 ±0.16 mm/day in the dark at 20 °C. Simultaneously, Microscopic analysis of sexual and asexual systems of O. novo-ulmi using a light microscope, a stereo microscope, and a scanning electron microscope revealed that it had morphological features of Sporothix, Pesotum, yeast-like and Perithecium synanon morphology.

AKRAM AHMADI

2014-04-01

100

Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

 
 
 
 
101

Adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Siberian elm in response to drought stress: increased stomatal pore depth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf stomatal characteristics of Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) were investigated by electron microscopy and white light scanning interferometry. On the basis of average annual precipitations, two types of tree specimens were collected from Korea, China, and Mongolia: (1) trees under normal environmental conditions and (2) trees under arid conditions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed oval-shaped stomata on the lower surface, and they were ca. 20 ?m in width. In-lens secondary electron imaging showed differences in electron density and stomatal pore depth between the two types. According to the line profile analysis by white light scanning interferometry, stomata under arid conditions appeared to have higher levels of the stomatal pore depth than ones under normal conditions. Focused ion beam-field emission electron microscopy supported the increased stomatal pore depth with the increasing drought stress gradient. These results suggest that complementary microscopy can be employed to unravel the adaptive phenotypic plasticity of Siberian elm in response to drought stress. PMID:23920201

Park, Go Eun; Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, Don Koo; Hyun, Jung Oh

2013-08-01

102

Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

103

Regional unified model-based leaf unfolding prediction from 1960 to 2009 across northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using first leaf unfolding data of Salix matsudana, Populus simonii, Ulmus pumila, and Prunus armeniaca, and daily mean temperature data during the 1981-2005 period at 136 stations in northern China, we fitted unified forcing and chilling phenology models and selected optimum models for each species at each station. Then, we examined performances of each optimum local species-specific model in predicting leaf unfolding dates at all external stations within the corresponding climate region and selected 16 local species-specific models with maximum effective predictions as the regional unified models in different climate regions. Furthermore, we validated the regional unified models using leaf unfolding and daily mean temperature data beyond the time period of model fitting. Finally, we substituted gridded daily mean temperature data into the regional unified models, and reconstructed spatial patterns of leaf unfolding dates of the four tree species across northern China during 1960-2009. At local scales, the unified forcing model shows higher simulation efficiency at 83% of data sets, whereas the unified chilling model indicates higher simulation efficiency at 17% of data sets. Thus, winter temperature increase so far has not yet significantly influenced dormancy and consequent leaf development of deciduous trees in most parts of northern China. Spatial and temporal validation confirmed capability and reliability of regional unified species-specific models in predicting leaf unfolding dates in northern China. Reconstructed leaf unfolding dates of the four tree species show significant advancements by 1.4-1.6 days per decade during 1960-2009 across northern China, which are stronger for the earlier than the later leaf unfolding species. Our findings suggest that the principal characteristics of plant phenology and phenological responses to climate change at regional scales can be captured by phenological and climatic data sets at a few representative locations. PMID:23504902

Xu, Lin; Chen, Xiaoqiu

2013-04-01

104

Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the botanical garden in Beijing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory (BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden (BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni, and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index (MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes: strongly accumulated (SA or grade I), moderately accumulated (MA or grade II), intermediately accumulated (IA or grade III), and weakly accumulated (WA or grade IV). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza tomentosa. PMID:16295909

Liu, Yan-Ju; Ding, Hui; Zhu, Yong-guan

2005-01-01

105

Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

Burley, J.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

106

75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...proposed rule to designate critical habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia). We also...

2010-05-18

107

GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME  

Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment ... Station, New Haven, Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 ...

108

ANALISI DI ALCUNI FATTORI INFLUENTI SULLA CRESCITA DEI FRUTTI E DI GERMOGLI DI DUE SPECIE DA FRUTTO: ALBICOCCO (Prunus armeniaca L.) E MELO (Malus domestica Borkh. e Malus pumila Mill.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La prima parte di questa tesi, svolta presso il Dipartimento di Arboricoltura, Botanica e Patologia Vegetale della Facoltà Agraria di Portici, studia l’habitus vegeto-produttivo di tre cultivar di albicocco, due di origine vesuviana -Prete Bello e Portici- e la cv Ninfa come non autoctona di confronto. Sono state valutate le caratteristiche fenologiche, produttive e qualitative dei diversi tipi di ramo a frutto, la variabilità intrachioma delle caratteristiche qualitative dei frutti ed...

Hernandez Grijota, Gustavo

2008-01-01

109

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry  

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Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, anal...

Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Surender Singh Yadav

2014-01-01

110

INTER-FAMILY VARIATION IN FIBRE DIMENSIONS OF SIX TROPICAL HARDWOODS IN RELATION TO PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available Fibre characteristics determine utilizationpotentials of timbers. Fibre dimensions influencewood pulpability, durability and physico-mechanicalproperties. Fibre length, width, lumen width and wallthickness of six tropical timbers from three families(Meliaceae, Sterculiaceae and Ulmaceae wereinvestigated from heartwood splinters (20×2×2mmdelignified in 1:1 glacial acetic acid and hydrogenperoxide [at 600C], teased out and stained. Fibrelengths range from 0.79mm for Holoptelea grandis(Ulmaceae to 1.88mm for Khaya ivorensis(Meliaceae similar to the mean (2mm for tropicalhardwoods and pulpable length (0.65-1.2mm. TheMeliaceae has moderately long fibres (1.61mm butmedium-sized for Ulmaceae (1.19mm andSterculiaceae (1.59mm. Cedrella odorata(Meliaceae has wide fibres (36.5?m and lumina(27.6?m, Celtis milbraedii (Ulmaceae has narrowfibres (17.49?m and lumen (8.97?m, all withinpulpable range (i.e., 9-40?m. Fibre wall thicknessranges from 3.31?m (for H. grandis to 5.49?m (forPterygota macrocarpa, Sterculiaceae and is withinpulpable range (2.90-5.15?m. Fibre walls forMeliaceae and Sterculiaceae are thick (>4?m butmedium (2-4?m for Ulmaceae. Runkel ratio of 2.65(for C. odorata to 3.9 (for C. milbraedii is greaterthan stipulated for pulping (1.25. However,Flexibility Coefficients (within 75-50 category andfibre dimensions for timbers from the three familiesindicate their pulping suitability. It is anticipated thewood and construction industries exploit their fibrecharacteristics for structural applications andengineering of fibre-based products.

Charles ANTWI-BOASIAKO

2012-06-01

111

7 CFR 319.37-3 - Permits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...except seeds) of Ulmus spp. (elm) from Canada and destined to California, Nevada, or Oregon; (17) Solanum tuberosum true seed from New Zealand and the X Region of Chile (that area of Chile between 39° and 44° South...

2010-01-01

112

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Science.gov (United States)

...schisandra berry; cultivars varieties, and/or hybrids of these...strawberry; cultivars, varieties, and/or hybrids of these...partridgeberry; cultivars, varieties, and/or cultivars of these...Castanea pumila ) Filbert (hazelnut) (Corylus spp.)...

2010-07-01

113

Characterisation of apple distillates from native varieties of Sardinia island and comparison with other Italian products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to characterise the aroma fraction of Italian distillates from apples typical of the Province of Sassari in the northern region of Sardinia (Malus pumila, L. cvs. Miali and Appio) in comparison to some international obtained in the northern region of Trentino–Alto Adige (M. pumila, L. cvs. Renetta del Canada (Reinette du Canada or Canadian Rennet), Golden Delicious, Royal Gala, Morgenduft and Gravenstein). The distillates producted in Sardinia were obtained from th...

Versini, Giuseppe; Franco, Mario Andrea; Moser, Sergio; Barchetti, Paolo; Manca, Gavina

2009-01-01

114

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed...

Barth Ortrud M; Barreto Cíntia F.; Coelho Luciane G.; Luz Cynthia F.P.

2004-01-01

115

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA (ROXB) PLANCH  

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Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch (Ulmaceae) is commonly known as Indian elm, kanju. It is widely distributed throughout India in deciduous forests. In traditional system of medicine, bark and leaves are used as bitter, astringent, acrid, thermogenic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, carminative, laxative, anthelmintic, depurative, repulsive, urinary astringent and in rheumatism. The present study was carried out to investigate the anthelmintic activities of different extracts of benzene, ch...

Durga Nadella; Paarakh Padmaa M

2010-01-01

116

Genetic diversity of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii).  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate genetic relationships using qualitative and/or quantitative differentiation of volatile components in Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.) and to acquire basic data for the conservation and utilization of the species, aroma components in ripe fruit of M. sieversii obtained from 30 seedlings at Mohe, Gongliu County, Xinjiang Autonomic Region, China, and in ripe fruit of 4 M. pumila cultivars ('Ralls', 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', and 'Fuji') were analyzed using head space-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the values of similarity coefficient concerning volatile types between the two species were in accordance with the evolution of M. pumila cultivars (forms), and that M. sieversii seedlings showed considerable genetic variations in these aspects: the total content of volatile components, the classes and contents of each compound classes, the segregation ratio, and content of main components. The results showed significant difference among seedlings and wide genetic diversity within the populations. Comparison of the volatile components in M. sieversii with those in M. pumila cultivars showed that the common compounds whose number were larger than five with the contents over 0.04 mg/L simultaneously between M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars belonged to esters, alcohols, aldehydes or ketones. This suggests fundamental identity in main volatile components of M. sieversii and M. pumila cultivars. The results above sustained the conclusion "M. sieversii is probably the ancestor of M. pumila". However, there were 48 compounds present in M. pumila that were not detected in M. sieversii, including 6 character impact components (i.e., propyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-methyl-1-butanol acetate, pentyl acetate, 3-furanmethanol, and benzene acetaldehyde). This suggested that in the domestication of M. pumila, introgression of other apple species, except for M. sieversii, by interspecies hybridization was possible. There were 177 compounds in total belonging to 11 classes detected in 30 M. sieversii seedlings, including esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, acids, benzene ramifications, terpenes, heterocycles, hydrocarbon derivates, acetals, and lactones. Among them, acetals and lactones were not detected in M. pumila cultivars, 90 compounds were unique to M. sieversii, and 7 components (1-butanol, ethyl butanoate, 1-hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, 3-octen-1-ol, ethyl octanoate, and damascenone) belonged to character impact odors. Thus, the potential of M. sieversii in "utilization conservation" is enormous as a rare germplasm on genetic improvement of M. pumila cultivars. PMID:17469789

Chen, Xuesen; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Zhang, Chunyu

2007-02-01

117

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae, Celtis (Ulmaceae, Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Barth Ortrud M.

2004-01-01

118

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region. PMID:15334253

Barth, Ortrud M; Barreto, Cíntia F; Coelho, Luciane G; Luz, Cynthia F P

2004-09-01

119

Environ: E00505 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Full Text Available E00505 Grinded paste of Ulmus macrocarpia key fruit with flower and leaf Ulmi pasta Crude drug U ... t for several days to rot and ferment, shaped into square ... (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: ros ...

120

Bemerkenswerte neuere Pflanzenfunde in Südwest-Niedersachsen – 1. Fortsetzung  

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Bemerkenswerte Funde des Jahres 2000 von Gefäßpflanzen aus Südwest-Niedersachsen werden als Ergänzung zur Flora von Weber (1995) mitgeteilt. 128 Pflanzenarten wurden erstmalig nachgewiesen, beispielsweise Anthriscus caucalis, Asplenium trichomanes, Calystegia pulchra, Cyperus esculentus, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eragrostis minor, Euphorbia maculata, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Saxifraga granulata und Setaria pumila. 108 von ihnen scheinen fest eingebürgert. Sechs Pflanzenarten, die als versch...

Feder, Ju?rgen

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...350 ft (411 m) above sea level, while the occurrences at Mission...96 m and 110 m) above sea level, respectively (CNLM 2008...knowledge of the life history, biology, and ecology of Ambrosia pumila...critical habitat will require some level of management to address...

2010-11-30

122

Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais [...] freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Atividades agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pol [...] len grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

Ortrud M., Barth; Cíntia F., Barreto; Luciane G., Coelho; Cynthia F.P., Luz.

2004-09-01

123

A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil  

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Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

Pedro C. Strikis

2009-09-01

124

Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira  

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Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA, ácido giberélico (GA3, cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%, originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1, principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais.

Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

2006-06-01

125

Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks / Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) e Malus pumila (M9) depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1) e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1). Embriões originado [...] s do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA), ácido giberélico (GA3), cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%), originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1), principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais. Abstract in english The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido) and Malus pumila (M9) after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1) and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1). Embryos originated from inters [...] pecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1), mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%). Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.

Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; José Itamar, Boneti; Rubens Onofre, Nodari; Miguel Pedro, Guerra.

2006-06-01

126

On the egg parasitoids of Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae, an invasive pest species from Japan  

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Full Text Available In this paper we present the parasitic Hymenoptera reared from Aproceros leucopodaTakeuchi, 1939 eggs and also we give notes regarding the different parasitoids of this invasive saw fly.Asecodes (Teleopterus erxias (Walker, 1848 was reared for the first time from the eggs of Aprocerosleucopoda. From unidentified eggs on Ulmus minor we also reared Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy,1785. From pupae of A. leucopodae emerged also few specimens of an ichneumonid wasp.

Emilian Pricop

2012-12-01

127

Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

Acatay, A.

1968-01-01

128

SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS  

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Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

S. BRULLO

1999-01-01

129

Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

130

Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller), life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D), on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible ...

Seyedoleslami, H.; Khalili Mahani, M.; Hatami, B.

2004-01-01

131

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

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Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their ef...

Italo Chiffelle; Amanda Huerta; Fernando Azúa; Karla Puga; Araya, Jaime E.

2011-01-01

132

Cambios químicos en el xilema de Olmus minor mill. inducidos por la aplicación de carvacrol y ácido salicílico: relación con la resistencia a ophiostoma novo-ulmi brasier.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ulmus minor es una especie forestal ampliamente distribuida por zonas templadas del hemisferio norte. Hoy en día sus poblaciones se encuentran amenazadas por la grafiosis, enfermedad vascular causada por el hongo Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Este hongo actúa extendiendo sus hifas por el interior de los vasos del xilema, lo que provoca su cavitación, conduciendo a un marchitamiento completo de la copa y, finalmente, a la muerte del árbol.

Anza Go?mez, Lucia

2010-01-01

133

An exotic invader drives the evolution of plant traits that determine mycorrhizal fungal diversity in a native competitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The symbiosis between land plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is one of the most widespread and ancient mutualisms on the planet. However, relatively little is known about the evolution of these symbiotic plant-fungal interactions in natural communities. In this study, we investigated the symbiotic AMF communities of populations of the native plant species Pilea pumila (Urticaceae) with varying histories of coexistence with a nonmycorrhizal invasive species, Alliaria petiolata (Brassicaceae), known to affect mycorrhizal communities. We found that native populations of P. pumila with a long history of coexistence with the invasive species developed more diverse symbiotic AMF communities. This effect was strongest when A. petiolata plants were actively growing with the natives, and in soils with the longest history of A. petiolata growth. These results suggest that despite the ancient and widespread nature of the plant-AMF symbiosis, the plant traits responsible for symbiotic preferences can, nevertheless, evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. PMID:24118244

Lankau, Richard A; Nodurft, Rachel N

2013-11-01

134

Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin  

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Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

Matthew R. Thomas

2008-01-01

135

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

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Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651) for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations...

Tretiakova I.; Voroshilova, E.; Ivanitskya, A.; Shuvaev, D.; Park, M.

2012-01-01

136

Mutations in topoisomerase I as a self-resistance mechanism coevolved with the production of the anticancer alkaloid camptothecin in plants  

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Plants produce a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. The self-resistance mechanism to these toxic metabolites in the producing plants, however, remains unclear. The plant-derived anticancer alkaloid camptothecin (CPT) induces cell death by targeting DNA topoisomerase I (Top1), the enzyme that catalyzes changes in DNA topology. We found that CPT-producing plants, including Camptotheca acuminata, Ophiorrhiza pumila, and Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis, have Top1s with ...

Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Yamazaki, Mami; Saito, Kazuki

2008-01-01

137

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en...

Zapata, N.; Vargas, M.; Medina, P.

2011-01-01

138

Selective maintenance of allozyme differences among sympatric host races of the apple maggot?fly  

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Whether phytophagous insects can speciate in sympatry when they shift and adapt to new host plants is a controversial question. One essential requirement for sympatric speciation is that disruptive selection outweighs gene flow between insect populations using different host plants. Empirical support for host-related selection (i.e., fitness trade-offs) is scant, however. Here, we test for host-dependent selection acting on apple (Malus pumila)- and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting races o...

Feder, Jeffrey L.; Roethele, Joseph B.; Wlazlo, Brian; Berlocher, Stewart H.

1997-01-01

139

Evidence for inversion polymorphism related to sympatric host race formation in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella.  

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Evidence suggests that the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) is undergoing sympatric speciation (i.e., divergence without geographic isolation) in the process of shifting and adapting to a new host plant. Prior to the introduction of cultivated apples (Malus pumila) in North America, R. pomonella infested the fruit of native hawthorns (Crataegus spp.). However, sometime in the mid-1800s the fly formed a sympatric race on apple. The recently derived apple-infesting race...

Feder, Jeffrey L.; Roethele, Joseph B.; Filchak, Kenneth; Niedbalski, Julie; Romero-severson, Jeanne

2003-01-01

140

BOREAS TF-11 SSA-Fen 1995 Leaf Area Index Data  

Science.gov (United States)

The BOREAS TF-11 team gathered a variety of data to complement its tower flux measurements collected at the SSA-Fen site. These data are LAI measurements made by the TF-11 team throughout the 1995 growing season. The data include the LAI of plants that fall into six categories: total, Carex spp., Betula pumila, Menyanthes trifoliata, Salix spp., and other vascular plants. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

Arkebauer, Timothy J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

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Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), hazelnut (C. maxima) and apple Malus pumila) were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting...

Ghiyasi, Mehdi; Korkan, Manuchehr; Tajbakhsh, Mehdi

2009-01-01

142

Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species  

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The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass), Festuca pratensis (hair grass) and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass), as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzy...

Elena Ciornea; Gabriela Vasile

2008-01-01

143

Ecology of rare water plant communities in lakes of north-eastern Poland  

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Full Text Available Habitat studies were conducted on three rare plant communities dominated by Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida and Hydrilla verticillata in lakes of north-eastern Poland. The comparison of habitat properties of these three types of phytocoenoses with those of Nuphar lutea common in the area under study was also performed. It was demonstrated that the plant communities studied were ecologically distinct. The habitats of the phytocoenoses of N. pumila differed most significantly from those of the other phytocoenoses. They often inhabited softer waters poor in Mg2+, dissolved SiO2, but rich in total Fe, PO43?, NO3?, and were associated with acidic substrates containing lower levels of Ca2+ and Na+, but greater amounts of total Fe and NO3?. The differences in the habitats of H. verticillata and N. candida phytocoenoses were most pronounced in the case of four properties of water: Na+, K+, Cl?, and Mg+. Their values were lower in waters of the H. verticillata phytocoenoses. The habitats of all the three types of rare phytocoenoses differed considerably from those of N. lutea. The most significant differences were found between the N. lutea and N. pumila phytocoenoses and the smallest differences were between the patches of N. lutea and N. candida. The properties of water were more important in differentiating the habitats of the phytocoenoses studied than the substrate properties. Due to alkalization and increase in water hardness in the lakes studied the stands of N. pumila are among the most threatened. The patches of N. candida and H. verticillata, which occur in waters with a wider range of hardness and tolerating a slight increase in trophy, can still continue to persist in the lakes for a long time.

Ewa Jab?o?ska

2012-03-01

144

Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract  

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Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

Muhajir Hamid

2008-01-01

145

A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

2008-01-01

146

Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in spanish La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

Wolfgang, Volkheimer; Martín G., Novara; Paula L., Narváez; Rosa A., Marquillas.

2006-09-01

147

Intercontinental genetic divergence of Castanea species in eastern Asia and eastern North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Castanea is one of the many plant genera with a disjunct distribution pattern between eastern Asia and eastern North America. Five species from three sections of the genus were investigated to examine genetic divergence between eastern Asian and eastern North American species. A total of 62 native populations were sampled for allelic variation at isozyme loci. The Chinese chestnut C. mollissima had the highest genetic variability, while the American C. dentata had the lowest genetic variability. The highest intracontinental genetic identities were observed between the Allegheny and Ozark chinkapins (0.931) and between C. mollissima and C. seguinii (0.870), while lower identities were detected between the American C. pumila and C. dentata (0.720-0.729). In intercontinental comparisons, genetic identities of 0.505, 0.495 and 0.507 were observed between the American chestnut and the Chinese C. mollissima, C. seguinii and C. henryi, respectively, whereas the Ozark chinkapin C. pumila var. ozarkensis had lower identities of 0.469, and 0.435 with C. mollissima and C. seguinii, respectively, but a slightly higher identity of 0.520 with C. henryi, the Chinese chinkapin. Divergence times were estimated at 10-13 million years before present between C. dentata and C. mollissima, and C. pumila var. ozarkensis and C. henryi. PMID:12939634

Dane, F; Lang, P; Huang, H; Fu, Y

2003-09-01

148

Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED) epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with ...

Buiteveld J; Van Der Werf B; Ja, Hiemstra

2014-01-01

149

Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island  

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Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

Devetakovi? Jovana

2013-01-01

150

Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

2012-12-01

151

REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE / REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaulther [...] ia es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con amplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaulth [...] eria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa among species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

Sebastián, Teillier; Felipe, Escobar.

152

Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species  

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Full Text Available The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass, Festuca pratensis (hair grass and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass, as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzyme plays an at least as equally important role as the ?-amylase and, on the other, the considerable differences observed among the three Poaceae species from cultivated and, respectively, spontaneous flora.

Elena Ciornea

2008-05-01

153

Detección y abundancia de especies del género Frankliniella en una zona protegida de San José de las Lajas en la provincia de Mayabeque, Cuba / Detection and abundance of species of the genus Frankliniella in a protected zone of San José de las Lajas in Mayabeque province, Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un ecosistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella, el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, l [...] o que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch, con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor incidencia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae. Abstract in english During the period between April and August of 2009, 29 species of plants, located in 21 botanical families were sampled in an ecosystem protected in Mayabeque province. Nine species were determined inside the genus Frankliniella, the one that impacted in 23 of the botanical species, with 79.31%. Of [...] the trips species, the one that bigger incidence had was Frankliniella williamsi Hood with 62.06% and Frankliniella tritici Fitc with 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura associated to six and five species of plants, reaching 20.68 and 17.24% of incidence respectively. The botanical species with more trips incidence was Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich, and Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. The most abundant species were Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. The botanical families with more trips incidence were Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae and Rubiaceae. In the families' Bombacaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae and Ulmaceae were not found any species of trips.

Carlos, González; Neisy, Castillo; Axel P., Retana-Salazar.

154

Delineation of biogeomorphic land units across a tropical natural and humanized terrain in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes landscape in a rainforest region integrating geomorphologic and ecosystem analysis methods. Major landscape elements (geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation and land use) were mapped as biogeomorphic land units using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). Associations between these variables were analyzed by map fusion and the results were expressed on a land unit map (scale ca. 1:100,000). Volcanic structures are dominant in the study area. Lava flows cover most of the region, mainly as basalt; several pyroclastic cones are widely distributed over the area but are dominant in the southeast region. A hypsometric map derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), and intersected with a land cover/use map showed an altitudinal gradient of vegetation. Rainforest grows at lower altitudes (0 to 700 m) and Virola, Juglans and Chionantus are distributed from 700 to 900 m. These species are located on slopes of basalt and andesites intercalated with tephra, recent isolated stratovolcano structures and an erosive flood plain. At higher altitudes (900 to 1100 m) the forest identified as Chionantus? Ulmus? Randia is associated with cinder cones. A Quercus? Ulmus forest (900 to 1400 m) covers the slopes of the highest volcano (San Martin) and surrounding areas, while evergreen (elfin) forest is at the top of this mountain (1660 m).

García-Aguirre, María Concepción; Álvarez, Román; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ortiz, Mario A.; Eng, Manuel Mah

2010-09-01

155

A NEW SPECIES OF CASTILLEJA (OROBANCHACEAE) FROM THE PÁRAMOS OF THE COLOMBIAN EASTERN CORDILLERA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLANTAGO RIGIDA (PLANTAGINACEAE) / Una especie nueva de Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) de los páramos de la cordillera Oriental de Colombia, con comentarios acerca de su asociación con Plantago rigida (Plantaginaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, una especie de hierbas perennes pequeñas propias de páramos de Santander, Boyacá y Cundinamarca, en la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana, es descrita y detalladamente ilustrada con fotografías de la colección tipo. La especie nueva es morfológica- y ecoló [...] gicamente similar a C. nubigena, C. pumila y C. virgata, tres especies perennes de zonas altoandinas de Ecuador, Perú y norte de Chile y Argentina. Castilleja paramensis se distingue claramente de sus especies afines por el tamaño pequeño de los individuos, las hojas y las brácteas ancho-elípticas (las cuales son enteras a levemente 3-lobadas), el pedicelo extremadamente corto ( Abstract in english Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically si [...] milar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relatives by the small size of the individuals, the broadly elliptic leaves and bracts (which are entire to slightly trilobed), the short (

FAVIO, GONZÁLEZ; NATALIA, PABÓN-MORA.

2013-12-01

156

Late Quaternary vegetation of Chukotka (Northeast Russia), implications for Glacial and Holocene environments of Beringia  

Science.gov (United States)

Two lake records from the Kankaren region of southern Chukotka, when combined with other palynological and macrofossil data, document spatial and temporal variations in the regional vegetation history since ?21,000 14C/25,400 cal yr BP. Full-glacial environments were severely cold and arid in central and northern Chukotka, whereas southern sites experienced conditions that were relatively moist, although still drier than present. Southern Chukotka may represent a western extension of environments of the land bridge proper, including a possible 'moisture' barrier to intercontinental migration. Shrub Betula tundra established earliest in southern Chukotka (?15,800-14,000 14C/19,000-16,700 cal yr BP; ?13,000 14C/15,300 cal yr BP central and north), Pinus pumila earliest in the north (?9600 14C/11,100 cal yr BP; ?7600 14C/8400 cal yr BP south), and shrub Alnus earliest in both the south and north (?12,000-11,000 14C/13,800-12,900 cal yr BP). These patterns support the presence of cryptic refugia for Betula and Alnus in Chukotka during the full glaciation. In contrast, P. pumila probably migrated into Chukotka from populations located in the northern coastal lowlands and from mountainous regions of southwestern Beringia. Evidence for a thermal optimum (?11,000-8000 14C/12,900-9000 cal yr BP) is strong in northern Chukotka but is absent in central and southern areas.

Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.

2015-01-01

157

[Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES), this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased, while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbutifolia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. arbutifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity. PMID:23479860

Li, Xiao-Na; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Yu

2012-12-01

158

Antifungal efficacy of ten selected South African plant species against Cryptococcus neoformans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal infections are a major threat to public health care. Cryptococcosis in humans and animals, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is a life-threatening disease. In a random antifungal screening of acetone leaf extracts of 400 tree species against Cryptococcus neoformans, the following plant species had good activity: Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv. (Rutaceae), Morusmesozygia Stapf (Moraceae), Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb. (Rutaceae), Catha transvaalensis Codd (Celastraceae), Cussonia zuluensis Strey (Araliaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae), Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex C. Krauss (Euphorbiaceae), Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock (Celastraceae), Celtis africana Burm.f. (Ulmaceae), and Cassine aethiopica Thunb. (Celastraceae). Hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol extracts of these 10 plants were tested against Cryptococcus neoformans using bioautography and microdilution assays. Acetone extracted the highest quantity of plant material. Dichloromethane and hexane extracts of Maytenus undata showed clear bands in bioautography while the other species did not produce good results in bioautography. Maytenus undata extracts had promising antifungal activity against C. neoformans, with average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.09 mg/mL after 24 h and 0.18 mg/mL after 48 h incubation. Croton sylvaticus and Catha transvaalensis extracts also had good activity, with average MIC values of 0.07 mg/mL and 0.09 mg/mL, respectively. Because of the clear bands on bioautograms and low MIC values compared to the other plant species investigated, M. undata was identified as a good candidate for further studies. PMID:20645717

Mokoka, T A; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

2010-04-01

159

Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

Frederiksen, N.O.

1989-01-01

160

Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ? -amyrin, stigmasterol, ? -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences  

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Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within each pair and a new argument is added in favor of the polyphyletic origin hypothesis for modern subsection Cembrae of the genus Pinus. The more important is one or another feature for species survival: the less it is connected with its phylogenesis, and the more it is related to modern climatic conditions. For species taxonomy, neutral features in the adaptive sense are relevant where they possiblydo not absolutely influence the real plants' life. A juvenile shoot is a shoot without bud scales. It has obviously remained in the Pinus ontogeny from the time when the ancestors of the modern species grew in a climate with weakly marked seasons. For P. parviflora from the region with a temperate maritime climate, a two-year cycle of juvenile shoot development, apparently, is quite organic. For P. pumila which may be related to it and grows on an enormous area including north-eastern Siberia, it is an undesirable property that would limit the adaptive ability of species. The P. pumila seedlings demonstrate an extraordinarily high level of juvenile shoot diversity. This suggests the relatively recent origin of the species and its current active evolution.

A. G. Popov

2013-12-01

162

Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen  

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Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

1988-08-01

163

Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research  

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Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus. This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

Ghelardini L

2009-07-01

164

The post-glacial history of Pinus sylvestris in the British Isles  

Science.gov (United States)

A consideration of all available macrofossil and pollen data suggests that Pinus sylvestris entered England from the southeast just after 10,000 BP, and spread across nearly the whole of the British Isles, reaching northernmost Scotland by 4000 BP. Populations in western Ireland and northern Scotland may have had an independent glacial refugium (or refugia). Competition from deciduous trees such as Corylus avellana, Ulmus and Quercus, restricted the habitats available to P. sylvestris at about 9000 BP. At about 7500 BP, expanding populations of Alnus glutinosa replaced some of the remaining P. sylvestris populations. By about 4000 BP, P. sylvestris occurred only in northern and mountainous areas, on raised bogs, and on the limestone of the Burren, western Ireland. P. sylvestris over much of its range was severely reduced by the spread of blanket bog at about 4000 BP. This event may have been initiated by widespread climatic change.

Bennett, K. D.

165

Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

166

Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae  

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Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

Žiki? V.

2013-01-01

167

Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

168

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

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Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

Italo Chiffelle

2011-06-01

169

Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

2011-06-01

170

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas / Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germ [...] inación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of w [...] eeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N., Zapata; M., Vargas; P., Medina.

2011-06-01

171

Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

N. Zapata

2011-06-01

172

Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season  

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Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

2009-12-01

173

On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

1999-01-01

174

Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple  

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Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

Mehdi GHIYASI

2009-06-01

175

Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia  

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Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain. The most frequent species (more than 75% sites were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%, Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%, Petasina unidentata (25 sites, Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites, Alinda biplicata (23 sites, and Clausilia pumila (21 sites. The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous, hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian, euryecious species (16%, semi-steppe (8% and open-country species (5%.

Juraj ?a?aný

2012-10-01

176

Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan), with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness  

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Abstract The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage), Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal. PMID:25425932

Nakae, Masanori; Senou, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

177

Role of medicinal plants and natural products on osteoporotic fracture healing.  

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Popularly known as "the silent disease" since early symptoms are usually absent, osteoporosis causes progressive bone loss, which renders the bones susceptible to fractures. Bone fracture healing is a complex process consisting of four overlapping phases-hematoma formation, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. The traditional use of natural products in bone fractures means that phytochemicals can be developed as potential therapy for reducing fracture healing period. Located closely near the equator, Malaysia has one of the world's largest rainforests, which are homes to exotic herbs and medicinal plants. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), and Piper sarmentosum (Kaduk) are some examples of the popular ethnic herbs, which have been used in the Malay traditional medicine. This paper focuses on the use of natural products for treating fracture as a result of osteoporosis and expediting its healing. PMID:22973405

Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Muhammad, Norliza

2012-01-01

178

Analysis of bioactive Amaryllidaceae alkaloid profiles in Lycoris species by GC-MS.  

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The genus Lycoris, a group of Amaryllidaceae plants distributed in temperate regions of Eastern Asia, is already known for containing representative alkaloids typical of this botanical family with a wide range of biological activities (for example, lycorine and galanthamine). In the present work, the alkaloid profiles of nine species, L. albiflora, L. aurea, L. chinensis, L. haywardii, L. incarnata, L. longituba, L. radiata, L. sprengeri, and L. squamigera, and one variety (L. radiata var. pumila) have been evaluated by GC-MS. Structures belonging to the lycorine-, homolycorine-, haemanthamine-, narciclasine-, tazettine-, montanine- and galanthamine-series were identified and quantified, with galanthamine- and lycorine-type alkaloids predominating and usually showing a high relative abundance in comparison with other alkaloids of the extracts. Interestingly, L. longituba revealed itself to be a potential commercial source of bioactive alkaloids. In general terms, our results are consistent with the alkaloid profiles reported in the literature for previously studied species. PMID:25233578

Guo, Ying; Pigni, Natalia B; Zheng, Yuhong; de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Borges, Warley de Souza; Viladomat, Frances; Codina, Carles; Bastida, Jaume

2014-08-01

179

Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II  

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Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                     &n

Dugand Armando

1968-09-01

180

Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

Spider records from East Macedonia and Thrace (NE Greece  

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Full Text Available The present study summarises spider records from East Macedonia and Thrace (NE Greece. Spiders were mainly collected by hand sampling and to a smaller extent by pitfall trapping during field trips in 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009. 171 species from 23 families were sampled. Pelecopsis pavida (O. P.-Cambridge, 1872 (Linyphiidae and Xysticus kaznakovi Utochkin, 1968 (Thomisidae were new to the European spider fauna and ten further species, Diaea livens Simon, 1876, Heriaeus graminicola (Doleschall, 1852, Meioneta ressli Wunderlich, 1973, Oedothorax retusus (Westring, 1851, Philodromus albidus Kulczynski, 1911, Pocadicnemis pumila Keyserling, 1880, Sitticus saltator (O. P.-Cambridge, 1868, Stemonyphantes lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Synageles scutiger Prószynski, 1979 and Thanatus coloradensis Keyserling, 1880, could be added to the Greek fauna for the first time. 21 and 38 species were new to East Macedonia and Thrace, respectively. Based on previous work, plus the present study, the Greek spider fauna now includes 1,108 species.

Buchholz, Sascha

2013-06-01

182

Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats  

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Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

I.L. Rautenbach

1990-09-01

183

Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa  

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Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis, red apple (Mallus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, pear (Pyrus calleryana, golden apple (Mallus pumila, pawpaw (Carica papaya, pineapple (Ananas comosus and banana (Musa acuminate} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS, Nitric Oxide (NO and hydroxyl (OH radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3 were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

Anthony Jide Afolayan

2013-01-01

184

The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator  

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The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

Naidina, O. D.

2014-05-01

185

Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parki [...] nsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) i [...] s influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

Humberto, González Rodríguez; Israel, Cantú Silva; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Marco Vinicio, Gómez Meza; Marisela, Pando Moreno; Juan Manuel, López Hernández.

186

Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic angiosperm family Podostemaceae inferred from 18S rDNA and rbcL sequence data.  

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The phylogenetic relationships of some angiosperm families have remained enigmatic despite broad phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences. One example is the aquatic family Podostemaceae, the relationships of which have long been controversial because of major morphological modifications associated with their aquatic habit. Podostemaceae have variously been associated with Piperaceae, Nepenthaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae, and Saxifragaceae. Two recent analyses of rbcL sequences suggest a possible sister-group relationship of Podostemaceae to Crassulaceae (Saxifragales). However, the branch leading to Podostemaceae was long, and use of different outgroups resulted in alternative placements. We explored the phylogenetic relationships of Podostemaceae using 18S rDNA sequences and a combined rbcL + 18S rDNA matrix representing over 250 angiosperms. In analyses based on 18S rDNA data, Podostemaceae are not characterized by a long branch; the family consistently appears as part of a Malpighiales clade that also includes Malpighiaceae, Turneraceae, Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, Linaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Trigoniaceae, Humiriaceae, and Ochnaceae. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined 18S rDNA + rbcL data set (223 ingroup taxa) with basal angiosperms as the outgroup also suggest that Podostemaceae are part of a Malpighiales clade. These searches swapped to completion, and the shortest trees showed enhanced resolution and increased internal support compared to those based on 18S rDNA or rbcL alone. However, when Gnetales are used as the outgroup, Podostemaceae appear with members of the nitrogen fixing clade (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Rhamnaceae, Cannabaceae, Moraceae, and Urticaceae). None of the relationships suggested here for Podostemaceae receives strong bootstrap support. Our analyses indicate that Podostemaceae are not closely allied with Crassulaceae or with other members of the Saxifragales clade; their closest relatives, although still uncertain, appear to lie elsewhere in the rosids. PMID:10191070

Soltis, D E; Mort, M E; Soltis, P S; Hibsch-Jetter, C; Zimmer, E A; Morgan, D

1999-03-01

187

Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR  

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The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show geographical patterns similar to those in North America, although Betula and Ericaceae are more important in pollen spectra in the Soviet Union. Picea pollen is less important and Pinus pollen is more widespread in the USSR. Deciduous pollen types such as Quercus, Tilia, and Ulmus are less important than in North America.

Peterson, G. M.

188

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO  

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Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

Tretiakova I.

2012-08-01

189

Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense  

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Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de los aceites en las diferentes semillas varió del 9 al 16%. Todos los aceites mostraron un alto grado de insaturación con índices de iodo de 94 a 122 Kl/g. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron el oleico y linoleico. Todos los aceites crudos resultaron de buena calidad y comparables a los aceites convencionales como el de soya, maíz, girasol, colza y uña de gato. Así mismo, su calidad fue comparable a la de otros aceites de leguminosas de la misma región.

Ortega-Nieblas, M.

1996-06-01

190

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental está localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum são novas referências para o estado do Pará.In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality and comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw. Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L. Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng. J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron. Alston, Vittaria lineata (L. Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Sebastião Maciel

2010-03-01

191

Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, município de Moju, estado do Pará, Brasil / Pteridaceae (Polypodiopsida) of the Embrapa Amazônia Oriental Experimental Farm, Moju municipality, Pará state, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresenta-se o tratamento taxonômico da família Pteridaceae como parte do projeto "Licófitas e monilófitas dos ecossistemas paraenses", que vem sendo realizado com o objetivo de identificar e catalogar as espécies da flora estadual. O Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental es [...] tá localizado no município de Moju e abrange uma área total de 1059 hectares, composta por uma cobertura vegetal de floresta de terra firme predominante e outra de floresta de igapó. Para análise e identificação taxonômica dos exemplares coletados, foram utilizadas técnicas usuais e literatura especializada. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e habitat. A família Pteridaceae está representada na área estudada por 14 espécies: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. dolosum Kunze, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. multisorum A. Samp., A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm. Duas espécies (A. dolosum e A. multisorum) são novas referências para o estado do Pará. Abstract in english In this study the taxonomic treatment of the family Pteridaceae is presented as part of the project "Lycophytes and monilophytes of the ecosystems of Pará", which aims to identify and list the species of the local flora. The experimental farm of Embrapa Amazônia Oriental lies in Moju municipality an [...] d comprises 1059hectares, primarily covered by non-flooded lowland rain forest and secondly by flooded lowland rainforest. Usual techniques and specialized literature were used for analyses and taxonomic identification of the collected specimens. Keys for the identification of genera and species are given, plus descriptions, illustrations, comments and distribution and habitat data. The family Pteridaceae is represented by 14 species in the study area: Acrostichum aureum L., Adiantum cajennense Willd. ex Klotzsch, A. glaucescens Klotzsch, A. paraense Hieron., A. tetraphyllum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.,A. tomentosum Klotzsch, Ananthacorus angustifolius (Sw.) Underw. & Maxon, Anetium citrifolium (L.) Splitg., Hecistopteris pumila (Spreng.) J. Sm., Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link var. calomelanos, Polytaenium guayanense (Hieron.) Alston, Vittaria lineata (L.) Sm., Adiantum dolosum Kunze and A. multisorum A. Samp. The latter two are new records for Pará state.

Sebastião, Maciel; Marcio Roberto, Pietrobom.

2010-03-01

192

Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta  

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The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use concentration ratio relatively Phragmites australis as a background content. This factor showed that Nuphar pumila and Ceratophyllum demersum are acting like concentrators in comparison with the reed. According to this ratio, the mostly accumulated elements in aquatic plants in 2011 were V, Co, As, U, and in 2012 - Cu, As, Bi. Differences in chemical composition are due to different water periods. During the high water period in 2011 a large amount of soil particles after the heavy rains were taken into the flow from the river banks and then deposited within the delta. The transportation of suspended particles during the low water period of 2012 was significantly less.

Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

2014-05-01

193

As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta do Brasil The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta from Brazil  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações.This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran. In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

Paulo H Labiak

2005-03-01

194

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Male Control in Washington State (USA Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU. Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

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Full Text Available This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1 homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill. orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1, aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.. Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula

Tomislav Curkovic

2007-03-01

195

Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

Tomislav, Curkovic; Jay, F. Brunner.

2007-03-01

196

Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

2010-09-01

197

EFEITO DA POLINIZAÇÃO DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp. NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM SÃO JOAQUIM-SC EFFECT OF THE ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION AMONG APPLE ROOTSTOCK (Malus spp. IN THE EFFECTIVE FRUIT SET AND FRUIT DEVELOPMENT IN SÃO JOAQUIM/SC  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo específico de obter uma população segregante, visando à avaliação na frutificação efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e diâmetro de frutos oriundos de polinização aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh. e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill. na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificação efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de pólen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior número de sementes atípicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinização aberta. O mesmo não ocorreu no cruzamento recíproco. O peso e o diâmetro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinização dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo não acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente à polinização aberta. A análise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos também para número de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinização em 'M.9'.This work had as objective to evaluate the fruit set, fruit weight and diameter and amount of normal and atypical seeds of two apple rootstocks in both open and artificial pollination conditions. Crosses among 'Marubakaido' (Malus prunifolia Borkh. and 'M.9' (Malus pumila Mill and reciprocal were performed at Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' required least cool temperatures to blooming and kept longer than M.9 cultivar. The percentage of effective fruit set when 'M.9' were used as female was 26% and 32% and when it was used as pollen donor, 5% e 25%, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The cross 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' produced deformed fruits, with a higher number of atypical seeds, in comparison with the open pollination system. The same results did not occurred in the reciprocal cross. The 'M.9' fruit weight and diameter were larger in the artificial crosses than in those produced by open pollination. No differences among pollination systems for the same variables were found in 'Marubakaido'. In addition, orthogonal contrast analyses revealed significant F values for number of normal seeds, number of atypical seeds when pollination systems in 'M.9' were compared.

ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

2001-12-01

198

EFEITO DA POLINIZAÇÃO DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp.) NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM SÃO JOAQUIM-SC / EFFECT OF THE ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION AMONG APPLE ROOTSTOCK (Malus spp.) IN THE EFFECTIVE FRUIT SET AND FRUIT DEVELOPMENT IN SÃO JOAQUIM/SC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo específico de obter uma população segregante, visando à avaliação na frutificação efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e diâmetro de frutos oriundos de polinização aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus pruni [...] folia Borkh.) e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill.) na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificação efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de pólen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior número de sementes atípicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinização aberta. O mesmo não ocorreu no cruzamento recíproco. O peso e o diâmetro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinização dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo não acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente à polinização aberta. A análise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos também para número de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinização em 'M.9'. Abstract in english This work had as objective to evaluate the fruit set, fruit weight and diameter and amount of normal and atypical seeds of two apple rootstocks in both open and artificial pollination conditions. Crosses among 'Marubakaido' (Malus prunifolia Borkh.) and 'M.9' (Malus pumila Mill) and reciprocal were [...] performed at Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' required least cool temperatures to blooming and kept longer than M.9 cultivar. The percentage of effective fruit set when 'M.9' were used as female was 26% and 32% and when it was used as pollen donor, 5% e 25%, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The cross 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' produced deformed fruits, with a higher number of atypical seeds, in comparison with the open pollination system. The same results did not occurred in the reciprocal cross. The 'M.9' fruit weight and diameter were larger in the artificial crosses than in those produced by open pollination. No differences among pollination systems for the same variables were found in 'Marubakaido'. In addition, orthogonal contrast analyses revealed significant F values for number of normal seeds, number of atypical seeds when pollination systems in 'M.9' were compared.

ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA, DANTAS; JÚLIO CÉSAR DE OLIVEIRA, NUNES; EMÍLIO, BRIGHENTI; LUIZ GONZAGA, RIBEIRO; RUBENS ONOFRE, NODARI.

2001-12-01

199

Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture  

Science.gov (United States)

The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

2011-10-01

200

Effects of the feeding of wild Yeso sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) on the prevention of damage due to bark stripping and the use of feeding sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding sites for wild Yeso sika deer around Lake Akan, Japan, were established. Effects on the number of deer using the feeding sites, the prevention of bark stripping damage, the amount of feeding, and eating time in a 5-year period (1999-2003) were evaluated. The number of deer using feeding sites increased with years during the feeding period. The damaged tree ratio after the initiation of feeding markedly decreased compared with 16.5% before the initiation of feeding. After the start of feeding, there were no trees with damage the entire circumference. According to tree species, the number of damaged trees of Ulmus laciniata Mayr as a percentage of all investigated trees was high (5.2%). The total amount of beet pulp feeding increased with the feeding year, showing 4.5-fold increase. At feeding sites in deer culling, eating behavior was observed during the night. The preventive effects on bark stripping damage continued during the 5-year feeding period. However, with the course of feeding years, the number of deer using feeding sites and the level of feeding increased. PMID:21794018

Masuko, Takayoshi; Souma, Kousaku; Kudo, Hirofumi; Takasaki, Yukari; Fukui, Emi; Kitazawa, Reiko; Nishida, Rikihiro; Niida, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Teiji; Nibe, Akio

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

2012-01-01

202

Efecto de la zona de vida y la altitud en la mortalidad y adaptabilidad al primer ano de especies forest ales en la cordillera volcanica central, Costa Rica  

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Full Text Available Se presenta los resultados de la mortalidad y adaptabilidad a los 6 y 12 meses de edad, de las especies forestales cipres (Cupressus lusitanica, eucalipto de altura (Eucalyptus globulus, pino patula (Pinus patula, pino radiata (Pinus radia- fa, roble encino (Quercus coopeyensis,jaul (Al- nus acuminata, cedro dulce (Cedrela tonduzii y tirra (Ulmus mexicana. De cada especie fueron plantadas 4 repeticiones dentro de cada una de las 3 zonas de vida de mayor representatividade la Cordillera Volcanica Central de Costa Rica, predesde los 1000 a los 2000 m de altitud. Se regis- tro una tendencia de mayor mortalidad conforme aumento la pluviosidad. Las 3 especies confferas mostraron desde los 6 meses la menor mortalidad «15% y mayor estabilidad en todas las zonas de pluvida; presentaron un alto potencial de reforesta- cion en toda la Cordillera Volcanica Central. Las especies cella dulce, tirra y jaul conformaron un grupo de especies con una mortalidad elevada, que se estabiliz6 hasta el ano de plantadas. Las especies eucalipto de altura y fable conformaron el grupo de mayor mortalidad (>50% y de adap- tabilidad mas lenta. Sin embargo, el eucalipto de altura mostro un buen crecimiento en sitios plu- viales. Un mayor cuidado de la calidad del mate- adaptrial de reforestaci6n y el empleo de tecnicas de plantaci6n como los camellones, la aporca y el drenaje, son esenciales para poder reforestar en nurszonas de altura con una elevada pluviosidad.

Yorleny Badilla

2002-01-01

203

Nonvolatile chemical cues affect host-plant ranking by gravid Polygonia c-album females.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a multiple-choice test, the preference of egg-laying Polygonia c-album (comma butterfly) females was studied for oviposition on plants bearing surrogate leaves treated with crude methanol extracts obtained from leaves of seven host-plant species: Humulus lupulus, Urtica dioica, Ulmus glabra, Salix caprea, Ribes nigrum, Corylus avellana, and Betula pubescens. The ranking order of surrogate leaves treated with host-plant extracts corresponded well to that reported on natural foliage, except R. nigrum. Thus, host-plant choice in P. c-album seems to be highly dependent on chemical cues. Moreover, after two subsequent fractionations using reversed-phase chromatography the nonvolatile chemical cues residing in the most polar water-soluble fractions evidently provided sufficient information for egg-laying females to discriminate and rank between the samples of more and less preferred plants, since the ranking in these assays was similar to that for natural foliage or whole methanol extracts, while the physical traits of the surrogate leaves remained uniform. PMID:22486046

Moz?raitis, Raimondas; Murtazina, Rushana; Nylin, Sören; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2012-01-01

204

Exploring Holocene continentality changes in Fennoscandia using present and past tree distributions  

Science.gov (United States)

With global warming, the distribution of warmth through the year is likely to change in the future and comparable changes may have occurred over the course of the Holocene. Its effect on vegetation composition and species distribution can be compared to that of a continental versus an oceanic climate. The distribution of five major tree species along a continentality gradient was studied in Fennoscandia based on distribution maps and on their proportions of pollen in surface-sediment samples. Both analyses indicate that the five arboreal species show similar patterns of response to a continentality index in the order Ulmus glabra, Corylus avellana, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, and Picea abies from the most oceanic to most continental. Continentality, growing degree days above 5 °C, and January temperature were reconstructed quantitatively from four pollen diagrams using transfer functions based on a combined Fennoscandian pollen surface-sample data-set. Quantitative reconstructions indicate that the climate in Fennoscandia has become increasingly more continental over the last 7000 years, and this is largely an effect of winter cooling. Early Holocene vegetation composition has poor analogues to the present vegetation in Fennoscandia, which hampers quantitative reconstructions. Qualitative reconstructions suggest that the early Holocene in Fennoscandia was the most oceanic period, but probably with a high variability in temperature.

Giesecke, T.; Bjune, A. E.; Chiverrell, R. C.; Seppä, H.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Birks, H. J. B.

2008-07-01

205

THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY  

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Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

OROIAN SILVIA

2012-12-01

206

Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians  

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Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

Józef Mitka

2014-04-01

207

Quantitative evaluation by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the chemical composition of decayed wood preserved in waterlogged conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on the assessment of lignin and holocellulose by means of ATR-FTIR analysis and multivariate PLS regression. The analysis was conducted on 59 samples coming from different excavations where wood had been preserved in waterlogged conditions. A range of results from different wood species (Alnus sp.p., Cupressus sempervirens, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sp.p., Quercus sp.p., Ulmus sp.p.), states of preservation, waterlogged environments, and burial times are presented. A calibration model was selected after comparing different reference data (samples extracted and not-extracted, and ash-rich and ash-free bases of calculation for the calibration values), and two different post-acquisition spectroscopic manipulations (both in terms of normalisation procedures and of spectral ranges used for the calibration). Results showed that the best models were different depending on which considered component (lignin or holocellulose) was measured and to which data set (softwood or hardwood) the samples belonged. It is shown that the predictive ability of the models is affected by high ash content (too contaminated samples had to be excluded in order to attain good results, because of excessive overlapping of bands related to the inorganic fraction) but not by the preliminary extraction of sample. Furthermore, the stability of best models is also demonstrated and a procedure of external validation carried out on an external set of samples confirmed the general validity of the identified models. PMID:25281067

Pizzo, Benedetto; Pecoraro, Elisa; Alves, Ana; Macchioni, Nicola; Rodrigues, José Carlos

2015-01-01

208

CONTENIDO MINERAL Y DE CLOROFILA DE LA HEMIPARÁSITA Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC G. Don Y DE CUATRO DE SUS ÁRBOLES HOSPEDEROS  

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Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaron con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS. Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05, U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05 que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05 tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %.

J. Carlos Raya-P\\u00E9rez

2014-01-01

209

Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

210

Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertil that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

211

Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation  

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Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

L. Gurau

2010-03-01

212

Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give no clear indication of post-depositional disturbance, although a possible short-lived hiatus occurs around 6500 cal.BP. The early pollen record from thermophilous trees could indicate that there may have been some downwash following sediment desiccation through wood peat layers deposited between c. 6500 and 10,000 cal. BP, but the overall biostratigraphy is consistent with other Danish small hollow records.

Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte

2012-01-01

213

Incidence of bark- and wood-boring insects in firewood: a survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus (18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae], and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinus firewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national "don't move firewood" campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996-2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at > dollars U.S. 98 million from 34 countries. PMID:21061968

Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

2010-10-01

214

The shape of the spatial kernel and its implications for biological invasions in patchy environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological and epidemiological invasions occur in a spatial context. We investigated how these processes correlate to the distance dependence of spread or dispersal between spatial entities such as habitat patches or epidemiological units. Distance dependence is described by a spatial kernel, characterized by its shape (kurtosis) and width (variance). We also developed a novel method to analyse and generate point-pattern landscapes based on spectral representation. This involves two measures: continuity, which is related to autocorrelation and contrast, which refers to variation in patch density. We also analysed some empirical data where our results are expected to have implications, namely distributions of trees (Quercus and Ulmus) and farms in Sweden. Through a simulation study, we found that kernel shape was not important for predicting the invasion speed in randomly distributed patches. However, the shape may be essential when the distribution of patches deviates from randomness, particularly when the contrast is high. We conclude that the speed of invasions depends on the spatial context and the effect of the spatial kernel is intertwined with the spatial structure. This implies substantial demands on the empirical data, because it requires knowledge of shape and width of the spatial kernel, and spatial structure. PMID:21047854

Lindström, Tom; Håkansson, Nina; Wennergren, Uno

2011-05-22

215

Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

216

Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests  

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Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

FARZAM TAVANKAR

2015-04-01

217

Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

218

Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

1992-01-01

219

Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions  

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Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D, on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

H. Seyedoleslami

2004-10-01

220

Different status of the gene for ribosomal protein S16 in the chloroplast genome during evolution of the genus Arabidopsis and closely related species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ribosomal protein S16 (RPS16), the product of the rps16, is generally encoded in the chloroplast genomes of flowering plants. However, it has been reported that chloroplast-encoded RPS16 in mono- and dicotyledonous plants has been substituted by the product of nuclear-encoded rps16, which was transferred from the mitochondria to the nucleus before the early divergence of angiosperms. Current databases show that the chloroplast-encoded rps16 has become a pseudogene in four species of the Brassicaceae (Aethionema grandiflorum, Arabis hirsuta, Draba nemorosa, and Lobularia maritima). Further analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and its close relatives has shown that pseudogenization has also occurred via the loss of its splicing capacity (Arabidopsis thaliana and Olimarabidopsis pumila). In contrast, the spliced product of chloroplast-encoded rps16 is observed in close relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis arenosa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Crucihimalaya lasiocarpa). In this study, we identified the different functional status of rps16 in several chloroplast genomes in the genus Arabidopsis and its close relatives. Our results strongly suggest that nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded rps16 genes coexisted for at least 126 million years. We raise the possibility of the widespread pseudogenization of rps16 in the angiosperm chloroplast genomes via the loss of its splicing capacity, even when the rps16 encoded in the chloroplast genome is transcriptionally active. PMID:21317544

Roy, Shradha; Ueda, Minoru; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

2014-01-01

222

Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

2014-06-01

223

Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phloridzin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phloridzin, a phloretin 2'-beta-D-glucoside, belongs to dihydrochalcones and mainly exists in the fruits of Malus pumila Mill., Lithocarpus polystachyus REHD and the root skins, stems, tender leaves and fruits of Malus hupehensis. It has many pharmacological activities, such as regulating blood sugar level and blood pressure, protecting heart, scavenging of oxygen free radicals and antioxidant injuries. Thus, market demand of products containing phloridzin is increasing year by year. Our research results demonstrated that phloridzin is provided with a double directional adjusting function of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. It showed significant effects on the proliferation of estrogen sensitive estrogen receptor (ER) (+)MCF-7 cells in the absence of estrogen. When added with 17beta-estradiol, phloridzin showed antagonism on estradiol-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, but it did not significantly affect proliferation of estrogen insensitive ER (-)MDA-MB-231 cells. Phloridzin induced beta-galactosidase activity in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Light increase of the uterine weight and serum estradiol content of mouse was observed when the glucoside was administered orally for 7 d. After oral administration, phloridzin was found mainly in the blood and a small part was metabolized to phloretin. Our investigation proved that phloridzin was distributed at the target organ and played the role of phytoestrogen. PMID:20410591

Wang, Junzhi; Chung, Mi Hwa; Xue, Bingjie; Ma, Hong; Ma, Chaomei; Hattori, Masao

2010-01-01

224

Penetration of chemicals into the Malus leaf cuticle : An ultrastructural analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaxial leaf cuticle of Malus pumila was examined by electron microscopy to determine possible avenues for transcuticular movement of foliarly applied chemicals. Cutin-embedded polysaccharide microfibrils originated at the outer epidermal cell wall and occasionally extended to the cuticle surface. Lamellae, ca. 4 nm wide, usually were oriented parallel to the cuticle surface. When oriented perpendicular to the surface, they extended nearly to the subjacent wall layer from the surface. Aqueous solutions of uranyl acetate, silver nitrate and phenyl mercuric acetate applied to the cuticle surface of leaf segments floated on solutions of phosphate salts or thiocarbohydrazide (TCH) reacted within the cuticle to form insoluble electron-opaque deposits indicative of their avenues of transcuticular movement. Uranyl phosphate deposits were observed only in the polysaccharide microfibrils of chloroform: methanolextracted leaves. Silver-TCH deposits were observed in the microfibrils of both extracted and nonextracted leaf cuticles. Phenyl mercuric acetate-TCH deposits were randomly dispersed throughout the extracted cuticle and not associated with the polysaccharide microfibrils. PMID:24311030

Hoch, H C

1979-12-01

225

Conserved genetic regions across angiosperms as tools to develop single-copy nuclear markers in gymnosperms: an example using cycads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several individuals of the Caribbean Zamia clade and other cycad genera were used to identify single-copy nuclear genes for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in Cycadales. Two strategies were employed to select target loci: (i) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis conserved ortholog sequence (COS) set and (ii) a tblastX search of Arabidopsis-Populus-Vitis-Oryza Shared Single-Copy genes (APVO SSC) against the EST Zamia databases in GenBank. From the first strategy, 30 loci were selected, and from the second, 16 loci. In both cases, the matching GenBank accessions of Zamia were used as a query for retrieving highly similar sequences from Cycas, Picea, Pinus species or Ginkgo biloba. After retrieving and aligning all the sequences in each locus, intron predictions were completed to assist in primer design. PCR was carried out in three rounds to detect paralogous loci. A total of 29 loci were successfully amplified as a single band of which 20 were likely single-copy loci. These loci showed different diversity and divergence levels. A preliminary screening allowed us to select 8 promising loci (40S, ATG2, BG, GroES, GTP, LiSH, PEX4 and TR) for the Zamia pumila complex and 4 loci (COS26, GroES, GTP and HTS) for all other cycad genera. PMID:24444413

Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Meerow, Alan W; Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Calonje, Michael; Griffith, M Patrick; Stevenson, Dennis W; Nakamura, Kyoko

2014-07-01

226

Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha-1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha-1, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha-1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha-1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China

227

Intercropping Competition between Apple Trees and Crops in Agroforestry Systems on the Loess Plateau of China  

Science.gov (United States)

Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems. PMID:23936246

Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

2013-01-01

228

Units of freezing of deep supercooled water in woody xylem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The low temperature exotherms (LTE) of 1-year-old twigs of Haralson apple (Malus pumila Mill.), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata [Mill.] K. Koch), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.), American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borkh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). In one type of experiment freezing during a DTA experiment was halted for up to 2.5 hours after part of the supercooled water had frozen at temperatures between -25 and -42 C. Upon resumption of cooling the freezing started within 2 C of the stopping temperature. In a second type of experiment living and dead cells were microscopically observed in the same ray after partial freezing in the DTA apparatus. In another experiment, the LTE persisted even after tangential and radial sectioning of the twig to 0.13 millimeters. In a final experiment the LTE of a single multiseriate ray of red oak had the same shape as the LTE of wood with many uniseriate rays.These experiments confirm that the deep supercooled water in woody xylem or pith freezes in numerous independent events over a span of as much as 20 C. The units which freeze in an event are single cells or small groups of cells. Ice grows very slowly if at all from these units, and water moves very slowly from unfrozen cells to frozen ones. Deep supercooling of ray parenchyma does not require an intact ray. PMID:16661390

Hong, S G; Sucoff, E

1980-07-01

229

Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition  

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Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

Markus P. Eichhorn

2010-09-01

230

Browse Preference and Browsing Intensity of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus in Allegheny High Plateau Riparian Forests, USA  

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Full Text Available Decades of chronic browsing by overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman has strongly influenced forest pattern and process on the Allegheny High Plateau Ecoregion of northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous research has found that riparian forests contain the greatest herbaceous plant species richness of regional plant communities but little is known about the impacts of deer browsing on the structure and composition of the herbaceous layer (all vascular plants < 1 m tall of Allegheny High Plateau riparian forests. We examined browse preference and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer on the herbaceous layer of five riparian forest study sites in the Allegheny National Forest during the summer growing season (July, September. Browsing intensity was low to moderate and differed significantly among sites and sample periods. Deer selectively foraged on a few preferred plant species during certain sampling periods, particularly Aster divaricatus, A. prenanthoides, Chelone glabra, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Polygonum virginianum and Ranunculus hispidis. We found that plant species richness and composition, and browsing intensity by white-tailed deer, are highly variable across riparian forests of the region. In order to assess or predict deer browsing impacts to regional riparian forests, we suggest that riparian sites be studied individually, perhaps on a watershed basis, as the surrounding landscape and available habitat may influence deer densities and foraging activity in an individualistic manner.

C. Williams

2009-06-01

231

A natural focus of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is a bat cave.  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural reservoir of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, the etiological agent of histoplasmosis duboisii (African histoplasmosis) is not yet known. We report the isolation of H. capsulatum var. duboisii from soil admixed with bat guano and from the intestinal contents of a bat in a sandstone cave in a rural area, Ogbunike in Anambra State of Nigeria. Eight of 45 samples of soil admixed with bat guano yielded H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Of the 35 bats belonging to the species Nycteris hispida and Tadirida pumila examined, only one (N. hispida) yielded this fungus from its intestinal contents. Identification of the isolates as Histoplasma was confirmed by exoantigen tests and by mating with tester strains of H. capsulatum. In vitro conversion to large yeast from suggestive of H. capsulatum var. duboisii was obtained on brain heart infusion agar supplemented with sheep blood and glutamine or cysteine. Pathogenicity tests with mice for all the isolates confirmed their identity by the demonstration of large yeast forms (8-15 microns in diameter) within giant cells in the infected tissues. Investigations on the possible occurrence of human infections in the area are in progress. PMID:7808510

Gugnani, H C; Muotoe-Okafor, F A; Kaufman, L; Dupont, B

1994-09-01

232

Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (?lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (?lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding po

Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

233

Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

2007-12-01

234

Weed infestation of crops of winter spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta cultivars grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection  

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Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in the years 2008-2010 on rendzina soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate weed infestation of winter spelt cultivars (‘Schwabenkorn’ and ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’ grown under different conditions of mineral fertilization and chemical plant protection. In the experiment, two levels of mineral fertilization were compared (kg × ha-1: I. N 60; P 26.2; K 83; and II. N 80; P 34.9; K 99.6. The che- mical protection levels were as follows: A. Control treatment; B. Mustang 306 SE, Stabilan 750 SL; C. Mustang 306 SE, At- tribut 70 WG, Stabilan 750 SL; D. Mustang 306 SE, Attribut 70 WG, Alert 375 SC, Stabilan 750 SL. Apera spica-venti, Setaria pumila, and Galium aparine occurred in greatest numbers in the spelt wheat crop. The cultivar ‘Schwabenkorn’ was more competitive against weeds. The number of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous weeds, their total number, and air-dry weight of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were significantly lower compared to cv. ‘Spelt I.N.Z.’. Chemical protection of spelt wheat decreased weed dry weight compared to the control treatment without chemical protection. The application of higher rates of mineral fertilizers slightly increased the number of weeds but did not influence their dry weight and number of weed species.

Sylwia Andruszczak

2012-10-01

235

Physiological dissection of blue and red light regulation of apical dominance and branching in M9 apple rootstock growing in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of the interaction of red light (R) with blue light (B), applied to shoots of M9 apple (Malus pumila paradisiaca Schmid) rootstock, on the regulation of stem growth, apical dominance and branching. These results are compared with the active form of phytochromes (PHYs) under monochromatic and dichromatic light treatments. The inhibition of internode elongation was determined by PHY photoequilibrium, with the additional effect of B, by means of a separate photoreceptor. The development of phytomers appeared to be primarily due to the active form of PHY, with a marginal effect from B. Shoot growth, which combines internode elongation and development of the phytomer, was highest under R and lowest under B and far red light (FR), showing the largely positive role of PHY photoequilibrium. Under FR, reduced stem elongation was due to the very small number of phytomers formed. Apical dominance was inhibited, while branching was increased under R, corresponding to the highest values of PHY photoequilibrium determined. Apical dominance was increased and branching was reduced by B, indicating a complex interaction between PHY and B receptor. In the shoot cluster system, photomorphogenic behavior was dependent on the time of exposure to the different light qualities. The information gained from the study will be helpful in improving the set up of in vitro growth light conditions, and in providing useful insights into research of the development of the woody plant canopy, an important factor in ecological plant communities. PMID:18423933

Muleo, Rosario; Morini, Stefano

2008-11-28

236

Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed. PMID:15010615

Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

2003-11-01

237

Photosynthesis of young apple trees in response to low sink demand under different air temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic end products and related enzymes in source leaves in response to low sink demand after girdling to remove the root sink were assessed in young apple trees (Malus pumila) grown in two greenhouses with different air temperatures for 5 days. Compared with the non-girdled control in the low-temperature greenhouse (diurnal maximum air temperature 36 degrees C), P(n), g(s) and E declined from Day 3 onwards. Moreover, gas exchange responded more to low sink demand in the high-temperature greenhouse than in the low-temperature greenhouse. Decreased P(n) at low sink demand was accompanied by lower intercellular CO(2) concentrations in the low-temperature greenhouse. However, decreased maximal photochemical efficiency, potential activity, efficiency of excitation capture, actual efficiency and photochemical quenching, with increased minimal fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching of photosystem II (PSII), were observed in low sink demand leaves only in the high-temperature greenhouse. In addition, low sink demand increased leaf starch and soluble carbohydrate content in both greenhouses but did not result in lower activity of enzymes involved in metabolism. Thus, decreased P(n) under low sink demand was independent of a direct effect of end-product feedback but rather depended on a high temperature threshold. The lower P(n) was likely due to stomatal limitation in the low-temperature greenhouse, but mainly due to non-stomatal limitation in the high-temperature greenhouse. PMID:20071359

Fan, Pei G; Li, Lian S; Duan, Wei; Li, Wei D; Li, Shao H

2010-03-01

238

Wild flora of mine tailings: perspectives for use in phytoremediation of potentially toxic elements in a semi-arid region in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to identify wild plant species applicable for remediation of mine tailings in arid soils. Plants growing on two mine tailings were identified and evaluated for their potential use in phytoremediation based on the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in roots and shoots, bioconcentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF). Total, water-soluble and DTPA-extractable concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Co and Ni in rhizospheric and bulk soil were determined. Twelve species can grow on mine tailings, accumulate PTEs concentrations above the commonly accepted phytotoxicity levels, and are suitable for establishing a vegetation cover on barren mine tailings in the Zimapan region. Pteridium sp. is suitable for Zn and Cd phytostabilization. Aster gymnocephalus is a potential phytoextractor for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu; Gnaphalium sp. for Cu and Crotalaria pumila for Zn. The species play different roles according to the specific conditions where they are growing at one site behaving as a PTEs accumulator and at another as a stabilizer. For this reason and due to the lack of a unified approach for calculation and interpretation of bioaccumulation factors, only considering BCF and TF may be not practical in all cases. PMID:25495938

Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen A; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Díaz-Garduño, Margarita

2015-01-01

239

Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea  

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Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

Lee, Jeom-Sook

2007-05-01

240

Weed infestation in canopy of spring barley in condition of different tillage systems and fertilization and plant protection levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional tillage (fall ploughing at 25 cm and minimum tillage systems (chisel ploughing at 30 cm and two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on number, species composition and air dry weed mass in spring barley cv. Rataj. This spring barley was cultivated in crop rotation potato - spring barley - winter rye. The analysis of field infestation was made prior to spring barley harvest with quantitative- weighting method. There was estimated number of weeds, weed species composition and air dry weight of weeds in two randomly chosen areas of each plot of 0.5 m2. The density of weeds and weed air dry weight was statistically analysed by means of variance analysis, and the mean values were estimated with Tukey's confidence intervals (p=0.05. Intensive level of fertilization and chemical crop protection decreased number of monocotyledonous weeds and total weeds in canopy of spring barley. Conventional system of soil cultivation decreased in a canopy of spring barley the following species of weeds: Geranium pusillum, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, Apera spica-venti, Poa annua and Echinochloa crusgalli. Conventional tillage increases number of Chamomilla suaveolens and Fallopia convolvulus in a canopy of spring barley. Intensive fertilization and plant protection levels decreased weed infestation first of all through Echinochloa crusgalli, Apera spica-venti, Fallopia convolvulus, Galinsoga parviflora, Geranium pusillum, Chenopodium album and Setaria pumila.

Piotr Kraska

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Weed communities of root crops in the Pamir Alai Mts, Tajikistan (Middle Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of weed vegetation conducted on root crops in Tajikistan (Middle Asia, one of the world cradles of weed flora. The main research was conducted in the Zeravshanian, southern Tajikistan and Hissar-Darvasian geobotanical regions in 2011. The study was based on 107 phytosociological relevés obtained in various geobotanical regions of the country. The collected material probably presents the majority of variations among the weed communities of root cultivations in the Middle Asia. As a result of numerical analyses, 7 associations were distinguished: Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi, Daturo stramonii-Hibiscetum trioni, Setario pumilae-Sorghetum halepensi, Galinsogo-Setarietum, Equiseto arvensi-Xanthietum italici, Portulacetum oleracei and Brassico campestris-Lamietum amplexicauli. The last mentioned is new to science. Additionally, one subassociation has been proposed (Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi kochietosum scopariae. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. The study shows that root-crop plantations with segetal vegetation may harbor a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some, which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. However, most of the recorded species are widespread weeds typical for the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian geobotanical provinces.

Sylwia Nowak

2013-06-01

242

Invasión de árboles alóctonos en una cuenca pre-andina de Chile central / Invasión of alien trees in a pre-Andean watershed of central Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se describe el ensamble de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca del Río San Ramón, ubicada en el borde este de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile central. En particular se documenta la flora de especies arbóreas alóctonas, el estado de invasión de cada especie (no naturalizad [...] a, naturalizada, invasora), abundancia, estructura de tamaños, se relaciona la riqueza y abundancia de especies alóctonas arbóreas con la forma de acceso a la cuenca (plantada o inmigración natural), y se caracteriza la distribución de las especies en los hábitats abióticos y tipos de parche de vegetación residente. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un censo de todos los individuos de especies arbóreas alóctonas presentes en la cuenca. Se observaron 15 especies arbóreas alóctonas, de las cuales 8 pueden ser catalogadas como invasoras en la cuenca, 2 sólo naturalizadas y 5 están plantadas pero no presentan regeneración natural. Las especies invasoras presentaron diferente abundancia, siendo Ulmus minor la especie más abundante. La mayoría de las especies invasoras presentan regeneración natural e individuos de tamaño pequeño. Las especies que han llegado a ser invasoras y de éstas las más abundantes no fueron mayoritariamente plantadas en la cuenca. Además, las especies alóctonas observadas presentaron una muy similar distribución ambiental, preferentemente en los hábitats más húmedos y parches abiertos sin vegetación leñosa. Estos patrones permiten sugerir que el proceso de invasión estaría continuamente ocurriendo, que el ambiente biótico y abiótico puede estar jugando un rol en la invasión de árboles alóctonos, y que este rol sería similar entre las especies invasoras presentes. Abstract in english In this paper the assemblage of alien tree species inhabiting in the Río San Ramón watershed is described. This watershed is located at East border of Santiago, central Chile. Particularly, we documented the flora of alien tree species, the invasion state (not naturalized, naturalized, invader), abu [...] ndance and population structure of each species. In addition, we related richness and abundance of each species with the way of access into the watershed (planted or natural immigration) and characterized species distribution through the abiotic habitats and resident vegetation patches. During 2003, a cense of all the individuals of alien tree species observed in the watershed was carried out. Fifteen alien tree species were observed. From these, eight species may be considered as invaders, two species as naturalized, and five species were planted but no natural regeneration was observed. Invader species had different abundance, being Ulmus minor the most abundant. Most of the invader species had natural regeneration and small-size individuals. The species that have become invaders, especially those that are the most abundant, were not planted in the watershed. On the other hand, the alien species had a similar environmental distribution, principally on the wettest habitats and on open sites without woody vegetation. These results suggest that the invasion process would be continuous, and that biotic and abiotic environment might be playing a role on the invasion of alien trees in central Chile, and that this role would be similar among species.

Pablo I, Becerra.

2006-12-01

243

Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México / Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmento [...] s óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástica asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, w [...] hich was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironme

Jasinto, Robles-Camacho; Pedro, Corona-Chávez; Miguel, Morales-Gámez; Ana Fabiola, Guzmán; Óscar J., Polaco; Gabriela, Domínguez-Vázquez; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Arturo, Oliveros-Morales.

2010-12-01

244

Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction < 2 mm. Root biomass <5 mm in diameter) and its proportion in the forest floor and mineral soil varied between tree species. There was a vertical gradient under all species, with the highest concentrations of SOC, TN and base cations in the O-horizon and the lowest in the 10-20 cm layer. The tree species differed with respect to SOC, TN and soil acidity in the O-horizon and mineral soil. For SOC and TN, the range in the O-horizon was spruce> hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate.

Oostra, Swantje [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Dept. of Landscape Planning; Majdi, Hooshang [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Sciences; Olsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

2006-10-15

245

Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stager prevention at initiation stage

246

Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter  

Science.gov (United States)

We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

2014-04-01

247

A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard SØrensen, Malene

2013-01-01

248

[Quantitative analysis on sharp-tooth oak stands in Qinling Mountains].  

Science.gov (United States)

The arbor stratum of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands included two substratums. Phanerophyta synusium was in first position, and hemicryptophyta was inferior to it. The DBH structures of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata and Pinus armandii were sinister normal school, which could finish self-regeneration under the natural conditions. The small DBH class individuals of Pinus tabulaeformis were dominant, their DBH classes being distributed irregularly and absent very much. The large DBH classes of Toxicodendron vernicifluum took biggish proportion, belonging to declining population. Young trees were the principal individuals of Castanea mollissima, and in transitional age stage from the young to the middle. Populus davidiana was in the transitional stage from progressive to stable and young-middle age stands. The stands DBH structure was mainly influenced by the DBH variety of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata population. Quantitative classification (ward's method ward) and ordination (PCA) were used to study the community types of sharp-tooth oak. The results showed that the community could be divided into 6 types: 1. Ass. Smilax stans + Rosa multiflora-Quercus variabilis + Ulmus glaucescens-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata; 2. Ass. Smilax stans + Lespedeza bicolor-Castanea mollissima-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 3. Ass. Corylus mandshurica-Populus davidiana + Dendrobenthamia angustata-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 4. Ass. Prunus pseudoccrasus + Corylus mandshurica-Toxicodendron vernicifluum-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; 5. Ass. Corylus mandshurica + Rosa multiflora-Pinus armandii-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata; and 6. Ass. Sinarundinaria nitida-Pinus armandii + Pinus tabulaeformis-Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. Ward's method ward was better for classifying community types than the other clustering analyses in Qinling Mountains. The PCA results were consistent with the clustering, and demonstrated that the sharp-tooth oak stands were influenced by the altitude, site gradient and soil mainly. PMID:15031900

Zhao, Yonghua; Lei, Ruide; Jia, Xia; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei

2003-12-01

249

Accumulation of perchlorate in aquatic and terrestrial plants at a field scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous laboratory-scale studies have documented perchlorate ClO(-)(4) uptake by different plant species, but less information is available at field scale, where ClO(-)(4) uptake may be affected by environmental conditions, such as distance to streams or shallow water tables, exposure duration, and species. This study examined uptake of ClO(-)(4) in smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and watercress (Nasturtium spp.) as well as more than forty trees, including ash (Fraxinus greggii A. Gray), chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.), elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), willow (Salix nigra Marshall), mulberry [Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.], and hackberry (Celtis laevigata Willd.) from multiple streams surrounding a perchlorate-contaminated site. Results indicate a large potential for ClO(-)(4) accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, with ClO(-)(4) concentration in plant tissues approximately 100 times higher than that in bulk water. Perchlorate accumulation in leaves of terrestrial plants was also dependent on species, with hackberry, willow, and elm having a strong potential to accumulate ClO(-)(4). Generally, trees located closer to the stream had a higher ClO(-)(4) accumulation than trees located farther away from the stream. Seasonal leaf sampling of terrestrial plants indicated that ClO(-)(4) accumulation also was affected by exposure duration, with highest accumulation observed in the late growing cycle, although leaf concentrations for a given tree were highly variable. Perchlorate may be re-released into the environment via leaching and rainfall as indicated by lower perchlorate concentrations in collected leaf litter. Information obtained from this study will be helpful to understand the fate of ClO(-)(4) in macrophytes and natural systems. PMID:15356223

Tan, Kui; Anderson, Todd A; Jones, Matthew W; Smith, Philip N; Jackson, W Andrew

2004-01-01

250

a Gamma-Ray Study of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Relative Water Content of Tree STEM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The importance and role of water in plant growth have been studied for many years. The water is stored in various parts of the plant and is known to vary from one species to another, and with time of the year and some environmental factors. Most of the present methods of water content determination are destructive, and continuous monitoring of water content is not possible since the plant will be altered thereby. In this thesis, a non-destructive method of estimating water content in a live standing tree stem based on the computed tomography technique is described and verified. A portable gamma-ray scanner specifically designed for parallel computed tomography data collection was constructed and tested both in the laboratory and on actual field experiments. The cross-sectional images of the object under study, represented as a spatial variation of linear attenuation coefficients, were reconstructed using the filtered back-projection method. Experiments on small stem sections in the laboratory were found to show a linear decrease in attenuation coefficients as the water content decreased. The spatial change in water content can be obtained by taking the difference between two corresponding images. Scans on Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) and Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) trees in the field have shown significantly low attenuation coefficient values at the central region indicating low water content of the heartwood. However, for the Elm (Ulmus wheatlyii) tree the central heartwood was not well defined. Small fluctuations of relative water content (about 1%) were observed in overnight measurements for both on the Rowan and the Elm. Measurements over an extended period have also indicated seasonal variations in water content. Lower water contents were observed for scans made during the end of summer months.

Sulaiman, Zainal Abidin B.

251

The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

2014-10-01

252

Vegetation and climate in the Miocene deposits of southern side of the Büyük Menderes Graben, ?ahinali-2 core, SW Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lower-Middle Miocene succession from the ?ahinali coalfield (SW Turkey was analyzed to reconstruct climate and vegetation. The sediments mainly represent a lacustrine facies and consist of a mudstone-marl dominated succession, including limited coarse-grained clastics. Results of microfloral and published macrofloral records have been considered. The main vegetation types were mixed mesophytic forest dominated by evergreen Quercus and coniferous forest consisting mainly of indeterminate Pinaceae, Pinus and Cupressaceae. In this belt riparian vegetation incorporates high proportions of Alnus, and less amounts of deciduous Salix, Ulmus, Pterocarya, Carya, Platanus, Zelkova and Liquidambar. Herbaceous components in the pollen spectra are in low frequencies, and consist of Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedra, Asteraceae and Caryophyllaceae. Also three local pollen zones can be recognized based on the changes in relative abundances of palynomorphs. The micro- and published macrofloral records have been subjected to the Coexistence Approach method to obtain the palaeoclimate. Mean annual temperature is estimated to be over 14 °C and mean annual precipitation exceeds 1000 mm. In combination with other climate parameters (temperatures of warmest and coldest months, precipitation of the wettest, driest and warmest months, the data indicate very stable warm-temperate with high annual precipitation. Results of the Coexistence Approach using both sporomorph and leaf datasets are good in agreement, implying internal consistency in the method. Compared with modern meteorological records, surroundings of the Büyük Menderes Graben had similar temperature and higher precipitation during the Early–Middle Miocene. This study contributes to an understanding of the Miocene vegetation and climate evolution in southeastern Mediterranean area.

Akkiraz M S

2011-11-01

253

Sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the Trakya region of Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common problems in children and the causative pollen allergens vary according to the geographical area. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of sensitization to common inhalant allergens, especially pollens, in Turkish children living in the Trakya region and to determine differences between rural and urban areas. Allergen skin testing was prospectively performed on 539 children aged between 4 and 17 years with respiratory allergy. The reaction was considered to be positive if the mean wheal diameter was at least 3 mm greater than that of the negative controls. We detected positive skin reactions in 420 (77.9%) children. Two hundred and eighty-one (52.1%) mite, 277 (51.4%) pollen, 174 (32.3%) mold, 65 (12.1%) animal dander, 12 (2.2%) cockroach and 6 (1.1%) latex skin sensitivities were detected. Among the pollen allergies 173 were cereal pollen (32.1%), 170 grass pollen (31.5%) and 144 tree pollen allergies (26.7%). The most common positive skin test among the pollens was to cultivated wheat (Titicum vulgare) (n = 116, 21,5%), followed by rye grass (Lolium perenne) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). Positive skin reactions to Alternaria, to Candida albicans, and to all pollens except Ulmus competris, Pinus sylvetris, Platanus vulgaris and Tilia platyphyllos, were higher in children with allergic rhinitis than in those with asthma. In children from rural areas, allergic skin reactivity was found to be more common against Candida albicans, sheep dander and all pollens except Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus alba, Pinus sylvetris, Platanus vulgaris and Chenopodium album, than in urban children. Although Trakya is close to Greece and other Mediterranean countries, this study suggests that the pollens, which sensitize children, are not similar. PMID:15783130

Yazicioglu, Mehtap; Oner, Naci; Celtik, Coskun; Okutan, Ozlem; Pala, Ozer

2004-12-01

254

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

2008-01-01

255

Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar  

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Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

Randolph H. Wynne

2012-02-01

256

[Egretta garzetta as a bioindicator of environmental pollution in Tai Lake region].  

Science.gov (United States)

There were four species of Ardeidae in Tai Lake. The dominant vegetations in the habitat were Pinus massoniana, Cinnamomum hupehanum, Quercus acutissema, Ulmus prmila and Myrica rubra, which were suitable for Egretta garzetta to make nests. The area of the habitat was about 7 hm2, where there were totally 4200 Egretta garzetta nests with the density of 0.38 nest per tree in average. Studies on Egretta garzetta breeding ecology showed that the incubating time was 19-21 days, the average egg weight was 23.9 +/- 4.0 g(n = 41), and the average egg size was 44.5 +/- 4.1 mm x 32.6 +/- 4.9 mm(n = 41). The mean clutch size and brood size were 5.02(2-8) and 3.86(2-7), respectively, and the hatching rate was 84.25%. The measurements of Egretta garzetta nestling tarsus did not show any asymmetry (P > 0.05). Egretta garzetta fed mainly on small fish and shrimps in Tai Lake. The analysis results of Tai Lake samples showed that the pollutants including HCH, HCB, cyclodience, DDTs (DDT, DDE and DDD), PCBs, Cr, Hg and Pb in Egretta garzetta eggs were detected except Cd, and these pollutants accumulated through prey chain from sediments and preys to nestlings. Comparing samples from Tai Lake and those from Poyang Lake as relatively unpolluted area, only the concentration of DDTs residues was higher than 2 micrograms.g-1 in both lakes, and the other residues from Tai Lake like organochlorine insecticides, PCBs and heavy metals were all lower than those from Poyang Lake, and did not affect the development and breeding success of Egretta garzetta at present. PMID:12827884

Ruan, Luzhang; Zhang, Yingmei; Zhao, Dongqin; Dong, Yuanhua; Mauro, Fasola

2003-02-01

257

Fluctuación diaria del fitoplancton en la capa superficial del océano durante la primavera de 1997 en el norte de Chile (20°18´S): II. Composición específica y abundancia celular / Daily fluctuation of phytoplankton in the upper layer of the ocean during the spring of 1997 in the north of Chile (20°18´S): II. Specific composition and cellular abundance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analiza la respuesta de la comunidad microfitoplanctónica a los cambios en la estructura física y química producidos por un evento de surgencia sobre una escala diaria. La época en la cual se realizó el estudio coincidió con la presencia de “El Niño” 1997-1998, pero los resultados no evidenciaron [...] una condición anómala asociada a dicho evento. Los valores del índice de surgencia permitieron dividir el período de estudio en dos fases, la primera, entre el 26 de agosto y el 7 de septiembre, cuando las magnitudes de los eventos estuvieron centradas en los 1.000 m³s-1, y la segunda entre el 9 y el 17 de septiembre, cuando los valores superaron los 2.000 m³s-1. La estructura comunitaria del microfitoplancton estuvo fuertemente acoplada a las fluctuaciones físicas y químicas ocasionadas por la variabilidad de los eventos de surgencia. Durante la primera fase hubo una predominancia absoluta de Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle, la cual contribuyó con un 82,8% al total de las abundancias celulares, resultando en una comunidad con un carácter monoespecífico. La declinación y desaparición de T. subtilis estuvieron relacionadas con un cambio en las condiciones oceanográficas de la capa superficial, producido por la intensificación de la surgencia. En la segunda fase, la diversidad se incrementó en directa relación con un cambio en la componente específica de la comunidad fitoplanctónica, que condujo a la dominancia de Detonula pumila (Cleve) Grunow y Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve. La salinidad resultó ser la variable que influyó significativamente la estructura comunitaria observada Abstract in english The response of the microphytoplanktonic community to the physical and chemical changes during an upwelling event is analyzed on a daily scale. The study coincided with the “El Niño” 1997-1998 presence, but the results did not show the anomalous condition associated with this event. The Upwelling In [...] dex values allowed us to divide the study period in two phases, the first one, from August 26 to September 7, when the events magnitudes were about 1,000 m³s-1, and the second from September 9 through 17, when the values were higher than 2,000 m³s-1. The microphytoplanktonic community structure was strongly coupled with the physical and chemical fluctuations caused by the variability of the upwelling events. During the first phase, Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle was absolutely dominant, contributing 82.8% to the total cellular abundance, resulting in a community with a monospecific character. The decline and disappearance of T. subtilis was related to a change in the oceanographic conditions of the superficial layer, produced by the change in the upwelling intensity. In the second phase, the diversity increased in direct relation to a change in the specific composition of the microphytoplanktonic community, which led to Detonula pumila and Leptocylindrus danicus dominance. Salinity was the variable that significantly affected the observed community structure

Edgardo, Santander; Liliana, Herrera; Carlos, Merino.

2003-07-01

258

Characteristics of Plant Distribution in the Reclaimed Dredging Area in Gwangyang Bay, Korea  

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Full Text Available In order to elucidate the mechanisms affecting plant distributions in the reclaimed dredging areain the Gwangyang steelworks, in the Gwangyang Bay, Korea, we examined soil characteristics and plant distributionsin four study sites and a control site in the study area. Desalination occurring along a gradient withincreasing elevation, resulting in decrease of soil pH, EC, P, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and salt and an increase in soilT-N, silt, clay contents. From site 1 (the lowest-elevation site to site 5 (the highest-elevation site, halophytesdecreased in abundance and nonhalophytes increased. The dominant species in each site were: Phragmitescommunis, Limonium tetragonum, and 12 additional species at site 1, Carex pumila, Suaeda japonica, and 15additional species at site 2, Spergularia marina, Scirpus planiculmis, and 22 additional species at site 3,Miscantus sinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, and 26 additional species at site 4 and Pinus thunberii, Rhododendronmucronulatum, and 39 additional species at site 5, which resembled a naturally-occurring P. thinbergii community.Cluster analysis of the vegetation data matrix grouped the 35 plots into 5 major groups, and cluster analysisusing the soil environment data matrix revealed 4 major groups. CCA of the floristic and environmental datamatrix showed a positive relationship of SAR, EC, Na, Cl, and Ca, which are related to salt, in the 1st axis and2nd axis, but negative relationships for altitude, organic contents, silt, and clay contents. Notably, plant speciesin the reclaimed dredging area that were separated along the 1st axis showed strong relationships with factorsthat related to salt. Long-term exposure to natural rainfall in the reclaimed dredging area changed the soilcharacteristics, such as salinity. This change in soil characteristics might alter the SAR, which affects plantsurvival strategies in a given habitat. These results strongly indicated that factors related to salt and elevationplay important roles in determining the overall plant distribution in the reclaimed dredging area.

Nam, Woong

2009-05-01

259

Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphyll [...] a, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

Nemesio, Villa-Ruano; Guilibaldo G, Zurita-Vásquez; Yesenia, Pacheco-Hernández; Martha G, Betancourt-Jiménez; Ramiro, Cruz-Durán; Horacio, Duque-Bautista.

260

Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need [...] for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

Sarah Zanon, Agapito-Tenfen; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Frederico, Denardi; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina  

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Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

A. Grootjans

2014-01-01

262

Riego parcial de la raíz en manzano `golden delicious´ en un mbiente semi-árido  

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Full Text Available El agua para riego es un recurso limitado y costoso en la producción de manzano (Malus pumila Mill. en las regiones semi-áridas del mundo, como en la región Norte de México donde se cultivan 44 mil hectáreas. Se ha demostrado que el riego parcial de la raíz (RPR es una técnica que ahorra agua en manzano cultivado en regiones húmedas, pero en climas semi-áridos aún no se evalúa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto del RPR sobre el rendimiento y calidad de fruto del manzano ?Golden Delicious? cultivado en un clima semi-árido donde la demanda evapotranspiratoria del cultivo es mayor que en un ambiente húmedo. Los tratamientos fueron: riego completo (RC, testigo y RPR; en éste se aplicó 50 % del RC, pues el riego se alternó del lado húmedo al seco del sistema radical cada 8 d o cuando el contenido del agua en el suelo alcanzó un umbral de abatimiento. En general, el rendimiento y componentes del rendimiento fueron estadísticamente iguales en ambos tratamientos, pero la eficiencia en el uso del agua fue significativamente mejorada en 70 % con el RPR en relación al RC. El RPR ahorró 44 % del agua. El peso medio, la firmeza y la concentración de sólidos solubles totales del fruto fueron estadísticamente iguales entre tratamientos. La concentración de la materia seca del fruto fue significativamente mayor en árboles con RPR que en aquéllos con RC. El RPR necesita ser validado en otros cultivares de manzano y ambientes agro-ecológicos antes de que esta técnica sea comercialmente difundida.

Jorge A. Zegbe-Dom\\u00EDnguez

2006-01-01

263

Cloning, expression, and characterization of sorbitol transporters from developing sour cherry fruit and leaf sink tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (K(m) sorbitol of 0.81 mM for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mM for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

2003-04-01

264

Evidence for inversion polymorphism related to sympatric host race formation in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) is undergoing sympatric speciation (i.e., divergence without geographic isolation) in the process of shifting and adapting to a new host plant. Prior to the introduction of cultivated apples (Malus pumila) in North America, R. pomonella infested the fruit of native hawthorns (Crataegus spp.). However, sometime in the mid-1800s the fly formed a sympatric race on apple. The recently derived apple-infesting race shows consistent allele frequency differences from the hawthorn host race for six allozyme loci mapping to three different chromosomes. Alleles at all six of these allozymes correlate with the timing of adult eclosion, an event dependent on the duration of the overwintering pupal diapause. This timing difference differentially adapts the univoltine fly races to an approximately 3- to 4-week difference in the peak fruiting times of apple and hawthorn trees, partially reproductively isolating the host races. Here, we report finding substantial gametic disequilibrium among allozyme and complementary DNA (cDNA) markers encompassing the three chromosomal regions differentiating apple and hawthorn flies. The regions of disequilibrium extend well beyond the previously characterized six allozyme loci, covering substantial portions of chromosomes 1, 2, and 3 (haploid n = 6 in R. pomonella). Moreover, significant recombination heterogeneity and variation in gene order were observed among single-pair crosses for each of the three genomic regions, implying the existence of inversion polymorphism. We therefore have evidence that genes affecting diapause traits involved in host race formation reside within large complexes of rearranged genes. We explore whether these genomic regions (inversions) constitute coadapted gene complexes and discuss the implications of our findings for sympatric speciation in Rhagoletis. PMID:12663534

Feder, Jeffrey L; Roethele, Joseph B; Filchak, Kenneth; Niedbalski, Julie; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

2003-03-01

265

Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl2, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ?g/ Cd/cm2 with CdCl2 (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plbtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place

266

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado [...] determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the [...] extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Misael, Chinchilla-Carmona; Olga Marta, Guerrero Bermúdez; Giselle, Tamayo-Castillo; Ana, Sittenfeld Appel; Alberto, Jiménez-Somarribas; Idalia, Valerio-Campos.

2008-06-01

267

Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro  

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Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

2008-06-01

268

Palynology of latest Neogene (Middle Miocene to late Pliocene) strata in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia  

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Palynology of Miocene and Pliocene formations in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia reveals a significant representation of exotic pollen interspersed in pollen assemblages that are otherwise comparable to those from the modern vegetation of the Mid-Alantic coastal plain region. The late Tertiary arboreal pollen (AP) assemblages are dominated by oak, hickory, pine, birch and alder with minor amounts of mid- and southern coastal tree taxa, as well as minor spruce and hemlock and a trace of fir. Nonarboreal pollen (NAP) include grass, sedge, composite and aquatic taxa. Exotic pollen in these assemblages represent plants now foreign to this region. They may be placed in three categories. First, there are extinct forms, such as Labrapollis, Plicatopollis, and Multiporopollenites, that can be traced from the Cretaceous or Early Tertiary into the Late Tertiary. The second group includes forms, such as Podocarpus, Engelhardtia, Pterocarya, Ephedra, Eucommia, Ulmus-Zelkova, Glyptostrobus, Palmae, and Cyathea, that are not found in this region today and not found in early Pleistocene sediments in the eastern United States. Many of these taxa are subtropical or greatly restricted in geographic range. A third group of exotics, mainly Cyrilla, Planera, Gordonia, Jussiaea, and Sapotacaea, including Minusops, are generally found south of the study area or have their northern limit here at this time. The lack of the extinct or distant exotics in early to mid-Pleistocene sediments in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain and the last appearance of Pterocarya, as the last exotic taxon in the early Pleistocene of western Europe, support the stratigraphic assignment of the Pliocene units. The number of exotic taxa diminish markedly between the Miocene pollen assemblages and those of the Late Pliocene. Climatic fluctuations characterize the Late Tertiary environments. The Miocene, for example, incorporates a warming trend between the upper, middle Miocene and the Manokin beds and the late Miocene of the Pokomoke beds. The late Miocene was probably somewhat warner than the present climate in the Delmarva region. This trend is based on the presence of colder climate indicators, mainly spruce and hemlock, in the Manokin pollen record. The two distinct pollen assemblages constitute two pollen zones. Similarly, the Pliocene pollen record also shows a warming trend. The pollen zone of the Yorktown Formation of the early Pliocene age contains the colder climate indicators spruce and hemlock. The Beaverdam and Walston formation of late Pliocene age contain pollen assemblages that reflect climatic conditions warmer than the present time.

Sirkin, L.; Owens, J.P.

1998-01-01

269

Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)  

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It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree communities (e.g. Quercetum mixtum) and low ostracod-inferred water levels at Lago della Costa correspond to the cold Heinrich events H-2 (LGM; 23,000-19,000 cal. BP) and H-3 (around 28,000 cal. BP), as recorded in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic. Similar patterns of significant temperate tree population collapses during cold Heinrich events are recorded at southern Mediterranean sites (e.g. Monticchio and the Alboran Sea). These findings suggest close linkages between Northern Atlantic and South-Central European climates during the past Glacial.

Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

2009-12-01

270

Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Full Text Available Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: “Commelin” (relatively susceptible and “Lobel” (relatively resistant. In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with “Columella”, “Sapporo Autumn Gold”’ and “Rebella” being highly resistant and significantly different from “Lobel” and “Regal”, “Urban”, “Belgica”, “Den Haag” and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to “Commelin”. The non-released clones performed comparable to “Lobel’”or even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.

Buiteveld J

2014-08-01

271

Holocene environmental changes in the Alashan Gobi, NW China: Evidence from a pollen record in comparison to modern pollen spectra  

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Pollen data of an early to mid-Holocene sediment record from the centre of the present dry Eastern Juyan lake, Alashan Gobi, northwestern China and comparisons with modern pollen spectra provide information about vegetation and climatic changes in a desert dominated region. The arid Alashan Plateau receives less than 80 mm annual precipitation and is covered by a typical desert vegetation comprising Calligonum mongolicum, Nitraria sphaerocarpa, Zygophyllum xanthoxylon, Ephedra przewalskii, Reaumuria soogorica, Artemisia tschernerviana, Haloxylon ammodendron and some other Chenopodiaceae being the main plant taxa. An 8.25 m long sediment core taken from the northwestern part of Juyan lake covers the the early and the mid-Holocene (11.0 to 2.0 cal. ka BP). Altogether 64 samples with a total of ca. 400 grains per sample were analysed. The most abundant taxa and their probable origin are the following: Betula (far transport from the adjacent mountains), Ulmus (riparian vegetation), Artemisia, Poaceae, Ephedra distachya-type, Ephedra fragilis-type (steppe vegetation or indefinable), Chenopodiaceae, Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria (desert vegetation). According to 5 AMS datings and pollen spectra the record can be subdivided into two parts: 11.0 to 5.5 cal. ka BP with higher abundances of Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra and 5.5 to 2.0 cal. ka BP with more Artemisia and less Ephedra. Due to the varying Artemisia/Chenopodiaceae ratio and the similarly changing abundance of some desert taxa (Nitraria, Calligonum, Reaumuria) a division in periods with steppe vegetation mainly indicate wetter conditions while the abundance of desert vegetation may reflect somewhat drier conditions. According to the age model wetter conditions prevailed between about 8.2 7.5, 6.6 - 6.2, 5.6 4.8, 4.3 4.0 and 3.2 2.8 cal. ka BP. Many pollen surface samples from the Alashan Gobi and the adjacent areas (the Qilian Mountains in the south and Mongolia in the north) supply this investigation with Recent pollen spectra from several vegetation types with known climatic conditions, which were used to understand the fossil pollen spectra and to identify and to verify the pollen indicator species and pollen indicator ratios.

Herzschuh, U.; Tarasov, P.; Hartmann, K.; Wuennemann, B.

2003-04-01

272

Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi  

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Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

2012-11-01

273

Experimental study of terrestrial plant litter interaction with aqueous solutions  

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Quantification of silicon and calcium recycling by plants is hampered by the lack of physico-chemical data on reactivity of plant litter in soil environments. We applied a laboratory experimental approach for determining the silica and calcium release rates from litter of typical temperate and boreal plants: pine ( Pinus laricio), birch ( Betula pubescens), larch ( Larix gmelinii), elm ( Ulmus laevis Pall.), tree fern ( Dicksonia squarrosa), and horsetail (Equisetum arvense) in 0.01 M NaCl solutions, pH of 2-10 and temperature equals to 5, 25 and 40 °C. Open system, mixed-flow reactors equipped with dialysis compartment and batch reactors were used. Comparative measurements were performed on intact larch needles and samples grounded during different time, sterilized or not and with addition or not of sodium azide in order to account for the effect of surface to mass ratio and possible microbiological activity on the litter dissolution rates. Litter degradation results suggest that the silica release rate is independent on dissolved organic carbon release (cell breakdown) which implies the presence of phytoliths in a pure "inorganic" pool not complexed with organic matter. Calcium and DOC are released at the very first stage of litter dissolution while Si concentration increases gradually suggesting the presence of Ca and Si in two different pools. The dry-weight normalized dissolution rate at circum-neutral pH range (approx. 1-10 ?mol/g DW/day) is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the rates of Si release from common soil minerals (kaolinite, smectite, illite). Minimal Ca release rates evaluated from batch and mixed-flow reactors are comparable with those of most reactive soil minerals such as calcite and apatite, and several orders of magnitude higher than the dissolution rates of major rock-forming silicates (feldspars, pyroxenes). The activation energy for Si liberation from plant litter is approx. 50 kJ/mol which is comparable with that of surface-controlled mineral dissolutions. It is shown that the Si release rate from the above-ground forest biomass is capable of producing the Si concentrations observed in soil solutions of surficial horizons and contribute significantly to the Si flux from the soil to the river.

Fraysse, F.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Meunier, J.-D.

2010-01-01

274

The Physics of Pollen and Spore Rebound from Plant Surfaces.  

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The problem of particle rebound from plant surfaces has been examined. Particle rebound is a component of net deposition; the other components are reentrainment and impingement. I carried out several sets of wind tunnel experiments to examine the nature of rebound, reentrainment and impingement. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out on the data. A simple computer model was created to predict particle deposition in wind tunnel conditions. My work confirms that rebound is an important process in the wind tunnel, and implies the existence of a process I call 'rebound/reentrainment'. I tested several major hypotheses. The first was that biological materials exhibit the same physical rebound characteristics as artificial materials. The second was that particles rebound in a manner predicted by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. The third was that rebound is a dominant component of net deposition. The fourth was that surface characteristics may seriously influence rebound. I carried out my experiments in a low-speed wind tunnel. For surfaces I used glass and the leaves of tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), Coleus (Coleus blumeii) and American elm (Ulmus americana). For particles I used glass microbeads, lycopodium spores (Lycopodium spp.), and ragweed pollen (Ambrosia trifida). Four main sets of experiments were carried out. I examined rebound, as a function of particle speed, of particles impinging upon leaf surfaces, reentrainment of spores and pollen as a function of wind speed and time, net deposition, as a function of wind speed, and adhesion of pollen and spores to the leaf surfaces. From these experiments I concluded that in general, pollen and spore rebound can be described well by Dahneke's (1971, 1975) theory. Particle differences are far more significant than surface differences in the rebound process. I postulate the existence of rebound/reentrainment when particles impinge on surfaces with tangential fluid flow present. Particles will bounce initially, be drawn back to the surface, but if the fluid flow is sufficiently strong, the particles will be reentrained. Rebound processes, if they are defined to include rebound and rebound/reentrainment, are generally more important than reentrainment in limiting net deposition. I used experimental and theoretical work to form a simple net deposition model for large particles in wind tunnel flow. Further development of similar models is necessary for more accurate results, and for linkage to macroscale deposition and transport models.

Paw U, Kyaw Tha

1980-12-01

275

From the Allerød to the mid-Holocene: palynological evidence from the south basin of the Caspian Sea  

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Pollen and dinoflagellate cysts have been analysed in a core from the south basin of the Caspian Sea, providing a picture of respectively past vegetation and water salinity for the Late Pleistocene to middle Holocene. A relatively sharp lithological change at 0.86 m depth reflects a shift from detrital silts to carbonates-rich fine silts. From this depth upwards, a Holocene chronology is built based on ten radiocarbon dates on ostracod shells and bulk carbonates. From the vegetation point of view, the Late Pleistocene deserts and steppes were partially replaced in the most sheltered areas by an open woodland with Pinus, Juniperus-Hippophae-Elaeagnus and even Alnus-Quercus-Pterocarya and Fraxinus, related to the Allerød palynozone. This was interrupted by the Younger Dryas palynozone when Artemisia reaches a maximum in a first instance followed by a very dry phase with only a slight return of Pinus and Quercus and the rare presence of Ulmus-Zelkova. From 11.5 to 8.4 cal. ka BP, an open landscape dominated by shrubs such as Ephedra and progressively increasing Quercus appeared. The final spread of diverse evergreen and deciduous trees is delayed and occurs after 8.4 cal. ka BP. It is suggested that this delay is caused by an arid climate in the Early Holocene linked to high insolation and perhaps to a lake effect. The dinocyst assemblages fluctuate between slightly brackish (Pyxidinopsis psilata and Spiniferites cruciformis, 7 psu and lower) and more brackish (Impagidinium caspienense, ?13 psu). In the Lateglacial (Khvalynian highstand), the assemblages remained dominated by relative low salinity taxa. A late and brief increase of salinity occurred prior to 11.2 cal. ka BP associated with the Mangyshlak lowstand. It is suggested that it was caused by a brief drop in meltwater flow from both the north and the southeast (Uzboy) and a likely evaporation increase. This lowstand occurs quasi at the same time as the end of a longer lowstand in the Black Sea. The freshest waters are then inferred as having occurred between 8.4 and ?4.4 cal. ka BP, linked to a connection with the Amu Darya and the melting glaciers on the Pamir Mountains. The Caspian Sea is a sensitive environment, easily perturbed by global climatic changes, such as the Allerød and Holocene warming, and the Lateglacial and Younger Dryas cooling, as well as by regional changes in its hydrography, such as shifts in the Eurasian meltwater and the Volga and Amu Darya inflows.

Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Tudryn, Alina; Chalié, Françoise; López-Merino, Lourdes; Gasse, Françoise

2013-10-01

276

Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure  

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Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Bia?owie?a National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park.

Janusz B. Fali?ski

1997-03-01

277

Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

Brauer Gerhard

2007-02-01

278

Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients.  

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Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is manifested with allergy to oak, birch, and maple tree pollens. Identifying beech, poplar, and elm hypersensitivity adds little toward identifying patients who are allergic to tree pollens. This may relate in part to cross-reactive epitopes. These data suggest that these three trees can be eliminated from testing with only a < 1% loss of sensitivity. PMID:12221895

Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S

2002-01-01

279

Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?  

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To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

2014-07-01

280

An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs.

Büchel Kerstin

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Analysis of leave FTIR of nine kinds of plants from rosaceae with genetic relationship].  

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Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials. Genetic relationship was analyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants. Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other substances. The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1440 and 775 cm(-1). The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1440 and 1337 cm(-1). The peaks between 1000 and 775 cm(-1) are stretching vibration of ribose. The vibration peaks of protein are between 1620 and 1235 cm(-1). The peak at 1620 cm(-1) is sensitive to C=O stretching vibration of protein amide I. The peak at 1523 cm(-1) is assigned to N-H and C-N stretching vibration of protein amide II. Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2930 and 1380 cm(-1). The peak at 2922 cm(-1) is CH2 stretching vibration of fat. The peak at 1732 cm(-1) is C=O stretching vibration of fatty acids. The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1250 and 1000 cm(-1). The peak at 1068 cm(-1) is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO(2-) group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone, and the peak at 1246 cm(-1) is associated to the asymmetric stretch vibration of PO(2-) group. The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing, standardizing, the second derivative, principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis. It is accordant with the traditional classification. The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl. were clustered into one (Prunoideae). Potentilla fulgens Wall. Rosa chinensis Jacd and Fragaria ananassa Duchesne var. were clustered into the second (Rosoideae). Pyracantha fortuneana Li, Malus pumila Mill. Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook. f. and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae). The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100%. The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56%. The correct rate of identification is 100% when unknown species waiting for determined were laid into the model of Hierarchical cluster to identify. This study provides a new thought and method for genetic relationship analysis of planst. PMID:24822398

Qiu, Lu; Li, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Peng; Fan, Shu-Guo; Xie, Mei-Hua; Liu, Ren-Ming; Zhou, Lin-Zong; Wang, Jing

2014-02-01

282

Holocene volcanic influence on climate-forced vegetation changes on Kamchatka, based on pollen data  

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Pollen data from volcanic-affected areas on Kamchatka (Northern Volcanic Group, Eastern Volcanic Zone and Southern Kamchatka) have been overviewed, and compared with pollen records from the sites with negligible volcanic influence that allowed some asynchronous trends in vegetation dynamics during the Holocene to be found. Pollen data from sites within Central Kamchatka Depression (Esso, Kirganik etc.), far from recently active volcanoes, show that shrub pine (Pinus pumila), which started to spread from ca. 5.5 ka (all ages are given as14C kyr BP) in response to climate warming and weakening of maritime influence, had the highest rates of advance during last 3 ka that agrees well with the late Holocene coniferous forest expansion overall the Central Kamchatka Depression. Meanwhile, shrub pine spreading around the Tolbachik volcano (Northern Volcanic Group) decelerated after ca. 1.8 ka and ceased completely by ca. 1.5 ka while other coniferous, spruce (Picea ajanensis) and larch (Larix cajanderi), were in progress. Such a local degradation of shrub pine, which is rather sensitive species to ashfalls, is likely caused by volcanic impact: since ca. 2 ka there was a pulse of volcanic activity of numerous monogenetic eruptive centers at the Tolbachinsky Dol lava field. Asynchronous shift of stone birch (Betula ermanii) forest along the Pacific coast of Kamchatka could be also regarded as volcanic-forced phenomenon. First appearance of stone birch forest at the eastern coast of the peninsula occurred between 8-6 ka under warmer conditions and strengthened climate continentality. However, birch advance in particular areas along the Pacific coast appears to have been not caused by spatial heterogeneity of climatic patterns: the earliest (ca. 8 ka) evidences of stone birch forest establishment are recorded near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky city and at the Uzon-Geizernaya Depression, while the latest (ca. 6 ka) - nearby the Maly Semyachik and Karymsky volcanoes; northern records (Uka Bay etc.) show stone birch forest advance since ca. 7 ka, in the middle of reported time interval. Such time heterogeneity was likely caused by local volcanic activity at the Eastern Volcanic Zone, which prevented forest spreading around active volcanoes. All evidences obtained from volcanic-affected areas suggest complicate environmental response to regional climate change due to local volcanic impact that needs further investigations.

Dirksen, V.; Dirksen, O.

2009-04-01

283

Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

Antanaviciute Laima

2012-05-01

284

The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy  

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Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close to the sea level, in lagoonal to alluvial environments. There are only few age estimates available. Several shells from the lower terraces are currently being dated. A Calcic Luvisol developed on the terrace T1 (terminology according to Brückner, 1980), which is attributed to MIS 5.1. The next higher terraces T2 and T3 are characterised by progressive soil evolution, in particular increasing rubification and clay translocation. In some locations, loess accumulated on the terraces, as observed in the profile Petrulla on T1. According to OSL datings by Zander et al. (2006), the loess at this site accumulated between 24.9 ka BP and Italy. Quaternary International, 73/74: 91-110. Brückner, H., 1980. Marine Terrassen in Süditalien. Eine quartärmorphologische Studie über das Küstentiefland von Metapont. Düsseldorfer Geographische Schriften, 14, 235 p. Di Donato, V., Esposito, P., Russo-Ermolli, E., Scarano, A., Cheddadi, R. (2008): Coupled atmospheric and marine palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the last 35 ka in the Sele Plain - Gulf of Salerno area (southern Italy). Quaternary International, 190: 146-157. Follieri, M., Giardini, M., Magri, D., Sadori, L. (1998): Palynostratigraphy of the last glacial period in the volcanic region of central Italy. Quaternary International, 47/48: 3-20. Zander, A., Fülling, A., Brückner, H. & Mastronuzzi, G. (2006): OSL dating of Upper Pleistocene littoral sediments: a contribution to the chronostratigraphy of raised marine terraces bordering the Gulf of Taranto, South Italy. Geografia Fisica e Dinamica Quaternaria, 29 (1): 33-50.

Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

2010-05-01

285

Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil / Composición y conservación de Orchidaceae en un inselberg en el bosque Atlántico brasileño y sus relaciones florísticas con áreas del este de Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish La Mata Atlántica brasileña presenta altos niveles de riqueza y endemismo de varios grupos taxonómicos. Los inselbergs de la Mata Atlántica de Brasil son, en su mayoría, desconocidos en cuanto a su composición florística. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron hacer un análisis comparativo de las espe [...] cies de Orchidaceae en el Macizo de Itaoca, un inselberg ubicado en la región norte del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con otros sitios en el este de Brasil, y discutir la distribución geográfica, las relaciones florísticas y el estado de conservación de las especies de orquídeas presentes en los inselbergs. La composición florística de la zona de estudio se comparó con otras 24 localidades en el este de Brasil (13 de las cuales son inselbergs) y la influencia de los tipos de vegetación aledaña en la composición de la flora de Orchidaceae en los inselbergs. En Macizo de Itaoca registramos 18 especies de 17 géneros. La mayor similitud florística fue con la Pedra da Botelha (0,43), en Espírito Santo. Al parecer, los tipos de vegetación aledaña ejercen poca influencia sobre la flora de los inselbergs. Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the [...] Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Alexandre, Soares Pessanha; Luiz, Menini Neto; Rafaela, Campostrini Forzza; Marcelo, Nascimento.

2014-08-01

286

The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: By estimations of scientific biogeochemists and geochemists hollow of the Issyk Kul is a natural uranium biogeochemical province. However uranium ores consists other microelements. In the given uranium region the biogeochemistry of uranium, etc. microelements are studied poorly. Considering the social and economic and ecological importance of subregion of Issyk-Kul for republic and value of uranium for alive organisms, we have aim - to research biogeochemistry of uranium in territory hollow of Issyk Kul. Uranium waste is located in 2,5 km to the east from inhabited settlement, but natural factors (rains, underground waters, landslips) are dangerous for ecology of Issyk Kul lake and the nearest settlements. But after closing of mining combine of the Kadji-Say a lot of not conserving radioactive-industrial waste in coastal of Dzhili-Bulak, underwent intensive destruction, carry of its part to a exit of natural boundary. The reason was frequent storm rains. For 40 years there was an intensive raising a coastal part in area of industry zone. It was made by formation of terraces in highest natural boundaries of Dzhil-Bulak. On the kept terraces it is possible to meet here and there the radioactive-industrial waste, combined by ashed material mixed up with gravel material. The part of radioactive ashes achieved to Issyk Kul Lake, but it is not so important, because that is makes a drop in the sea for Issyk Kul Lake (we shall remind, that in the lake contains abouall remind, that in the lake contains about 100 thousand tons of uranium). By radiometric shooting turn out that a level of radiation in hollow of the Issyk-Kul and in around territory of the Kadji-Sai settlement is low and about from 15 up to 47 nZv/hour. In province of E-circumflexadji-Say and around territory the soil and covered ground are characterized by the various contents of uranium -from 0,1x10-6 g/g to 35,0x10-6 g/g. The analysis of 20 samples of soils and ground has shown, that on the uranium deposit in the upper horizon of a covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm, except of some technogenic territories

287

Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region  

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Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest – 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak – 10.7%, SB1OP (dry oak-pine – 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak – 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak – 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril’ Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5 ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8 ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

S. A. Sytnik

2013-11-01