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Sample records for ulmus pumila ulmaceae

  1. Patterns of Hybridization and Introgression Between Invasive Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae) and Native U. Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been strongly affected by DED. Putative p...

  2. Fenología de la floración de ulmus pumila l. (ulmaceae) en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca (Argentina) / Flowering phenology of ulmus pumila (ulmaceae) in Bahía Blanca city (Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Saveanu; M.G., Murray.

    Full Text Available La fenología es el estudio de los fenómenos periódicos que ocurren en los seres vivos y sus relaciones con condiciones ambientales como luz, temperatura, humedad, etc. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron describir las fases fenológicas durante la floración de Ulmus pumila L. para la ciudad de Bahía [...] Blanca y relacionar la floración con datos meteorológicos de temperaturas mínimas y máximas. Durante dos periodos de floración (julio a septiembre, de 2007 y de 2008) se realizaron observaciones fenológicas semanales de ejemplares de U. pumila presentes en el arbolado urbano de la ciudad. La floración se observó en los meses de julio y agosto, registrándose la máxima floración el 23 y el 7 de agosto de 2007 y 2008, respectivamente. Durante la floración del año 2007 la cantidad de flores registradas y la duración de la fase de floración fueron superiores a lo ocurrido en 2008. Estos resultados ayudan a conocer la dinámica de floración de U. pumila en la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, y a largo plazo contribuirá a la interpretación de los cambios climáticos de la región y a una mejor prevención de las alergias. Abstract in english Phenology is the study of predictably occurring biological events and their relationship to environmental conditions as light, temperature, humidity, etc. The aims of this study were to describe flowering phenological phases of Ulmus pumila L. in Bahía Blanca city and relate flowering stage with wea [...] ther data of minimum and maximum temperatures. During two flowering seasons (July to September, 2007 and 2008) phenological observations were carried out weekly in U. pumila plants present in the urban flora. Flowering stage was recorded in July and August, recording the highest flowering on 23 and 7 of August in 2007 and 2008, respectively. During 2007 flowering season, the number of flowers recorded and the open flowering stage duration were higher than 2008. These results help to understand the dynamics of flowering U. pumila in the city of Bahia Blanca; in the long term they will contribute to the understanding of climate change in the region and improve prevention of allergies.

  3. The Extent of Hybridization and Its Impact on the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of an Invasive Tree, Ulmus Pumila (Ulmaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), native to East Asia, was introduced in the U.S. in the 1900’s because of its high tolerance to Dutch elm disease (DED). Siberian elm has spread following its introduction and has now become one of the most invasive woody species in the U.S., alongside Russian olive a...

  4. Alcanos lineales de la cera cuticular de hojas de Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) y Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) en Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoides (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María L., Bakker; Patricia I., Alvarado.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O) en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el conteni [...] do y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23?C35) fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS) fue P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76%) igual que en Robinia (75%). La presencia de n-alcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus. Abstract in english Mature leaves of adult individuals of Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila and Fraxinus americana from the University Campus, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’W) were collected on February 2004. The cuticular wax was extracted, purified, and the conten [...] t and relative proportion of odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (C23?C35) was quantified by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Total concentration of n-alkanes (mg/kg DM) were P. alba (6935) > Robinia (1571) > P. deltoides (1379) > Ulmus (880) > Fraxinus (467). Most abundant n-alkanes in all species were C27 and C29 accounting for 10-51% and 35-76% of total, respectively, except Fraxinus where most abundant were C29 and C31 accounting for 31% and 41% of total, respectively. P. alba and P. deltoides differed not only in total concentration of all n-alkanes but also in relative proportion of C27 and C29, being C29 the most abundant in the latter species (76%) as well as in Robinia (75%). The occurrence of even-carbon numbered n-alkanes was either undetectable or very low in all species in general, except for C26, C28 and C30, the latter being prominent in Fraxinus.

  5. Hybridization and introgression patterns between native red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and exotic, invasive Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.) examined using species-specific microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm) is an invasive elm species, non-native to the United States, which hybridizes with Ulmus rubra (red elm), a U.S. native. While Siberian elm is highly tolerant to Dutch elm disease (DED), red elm populations in North America have been decimated by DED. In order to study ...

  6. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  7. Genetic diversity and relationships among Dutch elm disease tolerant Ulmus pumila L. accessions from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalapa, Juan E; Brunet, Johanne; Guries, Raymond P

    2008-07-01

    Elm breeding programs worldwide have relied heavily on Asian elm germplasm, particularly Ulmus pumila, for the breeding of Dutch elm disease tolerant cultivars. However, the extent and patterning of genetic variation in Asian elm species is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the extent of genetic diversity among 53 U. pumila accessions collected throughout the People's Republic of China. Using 23 microsatellite loci recently developed in the genus Ulmus, a total of 94 alleles were identified in 15 polymorphic and 4 monomorphic loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.9, with a range of 1-11 alleles. Gene diversity estimates per locus ranged from 0.08 to 0.87, and the non-exclusion probability for the 15 polymorphic loci combined was 0.7 x 10(-9). Nineteen region-specific alleles were identified, and regional gene diversity estimates were moderately high (0.48-0.57). The genetic relationships among accessions and regions were estimated by UPGMA and principal coordinate analysis. Both techniques discriminated all accessions and regions. Two microsatellite markers (UR175 + UR123 or Ulm-3) were sufficient to discriminate up to 99.7% of the accessions studied. This research provides useful information for DNA-based fingerprinting, breeding, ecological studies, and diversity assessment of elm germplasm. PMID:18545273

  8. Hybridization and introgression between the exotic Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, and the native Field elm, U. minor, in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the first Dutch elm disease (DED) pandemic, Siberian elm, Ulmus pumila, was planted to replace the native elm, U. minor, in Italy. The potential for hybridization between these two species is high and repeated hybridization could result in the genetic swamping of the native species an...

  9. The influence of cadmium and lead on Ulmus pumila L. seed germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uki? Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine how the heavy metals cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb influence the germination and early growth of seedlings of the fast-growing tree species Ulmus pumila L. Seeds were germinated and seedlings were hydroponically grown in a solution with Cd-nitrate and Pb-nitrate at concentrations of 20 ?M, 50 ?M and 90 ?M. Our results show that seeds can germinate in the presence of these two heavy metals at all of the applied concentrations with no significant reduction in qualitative (germination capacity, germination energy or quantitative (germination intensity, mean germination period germination parameters as compared to the controls. Early seedling development was also possible at higher concentrations of both heavy metals. Cd reduced hypocotyl length, but not significantly the length of radicles. Pb did not influence hypocotyl length and stimulated radicle length significantly (95%. These results could mark a step forward in defining the tolerance of U. pumila to the presence of Cd and Pb, and to the possibility of using this fast-growing tree which is resistant to different abiotic and biotic stresses, for phytoremediation or soil reclamation purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  10. Ecophysiological and Growth Responses of Elm, Ulmus pumila, to Different Water Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between tree ecophysiological activity and underground water table need to be studied because a huge number of trees died in arid and semi-arid area during recent years for the decreasing water table due to increasing water consumption. In this study, the water table was represented by the distance from soil surface to water surface. Study on the effect of water tables on the ecophysiological characteristics and growth of Ulmus pumila saplings was conducted by a short-term experiment. Saplings at water tables of -5 (under water, 3, 9, 15 and 22 cm were abbreviated as U-5, U3, U9, U15 and U22. Present results indicated that water table did affect the ecophysiological and growth response of U. pumila. All U-5 died after one week. U9 and U15 had higher net photosynthesis rates than those of U3 and U22. The diurnal mean transpiration rate of U3 was significantly lower than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. The diurnal mean stomatal resistance of U3 was significantly higher than that of U9, U15 and U22, respectively. U22 had the highest increment in main root length and there was good correlation between water level and main root length. U15 had the highest increment in stem height. Maintaining proper water table would result in higher net photosynthesis, water use efficiency, plant height and root length, but relative lower transpiration rate for U. pumila saplings. These results would have implications for water management at arid and semi-arid area for vegetation survival and regeneration. Seedlings and saplings should not be submerged for a long time during irrigating. Ecophysiological measurements can indicate the underground water table. Maintaining proper underground water table at arid and semi-arid area would be helpful to the growth of plant species and vegetation.

  11. Seasonal changes in wood formation of Ulmus pumila and U. minor and its relation with Dutch elm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solla, A; Martín, J A; Corral, P; Gil, L

    2005-06-01

    Elms containing narrow and scattered vessels have been reported to be more resistant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease pathogen) than elms with large and contiguous vessels. However, recent measurements in Ulmus pumila and U. minor showed a contrary trend. The pin method was applied to 4-yr-old branches of eight clones planted in Madrid. During 2002, radial growth increments and vessel diameters were measured monthly, and beetle trapping was undertaken weekly. U. minor formed larger vessels at the beginning of the season, coinciding with a peak of captured beetles, but, up to June 15, vessels were larger for U. pumila. The number of vessels per group, the transversal area per vessel group, and the mean theoretical hydraulic conductances were significantly higher for U. minor on most dates. Researchers should take into consideration the seasonal changes in vessel size. The results highlight that seasonal variation of vessel diameters and hydraulic parameters, in combination with beetle abundance, are the main factors that could explain the different susceptibility of both elm species to O. novo-ulmi. PMID:15869660

  12. Genetic variation and heritability estimates of Ulmus minor and Ulmus pumila hybrids for budburst, growth and tolerance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solla A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings obtained by crossing Ulmus minor and U. minor × U. pumila clones were assessed for flowering, bark beetle damage, vegetative budburst, height growth and resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Ramets and open pollinated seedlings obtained from the parent trees were assessed for the same traits. Most progenies had similar traits to their parents, but some presented heterosis in annual growth or resistance to O. novo-ulmi. Leaf wilting was significantly lower in progenies with U. minor × U. pumila rather than U. minor as female parent (21.5 and 30.6%, respectively; P<0.05. Resistance to O. novo-ulmi increased significantly as a function of increased amounts of U. pumila germplasm from the female parent, suggesting that resistance to Dutch elm disease is primarily transmitted from the mother. Budburst occurred earlier in seedlings with low rather than high growth rates (P=0.0007 and percentage of wilting was negatively related to early budburst (P<0.0001. Other phenotypic relations included percentage of flowering trees and annual height growth (rp=0.44; P=0.0042, percentage of flowering trees and vegetative budburst (rp=-0.53; P=0.0004 and percentage of beetle-affected trees and annual height growth (rp=0.60; P<0.0001. Heritability estimates obtained from the regression and variance components methods ranged from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.18, 0.10 ± 0.05 to 0.69 ± 0.17, and 0.13 ± 0.32 to 0.71 ± 0.22 for budburst, growth and tolerance to O. novo-ulmi, respectively. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability values were higher when estimated 60 days post inoculation (dpi than 15, 30 or 120 dpi. Heritability estimates and genetic gains reported indicate a high degree of additive genetic control and show the effectiveness of selection for Dutch elm disease resistance and rapid tree growth.

  13. Correlation of resistance and H2O2 production in Ulmus pumila and Ulmus campestris cell suspension cultures inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rafael, M. A.; Valle, T.; Babiano, M. J.; Corchete, P.

    2001-04-01

    The Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Buissm. elicited the production of H2O2 in cell suspension cultures of the resistant species Ulmus pumila L. This response was not observed in suspensions of the susceptible elm U. campestris Mill. H2O2 production started after a lag time of 30-40 min following inoculation, peaked between 4 and 6 h and lasted up to 24 h. Treatment of the suspensions with exogenously added H2O2 did not cause accumulation of the sesquiterpene phytoalexins mansonones nor of the coumarin scopoletin. Spore germination and growth of O. novo-ulmi were significantly delayed with different amounts of H2O2 (0.1-1 mM). These results suggest that H2O2 production is an inducible defence response which may contribute to DED resistance by delaying the growth of the pathogen at the earliest stages of infection. Whether H2O2 is involved in other elm defence responses to the pathogen is presently unknown, but its production seems to be an independent event from phytoalexin formation. PMID:11299016

  14. Reactive oxygen species-provoked mitochondria-dependent cell death during ageing of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ying; Xue, Hua; Pritchard, Hugh W; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that controlled deterioration treatment (CDT) induces programmed cell death in elm (Ulmus pumila L.) seeds, which undergo certain fundamental processes that are comparable to apoptosis in animals. In this study, the essential characteristics of mitochondrial physiology in elm seeds during CDT were identified by cellular ultrastructural analysis, whole-body optical imaging, Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The alteration in mitochondrial morphology was an early event during CDT, as indicated by progressive dynamic mitochondrial changes and rupture of the mitochondrial outer membrane; loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??(m)) ensued, and mitochondrial ATP levels decreased. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A effectively suppressed these changes during ageing. The in situ localization of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and evaluation of the expression of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel and cyclophilin D indicated that the levels of mitochondrial permeability transition pore components were positively correlated with ROS production, leading to an imbalance of the cellular redox potential and ultimately to programmed cell death. Pre-incubation with ascorbic acid slowed loss of mitochondrial ??(m), and decreased the effect of CDT on seed viability. However, there were no significant changes in multiple antioxidant elements or chaperones in the mitochondria during early stages of ageing. Our results indicate that CDT induces dynamic changes in mitochondrial physiology via increased ROS production, ultimately resulting in an irreversible loss of seed viability. PMID:25439659

  15. Resistance to Dutch Elm Disease Reduces Presence of Xylem Endophytic Fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?n, Juan A.; Witzell, Johanna; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Helander, Marjo; Sieber, Thomas N.; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than su...

  16. American Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2006-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter. PMID:17033055

  17. Allozyme Variation in Endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yuqing; Dane, Fenny

    2003-01-01

    Allozyme genetic variation in 12 populations of the endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila (Allegheny chinkapin), sampled across the natural range of the species in the United States, was evaluated using 11 loci from seven enzyme systems. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (Ps) was 72·7 %, the mean number of alleles per locus (As) was 1·9, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (APs) was 2·3, the effective number of alleles per locus (Aes) was 1·5 and the ...

  18. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  19. Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan A; Witzell, Johanna; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Helander, Marjo; Sieber, Thomas N; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:23468900

  20. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi? Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  1. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis AGENCY: Fish...90-day finding on a petition to list Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ozark chinquapin...of the species to determine if listing Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis is...

  2. Micropropagation of mature wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroscíková, M; Spisáková, K; Lipták, S; Pichler, V; Durkovic, J

    2004-04-01

    Explants of mature vigorous donor trees of wych elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) that had not been previously exposed to Dutch elm disease were investigated for the influence of phytohormones and media on shoot multiplication rates and organogenic capacity. The regenerates were micropropagated from cultures that originated from 15-year-old progeny of plus trees. Two plus trees aged over 70 years showed recalcitrant responses. Thidiazuron in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) induced a significantly higher number of shoots per explant than the most optimal BAP treatment (5.88 vs. 3.05 shoots). Woody plant medium and Dubovský minimal medium had no significant effects on shoot formation and multiplication rates. All plantlets raised in vitro were phenotypically normal and successfully hardened to ex vitro conditions. Two experimental field plots with 3-year-old in vitro-propagated trees were established. PMID:14758503

  3. Pre-dispersal Seed Predation by a Granivorous Bird, the Masked Grosbeak (Eophona personata), in Two Bird-dispersed Ulmaceae Species

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuro Yoshikawa; Kihachiro Kikuzawa

    2009-01-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird, the masked grosbeak (Eophona personata,Fringillidae), was investigated in two bird-dispersed trees, Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera (Ulmaceae).The objectives of this study were to 1) measure direct damage of predation by grosbeaks on plant crops, 2)reveal the temporal pattern of predation within each tree species and its causal factors, and 3) test whetherforaging grosbeaks hinder foraging of frugivorous birds, thereby indirectly impac...

  4. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 ?M 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2?×?10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 ?M thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 ?M GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies. PMID:25359187

  5. Developmental stability of Iris pumila flower traits: A common garden experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I. pumila natural populations usually occur in two different habitat types: dune and forest. These I. pumila habitats differ in many abiotic environmental factors, but mostly in available light intensity and quality. The effects of different light intensity on the developmental stability of I. pumila floral traits were analyzed on clones taken from two different natural light habitat types that were raised in contrasting light treatments in experimental garden conditions (common garden experiment. As an indicator of developmental stability, we used two fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA1 and FA8a of three bilateral symmetric traits of I. pumila flower (FW-fall width, SW-standard width and STW- style branch width. In addition, statistically significant treatment x population interaction was observed for style width. According to the presented results, the observed FA patterns of particular traits did not reflect the whole organism buffering capacity under the given environmental conditions.

  6. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280?mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulati...

  7. Allozyme variation in Ulmus species from France: analysis of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machon, N; Lefranc, M; Bilger, I; Mazer, S J; Sarr, A

    1997-01-01

    In the present paper, the geographical structure of genetic variation in three French elm taxa is described using electrophoretic data. For three species, Ulmus laevis, U. glabra and U. minor, two kinds of analyses were performed. First, the genetic parameters (genetic diversity indices) of individuals sampled from naturally regenerating forest were compared to samples of cultivated ornamental trees. Secondly, when sample sizes were sufficient, the genetic parameters of trees sampled from different regions of France were compared to detect geographical differentiation. From these analyses, the ultimate aim was to offer recommendations concerning the conservation policies of the genetic resources of French elms. The heterozygosity of Ulmusxhollandica (the presumed hybrid between U. minor and U. glabra) was compared to its putative parent taxa to determine whether the hybrid harbours great levels of genetic variation. In spite of the ravaging effects of Dutch Elm disease in the past, all three species exhibit high levels of electrophoretic variation. The three species surveyed displayed similar levels of genetic diversity, proportions of polymorphic loci and levels of allelic diversity in trees harvested from naturally regenerated forests relative to cultivated ornamental trees. High levels of genetic diversity in U. minor within geographical regions of France were detected, with only moderate levels of genetic differentiation detected between regions. Ulmusxhollandica is not more heterozygous than either of its parent species, suggesting that extant representatives of this taxon are the result of past and ongoing backcrosses with the parental taxa. Ongoing efforts to preserve the genetic variation still present in French elms should take advantage of their high levels of electrophoretic variation and target genetically distinct, vegetatively reproducing genotypes in their natural environment. PMID:16397633

  8. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  9. Morfologia do pólen anemófilo e alergisante no Brasil: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae (I Morphology of the anemophilous and allergenic pollen grains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud Monika Barth

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi iniciado um catálogo da morfologia policlínica das epécies anemófilas e das causadoras de alergias, ocorrentes no Brasil. Nesta primeira parte foram examinados os grãos de pólen das Angiospermas consideradas menos evoluídas, correspondendo às seguintes Famílias: Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae e Urticaceae. O catálogo seguirá a ordem filogenética dos vegetais superiores.A catalogue of pollen morphology from the anemophilous species in Brazil, specially the allergenic ones, is beginning with this paper. In this first article the pollen grain morphology of the less developed angiosperm families, like Casuarinaceae, Salicaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae has been examined. The catalogue will follow the phyllogenetic lines of the plant families.

  10. Effects of Ulmi Pumilae Cortex on AGS Gastric Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Bora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ulmi Pumilae Cortex (UPC is a deciduous tree with uneven pinnate leaves and is classified as a subfamily of Ulmuceae and contains many pharmacologically active constituents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of UPC on the growth and survival of AGS cells, the most common human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods: The AGS cells were treated with varying concentrations of UPC. Analyses of the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were conducted to determine whether AGS cell death occured by apoptosis. Furthermore, to identify the role of the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM 7 channels in AGS cell growth and survival, we used human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells overexpressed with TRPM7 channels. Results: The addition of UPC to a culture medium inhibited AGS cell growth and survival. Experimental results showed that the sub G1, caspase-3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization were increased. Furthermore, TRPM7 channel overexpression in HEK 293 cells exacerbated UPC-induced cell death. Conclusion: These findings indicate that UPC inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells due to a blockade of the TRPM7 channel activity. Therefore, UPC is a potential drug for treatment of gastric cancer, and TRPM7 channels may play an important role in survival in cases of gastric cancer.

  11. Stages of flower bud development in Iris pumila and between-habitat morphological differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariši?-Klisari? Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity and between-population differentiation in flower morphometric traits of Iris pumila in response to environmental variability between natural shade and exposed habitats. Since these habitats differed in flowering times as well, in this work we investigated at which stages of flower bud development differences between open and shaded habitats start to appear. Our analysis detected several groups of trait development patterns through the I. pumila bud development in two contrasting habitats, with stem length being the most suitable trait for application in further analyses of so-called “shade avoidance syndrome???.

  12. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Asmah Rahmat; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC), net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata...

  14. Coupling Deep Transcriptome Analysis with Untargeted Metabolic Profiling in Ophiorrhiza pumila to Further the Understanding of the Biosynthesis of the Anti-Cancer Alkaloid Camptothecin and Anthraquinones

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Mami; Mochida, Keiichi; Asano, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Chiba, Motoaki; Udomson, Nirin; Yamazaki, Yasuyo; Goodenowe, Dayan B.; Sankawa, Ushio; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Toyoda, Atsushi; Totoki, Yasushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Go?ngora-castillo, Elsa; Buell, C. Robin

    2013-01-01

    The Rubiaceae species, Ophiorrhiza pumila, accumulates camptothecin, an anti-cancer alkaloid with a potent DNA topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, as well as anthraquinones that are derived from the combination of the isochorismate and hemiterpenoid pathways. The biosynthesis of these secondary products is active in O. pumila hairy roots yet very low in cell suspension culture. Deep transcriptome analysis was conducted in O. pumila hairy roots and cell suspension cultures using the Illumina ...

  15. Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the microwave aqueous extract of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ehsan, Karimi; Hawa ZE, Jaafar; Ali, Ghasemzadeh; Mahdi, Ebrahimi.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the fatty acid profile, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities from the microwave aqueous extract of the leaves of three different varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of the extract showed that fatty a [...] cids (palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and ?-linolenic) acid as the main components in three varieties of L. pumila leaves. Furthermore, the obtained results of the anti-oxidant revealed that L. pumila var. alata contained higher anti-oxidative activities compared to var. pumila and var. lanceolata. However, these values were lower than the tested anti-oxidant standards. On the other hand, the aqueous leaf extracts in all three varieties of L. pumila were also found to inhibit a variable degree of antibacterial activities against eight bacteria (four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was observed the leaves of three varieties of L. pumila exhibited variable patterns of fatty acids and the microwave aqueous extraction possess anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.

  16. Stages of flower bud development in Iris pumila and between-habitat morphological differences

    OpenAIRE

    Bariši?-Klisari? Nataša; Miljkovi? Danijela; Avramov S.; Živkovi? U.; Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity and between-population differentiation in flower morphometric traits of Iris pumila in response to environmental variability between natural shade and exposed habitats. Since these habitats differed in flowering times as well, in this work we investigated at which stages of flower bud development differences between open and shaded habitats start to appear. Our analysis detected several groups of trait development patterns thro...

  17. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah and its constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VamshikrishnaManda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and Pregnane X receptor (PXR are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information towards the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of Labisia pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of Labisia pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI, CYP2C9 and 2C19 (reversible while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, Labisia pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp and PXR suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly.

  18. Decontamination of dried Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs, spices and dry food ingredients are gamma irradiated to control pest and microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Irradiation is an effective decontamination method for herbs. Two herbal teas of Phyllanthus niruri (Dokong anak) and Labisa pumila (Kacip Fatimah) bought from a local supplier were selected for the present study. Phyllanthus niruri from Family Euphorbiaceae is native to the tropics. This medicinal herb is found throughout South East Asia and tropical Australia. In Malaysia, it is used to treat diarrhoea, kidney ailment, gonorrhoea, syphilis, urological disorders and taken as tonic after miscarriage and childbirth. Early clinical observations showed that the plant has a great potential as a diuretic, hypotensive and hypoglycaemic drug for humans with no side effects. Labisia pumila is a well known herb for women, which is to induce and ease childbirth and as a post-mortem medication to contract the womb, delay conception, regain body strength, firm up breasts and abdominal muscles. It is also used to treat dysentery, rheumatism and gonorrhoea. The herbal samples were screened for their microbiological quality, including detecting the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and other coliforms. The results indicated that the total plate count (TPC) for Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila were 1.44 x 109 and 1.39 x 106 colonies per g sample, respectively. No pathogenic microbes were detected in both samples. When irradiated with gamma rays using the Gamma cell, the microbial counts decreased with increasing radiation doses. No microbial colonies were detected after irradiation at greater than 10 kGy in both herbal samples. Gamma irradiation of 10 kGy were suggested as the minimum doses for the decontamination of dried preparations of Phyllanthus niruri and Labisa pumila, respectively, to reduce the microbial counts to an acceptable level of 102 colonies per g sample. (author)

  19. Co-overexpression of geraniol-10-hydroxylase and strictosidine synthase improves anti-cancer drug camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza pumila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijie; Ni, Xiaoling; Ji, Qian; Teng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Yanru; Wu, Chao; Zekria, David; Zhang, Dasheng; Kai, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were separately and simultaneously introduced into Ophiorrhiza pumila hairy roots. Overexpression of individual G10H (G lines) significantly improved CPT production with respect to non-transgenic hairy root cultures (NC line) and single STR overexpressing lines (S lines), indicating that G10H plays a more important role in stimulating CPT accumulation than STR in O. pumila. Furthermore, co-overexpression of G10H and STR genes (SG Lines) caused a 56% increase on the yields of CPT compared to NC line and single gene transgenic lines, showed that simultaneous introduction of G10H and STR can produce a synergistic effect on CPT biosynthesis in O. pumila. The MTT assay results indicated that CPT extracted from different lines showed similar anti-tumor activity, suggesting that transgenic O. pumila hairy root lines could be an alternative approach to obtain CPT. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the enhancement of CPT production in O. pumila employing a metabolic engineering strategy. PMID:25648209

  20. Phytoplasma associated with witches´-broom disease of Ulmus minor in the Czech Republic. Electron microscopy and molecular characterization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafá?ová, D.; Válová, P.; Fránová, Jana; Šimková, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 54, ?. 1 (2009), s. 37-42. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ulmus minor * Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi * PCR * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2009

  1. Pre-dispersal Seed Predation by a Granivorous Bird, the Masked Grosbeak (Eophona personata, in Two Bird-dispersed Ulmaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Yoshikawa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-dispersal seed predation by a granivorous bird, the masked grosbeak (Eophona personata,Fringillidae, was investigated in two bird-dispersed trees, Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera (Ulmaceae.The objectives of this study were to 1 measure direct damage of predation by grosbeaks on plant crops, 2reveal the temporal pattern of predation within each tree species and its causal factors, and 3 test whetherforaging grosbeaks hinder foraging of frugivorous birds, thereby indirectly impacting the reproduction of both treespecies. A substantial amount of fruit and seed crop was consumed by grosbeaks (24.3% in Celtis; 55.5% inAphananthe, and only 17.7% (Celtis and 16.7% (Aphananthe were removed by frugivorous birds. At the studysite, the grosbeak population size fluctuated greatly during the fruiting seasons of both plant species. As forCeltis, predated seed density also fluctuated temporally, and the local population size of grosbeaks was responsiblefor predated seed density. In Aphananthe, predation was not fully explained by grosbeak populationsor plant phenology, but its peak coincided with that of grosbeak population. These results suggest that predispersalseed predation by granivorous birds can have large negative impacts on the bird-dispersed plants.Changes in local population size of granivorous birds can influence predatation and can affect reproductivesuccess of the bird-dispersed plants available to the birds.

  2. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila): a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evelyn, Villagra; Carola, Campos-Hernandez; Pablo, Cáceres; Gustavo, Cabrera; Yamilé, Bernardo; Ariel, Arencibia; Basilio, Carrasco; Peter DS, Caligari; José, Pico; Rolando, García-Gonzales.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila) fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which [...] could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity) and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg), pole diameter (7.1 mm) and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm) were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  3. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  4. Seven Ulmus minor clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ja, Marti?n; Solla A; Venturas M; Collada C; Domínguez J.; Miranda E; Fuentes P; Burón M; Iglesias S; Gil L

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish elm programme began in 1986 in response to the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease on natural elm stands and urban trees. Its main objectives were to conserve remaining genetic resources and select and breed tolerant native elm genotypes. After 27 years of work conducting susceptibility trials on thousands of elm genotypes, the first seven tolerant Ulmus minor trees are now being registered by the Spanish Environmental Administration. This paper presents the results of the sus...

  5. Reproductive Parameters of Aeolesthes sarta Solsky (Col., Cerambycidae on Ulmus Carpinifolia Borkh. under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Sadeghi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarta longhorned beetle, Aeolesthes sarta, is one of the most destructive wood borer pests of fruit and shade trees in Iran. In this research, the reproductive parameters were studied under laboratory conditions. Fifteen pairs of newly developed adults (1-2 days after emergence from overwintering sites were caged separately on 15 logs of Ulmus carpinifolia and fertility table was made using this data. The results showed that 3.9±0.2 days after emergence, females began to oviposit for 16.6±0.6 days, as oviposition period. Mean number of laid eggs was 122.6±17.5 per female. The mean longevity of male and female was 26±0.6 and 29.4±0.4 days, respectively. Females had no mortality during oviposition period, so gross reproductive rate (GRR and net reproductive rate (R0 (famale/female/generation were equal (61.6±8.7. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm, mean generation time (T and doubling time of the population (t were 0.0067±0.24-5 famale/female/day, 612.5±0.4 and 102.7±3.6 days, respectively. The finite rate of increase (? (female/female/day was 1.006±0.24-5. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm was very low (0.00672, because of longer lifetime of females (mean 602 days, low longevity during reproductive period (maximum 22 days and long mean generation time (612.5 days.

  6. Metabolic distinction of Ulmus minor xylem tissues after inoculation with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gil, Luis

    2005-10-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is the most devastating and widespread disease of elms. The pathogen, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, spreads systemically causing xylem vessels blocking and cavitation, and ultimately resulting in the development of a wilt syndrome. Twig samples from susceptible and resistant Ulmus minor trees were harvested at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days post-inoculation (dpi) with O. novo-ulmi. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, in tandem with chemometrics, was used to monitor changes in wood chemistry as consequence of infection. Principal component analysis distinguished between spectra from inoculated and control elms, and from susceptible- and resistant-inoculated elms. By 30 dpi, infected xylem showed reduced relative levels of carbohydrates and enhanced relative levels of phenolic compounds, probably due to the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides by fungal enzymes and the synthesis of host defence compounds. On 15 dpi, samples from resistant-inoculated elms showed higher levels of starch than samples from susceptible-inoculated elms, suggesting that availability of starch reserves could affect the tree's capacity for defensive responses. The results showed the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for analysing changes in the major components of elm xylem as consequence of infection by DED, and its potential for detecting metabolic profiles related to host resistance. PMID:16176827

  7. Influence of a Ceratocystis ulmi Toxin on Water Relations of Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, N K; Turner, N C

    1975-02-01

    Water-soluble glycopeptides isolated from cultures of Ceratocystis ulmi have been reported to be toxins involved in Dutch elm disease. The influence of the glycopeptides on the water relations of Ulmus americana seedlings was tested by placing cut stems in glycopeptide preparations. After 4 hours in 200 micrograms per milliliter toxin the stem conductance of the seedlings was reduced by 79% and the leaf water potential was reduced by 3 bars to that at which the seedlings wilted, the stomata closed, and transpiration decreased. Decrease in stem conductance as the mode of action of the toxin was further confirmed by forcing toxin through the stem and petiole of elm and measuring the effects on stem conductance. High molecular weight dextrans were found to mimic the action of toxin on stem and petiole conductance, and their ability to do so was found to be correlated with their molecular weight. As low as 4 micrograms of toxin or dextrans were found to measurably decrease the stem and petiole conductance of elms. Disruption of the water-conducting system of elms and other plants by small quantities of high molecular weight compounds may be a factor in diseases with wilting symptoms. PMID:16659073

  8. Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Wu, Jun; Deng, Shi-Huai; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Gang

    2010-01-15

    The following article from Environmental Toxicology, 'Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits' by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with 'Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)' by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188-194, 2005. PMID:20082444

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Hawa Z.E. Jaafar; Sahida Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. p...

  10. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were sol...

  11. Extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady / Pectin extraction from cv. Pink Lady (Malus pumila) apples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Loyola; Paula, Pavéz; Sergio, Lillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo la extracción de pectina a partir de manzana (Malus pumila), cv. Pink Lady, con un promedio de madurez fisiológica de un 50% color rojo de cubrimiento, mediante técnicas químicas estandarizadas, para evaluar si esta variedad se caracteriza por un alto o bajo va [...] lor de metoxilo, mediante una hidrólisis ácida a diferentes tiempos y luego ser sometida a un análisis sensorial, evaluando las características organolépticas de la pectina. La materia prima fue obtenida del fundo Marengo de la localidad de los Niches, provincia de Curicó, Chile. El aislamiento del material péctico se realizó con ácido cítrico como agente de extracción, para ello se ensayaron tres condiciones de pH (2,5, 3,0 y 3,5, siendo este último el pH natural de la manzana) durante un tiempo de calentamiento de 60 y 90 minutos, sometidos a una temperatura constante de 90 °C. Se midió el grado de esterificación en la pectina (DE), el cual es un atributo importante de ésta y luego se procedió a deshidratarla para evaluar sus atributos sensoriales como; color, sabor, aroma, textura y su aceptabilidad (escala 1-7). El tratamiento T1 (pH: 3,5 por 90 min) presentó la mejor condición de extracción (4,47 g o 7,25%), siendo el tratamiento T0 (pH: 3,5 por 60 min) el que otorgó la muestra de mejor calidad (68,27% DE), clasificándola como pectina HM (High Methoxy). La evaluación sensorial mostró que los tratamientos originan atributos sensoriales variables. Los panelistas mostraron igual grado de preferencias por las muestras de pectinas provenientes de los tratamientos T0 y T1 con nota 5,28 y 5,10, dentro de la escala 1 a 7. Abstract in english The present study extracted pectin from Pink Lady apples (Malus pumila), which present at physiological maturity an average 50% of red-color coverage, to assess whether this variety is characterized by a high (HM) or low methoxyl value (LM). The raw materials were obtained from the Marengo farm, Los [...] Niches, Curicó province, in the south-central region of Chile. Acid hydrolysis was used and the material was then subjected to sensory analysis, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics of pectin. The pectin was extracted with citric acid, which was tested under three pH conditions (2.5, 3.0 and 3.5, the latter corresponding to the natural pH of apples) for 60 and 90 min and subjected to a constant temperature of 90 °C. The degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was measured and then pectin was dehydrated to evaluate its sensory attributes, such as color, flavor, texture and acceptability (scale of 1-7). Treatment T1 (pH 3.5 for 90 min) presented the best extraction conditions (4.47 g or 7.25%), but the T0 treatment (pH 3.5 for 60 min) was the method that presented the best quality (68.27% DE) and classified the pectin as HM. The sensory evaluation results showed that the treatments gave variable attributes: the pectin samples from the T0 and T1 treatments presented the same degree of preference, 5.28 and 5.10, respectively, by 13 trained judges.

  12. Lead and nickel accumulation in Iris pumila: Consideration of its usefulness as a potential bioindicator in the natural protected area of Deliblato Sands, Serbia

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    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the suitability of the threatened species, Iris pumila L., as a possible bioindicator of traffic pollution in its natural habitats (mostly protected areas and natural reserves. We examined its potential to accumulate lead (Pb and nickel (Ni in polluted habitats, and the genetic variability for this capability, since it is an important facet of bioindicator suitability. We estimated the concentrations of Pb and Ni in the leaves of 17 I. pumila clones (genotypes grown in one of their natural habitats, the unpolluted semi-arid habitat of the protected Deliblato Sands Special Natural Reserve, and in the leaves of 18 Iris pumila full-sib families grown in an experimental plot in a heavily polluted urban location in Belgrade, Serbia. Comparison of the contrasting habitats by one-way ANOVA analysis showed that both Pb and Ni concentrations were significantly higher (six-fold in the I. pumila leaves collected from plants grown in the polluted urban habitat. Two-way ANOVA (randomized block design analysis performed on the full-sib families grown in the urban location failed to detect significant genetic variation for metal accumulation in I. pumila leaves. A significant block effect on the concentration of Ni in leaves was detected, indicating responsiveness to microenvironmental variability. These results suggest that I. pumila can serve as a good indicator of traffic pollution in protected areas. The response is stable since genetic variability of I. pumila populations does not appear to influence its role as an indicator greatly. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025: Evolution in heterogeneous environments: mechanisms of adaptation, biomonitoring and conservation of biodiversity

  13. Ontogeny of flower parts on naturally growing Iris pumila clones: implications for population differentiation and phenotypic plasticity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisari?, N Barisi?; Avramov, S; Miljkovi?, D; Zivkovi?, U; Tarasjev, A

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies revealed significant phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability and population differentiation of flower morphometric traits on dwarf bearded iris Iris pumila. Also, study of I. pumila flowering phenology revealed significant impact of habitat type as well as population differentiation for flowering time. Since the flowering time can influence other flower traits, we performed this analysis of flower morphometric traits in three time points during the flower bud ontogenic development in two habitat types (open vs. shaded). Analysis revealed that for most of the traits greater trait values were recorded for open habitat but only on latter time points. For most of the analyzed traits direction of differences in bud stage was the opposite to the direction of differences in mature flower stage detected in previous studies. However, length of the stem, a trait that showed the greatest variability between habitats and populations and therefore greatest genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity, was significantly greater in the samples from the late flowering shaded habitat in all time samples, indicating that in case of this trait different mechanisms were involved. Those findings have implications for design of the future studies on I. pumila. PMID:22730776

  14. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Synthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Three Varieties of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to examine the impact of 15-week variable levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha on the characteristics of total flavonoids (TF, total phenolics (TP, total non structurable carbohydrate (TNC, net assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll content, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and protein content, and their relationships, in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume (alata, pumila and lanceolata. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effect observed. As nitrogen levels increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha, the production of TNC was found to decrease steadily. Production of TF and TP reached their peaks under 0 followed by 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha treatment. However, net assimilation rate was enhanced as nitrogen fertilization increased from 0 to 270 kg N/ha. The increase in production of TP and TF under low nitrogen levels (0 and 90 kg N/ha was found to be correlated with enhanced PAL activity. The enhancement in PAL activity was followed by reduction in production of soluble protein under low nitrogen fertilization indicating more availability of amino acid phenyl alanine (phe under low nitrogen content that stimulate the production of carbon based secondary metabolites (CBSM. The latter was manifested by high C/N ratio in L. pumila plants.

  16. Population genetic structure and mating system in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila (Pall. Regel at the Eastern Baikal Lake shore

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    E.A. Petrova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of sympatric Pinus sibirica Du Tour and P. pumila(Pall. Regel populations and putative interspecific hybrids between them was analyzed in the Baikal Lake region (Barguzin Biosphere Natural Reserve, Davsha River basin by means of 31 allozyme loci controlling 18 enzyme systems. Several alleles at loci Adh-1, Fest-2, Lap-3, Pgi-1, Sod-3 and Skdh-1 were diagnostic for P.sibirica, while alleles typical for P. pumila were detected at loci Gdh, Got-3, Lap-3,Mdh-2, Mdh-4, Pepca, Pgi-1, Pgd-2, Pgd-3, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2. All hybrids were heterozygous for the diagnostic Skdh-2 locus. Classification into hybrids and parental species using PCA analysis of multilocus allozyme genotypes had good correspondence with diagnoses made by morphological and anatomical analysis.Approximately 27% of embryos in P. pumila seeds had P. sibirica paternal contribution, and 8% of haplotypes in effective pollen pool combined alleles typical for P. pumila and P. sibirica, and therefore were classified as pollinated by the hybrids. About 83% of embryos in seeds from the hybrids most likely originated from fertilization by P. sibirica pollen, 14% from P. pumila and 3% from hybrid trees.This result favours the view that hybrids make both male and female contributions to the reproductive output of the population and confirm the presence of backcrosses and F2 hybrids.

  17. Photosynthesis and respiration in the needles of Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila and their putative hybrids

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    A.P. Zotikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A putative interspecific hybridization in Pinaceae family was investigated. Very rarely the physiological methods were involved in hybridization processes that occurs in the hybrid zones. It is well known that in most gymnosperms, the plastid genome is inherited from the paternal component while the mitochondrion is inherited from the maternal one. Therefore functioning pattern of organelles in the hybrid plant can suggest parent, from which they were inherited. The aim of this study was to indirectly establish the inheritance energy-transducing organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast according to their functioning. Current year needles from Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Japanese Stone Pine (Pinus pumila (Pall. Regel as parent species and their putative hybrids were collected from Baikal Region. The photosynthesis rate was determined by using the spectrophotometer. The study of emission CO2 under dark respiration of needle was conducted with laser optical-acoustic gasanalyzer. The quantity was measured at 1, 2 and 3 hour after experiment start. The rate of the photoreduction ferricyanide potassium was characterized by the primary photochemical processes activity at the level of photosystem II. Comparison of pure species was shown that Japanese Stone Pine had higher functional activity of chloroplast as compared with SiberianStone Pine in spite of the fact that they are growing in similar environment conditions. Two of three analyzed hybrids had decreasedactivity of their chloroplasts. Unfortunately, in this case we can't conclude if the chloroplasts were inherited from Siberian Stone Pine orfrom Japanese Stone Pine. Chloroplast activity of the third hybrid was approximately similar to that of Japanese Stone Pine suggesting thatits chloroplasts were inherited from this parent. Consequently, the Siberian Stone Pine and the Japanese Stone Pine were maternal and paternal, respectively parents of the hybrid. Compared to the Siberian Stone Pine, the Japanese Stone Pine had higher dark respiration rate.The hybrid respiration rate was similar to that of the Japanese Stone Pine suggesting that the hybrid inherited mitochondria from thisspecies. Our findings indicated that the P. pumila exhibited particular ecological plasticity and this phenomenon is attributable to its high potential activity of photosynthetic and respiratory processes. These physiological features explained the large transcontinental naturalhabitat of Japanese Stone Pine.

  18. Alkenylresorcinols and cytotoxic activity of the constituents isolated from Labisia pumila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Nabil Ali; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Kneer, Ralf; Jeyaraj, Ethel Jeyaseela; Stanslas, Johnson; Yamamoto, Naoshi; Honda, Toshio; Lajis, Nordin H

    2012-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an important medicinal herb in Malaysia, has led to the isolation of 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (1), labisiaquinone A (2) and labisiaquinone B (3). Along with these, 16 known compounds including 1-O-methyl-6-acetoxy-5-pentadecylresorcinol (4), 5-(pentadec-10Z-enyl)resorcinol (5), 5-(pentadecyl)resorcinol (6), (-)-loliolide (7), stigmasterol (8), 4-hydroxyphenylethylamine (9), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (11), (+)-catechin (12), (-)-epicatechin (13), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-glycopyranoside (14), kaempferol-4'-O-?-glycopyranoside (15), quercetin-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (16), kaempferol-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside (17), (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (18) and stigmasterol-3-O-?-glycopyranoside (19) were also isolated. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy techniques (¹H, ¹³C, COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC experiments), mass spectrometry and chemical derivatization. Among the constituents tested 1 and 4 exhibited strongest cytotoxic activity against the PC3, HCT116 and MCF-7 cell lines (IC?? values ? 10 ?M), and they showed selectivity towards the first two-cell lines relative to the last one. PMID:22633846

  19. Acerca de Lozanella enantiophylla (Ulmaceae

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    Franco Roselli Pillar

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Lozanella es un género con distribución neotropical con dos especies estrechamente relacionadas, que se encuentran desde México hasta Bolivia.  En Colombia solo se ha registrado Lozanella enantiophylla (Donn. Sm. Killip & Norton.  Esta especie es relativamente común en los bosques andinos perturbados entre 2.400 y 3.200 m de alt., y ha sido confundida a menudo con Boehmeria caudata Sw., a la cual es muy similar.

  20. Phenolics and Flavonoids Compounds, Phenylanine Ammonia Lyase and Antioxidant Activity Responses to Elevated CO2 in Labisia pumila (Myrisinaceae

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    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 × 3 experiment was designed to examine the impact of three concentrations of CO2 (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol?1 on the phenolic and flavonoid compound profiles, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity in three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. (var. alata, pumila and lanceolata after 15 weeks of exposure. HPLC analysis revealed a strong influence of increased CO2 concentration on the modification of phenolic and flavonoid profiles, whose intensity depended on the interaction between CO2 levels and L. pumila varieties. Gallic acid and quercetin were the most abundant phenolics and flavonoids commonly present in all the varieties. With elevated CO2 (1,200 µmol·mol?1 exposure, gallic acid increased tremendously, especially in var. alata and pumila (101–111%, whilst a large quercetin increase was noted in var. lanceolata (260%, followed closely by alata (201%. Kaempferol, although detected under ambient CO2 conditions, was undetected in all varieties after exposure. Instead, caffeic acid was enhanced tremendously in var. alata (338~1,100% and pumila (298~433%. Meanwhile, pyragallol and rutin were only seen in var. alata (810 µg·g?1 DW and pumila (25 µg·g?1 DW, respectively, under ambient conditions; but the former compound went undetected in all varieties while rutin continued to increase by 262% after CO2 enrichment. Interestingly, naringenin that was present in all varieties under ambient conditions went undetected under enrichment, except for var. pumila where it was enhanced by 1,100%. PAL activity, DPPH and FRAP also increased with increasing CO2 levels implying the possible improvement of health-promoting quality of Malaysian L. pumila under high CO2 enrichment conditions.

  1. Increased Carbon Dioxide Concentration Improves the Antioxidative Properties of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume

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    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, gluthatione (GSH, oxidized gluthatione (GSSG, soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO2 levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO, superoxide radicals (O2, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals (OH. The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO2 > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 800 µmol/mol CO2 > stem 400 µmol/mol CO2 > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO2 > root 800 µmol/mol CO2 > root 400 µmol/mol CO2. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO2 might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO2, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O2, H2O2, and OH radicals.

  2. Light intensity influences variations in the structural and physiological traits in the leaves of Iris pumila L.

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    Vuleta Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient light significantly influences the structural and physiological characteristics of Iris pumila leaves. A random sample of Iris clones native to an exposed site at the Deliblato Sands, Serbia was partially covered with a neutral screen that transmitted 35% of daylight, so that each clone experienced reduced and full sunlight at the same time. The sun-exposed leaves were significantly thicker, had greater stomatal density, exhibited higher lipid peroxidation, increased activities of SOD, APX, CAT enzymes and higher contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants (anthocyanins and phenols and water deficit relative to shade-leaves. The activities of GR, GPX, and GST enzymes was unaffected by the irradiance level.

  3. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Hawa Z E Jaafar; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  4. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

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    Lyu Jeonghyeon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB-induced contact dermatitis (CD mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice.

  5. Quantitative determination of triperpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  6. Quantitative determination of triterpene saponins and alkenated-phenolics from Labisia pumila using LC-UV/ELSD method and confirmation by LC-ESI-TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes the first analytical method for the determination of saponins and alkenated-phenolics from the leaves, leaves/stems and roots of Labisia pumila using a HPLC-UV-ELSD method. The separation was achieved using a reversed phase column, PDA and ELS detection, and a water/acetonitrile...

  7. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

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    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  8. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL), Maliondialdehyde (MDA) and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Hawa Z E Jaafar; Nur Farhana Mohamad Fakri; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100...

  9. Phenotypic plasticity and between population differentiation in Iris pumila transplants between native open and anthropogenic shade habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasjev, A; Barisi? Klisari?, N; Stojkovi?, B; Avramov, S

    2009-08-01

    Response to environmental heterogeneity caused by human activity was analyzed on Iris pumila reciprocal transplants between native steppe and anthropogenic (planted pine forest) habitats that were monitored during several growing seasons in a protected area of Deliblato Sand. Morphometric traits exhibited significant plastic responses to the environmental variability between native and anthropogenic habitats that differed in light quantity and quality, as well as in some other ecological indices. Significant differentiation between populations occupying those habitats was also detected. Plastic responses and population differences were substantially related to the variation in general size and had the same direction, plastic responses being larger in magnitude. Estimates of reproductive and vegetative performance of reciprocal transplants detected home site advantage in the native open but not in the secondary shade habitat created under anthropogenic influence. PMID:19769297

  10. Linking Hsp90 function to micro-environmental and stochastic variation in floralorgans of Iris pumila L.

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    Tuci? Branka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is an environmentally responsive molecular chaperone that was found to play a key role in buffering against genetic and non-genetic perturbations in the model organisms Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Here we analyzed the buffering capacity of Hsp90 against two kinds of non-genetic factors - stochastic noise and micro-environmental varia­tion of floral organ traits in naturally growing Iris pumila plants. We found no statistical association between the endog­enous level of Hsp90 and the floral organ radial symmetry produced by stochastic developmental noise. Conversely, floral organ plasticity in response to micro-environmental variation tended to be greater with decrease in Hsp90b isoform expression.

  11. Regeneration of phenotypically normal English elm (Ulmus procera) plantlets following transformation with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, J S; McHugh, A T; Brasier, C M; Irvine, R J; Fenning, T M; Gartland, K M

    2000-07-01

    A transformation system was developed for English elm (Ulmus procera Salisbury) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 pMP90 p35SGUS/INTRON, allowing for the transfer of foreign genes and regeneration of phenotypically normal elm plantlets. The PCR analysis indicated that both nptII and uidA genes were stably inserted in the plant genome. beta-Glucuronidase histochemical and fluorimetric assays revealed expression of the uidA gene in the shoots, leaves, stems and roots of regenerated transgenic plants. The DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed the presence of the uidA gene in regenerant plants. Factors influencing successful transformation and regeneration of elms included: identifying gene-transfer-proficient Agrobacterium strains for use with elms; developing an infection protocol allowing T-DNA transfer while retaining the ability to remove inciting bacteria; and identifying selection conditions to eliminate non-transformed material and choice of regeneration medium to allow shoot production. The potential utility of an effective elm transformation and regeneration system in the control of Dutch elm disease is discussed. PMID:11303580

  12. Fungal colonization and host defense reactions in Ulmus americana callus cultures inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Mirella; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Bernier, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The host-pathogen interaction leading to Dutch elm disease was analyzed using histo- and cyto-chemical tests in an in vitro system. Friable and hard susceptible Ulmus americana callus cultures were inoculated with the highly aggressive pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Inoculated callus tissues were compared with water-treated callus tissues and studied with light microscopy (LM), transmission-electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). New aspects of this interaction are described. These include the histological observation, for the first time in plant callus cultures, of suberin with its typical lamellar structure in TEM and the intracellular presence of O. novo-ulmi. Expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase gene, monitored by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was correlated with the accumulation of suberin, phenols, and lignin in infected callus cultures. This study validates the potential use of the in vitro system for genomic analyses aimed at identifying genes expressed during the interaction in the Dutch elm disease pathosystem. PMID:19453222

  13. Seasonal changes in the degree of symplasmic continuity between the cells of cambial region of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor

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    Katarzyna Soko?owska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of symplasmic isolation and symplasmic continuity which are functional aspects of cell-to-cell communication, had been studied in cambium of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor, with hope that uniqueness of this meristem, exemplified by its morphology and seasonal variations in its activity is also manifested in differences in the efficiency of communication between cambial cells during the year. The degree of symplasmic continuity was estimated by loading the fluorescent symplasmic tracer to the stem and following its distribution in a population of cambial cells observed on tangential, transverse and radial sections. In active cambium the tracer did not enter the rays. This suggested that the ray and fusiform cells, growing and dividing intensively at different rates were specifically isolated from each other. In the state of dormancy the tracer was present also in the rays implying continuity between the two types of cambial cells. Temporal restriction in tracer spreading from secondary xylem to cambial region was observed on transverse sections in both physiological states of the meristem. Higher degree of symplasmic isolation in active cambium is, most probably, associated with functional distinctiveness of ray and fusiform cells. We hypothesize further that the symplasmic continuity in dormant cambium results from the open conformation states of plasmodesmata, because the energy costs of these states are low. It is reasonable strategy when cambial cells do not divide and maintenance of their functional individuality is not necessary.

  14. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

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    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall. Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half of Stanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrence between regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids are found only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberian stone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in the undergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found to be approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took an intermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure of needles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids. Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructive effect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like the Siberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming from latent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have no internal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and their natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. In the most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the less productive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structure showed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with the species' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generative cycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo. The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiated embryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to 44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the Upper Angara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however, it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine and Siberian stone pine species occurred.

  15. Ecological and morphological studies in the hybrid zone between Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Goroshkevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baikal Region, there is no phenological isolation between Siberian stone pine (P. sibirica Du Tour and Siberian dwarf stone pine (P. pumila (Pall.Regel since the timing of their 'flowering' coincides. Morphologically intermediate individuals, supposedly natural hybrids,occur not very often. In the west half ofStanovoye upland area four regions were investigated: Barguzinskiy, Baikalskiy, Verchneangarskiy and the Severo-Myiskiy mountain ridges. Interspecific natural hybridization was found to take place in several overlapping regions of the species' ranges; however there are some differences in frequency of natural hybrid occurrencebetween regions as well as within each region. Great numbers of natural hybrids arefound only in a specific habitat which occurs rarely and occupies a relatively small area. At the north-east coast of Lake Baikal the lakeside zone is occupied by Siberianstone pine forests with moderate participation of Siberian dwarf stone pine in theundergrowth. The natural hybrid are widespread everywhere. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian stone pine, Siberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid was found tobe approximately 300:10:1. About 90% of the examined natural hybrids took anintermediate position between the two parental species by most features (structure ofneedles, shoots, and crown, i.e. representing putatively the first generation hybrids.Therefore, in contrast to the parental species they are subjected to the destructiveeffect of snowbreak (broken off or dislocated from part of the root system. Like theSiberian dwarf stone pine the natural hybrid has specific root sources forming fromlatent buds. Therefore, the hybrids are not subjected to ageing, as well as have nointernal limitation of age and size. Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberian stone pine andtheir natural hybrid grow together in the Upper Angara delta in the bog regions. Inthe most productive sites the ratio of fructiferous Siberian dwarf stone pine, Siberianstone pine and natural hybrid amounts approximately to 60:3:1. The ratio of fructiferousSiberian dwarf stone pine and natural hybrid reaches about 20:1 in the lessproductive sites where Siberian stone pine is sterile. Analysis of cone structureshowed that the natural hybrid have substantially increased in comparison with thespecies' mortality and aplasia of reproductive structures at all stages of the generativecycle, from differentiation of the seed-bearing scales to differentiation of the embryo.The portion of the ovules, which develop into the valuable seed with differentiatedembryo, amounted in Siberian dwarf stone pine to 69%, in Siberian stone pine to44%, and in natural hybrid to 25%. Thus, the fertility of natural hybrid in the UpperAngara Delta substantially decreased in comparison with the pure species; however,it was demonstrated that natural hybridization between Siberian dwarf stone pine andSiberian stone pine species occurred.

  16. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasjev A.; Avramov S.; Miljkovi? Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, ana...

  17. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Hawa Z. E. Jaafar; Ehsan Karimi; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 week...

  18. Enhancement of Leaf Gas Exchange and Primary Metabolites under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Up-Regulates the Production of Secondary Metabolites in Labisia pumila Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch, secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF and leaf gas exchange of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?1 for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no varietal differences were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1, the production of carbohydrates also increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar (sucrose. TF and TP content, simultaneously, reached their peaks under 1,200 µmol exposure, followed by 800 and 400 µmol mol?1. Net photosynthesis (A and quantum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm were also enhanced as CO2 increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol mol?1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics displayed a significant positive relationship with the production of secondary metabolites and carbohydrate contents. The increase in production of TP and TFs were manifested by high C/N ratio and low protein content in L. pumila seedlings, and accompanied by reduction in cholorophyll content that exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  19. Seven Ulmus minor clones tolerant to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi registered as forest reproductive material in Spain

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    Martín JA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish elm programme began in 1986 in response to the devastating impact of Dutch elm disease on natural elm stands and urban trees. Its main objectives were to conserve remaining genetic resources and select and breed tolerant native elm genotypes. After 27 years of work conducting susceptibility trials on thousands of elm genotypes, the first seven tolerant Ulmus minor trees are now being registered by the Spanish Environmental Administration. This paper presents the results of the susceptibility tests on these clones and their distinctive genetic, morphological and phenological features. In all susceptibility trials the commercial “Sapporo Autumn Gold” clone, which is highly tolerant to O. novo-ulmi, was used as a control. The registered clones were named “Ademuz”, “Dehesa de la Villa”, “Majadahonda”, “Toledo”, “Dehesa de Amaniel”, “Retiro” and “Fuente Umbría”. The most tolerant clone was “Dehesa de Amaniel”, as its wilting values were below 5% during the two consecutive inoculation trials performed in Madrid. “Fuente Umbría”, tested over four consecutive years in Guadalajara and Palencia, was the Spanish clone with the most reliable tolerance level to O. novo-ulmi. The “Ademuz” and “Majadahonda” clones had the highest ornamental scores and are promising trees for use in urban environments and tree breeding for ornamental quality. These two genotypes showed a later bud burst phenology than the other U. minor clones, demonstrating suitability to areas with late frost events. The Spanish programme aims to substantially increase the range of tolerant native elms through new selections and crossings to gain a better understanding of the genetic basis of resistance.

  20. Between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf variation in leaf epidermis traits in Iris pumila clones

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    Miljkovi? Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze variation and covariation in epidermal characteristics (epidermal cell density -ECD, stomata density - SD, and stomata index - SI on Iris pumila clones on between-clone, between-leaf and within-leaf levels. ECD (similar to the pattern previously observed for SD increased from the base to the top of leaf, while SI remained constant. Results of profile analyses indicated that clones, individual plants whitin clones (ramets, and three successive leaves on the same plant were not significantly different for examined characteristics, but genetic variation for position effect was detected (significant Zone x clone interaction. Results of the contrast analysis confirmed differences between the base and middle leaf positions for ECD (similar to those for SD as well as between clone variation for those differences. Observed differences between leaf zones and correlations between analyzed traits were mostly consistent with the expansion hypothesis of stomata differentiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173025

  1. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

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    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 ?M, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 ?M AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived electrofusion and viable heterokaryons were produced. Together, these results provide the first evidence of sustained cell division, callus regeneration, and potential application of somatic cell fusion in American elm, suggesting that this source of protoplasts may be ideal for genetic manipulation of this species. The technological advance made with American elm in this study has potential implications in other woody species for fundamental and applied research which require availability of viable protoplasts.

  2. Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs, intercellular CO2 (Ci, apparent quantum yield (? and lower dark respiration rates (Rd, compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.

  3. Effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length and tree-ring width of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Aoki, Keigo

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the effects of climatic conditions on annual shoot length (ASL) and tree-ring width (TRW) of alpine dwarf pine Pinus pumila in central Japan, by using dendrochronological techniques. Chronologies of ASL (1951-2009) and TRW (1972-2009) were standardized to remove non-climatic signals, and correlation tests were done for non-standardized observed values and standardized indices with monthly temperatures and precipitation. Monthly mean temperatures from March to October, except for July, increased during 1951?2009; observed values and a standardized index of ASL increased during this period. For the rate of increase in ASL, the standardized index was lower than the observed values. However, these values of TRW showed no trends. The observed values and standardized index of TRW positively correlated with temperatures of the beginning of the growing season of the current year. The observed values of ASL positively correlated with temperatures during the growing season of the previous and current years. However, the standardized index of ASL positively correlated with only June temperatures of the previous and current years. The different results of ASL between observed values and standardized indices indicate that many significant correlations of observed values were attributable to increasing trends of temperature and ASL. This study suggests that standardized ASL of P. pumila tended to increase greater than TRW, that high temperatures at the beginning of the growing season increases ASL and TRW, and that analyzing observed values of ASL may overestimate the effects of temperature on ASL of P. pumila. PMID:25841333

  4. Evolutionary biology studies on the Iris pumila clonal plant: Advantages of a good model system, main findings and directions for further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasjev A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies on the dwarf bearded iris, Iris pumila L., a perennial clonal monocot with hermaphroditic enthomophylous flowers, have been conducted during the last three decades on plants and populations from the Deliblato Sands in Serbia. In this review we discuss the main advantages of this model system that have enabled various studies of several important genetic, ecological, and evolutionary issues at different levels of biological organization (molecular, physiological, anatomical, morphological and population. Based on published research and its resonance in international scientific literature, we present the main findings obtained from these studies, and discuss possible directions for further research.

  5. Impact of Soil Field Water Capacity on Secondary Metabolites, Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase (PAL, Maliondialdehyde (MDA and Photosynthetic Responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and malondialdehyde (MDA activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER (100%; well watered, (75%, moderate water stress, (50%; high water stress and (25%; severe water stress. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100% ER L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (fv/fm and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement compared to severe water stress (25% ER. From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  6. The Relationship between Phenolics and Flavonoids Production with Total Non Structural Carbohydrate and Photosynthetic Rate in Labisia pumila Benth. under High CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A factorial split plot 4 × 3 experiment was designed to examine and characterize the relationship among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF, carbohydrate content and photosynthesis of three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Benth. namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata under CO2 enrichment (1,200 µmol mol-1 combined with four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1. No varietal differences were observed, however, as the levels of nitrogen increased from 0 to 270 kg N ha-1, the production of TP and TF decreased in the order leaves>roots>stems. The production of TP and TF was related to increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC, where the increase in starch content was larger than that in sugar concentration. Nevertheless, the regression analysis exhibited a higher influence of soluble sugar concentration (r2 = 0.88 than starch on TP and TF biosynthesis. Photosynthesis, on the other hand, displayed a significant negative relationship with TP and TF production (r2 = -0.87. A decrease in photosynthetic rate with increasing secondary metabolites might be due to an increase in the shikimic acid pathway that results in enhanced production of TP and TF. Chlorophyll content exhibited very significant negative relationships with total soluble sugar, starch and total non structural carbohydrate.

  7. Time and Dose-Dependent Effects of Labisia pumila on Bone Oxidative Status of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

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    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be associated with oxidative stress and deterioration of antioxidant enzymes. It is mainly treated with estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Although effective, ERT may cause adverse effects such as breast cancer and pulmonary embolism. Labisia pumila var. alata (LP, a herb used traditionally for women’s health was found to protect against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. An extensive study was conducted in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model using several LP doses and duration of treatments to determine if anti-oxidative mechanisms were involved in its bone protective effects. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups; baseline group (BL, sham-operated (Sham, ovariectomised control (OVXC, ovariectomised (OVX and given 64.5 ?g/kg of Premarin (ERT, ovariectomised and given 20 mg/kg of LP (LP20 and ovariectomised and given 100 mg/kg of LP (LP100. The groups were further subdivided to receive their respective treatments via daily oral gavages for three, six or nine weeks of treatment periods. Following euthanization, the femora were dissected out for bone oxidative measurements which include superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Results: The SOD levels of the sham-operated and all the treatment groups were significantly higher than the OVX groups at all treatment periods. The GPx level of ERT and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment were significantly higher than the baseline and OVX groups. MDA level of the OVX group was significantly higher than all the other groups at weeks 6 and 9. The LP20 and LP100 groups at the 9th week of treatment had significantly lower MDA levels than the ERT group. There were no significant differences between LP20 and LP100 for all parameters. Thus, LP supplementations at both doses, which showed the best results at 9 weeks, may reduce oxidative stress which in turn may prevent bone loss via its anti-oxidative property.

  8. Chemical changes in Ulmus minor xylem tissue after salicylic acid or carvacrol treatments are associated with enhanced resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; García-Vallejo, María C; Gil, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Application of endogenous plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) or essential oil component carvacrol (CA) in elms enhances tree resistance to the Dutch elm disease pathogen, although the effect of these compounds on tree metabolism is unknown. The chemical changes induced by SA or CA treatments in Ulmus minor were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of xylem tissues. Treatments consisted of fortnightly irrigating seedlings with water, SA or CA at 600 mg L?¹. The chemical composition of the xylem tissues sampled from treated trees was significantly altered depending on the treatment type. SA treatment induced an accumulation of the sinapyl alcohol, a precursor of lignin and other phenylpropanoid-derived products. CA treatment induced an accumulation of the methyl esters of palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Both treatments resulted in early bud burst and SA significantly reduced sapwood radial growth, possibly as a consequence of a trade-off between tree growth and tree defence. The enhanced resistance provided by these treatments is discussed. PMID:22910373

  9. Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), a new species of marine red algae from the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia / Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Callithamniaceae: Rhodophyta), una nueva especie de alga roja marina de la Reserva Internacional de la Biosfera Seaflower, Caribe colombiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, Gavio; Viviana P., Reyes-Gómez; Michael J., Wynne.

    1015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crouania pumila sp. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) es descrita para la isla de Providencia, en el Caribe colombiano. La nueva especie se destaca de las otras especies del género por características como su tamaño diminuto (hasta 3.5mm de largo), su hábito decumbente y poco calcificado (epífita sobre [...] otras algas), su ramificación ramisimpodial, la ausencia de corticación y la forma alargada de las células terminales de los filamentos corticales. Se proveen observaciones sobre talos femeninos (cistocárpicos) y tetraspóricos. No se observaron talos masculinos. Abstract in english In the Colombian Caribbean, the marine macroalgal flora of the Seaflower International Biosphere Reserve has been little studied, despite its ecological importance. Historical records have reported only 201 macroalgae species within its area of almost 350 000km². However, recent surveys have shown a [...] diversity of small algae previously overlooked. With the aim to determine the macroalgal diversity in the Reserve, we undertook field surveys in different ecosystems: coral reefs, seagrass beds, and rocky and sandy substrates, at different depths, from intertidal to 37m. During these field surveys, we collected a small described species belonging to the genus Crouania (Callithamniaceae, Rhodophyta), Crouania pumila sp. nov. that is decribed in this paper. This new species was distinguished from other species of the genus by a distinctive suite of traits including its diminutive size (to only 3.5mm in length), its decumbent, slightly calcified habit (epiphytic on other algae), its ramisympodial branching, the ecorticate main axes, and the elongate shape of the terminal cells of the cortical filaments. The observations were provided for both female (cystocarpic) and tetrasporangiate thalli; however, male thalli were not seen. Further studies have to be undertaken in this Reserve in order to carry out other macroalgal analysis and descriptions.

  10. Toponymic Data Helps to Reveal the Occurrence of Previously Unknown Populations of Wild Zamia pumila L. on Volcanic Substrates in South Central Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Pagán-Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the occurrence of wild Zamia pumila L. Zamiaceae populations on various volcanic substrates in the piedmont area of south central Puerto Rico. Data acquisition and its field confirmation were possible after the identification of toponymic names in old and current maps, and historic documents of the island in which one of the indigenous names for the genus (marunguey [marungüey] or marungueyes has been used for naming some localities. These preliminary data have deep implications for paleo- and neoethnobotanical research, and for population ecology of the species in Puerto Rico, because they expand the traditionally accepted range for the species on the island. Zamia has been described as one of the main food plants among pre- and post-Columbian inhabitants in two islands of the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the most sophisticated pre-Columbian society of the Antilles, the Taínos, emerged. Our findings suggest that Zamia might have been more available to humans, as a food source, than previously thought. 

  11. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Vincent G M; Laurens, François N D; van de Weg, W Eric; Rusholme, Rachel L; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather C M; Kodde, Linda P; Plummer, Kim M

    2005-06-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 gene in Malus pumila Russian apple R12740-7A, at the lower end of linkage group 2 of Malus. Race 8 isolate NZ188B.2 is compatible with Vh8, suggesting the loss or modification of the complementary AvrVh8 gene, while isolate 1639 overcomes both Vh2 and Vh8, but is incompatible with at least one other gene not detected by any of the other race isolates tested. Our research is the first to differentiate scab-resistance genes in a putative gene cluster in apple with the aid of races of V. inaequalis. PMID:15869661

  12. Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogolludo-Agustín, M A; Agúndez, D; Gil, L

    2000-08-01

    Two elm taxa occur naturally in the Iberian Peninsula: the Field elm (Ulmus minor) and the Wych elm (U. glabra). In addition, a third taxon, the foreign Siberian elm (U. pumila), was probably introduced in the 16th century as an ornamental tree and has spread spontaneously throughout the Peninsula. The natural hybridization between U. minor and U. pumila produced new individuals whose morphological traits appear to be mixed. Ulmus pumila, as well as its hybrids, has a high resistance to Dutch elm disease (DED). For this reason, it is commonly used in breeding programmes. Extensive hybridization and the high mortality produced by the last DED epidemic have endangered the conservation of the native elm. In this study, isozyme analyses are used to characterize the taxa U. minor and U. pumila. Siberian elms from Spain and China are compared with the native U. minor. Siberian elm produces isozyme patterns that completely differentiate it from U. minor. Three loci are completely different between the species: 6Pgd2, Mdh1 and Prx2. Isozyme markers can also be used to distinguish native elms from the hybrids that have evolved for generations. PMID:11012718

  13. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  14. Development of Nuclear Microsatellites for the Arcto-Tertiary Tree Zelkova carpinifolia (Ulmaceae Using 454 Pyrosequencing

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    Elmira H. Maharramova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The current study aimed at developing nuclear microsatellite markers for the relict tree species , which is threatened in its natural range in the South Caucasus. Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library on the Roche FLX platform using the 454 Titanium kit produced 86,058 sequence reads, most of which contained short tandem repeats. Eighty microsatellite loci identified using the software package QDD version 1 were selected and tested for proper PCR amplification. Of these, 13 allowed proper amplification and were shown to be polymorphic among a sample of 25 Z. carpinifolia specimens from various geographic origins. Conclusions: The set of microsatellite markers will be suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity in Z. carpinifolia. They will allow for an examination of phylogeographic patterns as well as of population structure and gene flow within this species.

  15. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shu Yi; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila, and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons). The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus, and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia, and Sanguibacter spp. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests studies on endophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly. PMID:26042095

  16. Evaluación de la actividad tóxica y antifúngica del extracto etéreo de la corteza de Celtis trinervia Lam (Ulmaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrenegra R. D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A la fracción evaluada biológicarnente se encontró actividad toxica sobre Artemia salina mostrando una CL50 de 430 ppm y antifúngicas contra Fusarium oxysporum ssp dianthi en donde mostro CL50 de 0.25 mg/mL. La fracción evaluada del extracto etéreo de la corteza del rallo de Celtis trinervia Lam. Se identificaron sustancias de tipo terpénicas como santaleno, además se identificaron ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados de interés biológico, como el linoleico y oleico. Los compuestos aislados se identificaron can métodos físicos. químicos y espectroscópicos.

  17. Inter-species comparisons in Water use with Different water Irrigation Regimes in a Semi-arid area of Korea-Mongolia Greenbelt Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S.; Ser-Oddamba, B.; Batkhuu, N. O.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    As an effort to mitigate desertification and to restore desert areas in Mongolia, Korea-Mongolia Green Belt was established to develop a 3000 ha plantation in 2006. Two native tree species, Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila L., have been planted under different irrigation regimes (control, control+2L, control +4L and control +8L) since 2008. To investigate the responses of different tree species to different treatment and the effect of plantation on water balance, intensive field experiments have been carried out in 2013-2014 in Mongolia. The objectives of our study are 1) to investigate whether different irrigation regimes changed the physiological characteristics of tree species, 2) to quantify transpirations and water balance under different irrigation regimes, and 3) to compare the water-use-efficiencies among species and irrigation regimes. We used Granier type thermal dissipation sensor, portable photosynthesis analyzer (Li-Cor 6400) and species and site specific allometric equations for transpiration, photosynthetic characteristics and net primary production, respectively. Our preliminary results show that the transpiration rates of P. sibirica increased with the increase of irrigation amount. For examples, the average water consumption of P. sibirica was 1.87kg/tree under control+2L irrigation and 2.97kg/tree at controal+4L irrigation. However, the transpiration rates of U. pumila were not different among different irrigation regimes; the average transpiration of U. pumila at control+2L was 1.1kg/tree compared to 0.89kg/tree at control+4L. But, photosynthetic characteristic showed similar results, which no apparent response under high irrigation regimes. The water use and carbon assimilation of P. sibirica responded to the water irrigation, however, U. pumila did not show any significant response to added water. Our results show different species respond differently to irrigation regimes, and this would lead to different effects on water balance. Therefore, species consideration is necessary for the restoration of desert area.

  18. K semanti?eskoj motivacii nazvanij derevjev v slavjanskich jazykach: „Ulmus“.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janyšková, Ilona

    Moskva : Institut slavjanovedenija RAN, 2011 - (Žuravlev, A.; Ana?jeva, N.), s. 253-254 ISBN 5-7576-0225-2. [Sovremennaja slavistika i nau?noje nasledije S. B. Bernštejna. Moskva (RU), 15.03.2011-17.03.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP406/10/1346 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : Slavonic etymology * tree names Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  19. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus Americana L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and the global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are e...

  20. Suitable woody species for a land application alternative to pulp and paper mill wastewater disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saline pulp and paper wastewater produced by Stone Container Corporation in Snowflake, Arizona was used to irrigate 32 different species/genotypes/hybrids of woody plants to test their suitability as an alternative treatment to the current wastewater disposal method. Suitability was measured in terms of survival and height growth. Among the 32 species, six were found to be a very good choice for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Their suitability is further justified by the fact that some have salt tolerance and others fix nitrogen. These species are Tamarix ramosissima, Atriplex canescens, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eleagnus angustifoliz, Ulmus pumila, and Populus deltoides x Populus nigra. Three other species are possible candidates. These include Caragana arborescens, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides var. siouxland. In general, conifers performed poorly because of the harsh environment and other silvicultural problems

  1. Identification of RAPD markers linked to a black leaf spot resistance gene in Chinese elm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, H; Guries, R P; Boury, S; Smalley, E B

    1995-06-01

    Black leaf spot (Stegophora ulmea) is a common foliage disease on Chinese (Ulmus parvifolia) and Siberian elms (U. pumila), two species which have been widely used as sources of Dutch-elm disease-resistance genes for interspecific elm hybrids. A dominant gene controlling resistance to black leaf spot was identified in a population derived from self-pollination of a single U. parvifolia tree. Using RAPD markers, in combination with bulked segregant analysis, we have identified three markers linked to this resistance gene. A survey of Chinese-elm hybrids revealed that the same gene is likely to confer a high level of resistance to black leaf spot in interspecific elm hybrids, although other genetic factors may also be involved in the determination of a disease phenotype. PMID:24173064

  2. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19?S, 59° 08?O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  3. Anti-proliferative effect of Ficus pumila Linn. on human leukemic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Larbie

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that crude extracts of FPS and FPL have anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells. The antioxidant properties of the plant including phenolics may be partly responsible for the anti-proliferative activity. Further studies are required to isolate chemical components of the plant and establish their anti-proliferative activities and mechanism of action. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 330-336

  4. Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina in Austria, Czechia and Slovakia: a story of decline.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danihelka, Ji?í; Niklfeld, H.; Šípošová, H.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 81, ?. 2 (2009), s. 151-171. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : changes in frequency * conservation * herbarium Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2009 http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P092Danihelka.pdf

  5. The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ima Nirwana; Norliza, M.; N. M. Isa; Norazlina, M.; A.S. Nazrun; M. E. Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-?. This is why these ...

  6. Avaliação da atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático do extrato das cascas de Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae e purificação de dois triterpenos / Evaluation of the phytotoxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the extract from the bark of Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent Ulmaceae and purification of two terpenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R., Trevisan; C.P., Lima; C.M.S., Miyazaki; F.A., Pesci; C.B., Silva; B.C.K., Hirota; A.L.L., Lordello; O.G., Miguel; M.D., Miguel; S.M.W., Zanin.

    Full Text Available A espécie Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent é popularmente conhecida como esporão de galo ou grão de galo. As folhas são indicadas pelo uso popular para o tratamento de dores no corpo e no peito, para reumatismo, asma, cólicas, má digestão e como diurético; as raízes são utilizadas para infecções urin [...] árias e as cascas para a febre. O presente trabalho objetivou contribuir para o estudo fitoquímico e atividade fitotóxica com enfoque alelopático das cascas de Celtis iguanaea. O extrato etanólico foi submetido à partição com os solventes hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As substâncias friedelina e epifriedelinol (triterpenos) foram isoladas da fração hexano e identificadas por meio de métodos espectroscópicos de RMN de ¹H e 13C. O extrato bruto na concentração de 0,1 mg mL-1 causou inibição acentuada do hipocótilo em 34,97% e estimulou o crescimento da radícula em 29,64% de plântulas de Lactuca sativa. No ensaio de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram uma CL50 superior a 1000 ?g mL-1, indicando que o mesmo não possui efeito tóxico. Abstract in english The species Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sargent is popularly known as "esporão de galo" or "grão de galo". Its leaves are recommended by the popular use for the treatment of body and chest aches, as well as for rheumatism, asthma, cramps, indigestion and as diuretic; its roots are used for urinary infec [...] tions and its bark for fever. This study aimed to contribute to the phytochemical investigation of the toxic activity focused on the allelopathic effect of the bark of Celtis iguanaea. The ethanol extract was subjected to solvent partition with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The substances friedelin and epifriedelinol (triterpenes) were isolated from the hexane fraction and identified by spectroscopic methods ¹H and 13C NMR. The crude extract at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 caused marked inhibition of hypocotyl in 34.97% and stimulated radicle growth in 29.64% seedlings of Lactuca sativa. In the toxicity test against Artemia salina the crude extract and fractions showed an LC50 higher than 1000 ?g mL-1, indicating that it has no toxic effect.

  7. Environ: E00501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00501 Ficus pumila leaf and stem Ficis pumilae caulis Crude drug Ficus pumila [TAX:66386], Trac ... taceae (grape family) Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Rubiaceae ... (madder family) Psychotria serpens et al. Crude dr ...

  8. Two new species of celtis (Celtidaceae) from Australia and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarian, A.; van der Maesen, L. J G

    2005-01-01

    Celtis australiensis Sattarian is described from Australia and Celtis madagascariensis Sattarian is new for Madagascar. Both new Celtidaceae (formerly Ulmaceae-Celtidoideae) are illustrated with a photograph.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu, for the European Union (EU territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe is suspected to be underestimated, with high uncertainty since no systematic surveys are carried out. CPu has a host range restricted to Ulmaceae species, and especially to the genus Ulmus, with some variations in susceptibility to the disease. It is listed in Annex IAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. CPu is not expected to be affected by EU ecoclimatic conditions wherever its hosts are present and has the potential to establish largely within the EU territory. Two insect vectors, Macropsis glandacea and Philaenus spumarius, are widely distributed in Europe. The uncertainty about other potential vector species, in which the phytoplasma has been detected, is considered as high. There is a lack of data to fully assess the potential consequences of the disease, with regards to the susceptibility of European elm species and virulence of European CPu strains. Data are not sufficient to reach a conclusion on pest categorisation of CPu and a full risk assessment can be conducted but is unlikely to bring any additional value unless the key additional data gaps on distribution, insect vectors, elm species susceptibility and potential consequences of the pest are filled.

  10. Effects of water stress on the distribution of 14C-assimilates in young apple trees (mauls pumila mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young apple trees were treated by water stress and 14CO2 was fed to leaves. Distribution of assimilates in source and sink organs was determined. The results show that plant water deficit increased the proportion of 14C-assimilates remained in source leaves, and decreased the proportion of 13C-assimilates exported into the developing fruits. Water stress also significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate of leaves and the growth rate of plants

  11. Rooting depths of plants on low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981-1982 an extensive bibliographic study was done to reference rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 different rooting citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. For this report, data were analyzed for rooting depths related to species found on low-level waste (LLW) sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present LLW maintenance. The data base was searched for information on rooting depths of 53 species found on LLW sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The study indicates 12 out of 13 grasses found on LLW sites root below 91 cm. June grass [Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers.] (76 cm) was the shallowest rooting grass and side-oats grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.] was the deepest rooting grass (396 cm). Forbs were more variable in rooting depths. Indian paintbrush (Castelleja spp.) (30 cm) was the shallowest rooting forb and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was the deepest (>3900 cm). Trees and shrubs commonly rooted below 457 cm. The shallowest rooting tree was elm (Ulmus pumila L.) (127 cm) and the deepest was one-seed juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] (>6000 cm). Apache plume [Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.] rooted to 140 cm, whereas fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canecens (Pursh) Nutt.] rooted to 762 cm

  12. 75 FR 78093 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...90-day 75 FR 30313-30318. Petition To List Petition Finding, Castanea pumila var. Substantial. ozarkensis. 6/1/2010...12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea 12-month petition finding. pumila var. ozarkensis)....

  13. 75 FR 67925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Cirsium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...90-day 75 FR 30313-30318 Petition To List Petition Finding, Castanea pumila var. Substantial. ozarkensis. 6/1/2010...12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea pumila var. 12-month petition finding. ozarkensis)....

  14. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...of 12-month petition 76 FR 37706-37716 Petition to List Castanea finding, Not warranted. pumila var. ozarkensis as Threatened...12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea 12-month petition finding. pumila var. ozarkensis)...

  15. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...on a Petition Notice of 90-day 75 FR 30313-30318 To List Castanea pumila Petition Finding, var. ozarkensis. Substantial...finding. Ozark chinquapin 12-month petition finding. (Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis). HI yellow-faced...

  16. 76 FR 33923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Abronia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...90-day 75 FR 30313-30318. Petition To List Petition Finding, Castanea pumila var. Substantial. ozarkensis. 06/01/2010...12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea pumila var. 12-month petition finding. ozarkensis)...

  17. 75 FR 78513 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Astragalus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...90-day 75 FR 30313-30318 Petition To List Petition Finding, Castanea pumila var. Substantial. ozarkensis. 6/1/2010...12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea pumila 12-month petition finding. var. ozarkensis)...

  18. GenBank blastn search result: AK289245 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289245 J100077H08 AY525348.1 AY525348 Castanea pumila var. pumila voucher HH R5T2 (Connecticut ... Agricultural Experiment ... Station, New Haven, Connecticut) haplotype II Ycf9 ...

  19. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...Narrow Endemic Plant Species Survey...the geographic distribution of the ARL based...discussion of the distribution of A. pumila plants within each unit...discussion of the distribution of A. pumila plants within each...

  20. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis as Threatened...12-month finding on a petition to list Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ozark chinquapin...Actions On July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27823), Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ozark...

  1. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Bertholletia excelsa ) Butternut (Juglans cinerea ) Cashew (Anacardium occidentale ) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Chinquapin (Castanea pumila ) Filbert (hazelnut) (Corylus spp.) Hickory nut (Carya spp.) Macadamia...

  2. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...Cashew, Anacardium occidentale; Chestnut, Castanea spp.; Chinquapin, Castanea pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp...Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Chestnut (Castanea crenata Siebold & Zucc., C. dentata...

  3. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardini L; Santini A

    2009-01-01

    European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.) have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED). Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these colle...

  4. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A

    OpenAIRE

    Bus, V.G.M.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Weg, W.E., van de; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 g...

  5. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  6. 76 FR 62165 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...12-Month Finding on a Notice of 12-month 76 FR 37706-37716 Petition to List petition finding, Not Castanea pumila var. warranted. ozarkensis as Threatened or Endangered. 6/29/2011......................

  7. 76 FR 20918 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Hermes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...12-month petition finding. \\3\\. Western gull-billed tern......... 12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea pumila 12-month petition finding. var. ozarkensis) \\4\\. HI yellow-faced bees................

  8. 76 FR 15919 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Berry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...petition finding. Butterfly \\3\\. Western gull-billed tern...... 12-month petition finding. Ozark chinquapin (Castanea 12-month petition finding. pumila var. ozarkensis) \\4\\. HI yellow-faced bees.......... 12-month...

  9. Polen de interés apícola del Noroeste de Santa Cruz (Patagonia Argentina): aspectos Morfológicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alicia, Forcone; Silvina, Ruppel.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB catorce tipos morfológicos hallados en mieles y cargas polínicas de Apis mellifera L. en el noroeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los tipos polínicos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, [...] Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae y Valerianaceae. Abstract in english Pollen of apicultural interest from northwest of Santa Cruz (Argentinean Patagonia): morphological aspects. Fourteen pollen types identified in honeys and pollen loads of Apis mellifera L. in the northwest of Santa Cruz Province are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. [...] Pollen types belong to the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cupressaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Iridaceae, Onagraceae, Schoephiaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Ulmaceae and Valerianaceae.

  10. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barth Ortrud M; Barreto Cíntia F.; Coelho Luciane G.; Luz Cynthia F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pollen grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed...

  11. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos; Heleno Dias Ferreira; Walter Santos de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) e Ulmaceae (4) as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, di...

  12. Variation in life-cycle between three rare and endangered floodplain violets in two regions: implications for population viability and conservation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eckstein, R. L.; Danihelka, Ji?í; Otte, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 1 (2009), s. 69-80. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Viola elatior * Viola pumila * Viola stagnina Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  13. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...Endangered. 6/28/2011 12-Month Finding on a Notice of 12-month 76 FR 37706-37716 Petition to List petition finding, Castanea pumila var. Not warranted. ozarkensis as Threatened or Endangered. 6/29/2011 90-Day Finding on a Notice of...

  14. Population biology of rare plants : the effects of ecological and genetic processes for the growth and viability of populations of three endangered floodplain violets

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit drei gefährdeten Arten der Gattung Viola, V. elatior Fries, V. pumila Chaix und V. stagnina Kit. Die Arten zeigen ein kontinentales Verbreitungsmuster mit einem Verbreitungszentrum in der gemäßigten Klimazone Osteuropas und Westsibiriens und erreichen in Zentral- und Westeuropa die Westgrenze ihres Verbreitungsgebiets. Es handelt sich um iteropare Hemikryptophyten mit einem komplexen Lebenszyklus, einem gemischten Bestäubungssystem aus chasmogame...

  15. Embryo rescue from interspecific crosses in apple rootstocks Resgate de embriões a partir de cruzamentos interespecíficos em porta-enxerto de macieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to rescue immature embryos of apple rootstocks Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido and Malus pumila (M9 after 40-60 days of pollination and to put them into MS culture media supplemented with agar (6 g L-1 and casein hydrolysate (500 mg L-1. Embryos originated from interspecific crosses and open pollination showed differences in the in vitro responses, depending on the female parent, the developmental stage of the embryo, and the culture medium composition. Embryos of the M. pumila rootstock, rescued within 40 days after pollination and put in culture medium supplemented with indolacetic acid (IAA, gibberellic acid (GA3, kinetin and maltose, resulted in a normal development of plantlets. However, embryos originating from hand-pollination, cultivated in medium supplemented with 14 µM IAA, 5 µM kinetin and 1.5 µM Ga3 (MS1, mainly those of M. prunifolia x M. pumila, showed a high percentage of rusted embryos (96.2%. Embryos from open pollination of M. prunifolia and M. pumila formed calluses. It was possible to identify the influence of the female parent by the enhanced development of M. pumila shoots derived from open or hand-pollination. The crossing of responsive species and the use of the technique of embryo culture provided a rapid and uniform germination and, consequently, the development of fully normal seedlings.O objetivo deste trabalho foi resgatar embriões imaturos de porta-enxertos de macieira Malus prunifolia (Marubakaido e Malus pumila (M9 depois de 40 e 60 dias de polinização e colocá-los em meio de cultura MS suplementado com ágar (6 g L-1 e hidrolisado de caseína (500 mg L-1. Embriões originados do cruzamento interespecífico dirigido e de polinização aberta mostraram diferenças significativas in vitro, tendo sido observadas diferenças quanto ao progenitor feminino, quanto à fase de desenvolvimento do embrião e à composição do meio de cultura. Embriões do porta-enxerto M. pumila, resgatados aos 40 dias depois da polinização e colocados em meio de cultura suplementado com ácido indolacético (AIA, ácido giberélico (GA3, cinetina e maltose, resultaram em desenvolvimento normal das plantas. Porém, foi observada alta porcentagem de embriões oxidados (96,2%, originados de polinização dirigida, cultivados em meio com 14 µM de AIA, 5 µM de cinetina e 1,5 µM de GA3 (MS1, principalmente para o cruzamento M. prunifolia e M. pumila. Embriões de polinização aberta de M. prunifolia x M. pumila formaram calos. Foi possível identificar a influência do progenitor feminino, pelo incremento de brotações de M. pumila derivada de polinização aberta e dirigida. O cruzamento de espécies responsivas e o uso da técnica de cultura de embrião promoveram germinação rápida e uniforme e, por conseguinte, o desenvolvimento de mudas normais.

  16. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) from Brazil / Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae) do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro C., Strikis; Maria Laura M., Lerena.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina), no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo) e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul). Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (P [...] sidium guajava, Myrtaceae), araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae). Abstract in english A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina), in the southeast (State of São Paulo) and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul). It has been reared from fruits of [...] guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae), "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae), "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae), Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae), cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae), orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae), "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae), "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae).

  17. A new species of Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae from Brazil Uma nova espécie de Neosilba (Diptera, Lonchaeidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Strikis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., is described and illustrated. This new species was found in the south of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, in the southeast (State of São Paulo and center west (State of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has been reared from fruits of guava (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, "araçá" (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, "guabiroba" (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, Surinam cherry (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cherry (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, orange (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, "ingá" (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, "esporão-de-galo" (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.Uma nova espécie de Neosilba McAlpine, 1962, N. pradoi sp. nov., é descrita e ilustrada. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada no sul do Brasil (Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, no sudeste (Estado de São Paulo e na região centro-oeste (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi obtida de frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava, Myrtaceae, araçá (Psidium cattleyanum, Myrtaceae, guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Myrtaceae, acerola (Malpighia emarginata, Malpighiaceae, cereja (Prunus avium, Rosaceae, laranja (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae, ingá (Inga laurina, Fabaceae, esporão-de-galo (Celtis iguanae, Ulmaceae e maracujá (Passiflora edulis, Passifloraceae.

  18. Pollen record and paleoenvironment of a 4210 years B.P.old sediment in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ortrud M., Barth; Cíntia F., Barreto; Luciane G., Coelho; Cynthia F.P., Luz.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A análise polínica de uma amostra de sedimento obtida a 222 cm do topo de um testemunho coletado na baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro foi realizada para obter um melhor conhecimento sobre a vida do homem pré-histórico e o meio ambiente. A datação de 14C revelou a idade de 4210 anos A.P. O pólen mais [...] freqüentemente encontrado foi de Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae e os esporos de Pteridophyta arborescentes. Atividades agrícolas não puderam ser detectadas através dos estudos palinológicos e paleoambientais. A densa floresta pluvial tropical era o tipo de cobertura vegetal dominante na região. Abstract in english Pollen analysis of a sediment sample obtained at 222 cm from the top of a drilling core collected in the Bay of Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, was used as a tool to obtain more knowledge about pre-historical human living and environment. 14C datation revealed the age of 4210 years B.P. Most frequent pol [...] len grains came from plants like Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), Celtis (Ulmaceae), Lecythidaceae, Meliaceae, Ochnaceae and spores from forest Pteridophyta. Palynology and environmental studies revealed that agricultural activities could not be detected. The dense tropical rain forest was the dominant vegetation occurring in this region.

  19. Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro / Assessment of extinction risk of Urticineae from sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Cardoso, Pederneiras; Andrea Ferreira da, Costa; Jorge Pedro Pereira, Carauta; Sergio, Romaniuc Neto.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados o georreferenciamento e as análises de avaliação de risco de extinção seguindo os critérios e categorias da IUCN para 32 espécies de Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae e Moraceae) ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Materiais correspondentes a essas espé [...] cies foram examinados nos principais herbários brasileiros, sendo selecionados 2524 registros para a avaliação. Dentre as 32 espécies, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis e Phyllostylon brasiliense encontraram-se ameaçadas de extinção, já Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana e S. hilarii deixaram de ser consideradas ameaçadas de extinção pelo recente estudo. Os resultados apontaram, como localidades de importância conservacionista, os municípios de Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro e Saquarema. Abstract in english This paper conducted georeferencing and analyzes of extinction risk assessments following the criteria and categories from IUCN for 32 species of Urticineae (Cannabaceae, Ulmaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae) occurring in the sandy coastal plains of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Materials corresponding [...] to these species were examined in major Brazilian herbaria and 2524 records were selected for evaluation. Among the 32 species, Ampelocera glabra, Celtis spinosa, Ficus cyclophylla, F.nevesiae, Maclura brasiliensis and Phyllostylon brasiliense fall into endangered category, and Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus castellviana, F.pulchella, Sorocea guilleminiana and S. hilarii were not considered threatened. The locations of conservation importance belong to the municipalities of Armação de Búzios, Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro and Saquarema.

  20. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by plant metabolite ?-viniferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Seob; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Ryu, Shi Yong; Joo, Sang Woo; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2013-07-24

    Pathogenic biofilms are associated with persistent infection due to their high resistances to diverse antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infects plants, animals, and humans and is a major cause of nosocomial diseases in patients with cystic fibrosis. In the present study, the antibiofilm abilities of 522 plant extracts against P. aeruginosa PA14 were examined. Three Carex plant extracts at a concentration of 200 ?g/mL inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by >80% without affecting planktonic cell growth. In the most active extract of Carex pumila , resveratrol dimer ?-viniferin was one of the main antibiofilm compounds against P. aeruginosa. Interestingly, ?-viniferin at 10 ?g/mL inhibited biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 98%. Although Carex extracts and trans-resveratrol are known to possess antimicrobial activity, this study is the first to report that C. pumila extract and ?-viniferin have antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:23819562

  1. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.Três novas espécies de Loricaria são descritas provenientes dos canais de grandes rios de águas brancas e pretas da bacia Amazônica brasileira, da bacia do alto rio Negro no sul da Venezuela e das águas claras do baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria lundbergi é simpátrica com L. spinulifera no baixo rio Negro, mas também é conhecida para o sistema do rio Baria, drenagem do Cassiquiare. Loricaria pumila ocorre no baixo rio Amazonas e baixo rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera e L. pumila diferem de outras Loricaria por apresentarem odontódeos hipertrofiados formando cristas conspícuas nas superfícies dorsal da cabeça e placas pré-dorsais, olhos reduzidos em tamanho e sem o opérculo da íris, e um padrão único de desenvolvimento de placas abdominais. Ambas espécies são pequenas entre Loricaria, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 120 mm comprimento padrão, e exibindo caracteres sexualmente dimórficos consistentes com membros do complexo L. cataphracta. Loricaria spinulifera difere de L. pumila por apresentar um arranjo das papilas bucais único e presença de grandes odontódeos em forma de espinho no dorso da cabeça. Loricaria pumila é a menor Loricaria conhecida, alcançando maturidade sexual com menos de 80 mm comprimento padrão. Loricaria lundbergi difere de outras Loricaria por uma combinação única de configuração das placas abdominais, cabeça larga e pequena placa basicaudal. Todas as três novas espécies apresentam graus variados de redução de tamanho do olho e pigmentação distinta da observada em outros peixes que habitam os canais profundos dos rios da América do Sul.

  2. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, N.; Vargas, M.; Medina, P.

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en...

  3. Dynamic Simulation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency in Apple Tree Canopies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoquan Gao; Shezhang Feng; Zhiqiang Li,

    2014-01-01

    We developed a model that couples canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration and canopy Water Use Efficiency (WUE) in an apple orchard (Malus pumila Mill. ‘Fuji’). The model used the Penman-Monteith equation to compute effects of the interaction between canopy transpiration rate (Tr) and microclimatic factors. For convenience, WUE was expressed as the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration rate; we simulated the relationship between WUE and microclimatic factors. Models developed were t...

  4. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Muhajir Hamid; Siti Pauliena Mohd Bohari; Mohd Saufi Bastami; Abdul Manaf Ali; Nik Musa`adah Mustapha; Khozirah Shari

    2008-01-01

    In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promi...

  5. When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Hoebeke, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost.

  6. Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ciornea; Gabriela Vasile

    2008-01-01

    The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass), Festuca pratensis (hair grass) and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass), as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzy...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Growth, Genome Size, Chromosome Numbers and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana and Three Cooccurring Species of the Brassicaceae from Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Matthias H.; Heike Schmuths; Christina Koch; Armin Meister; Fritsch, Reinhard M.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to literature data Arabidopsis thaliana was rarely observed in Middle Asia during a collection trip in 2001. Instead, three other Brassicaceae species were frequently found at places where A. thaliana was expected. To reveal reasons for this frequency pattern, we studied chromosome numbers, genome sizes, phylogenetic relationships, developmental rates, and reproductive success of A. thaliana, Olimarabidopsis pumila, Arabis montbretiana, and Arabis auriculata from Uzbekistan in two te...

  8. Evaluation of the Insulinotrophic Activity of Malaysian Traditional Plants Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajir Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of 14 traditional plants in Malaysia were screened for insulinotrophic properties, using rat pancreatic ?-cell lines, BRIN-BD11 cells. In 30 min acute static incubation test, all 14 plants showed varying degree of responsiveness in insulin release with Labisa pumila, Morinda citrifolia, Momordica charantia and Tinospora crispa having high insulinotrophic activities. These plants also displayed appreciably low cytotoxic activities. These results show a promising avenue for development of novel insulin secretagogues.

  9. Mitochondrial COI and nuclear RAG1 DNA sequences and analyses of specimens of the three morphologically established species in the genus Trichopsis (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) reveal new/cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Senapin, Saengchan; Kowasupat, Chanon; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Kühne, Jens; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2015-06-01

    Air-breathing fish species of the genus Trichopsis have been reported in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. It is only in Thailand that all three recognized species (Trichopsis vittata, Trichopsis schalleri and Trichopsis pumila), as judged by distinct external features, are found. Cambodia and Lao PDR harbor two species each. The present work involves first-time DNA sequencing and analysis based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (RAG1) DNA of numerous specimens of these species and specimens of a controversial Phetchaburi (Thailand) fish population with a mixed outward appearance. In addition to confirming the morphologically clear-cut taxonomic division of the three fish species, our DNA results show that whereas the T. pumila populations form one single species, there are cryptic species in the T. vittata and T. schalleri populations and possibly a new one in the latter. Members of the putative Phetchaburi fish population have been proven to be hybrids between T. pumila and T. vittata. In addition, a new the phylogenetic tree indicating ancestral relationships is also presented. This study should generate further research to find new/cryptic species of the genus Trichopsis in all countries harboring the fish. PMID:25853058

  10. A review of traditional plants used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribes of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazu, J; Kaita, A H

    2008-01-01

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family Polygalaceace) was reported to have such property; Mitragyna inermis (family Rubiaceae) has alkaloids structurally similar to clinically useful anticonvulsant. Celtis integrefolia (family Ulmaceae) was reported to contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) that its deficiency may lead to convulsions. The remaining plants were basically helpful in alleviation of associated symptoms of epilepsy except Centaurea praecox (family Asteraceae) which was reported to have neurotoxic substances that may worsen the disease. PMID:20161961

  11. Biological Method to Quantify Progressive Stages of Decay in Five Commercial Woods by Coriolus versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Olfat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (% were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority.

  12. Biological method to quantify progressive stages of decay in five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfat, A M; Karimi, A N; Parsapajouh, D

    2007-04-01

    Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053

  13. Palynology and paleoenvironmental significance of the Tunal Formation (Danian) at its type locality, El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) / Palinología e importancia paleoambiental de la Formación Tunal (Daniano) en su localidad tipo, Quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wolfgang, Volkheimer; Martín G., Novara; Paula L., Narváez; Rosa A., Marquillas.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La investigación palinológica de muestras extraídas de la Formación Tunal en la quebrada El Chorro (Salta, Argentina) resultó en la recuperación de una asociación de polen y esporas, juntamente con algas de agua dulce (Pediastrum spp. y Scenedesmus sp.). De las 43 especies de esporomorfos identifica [...] das hasta el momento para la Formación Tunal, 28 se citan aquí por primera vez. Las esporas y polen indican edad Daniana en la localidad tipo. Los proxidata sedimentarios incluyendo abundantes evaporitas, sugieren intervalos al menos estacionales de condiciones ambientales áridas. Por otro lado, las asociaciones palinológicas recuperadas de las pelitas oscuras ricas en materia orgánica indican la presencia de áreas anegadas y selvas en sus alrededores. En las últimas, el predominio de Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (que se corresponde con el actual Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indica abundantes lluvias estacionales, condiciones cálido-húmedas y clima subtropical. Abstract in english The palynologic investigation of samples from the Tunal Formation at El Chorro creek (Salta, Argentina) resulted in the recovery of terrestrial assemblages of pollen and spores associated with freshwater algae (Pediastrum spp. and Scenedesmus sp.). Of the 43 species of sporomorphs identified for the [...] Tunal Formation so far, 28 species are cited here for the first time. The spores and pollen indicate a Danian age at the type locality. Sedimentary proxidata including abundant evaporites suggest intervals of at least seasonal arid environmental conditions. In contrast, the palynologic assemblages recovered from the organic rich dark shales indicate the presence of swampy areas and forests surrounding them. The dominance of Verrustephanoporites simplex Leidelmeyer (corresponding to the modern Phyllostylon, Ulmaceae) indicates abundant seasonal rainfalls, warm humid conditions and subtropical climate.

  14. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Baptista dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 e Ulmaceae (4 as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical.In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9, Styracaceae (6 and Ulmaceae (4 having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera. This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  15. Quantificação do banco de sementes sob diferentes usos do solo em área de domínio ciliar Evaluation of seed bank under different soil uses

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    Dálgima Gasparino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se o número de plântulas e a composição do banco de sementes do solo em áreas de domínio ciliar com remanescentes florestais ou utilizadas para agricultura ou pastagem. As amostras foram coletadas em três épocas do ano. O número médio de indivíduos encontrados nas áreas com remanescentes florestais, agricultura e pasto foi de 551,68; 451,36; e 452,48 sementes viáveis por metro quadrado, respectivamente. O maior número de espécies por metro quadrado foi observado na coleta de verão, com 46,72 espécies. No total, foram identificadas 37 famílias e 81 espécies. Das espécies identificadas, 65,4% foram consideradas como invasoras, 7,41% como gramíneas e 27,19% como arbóreas. Dentre as espécies arbóreas foram identificadas 19 famílias com Ulmaceae, Cecropiacea e Euphorbiaceae, apresentando-se com maior número de plântulas. O maior número de espécies arbóreas foi encontrado em amostras de solo de áreas com remanescentes florestais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed bank of areas under different uses (forest patches, agriculture and pasture. Soil was sampled during three seasons. Mean number of individuals in forest patches, agriculture and pasture areas were of 551.68; 451.36; and 452.48 species per square meter, respectively. The largest mean number of species was collected in the summer sampling with 46.72 species per square meter. Among the identified species, 65.4% were classified as weeds, 7.41% as grasses, and 27.19% as arboreal species. Among the arboreal species 19 families were identified as Ulmaceae, Cecropiaceae and Euphorbiaceae, yielding the highest number of seedlings. Areas with forest patches presented the highest number of arboreal species.

  16. Quantificação do banco de sementes sob diferentes usos do solo em área de domínio ciliar / Evaluation of seed bank under different soil uses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dálgima, Gasparino; Ubirajara C., Malavasi; Marlene de M., Malavasi; Italvaci de, Souza.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se o número de plântulas e a composição do banco de sementes do solo em áreas de domínio ciliar com remanescentes florestais ou utilizadas para agricultura ou pastagem. As amostras foram coletadas em três épocas do ano. O número médio de indivíduos encontrados nas áreas com [...] remanescentes florestais, agricultura e pasto foi de 551,68; 451,36; e 452,48 sementes viáveis por metro quadrado, respectivamente. O maior número de espécies por metro quadrado foi observado na coleta de verão, com 46,72 espécies. No total, foram identificadas 37 famílias e 81 espécies. Das espécies identificadas, 65,4% foram consideradas como invasoras, 7,41% como gramíneas e 27,19% como arbóreas. Dentre as espécies arbóreas foram identificadas 19 famílias com Ulmaceae, Cecropiacea e Euphorbiaceae, apresentando-se com maior número de plântulas. O maior número de espécies arbóreas foi encontrado em amostras de solo de áreas com remanescentes florestais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the seed bank of areas under different uses (forest patches, agriculture and pasture). Soil was sampled during three seasons. Mean number of individuals in forest patches, agriculture and pasture areas were of 551.68; 451.36; and 452.48 species per square [...] meter, respectively. The largest mean number of species was collected in the summer sampling with 46.72 species per square meter. Among the identified species, 65.4% were classified as weeds, 7.41% as grasses, and 27.19% as arboreal species. Among the arboreal species 19 families were identified as Ulmaceae, Cecropiaceae and Euphorbiaceae, yielding the highest number of seedlings. Areas with forest patches presented the highest number of arboreal species.

  17. Evidence of sexual reproduction of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Sandanayaka, W. R. M.; Bus, V. G. M.

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), can take place parthenogenetically or sexually when both host plants, apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and elm (Ulmus americana L.) are available. Since elm is not commonly grown in New Zealand, E. lanigerum, a major pest of apple, is thought to reproduce only parthenogenetically here. During our studies between 1999 and 2003, different morphs of E. lanigerum have been observed on apple trees, which were studied in more deta...

  18. Allométrie du bois de cœur et de l'aubier pour sept espèces d'arbres tempérées chinoises

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingchang; Wang, Chuankuan; Zhang, Quanzhi; Quan, Xiankuai

    2010-01-01

    * Allometry of sapwood/heartwood is essential for understanding tree growth, water transport and carbon allocation, timber production and use, but such an allometry is lacking for Chinese temperate tree species.* We studied the allometry and development of heartwood and sapwood for seven Chinese temperate tree species: Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.), Japanese elm (Ulmus davidiana Planch var. japonica (Rehd.) Nakai), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus...

  19. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  20. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMI?OARA

    OpenAIRE

    Faur, A.; Nicoleta Ianovici; Sinitean, A.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus) between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response...

  1. Evaluation of effects of hydrogel on allergic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Deok [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, radiation-irradiated natural extracts including Houttuynia cordata Thunb, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance, Glechoma longituba, Plantago asiatica, and Morus alba were selected as the effective materials on allergy and inflammation. Hydroatogel and cosmetics that are made of radiation-irradiated natural extracts showed no skin irritation. Hydroatogel showed beneficial effect on atopy dermatitis in clinical test. It also showed significant skin barrier recovery effect

  2. Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acatay, A.

    1968-01-01

    As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

  3. Role of fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in semiochemical-mediated host selection by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Geoffrey D.

    2005-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novoulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals [(-)-P-pinene, (-)-a-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-&cadinenel from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that their emission is up-regulated in elm trees inoculated with 0. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manipulates host trees to enhance their apparency...

  4. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

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    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  5. Biological Method to Quantify Progressive Stages of Decay in Five Commercial Woods by Coriolus versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Olfat; A.N. Karimi; D. Parsapajouh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabr...

  6. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Mitka; Wojciech B?ba; Kazimierz Szczepanek

    2014-01-01

    An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus ave...

  7. Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernier L; Aoun M; Gf, Bouvet; Comeau A; Dufour J; Es, Naruzawa; Nigg M; Kv, Plourde

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED) pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp.) and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi). Genetic and mo...

  8. The pathogen causing Dutch elm disease makes host trees attract insect vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Mcleod, Geoff; Gries, Regine; Von Reuß, Stephan H.; Rahe, James E.; Mcintosh, Rory; Ko?nig, Wilfried A.; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals (the monoterpene (?)-?-pinene and the sesquiterpenes (?)-?-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-?-cadinene) from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that sesquiterpene emission is upregulated in elm trees inoculated with O. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manip...

  9. Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-diez, P.; Gonza?lez-mun?oz, N.; Alonso, A.; Gallardo, A.; Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the native trees Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia, respectively. Naturally senesced leaves of each species were collected and C:N ratio, N and lignin content assessed. We prepared 64 litter bags per sp...

  10. Nuevos braquiópodos prodúctidos (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) del Carbonífero de la región de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca / New productid brachiopods (Rhynchonelliformea, Strophomenata) of the Carboniferous from the Nochixtlán region, Oaxaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel A., Torres-Martínez; Francisco, Sour-Tovar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 14 especies de braquiópodos prodúctidos presentes en la Formación Ixtaltepec, Municipio de Nochixtlán, Oaxaca, sureste de México. Todas las especies y la mayor parte de los géneros que se reportan representan primeros registros para México, en el caso de Echinoconchella este es el prime [...] r reporte del género para Norteamérica. El material pertenece a las superfamilias Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis y Nuanducosia sulcata, nuevo género y nueva especie de la Subfamilia Anidanthinae) y Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). Para los niveles estratigráficos de la parte media de la Formación Ixtaltepec se confirma una edad pensilvánica (Morrowano-Desmoinesiano) por la presencia de los braquiópodos E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis y Marginovatia cf. pumila. Para los niveles basales de la formación el hallazgo de Marginovatia minor y Ovatia muralis restringe la edad de los estratos portadores al Chesteriano (Misisípico Medio-Superior). La fauna descrita presenta una fuerte similitud con especies de la región centro-este de los Estados Unidos, similitud que confirma la existencia durante el Carbonífero de una conexión entre las dos regiones a través de un mar epicontinental. Abstract in english Fourteen species of productid brachiopods from Ixtaltepec Formation, Oaxaca State in southeast Mexico, are described. All the species and most of the genus that are reported representfirst records for Mexico, in the case of Echinoconchella this is the first report of the genus for North America. The [...] species belong to the superfamilies Echinoconchoidea (Echinoconchus zapoteco sp. nov., Echinaria knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Echinoconchella elegans), Linoproductoidea (Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, Linoproductus platyumbonus, Linoproductus sp., Marginovatia minor, Marginovatia aureocollis, Marginovatia cf. pumila, Cancrinella nunduva sp. nov., Ovatia muralis and Nuanducosia sulcata, new genus and species of Subfamily Anidanthinae) and Aulostegoidea (?Sinuatella sp.). The stratigraphic distribution of E. knighti, Karavankina cf. fasciata, Linoproductus cf. prattenianus, L. platyumbonus, M. aureocollis and Marginovatia cf. pumila confirms a Pennsylvanian age (Morrowan-Desmonesian) for the strata of the middle part of Ixtaltepec Formation; the finding of Marginovatia minor and Ovatia muralis in basal strata of the formation sets a Middle-Upper Mississippian age (Chesterian) for bearing units. The fauna described has a strong similarity to species of the east-central region of the United States, similarity that confirms the existence of a connection between the two regions during the Carboniferous through a epicontinental sea.

  11. REVISIÓN DEL GÉNERO GAULTHERIA L. (ERICACEAE) EN CHILE / REVISION OF THE GENUS OF GAULTHERIA L. Gaultheria L. (ERICACEAE) IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastián, Teillier; Felipe, Escobar.

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión del género Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) presente en Chile, utilizando los métodos clásicos. Se tuvieron a la vista los tipos y las colecciones de los herbarios SGO y CONC, además de los sitios WEB de instituciones que contienen fotos de tipos o isotipos. Se concluyó que Gaulther [...] ia es un género que en Chile presenta varias complejidades: una centena de nombres propuestos por los científicos botánicos de todos los tiempos, taxa complejos con amplísima variación en la morfología foliar como G. mucronata, G. poeppigii y G. racemulosa, taxa intermedios entre especies (posibles híbridos) y taxa indistinguibles en ausencia de frutos (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). Como conclusión de la revisión se aceptan para Chile 12 especies y una variedad: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana y G. tenuifolia. Se rehabilitan G. renjifoana, una especie amenazada de extinción incluida en forma errada en la sinonimia de G. insana; y G. angustifolia, una especie afín a G. mucronata, pero con hojas más estrechas y diferentes hábitat y distribución geográfica. Finalmente, se llama la atención sobre G. nubigena, una especie de distribución muy estrecha que merece protección. Abstract in english A review of Gaultheria L. has been made through taxonomic methods. Specimens and documents from SGO and CONC herbariums, as well as different institution's web sites containing pictures of specimens, are reviewed in this document. It was concluded that Chile has several complexities regarding Gaulth [...] eria: hundreds of names have been proposed by botanists; species complexes with wide foliar variation, such as G. mucronata, G. poeppigii and G. racemulosa; intermediate taxa among species (putative hybrids) and indistinguishable taxa in the absence of fruits (G. phyllireifolia-G. mucronata). As a conclusion, we propose 12 species and one variety accepted in Chile: G. angustifolia, G. antarctica, G. cespitosa, G. insana, G. mucronata, G. nubigena, G. phyllireifolia, G. poeppigii, G. pumila, G. pumila var. leucocarpa, G. racemulosa, G. renjifoana and G. tenuifolia. G. renjifoana is being maintained, even though this endangered species had been considered as synonymous with G. insana. We reinstate G. angustifolia, a species which differs from G. mucronata on the basis of habitat and geographic distribution. Finally it is underlined that G. nubigena should be protected due to its narrow distribution.

  12. Experimental investigations on the dynamics of beta-amylase in some Graminaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper synthesizes the results of the investigations devoted to the dynamics of ?-amylase activity in germinated caryopses belonging to some species of the Poaceae family, namely: Setaria pumila (bristle grass, Festuca pratensis (hair grass and Sorghum sudanense (Sudan grass, as correlated with the dynamics of starch concentration, recorded along ten germination days. On one side, the obtained results evidence that, in the process of reserve polyglucides mobilization, this enzyme plays an at least as equally important role as the ?-amylase and, on the other, the considerable differences observed among the three Poaceae species from cultivated and, respectively, spontaneous flora.

  13. Calorific values of plant and insect species of a tropical grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.S.; Yadava, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data are given on the calorific value of plant tops in various months of the year for a range of species from a grassland community at Kurukshetra, India, including Aeschynomene indica, Bothriochloa pertusa, Brachiaria reptans, Cassia occidentalis, C. pumila, Crotaleria medicaginea, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Digitaria sanguinalis, Prosopis sp., Rhynchosia minima and Sporobolus diander. Data on energy content of below-ground plant parts in May are given for Polypogon monspeliensisand Cenchrus ciliaris, and on both the above parameters for C. setigerus, Alhagi camelorum, Apluda mutica, Dichanthium annulatum, Panicum miliare and Sorghum halepense. Energy contents of standing dead material and of litter are given for each month of the year.

  14. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  15. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ? 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ? 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ? 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ? 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86? 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83? 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ? 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91? 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ? 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  16. Detección y abundancia de especies del género Frankliniella en una zona protegida de San José de las Lajas en la provincia de Mayabeque, Cuba / Detection and abundance of species of the genus Frankliniella in a protected zone of San José de las Lajas in Mayabeque province, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, González; Neisy, Castillo; Axel P., Retana-Salazar.

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un ecosistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella, el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, l [...] o que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch, con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor incidencia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae. Abstract in english During the period between April and August of 2009, 29 species of plants, located in 21 botanical families were sampled in an ecosystem protected in Mayabeque province. Nine species were determined inside the genus Frankliniella, the one that impacted in 23 of the botanical species, with 79.31%. Of [...] the trips species, the one that bigger incidence had was Frankliniella williamsi Hood with 62.06% and Frankliniella tritici Fitc with 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura associated to six and five species of plants, reaching 20.68 and 17.24% of incidence respectively. The botanical species with more trips incidence was Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich, and Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch. The most abundant species were Frankliniella williamsi Hood, Frankliniella insularis Franklin, Frankliniella tritici Fitch and Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura. The botanical families with more trips incidence were Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae and Rubiaceae. In the families' Bombacaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae and Ulmaceae were not found any species of trips.

  17. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetakovi? Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  18. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMI?OARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  19. Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    OpenAIRE

    Buiteveld J; Van Der Werf B; Ja, Hiemstra

    2014-01-01

    Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED) epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with ...

  20. The pathogen causing Dutch elm disease makes host trees attract insect vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geoff; Gries, Regine; von Reuss, Stephan H; Rahe, James E; McIntosh, Rory; König, Wilfried A; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-12-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is transmitted by the native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. We have found that four semiochemicals (the monoterpene (-)-beta-pinene and the sesquiterpenes (-)-alpha-cubebene, (+)-spiroaxa-5,7-diene and (+)-delta-cadinene) from diseased American elms, Ulmus americana, synergistically attract H. rufipes, and that sesquiterpene emission is upregulated in elm trees inoculated with O. novo-ulmi. The fungus thus manipulates host trees to enhance their apparency to foraging beetles, a strategy that increases the probability of transportation of the pathogen to new hosts. PMID:16271975

  1. The influence of temperature and light on defoliation levels of elm by dutch elm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, M L; Pearson, S; Brasier, C M

    1997-06-01

    ABSTRACT The amount of defoliation of elm (Ulmus procera) caused by three Ophiostoma novoulmi Eurasian race isolates over 14 seasons of field trials was found to be strongly correlated with mean air temperature and mean number of sunshine hours over the 12-week period from inoculation to assessment, and with tree age. The coefficient of determination for the regression of percent defoliation on the environmental and tree factors was 0.76, P 7.5 h of sunshine) at all air temperatures or low light (Dutch elm disease symptoms and the implications for elm resistance breeding are discussed. PMID:18945072

  2. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino / Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo R, Torres; Liliana C, Lupo; Ana C, Sánchez; Karsten, Schittek.

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conoc [...] imiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA). Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis. Abstract in english The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of [...] high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA). The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  3. A NEW SPECIES OF CASTILLEJA (OROBANCHACEAE) FROM THE PÁRAMOS OF THE COLOMBIAN EASTERN CORDILLERA, WITH COMMENTS ON ITS ASSOCIATION WITH PLANTAGO RIGIDA (PLANTAGINACEAE) / Una especie nueva de Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) de los páramos de la cordillera Oriental de Colombia, con comentarios acerca de su asociación con Plantago rigida (Plantaginaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FAVIO, GONZÁLEZ; NATALIA, PABÓN-MORA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, una especie de hierbas perennes pequeñas propias de páramos de Santander, Boyacá y Cundinamarca, en la Cordillera Oriental Colombiana, es descrita y detalladamente ilustrada con fotografías de la colección tipo. La especie nueva es morfológica- y ecoló [...] gicamente similar a C. nubigena, C. pumila y C. virgata, tres especies perennes de zonas altoandinas de Ecuador, Perú y norte de Chile y Argentina. Castilleja paramensis se distingue claramente de sus especies afines por el tamaño pequeño de los individuos, las hojas y las brácteas ancho-elípticas (las cuales son enteras a levemente 3-lobadas), el pedicelo extremadamente corto ( Abstract in english Castilleja paramensis F. González & Pabón-Mora, a perennial species of small herbs from páramos of Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca, in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, is described and fully illustrated by photographs of the type collection. The new species is morphologically and ecologically si [...] milar to C. nubigena, C. pumila, and C. virgata, three perennial high Andean species from Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile and Argentina. C. paramensis is clearly distinguished from its relatives by the small size of the individuals, the broadly elliptic leaves and bracts (which are entire to slightly trilobed), the short (

  4. Micropropagation of herbal plants for mass production of in vitro plantlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia herbal industry is considered to be one of the most dynamic enterprises with annual growth estimated at 20 % a year. The total import value of the medicinal and aromatic plants increased from RM 141 million in 1986 to RM 431 million in 1996. Species that have been identified in terms of current priority are Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah), Andrographis paniculata (Hempedu Bumi), Morinda citrifolia (Mengkudu), Centella asiatica (Pegaga), Orthosiphon aristatus (Misai Kucing) and Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa). Herbal and medicinal plants have a larger pool of genetic resources for the production of compounds valuable to the industry and human well being such as in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and health food. The use of tissue culture technology has long been considered as an attractive solution to the problem of limited supply of raw materials for the industries. Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) has been well known to increase female hormone, overcome tiredness and regain overall health. Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon aristatus) has proven to be active against kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes and gout and Sambung Nyawa (Gynura procumbens) is active against hypertension, diabetes and cancer. Tissue culture protocols had been optimized for the mass production of in vitro plantlets of these three selected herbal plants. (Author)

  5. Aportes a la flora polínica de turberas altoandinas, Provincia de Jujuy, noroeste argentino Contributions to the pollen flora of high-Andean cushion peatlands, Jujuy Province, Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo R Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la caracterización polínica de 15 especies, nuevas para la palinoflora andina, distribuidas en 12 familias, con una clave para su identificación. Las mismas pertenecen a la flora actual de comunidades vegetales de turberas altoandinas. Estos estudios tienen como objetivo aportar al conocimiento polínico de los ambientes de turberas altoandinas, con el fin de optimizar la identificación de tipos polínicos presentes en los registros fósiles del cuaternario de la región del noroeste argentino (NOA. Las descripciones pertenecen a las siguientes especies: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Perezia pygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frígida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.The descriptions of15 pollen types, new for the high-Andean pollen flora, distributed in 12 families, are presented, with a key for their identification. They belong to the current flora of cushion peatlands' plants communities. The aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of pollen of high Andean peatland ecosystems, in order to optimize the identification of pollen types conserved in quaternary fossil records in Northwestern Argentina (NOA. The following species are described: Apiaceae: Lilaeopsis macloviana, Asteraceae: Cuatrecasasiella argentina, Pereziapygmaea, Brassicaceae: Eudema friesii, Cyperaceae: Carex gayana, Zameioscirpus muticus, Fabaceae: Astragalus micranthellus, Gentianaceae: Gentianella meyeniana, Juncaceae: Distichia muscoides, Orobanchaceae: Bartsia crenoloba, Castilleja pumila, Plantaginaceae: Plantago tubulosa, Poaceae: Puccinellia frigida, Portulacaceae: Calandrinia compacta, Ranunculaceae: Halerpestes exilis.

  6. Juvenile phase of seedling development in six Eurasian 5-needle Pine species: pattern and character of interspecific differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Popov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A species-specific trait system is formed as a result of two main factors: phylogenetic (origin, relationships and adaptive (environment within a modern natural habitat. Traits themselves also may be ranged by theirphylogenetic stability and adaptive value. Species are usually characterized by definitive traits. Meanwhile, ontogenetic traits may alsobe useful for understanding both species' phylogenesis and adaptation to climatic conditions. The purpose of the present study is toinvestigate the juvenile shoot structure in some Eurasian Pinus species from the section strobus. In the southern part of the WesternSiberian Plain forest zone, seedling growth and development were studied on six Eurasian species: stone pines (Pinus sibirica, P. cembra,P. pumila, P. koraiensis and white pines (P. parviflora, P. armandii. Shoot growth duration?increases with an increase in vegetation season duration and the number of effective temperatures in the species' natural habitat: growth began slightly later, but it finished significantlylater. As far as shoot growth duration is concerned, the studied species were divided into 4 groups: (1 subarctic-subalpine P. pumila - 45-50 days, (2 boreal-mountain P. sibirica and P. cembra - 50-55 days, (3 nemoral from the monsoon forests P. koraiensis and P. parviflora - 60-65 days, (4 subtropical P. armandii - 75-80 days. The differences instructure and development of the juvenile shoots were not related to the climate in the natural habitat of species. On the basis of the juvenile morphogenesis duration and the presence of the mature organ type (5-needle short shoots on the juvenile shoot, three pairs ofspecies were distinguished: P. sibirica and P. cembra (1 year, do not have short shoots; P. koraiensis and P. armandii (1 year, shortshoots are present; P. parviflora and P. pumila (2 years, short shoots are present. It is shown that there is a close relationship between the species within each pair and a new argument is added in favor of the polyphyletic origin hypothesis for modern subsection Cembrae of the genus Pinus. The more important is one or another feature for species survival: the less it is connected with its phylogenesis, and the more it is related to modern climatic conditions. For species taxonomy, neutral features in the adaptive sense are relevant where they possiblydo not absolutely influence the real plants' life. A juvenile shoot is a shoot without bud scales. It has obviously remained in the Pinus ontogeny from the time when the ancestors of the modern species grew in a climate with weakly marked seasons. For P. parviflora?from the region with a temperate maritime climate, a two-year cycle of juvenile shoot development, apparently, is quite organic. For P. pumila which may be related to it and grows on an enormous area including north-eastern Siberia, it is an undesirable property that would limit the adaptive ability of species. The P. pumila seedlings demonstrate an extraordinarily high level of juvenile shoot diversity. This suggests the relatively recent origin of the species and its current active evolution.

  7. DETECCIÓN Y ABUNDANCIA DE ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO FRANKLINIELLA EN UNA ZONA PROTEGIDA DE SAN JOSÉ DE LAS LAJAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE MAYABEQUE, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos GONZ\\u00C1LEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo comprendido entre abril y agosto de 2009, se muestrearon en un eco - sistema protegido en la provincia Mayabeque, 29 especies de plantas, ubicadas en 21 familias botánica. Se determinaron nueve especies dentro del género Frankliniella , el que incidió en 23 de las especies botánica, lo que representó 79.31%. Dentro de los trips, el que tuvo mayor incidencia fue Frankliniella williamsi Hood con 62.06%, le siguió Frankliniella tritici Fitch , con 24.13%. Frankliniella insularis Franklin y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura se asociaron a seis y cinco especies de plantas, los que mostraron 20.68 y 17.24% de ocurrencia respectivamente. Con relación a las plantas la mayor inciden - cia de trips ocurrió sobre Pisonia aculeata L, Cupania macrophylla A. Rich y Dentropanax arboreum Dene and Planch . Los trips más abundantes fueron Frankliniella williamsi Hood , Frankliniella insularis Franklin , Frankliniella tritici Fitch y Frankliniella jamaicensis Sakimura . Las familias botánicas con mayor ocurrencia de trips fueron Sapindaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Araliaceae, Esterculiaceae, Meliaceae y Rubiaceae. No hubo trips en las familias Bombaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Papilionaceae y Ulmaceae.

  8. Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Surender Singh

    2014-01-01

    Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, ? -amyrin, stigmasterol, ? -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines. PMID:24949441

  9. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  10. Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, R A

    1988-12-01

    Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods. PMID:14972810

  11. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  12. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy as a new method for evaluating host resistance in the Dutch elm disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J A; Solla, A; Woodward, S; Gil, L

    2005-10-01

    Resistance of elms (Ulmus spp.) to the pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier depends on chemical and anatomical factors that confine the spread of the pathogen in the vascular system of the host. This study focused on detecting chemical differences in 4-year-old Ulmus minor Mill. seedlings before and after inoculation with a virulent O. novo-ulmi isolate. According to symptom development over 60 days, the trees were divided into resistant (0-33% wilting) and susceptible (67-100% wilting) groups. Histochemical tests and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis were performed on transverse sections of 2-year-old twigs, 2 days before and 40 days after inoculation. Although histochemical tests did not clearly discriminate susceptible from resistant elms, chemical differences between resistant, susceptible and control trees were detected by FT-IR. The average spectrum for resistant tree samples had higher absorbance peaks than the spectra from the susceptible and control samples, indicating increased formation of lignin and suberin. The roles of lignin and suberin in the resistance of the elms against O. novo-ulmi and the usefulness and sensitivity of the FT-IR technique for analyzing metabolic changes caused by pathogens in plants are discussed. PMID:16076781

  13. Peculiarities and opportunities of restoration of vegetation of experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches at experimental ground 'Experimental field' of Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000. 26 ground and 87 air nuclear tests were conducted out at the territory in 1949-1962. It is found that for deluvial-proluvial plain: High level of radiation pollution of soils in the epicentre of nuclear explosions is limiting factor for vegetation rehabilitation. Under level of PED of ?-irradiation 14,000-16,000 ?R/h vegetation restoration has not begun until now. Only single individuals of Artemisia frigida appear under PED of ?-irradiation 10,000-13,000 ?R/h. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by annual-biennial weed species appear under PED of ?-irradiation 3,600-8,000 ?R/h. Natural rehabilitation of vegetation occurs more intensively under PED of ?-irradiation of 60-200 ?R/h. Vegetation aggregations close to initial zonal coenosis develop in these conditions. It is found that for tumulose: Vegetation restoration on the tops of hills starts with invasion of weed species. Plant aggregations with predominance of Caragana pumila, tyhedra distachya develop on accumulations of fine earth in cracks of mountain rocks. Lichens and mosses assimilate outcrops of mountain rocks. 2. Plant aggregations with predominance of Spiraea hypericifoia, Caragana pumila, Artemisia frigida develop on the upper parts of slopes of hills. Craters of nuclear explosions have not been assimilated by higher plants yet. Rarefied plant aggregationts yet. Rarefied plant aggregations constituted by Psathyrostachys juncea, Artemisia frigida appear in the lower parts of slopes of hills. Single individuals of Medicago falcata, Galium ruthenicum, Melilotus dentatus are found on sides of explosion craters. Vegetation rehabilitates slowly trenches on gentle slopes of hills. Following measures are necessary for intensification of the process of restoration of vegetation destroyed and damaged by nuclear explosions: To clean slopes of hills from numerous fragment of metallic and plastic parts, remains of concrete constructions and debris; To fill up trenches on the slopes of the hills, make even soil surface; It is necessary to apply phyto-remediation technology to clear the hills from radiation pollution. Lichens developing on the outcrops accumulate Cs137 up to 54,000 Bq/kg. Coverage of their aggregations reaches 40-45 %. Mosses developing on fine earth in cracks of stones accumulate Cs137 up to 4,100 Bq/kg, Am241 - 1,830 Bq/kg, Eu152,154 - 211 Bq/kg. 4 For prevention of water and wind erosion it is necessary to sow in addition seeds of Caragana pumila, Spiraea hypericifolia, Artemisia frigida, Psathyrostachys juncea

  14. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas / Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Zapata; M., Vargas; P., Medina.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germ [...] inación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of w [...] eeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

  15. Actividad fitotóxica de un extracto N-Hexano obtenido de la corteza de Drimys Winteri sobre cuatro especies de malezas Phytotoxic activity of N-Hexane extract obtained from Drimys Winteri bark on four weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el efecto fitotóxico de un extracto obtenido con n-hexano de la corteza de Drimys winteri sobre la germinación y el crecimiento de Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota y Cichorium intybus. El efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la germinación de las malezas se determinó mediante bioensayos en placas de Petri y la aplicación del extracto en el medio de germinación en concentraciones de 100 a 1.000 mg L-1. En bioensayos en macetas, se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto sobre la emergencia y crecimiento de las plántulas de malezas, en los cuales se aplicó el extracto mezclado con el sustrato de cultivo en concentraciones de 500 a 4.000 mg kg-1. También se determinó el efecto fitotóxico del extracto asperjado sobre plantas de malezas en concentraciones de 800 a 6.400 mg L-1. En los ensayos de germinación, el extracto retrasó la germinación y redujo el crecimiento de tallo y radícula de todas las malezas, el porcentaje de germinación disminuyó en todas las malezas, excepto en C. arvensis. La aplicación del extracto al sustrato de cultivo disminuyó y retrasó la emergencia de todas las malezas. Las plantas tratadas con extracto presentaron menor altura y hubo disminución de la biomasa acumulada. De igual modo, la aplicación del extracto al follaje de las malezas redujo la altura y la biomasa acumulada y llegó a causar la muerte de C. intybus, S. pumila y D. carota.The objective of this research was to determine the phytotoxic effect of the n-hexane extract obtained from the bark of Drimys winteri on germination and growth of Convolvulus arvensis, Setaria pumila, Daucus carota and Cichorium intybus. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the germination of weeds were determined by bioassays in Petri dishes, adding the extract on the germination medium at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 mg L-1. The phytotoxic effects of the extract on the emergence and seedling growth of weeds were studied in pots bioassays, where the extract was applied mixed with the growth medium at concentrations of 500 to 4,000 mg kg-1 . We also determined the phytotoxic effects of the extract by spraying on weed plants, at concentrations of 800 to 6,400 mg L-1 . In germination tests, the extract delayed germination and decreased the shoot and radicle growth of all weeds, germination decreased in all weeds except C. arvensis. The application of the extract to the growth medium decreased and delayed the emergence of the weeds, plants treated with the extract had lower height and reduced accumulated biomass. The extract sprayed on plants delayed the growth of the four weed species and decreased their cumulative biomass, plant mortality was observed with the highest concentration tested for S. pumila, D. carota and C. intybus.

  16. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi GHIYASI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  17. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Andersen, K E

    1998-10-01

    Short-lived occupational skin symptoms of irritant or urticarial nature were commonly reported among 253 attendants in a clinical study on occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers. Aimed prick or scratch-patch testing for immediate skin and mucosal symptoms was performed in 105 persons with plants as is. 35 persons (33%) had at least 1 positive reaction and a family history of, or personal, atopy was significantly more prevalent among these compared to attendants with negative reactions. Positive histamine release tests made immunologic etiology probable in Schlumbergera cacti, Stephanotis floribunda, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Gerbera reactions. Other new species implicated in immediate-type reactions included Ficus pumila, Gardenia jasminoides, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Campanula, Columnea, Epipremnum aureum, Pelargonium and Primula vulgaris. Because of the high prevalence of short-lived skin symptoms and because contact urticaria may present itself as a dermatitis, it is recommended that one supplement patch tests with tests for immediate reactions. PMID:9817221

  18. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ?Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.                                                Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                     &n

  19. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. PMID:25952870

  20. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-10-11

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases. PMID:2216771

  1. Home range and activity of African goshawks Accipiter tachiro in relation to their predation on bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L Rautenbach

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter radio-tracking of three African goshawks Accipiter tachiro showed that they each occupied well-wooded home ranges of at least 28 hectares. They perched and roosted mainly within densely foliaged trees and an adult female changed perches on average 4,7 times per hour. No crepuscular predation of bats was recorded, in contrast to regular summer predation on colonies of little free-tailed bats, Tadarida pumila, but winter emergence rates of these bats at dusk had dropped to < 5 of the previous summer. We predict that many accipiters will be regular predators of bats and that skewed sex ratios and high fecundity may be two means by which bats counter this predation.

  2. University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gerald D.

    Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur Cronquistâ??s classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant familiesâ?? are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

  3. Current vegetation dynamics of the “forest-mountain tundra” ecotones of Lake Baikal coastal ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Voronin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades, new trends appeared in the ecotones of the upper boundary of forests at the ridges surroundingLakeBaikal(Khamar-Daban and Baikal’sky Ridge: ones to advance of wood species (Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Abies sibirica Ledeb., Larix sibirica Ledeb., Larix dahurica Lawson out of timber stands into the area of subgoltsy with Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel. up to mountain tundras. In average, this is from 100 to 200 - 300 meters (maximum up to500 m in linear distance from the margin of dense timber stand. A burst of forests renewal occurred in 1989-1995, it resulted probably from a high productivity of the seeds of wood species due to warmer winters in 1980ies-1990ies which favoured the formation of favourable climate-edaphic conditions for the development of forest communities above the forests boundary on the ridges surrounding Lake Baikal.

  4. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  5. Comparative Analysis of Growth, Genome Size, Chromosome Numbers and Phylogeny of Arabidopsis thaliana and Three Cooccurring Species of the Brassicaceae from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias H. Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to literature data Arabidopsis thaliana was rarely observed in Middle Asia during a collection trip in 2001. Instead, three other Brassicaceae species were frequently found at places where A. thaliana was expected. To reveal reasons for this frequency pattern, we studied chromosome numbers, genome sizes, phylogenetic relationships, developmental rates, and reproductive success of A. thaliana, Olimarabidopsis pumila, Arabis montbretiana, and Arabis auriculata from Uzbekistan in two temperature treatments. There are little but partially significant differences between phenotypes. All studied species have very small genomes. The 1Cx-values of different genotypes within the sampled species are correlated with altitude. Developmental rates are also correlated with 1Cx-values. In our growth experiments, Arabidopsis had high seed sterility at higher temperature, which might be one reason for the rarity of A. thaliana in Middle Asia.

  6. Stubble field plant communities of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Skrajna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of communities found in unploughed stubble fields of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park and its agricultural buffer zone are presented in the paper. The association Echinochloo-Setarietum divided into a typical variant, the variant with Galinsoga parviflora, and the variant with Bidens tripartite, was the most frequently noted and floristically differentiated association. Patches of Digitarietum ischaemi were also frequently observed in stubble fields on the poorest habitats. Rarely, on fertile soils, small patches of floristically rich communities with Veronica agrestis were recorded. Periodically, excessively wet habitats were seldom occupied by the speciesrichest phytocoenoses of Centunculo-Anthoceretum punctati. Single patches of the community with Setaria pumila, the form with Aphanes arvensis, were observed only in the south-eastern part of the Park.

  7. Is Remusatia (Araceae Monophyletic? Evidence from Three Plastid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Remusatia (Araceae includes four species distributed in the tropical and subtropical Old World. The phylogeny of Remusatia was constructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from three plastid regions (the rbcL gene, the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, and the rps16 intron. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated plastid data suggested that the monophyly of Remusatia was not supported because R. hookeriana did not form a clade with the other three species R. vivipara, R. yunnanensis, and R. pumila. Nevertheless, the topology of the analysis constraining Remusatia to monophyly was congruent with the topology of the unconstrained analysis. The results confirmed the inclusion of the previously separate genus Gonatanthus within Remusatia and disagreed with the current infrageneric classification of the genus.

  8. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  9. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when the limited time over which the collection is made, is considered. For each of the species, measurements are presented - either in detail or in summary - and comparisons are made with the dimensions found in the literature. The distribution of the species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is discussed based on literature data. For most species, information on reproductive data is given.

  10. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas. Por otra parte se pueden establecer diferentes intensidades en el riesgo de erosión de los suelos. Este es mínimo en el Preboreal y mayor, en general, durante el holoceno debido a las fases de degradación del bosque.

  11. Avoidance by early flushing: a new perspective on Dutch elm disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghelardini L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available European elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill. have been severely damaged and are still endangered by an alien hypervirulent pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi s. l., agent of the Dutch elm disease (DED. Consequently, several ex situ clone collections have been established throughout Europe for elm breeding and conservation. In this paper we summarise the studies carried out within the EU project RESGEN CT96-78, which launched the EU-coordinated evaluation of these collections. Our aim was to analyse the variation in timing of bud burst and to acquire basic knowledge on the environmental control of this adaptive trait in European elms, under the hypothesis that DED susceptibility is related to spring phenology. The variation in the bud burst date of European elms among collections and years was explained by a phenological model assuming that the thermal time required for bud burst decreases exponentially with increasing chilling during winter down to a level where chilling requirement is fully met. According to the fitted curves, European elms have low dormancy and short chilling requirement for dormancy release. Although no simulation was performed, on the basis of the model applied we can hypothesise that under climate warming elms would flush earlier in most of Europe. The bud burst date was directly related to latitude and elevation in U. minor. The order of bud burst of clones from different origins was stable among years. The observed geographic trends were largely determined by differences in chilling requirements that increased with latitude and elevation. Susceptibility to DED varied greatly within U. minor and was directly correlated with geographic origin and bud burst date, southern and early flushing clones showing the least symptoms. Our results suggest that early flushing represents a mechanism of disease avoidance owing to asynchrony between host’s susceptible period and time of natural infection by DED vectors (Scolytus. This escape mechanism, combined with true resistance and avoidance owing to unattractiveness for the vector’s feeding, might be exploited for breeding DED-resistant clones of indigenous species.

  12. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

  13. Preliminary Studies on the In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Vitamin Composition of Selected Dietary Fruits Consumed in Alice region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jide Afolayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated total phenols, flavonoids and vitamins composition in a selection of fruits; {orange (Citrus sinensis, red apple (Mallus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, pear (Pyrus calleryana, golden apple (Mallus pumila, pawpaw (Carica papaya, pineapple (Ananas comosus and banana (Musa acuminate} consumed in Alice region of South Africa. The antioxidative capacity of these fruits were also determined using ferric reducing power, Lipid Oxidation (LO, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS, Nitric Oxide (NO and hydroxyl (OH radicals. The contents of vitamin B2, B3 and vitamin C were also noted using standard methods. A significant variation in the phenols, flavonoids and vitamins contents across the fruit samples was observed. All the fruits tested besides pineapple showed a good reducing antioxidant power in a concentration dependent manner. The extracts of pawpaw, orange, banana and red apple relatively had higher antioxidant potential against DPPH and ABTS radicals among others. The fruits samples demonstrated considerable antioxidant potential against OH* and LO with IC50 values range from 0.511-1.067 mg mL-1 and 0.53-0.818 mg mL-1, respectively. Some of the fruit samples depicted reasonable antiradical potential against NO* with IC50 range from 1.035-1.513 mg mL-1. The fruits extract contained relatively higher concentration of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and vitamin B3 whereas pineapple and red apple extracts had lower content of vitamin B2. Unfortunately, both vitamins (B2 and B3 were not found in banana. The result of antioxidant activities of these fruits provide evidences to support consumption practice of fruits varieties in the region to compensate nutrient deficiency and therefore could be a useful source to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress.

  14. Potencial hídrico xilemático en cuatro especies arbustivas nativas del noreste de México / Xylem water potential in four native browse species from northeastern Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto, González Rodríguez; Israel, Cantú Silva; Roque Gonzalo, Ramírez Lozano; Marco Vinicio, Gómez Meza; Marisela, Pando Moreno; Juan Manuel, López Hernández.

    Full Text Available Dado que el estrés hídrico es el principal factor limitante en esta región, el estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar cómo el potencial hídrico xilemático (?) de especies arbustivas nativas tales como Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae) y Parki [...] nsonia texana (Leguminosae) es influido por el contenido de humedad del suelo, la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la precipitación. El estudio se llevó a cabo en un área localizada en el municipio de China, Nuevo León. Usando una bomba de presión tipo Scholander los ? fueron estimados a intervalos de 15 días entre enero 15 y septiembre 28 de 2009, en cinco plantas de cada especie a las 06:00 h (pre-amanecer) y 14:00 h (mediodía). En el periodo más húmedo, el 4 al pre-amanecer varió de -0.30 (C. pallida) a -0.90 MPa (P. texana); en cambio, en el periodo más seco, el ? al pre-amanecer fluctuó de -2.18 (P. texana) a -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia). Al mediodía, P texana y F. angustifolia tuvieron el mayor (-1.14 MPa) y menor (-3.38 MPa) valor, respectivamente. El contenido promedio de humedad en el suelo en el perfil de profundidad de 0-50 cm explicó entre 82 y 33 % de la variación del 4 al pre-amanecer. El ? del mediodía, los contenidos de humedad del suelo a diferentes profundidades y la humedad relativa se correlacionaron significativamente y positivamente con el ? al pre-amanecer; en cambio la temperatura del aire y el déficit de presión de vapor se correlacionaron negativamente. Dado que A. amentacea y P. texana mantuvieron altos valores en el ? al pre-amanecer y al mediodía bajo condiciones de estrés hídrico, estas especies pueden ser consideradas como especies tolerantes a la sequía. Abstract in english Since water stress is the most limiting factor in this region, the aim of the current study was to establish how the xylem water potential (?) in native shrubs such as Celtis pallida (Ulmaceae), Acacia amentacea (Leguminosae) Forestiera angustifolia (Oleaceae), and Parkinsonia texana (Leguminosae) i [...] s influenced by soil water content, air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall. The study was carried out in an area located the municipality of China, state of Nuevo Leon. Using a Scholander pressure bomb the ? were estimated at 15 days intervals between January 15 and September 28, 2009 in five different plants per species at 06:00 h (predawn) and 14:00 h (midday). At the wettest period, ? oscillated from -0.30 (C. pallida) to -0.90 MPa (P. texana) at predawn, in contrast, at the driest period, ? oscillated from -2.18 (P texana) to -3.94 MPa (F. angustifolia) at predawn. At midday, P. texana and F. angustifolia achieved the highest (-1.14 MPa) and lowest (-3.38 MPa) ? values, respectively. Average soil water content at depth profile 0-50cm showed between 82 and 33 % of the variation of ? at predawn. Soil water content at different soil depths, and relative humidity were significantly and positively correlated with ? at predawn; whereas air temperature and vapor pressure deficit was negatively correlated. A. amentacea and P. texana maintainedhigh values in ? at predawn and midday under water stress conditions, so these species may be considered as drought tolerant species.

  15. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  16. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

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    Nicolae T?icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcle? fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcle? is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcle? fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  17. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author)

  18. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with ?-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent

  19. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

  20. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells

  1. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  2. Effect of gamma-ray irradiated natural herbal extracts on NF-kB activation in HMC-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Recently, studies have documented various health benefits of some natural herbal extracts (NHE) such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U). The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the radiation effect on NF-kB activation of the NHE in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). The HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. Both non-and irradiated NHE also significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor NF-kB activation and also suppressed the expression of activation of NF-kB. These results indicated that the NHE exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

  3. Evaluation of cell cytotoxic effect on herbal extracts mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Bo Ram; Lim, Youn Mook; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Herbal extracts (HE) such as Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Eucommia ulimoides, Plantago asiatica var., Morus alba L., and Ulmus davidiana var., are known to suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. In this study, to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity effect on L929, HaCaT and HMC-1 cell by the HE, the herbs were extracted with distilled water (at 75 .deg. C) and then the HE mixtures were freeze-dried for 5 days and sterilized with {gamma}-rays. The cytotoxicity was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The result showed that the HE mixtures did not significantly affect cell viability and had no toxicity on the cells. These findings indicate that the HE mixtures can be used as a potential therapeutic agent.

  4. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlovi? Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  5. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

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    Žiki? V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Si?evo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  6. Phylogeography: English elm is a 2,000-year-old Roman clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luis; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Soto, Alvaro; Cervera, M Teresa; Collada, Carmen

    2004-10-28

    The outbreak of Dutch elm disease in the 1970s ravaged European elm populations, killing more than 25 million trees in Britain alone; the greatest impact was on Ulmus procera, otherwise known as the English elm. Here we use molecular and historical information to show that this elm derives from a single clone that the Romans transported from Italy to the Iberian peninsula, and from there to Britain, for the purpose of supporting and training vines. Its highly efficient vegetative reproduction and its inability to set seeds have preserved this clone unaltered for 2,000 years as the core of the English elm population--and the preponderance of this susceptible variety may have favoured a rapid spread of the disease. PMID:15510138

  7. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Liang, Haiying; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2007-07-01

    The American elm (Ulmus americana L.) was once one of the most common urban trees in eastern North America until Dutch-elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, eliminated most of the mature trees. To enhance DED resistance, Agrobacterium was used to transform American elm with a transgene encoding the synthetic antimicrobial peptide ESF39A, driven by a vascular promoter from American chestnut. Four unique, single-copy transgenic lines were produced and regenerated into whole plants. These lines showed less wilting and significantly less sapwood staining than non-transformed controls after O. novo-ulmi inoculation. Preliminary observations indicated that mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly different between transgenic and wild-type trees. Although the trees tested were too young to ensure stable resistance was achieved, these results indicate that transgenes encoding antimicrobial peptides reduce DED symptoms and therefore hold promise for enhancing pathogen resistance in American elm. PMID:17310333

  8. Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil / Occurrence and characterization of entomogenous galls in a seasonal semideciduous forest area in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benedito Baptista dos, Santos; Heleno Dias, Ferreira; Walter Santos de, Araújo.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área de floresta estacional semidecídua do Campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás foram coletados 34 tipos de galhas entomógenas, durante o período de 2005-2007. As galhas ocorreram em 20 espécies de plantas de 12 famílias, sendo Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) e U [...] lmaceae (4) as que apresentaram o maior número de morfotipos de galhas. Galhas foliares e caulinares foram as mais comuns. Em relação à morfologia foram coletadas galhas globóides, discóides, elipsóides, cilíndricas e coniformes. A coloração variou entre o verde, amarela, marrom e vermelha. As galhas estavam agrupadas ou isoladas e eram glabras ou pilosas. Os Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) foram os principais cecidógenos e os parasitóides encontrados pertenciam às famílias Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). Este é o primeiro relato de galhas em quatro espécies de plantas hospedeiras para a região Neotropical. Abstract in english In an area of seasonal semideciduous forest situated on Campus Samambaia of the Universidade Federal de Goiás in Goiânia, Goiás 34 types of insect galls were collected during the period 2005-2007. The galls occurred in 20 species of plants from 12 families, with Leguminosae (9), Styracaceae (6) and [...] Ulmaceae (4) having the greatest number of gall morphotypes. Leaf and stem galls were the most widespread. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, discoidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and conical. The colour varied from green to yellow, brown and red. The galls were isolated or grouped and glabrous or pilose. The principal inducers were Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) and the parasitoids found were of the families Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera). This is the first report of galls in four species of host plants for the Neotropical region.

  9. The phenology of flowering and fluctuations of airborne pollen concentrations of selected trees in Pozna?, 2003-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stach

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the flowering phase of selected tree species, whose pollen is known to be allergenic, and fluctuations in the pollen in the air, and to use results obtained for making allergological forecasts. Studies were conducted of five tree taxa: Populus, Ulmus, Salix, Aesculus, and Tilia, in the years 2003-2004. Aeropalinological analyses concerned the above mentioned genera, while in phenological studies specific species were investigated, i.e. the most common representatives of a given genus found in Poland, that is Populus wilsonii, Ulmus laevis Pall. C. K.Schneid., Salix caprea L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Tilia cordata Mill. Aerobiological monitoring was performed using a the volumetric method and phenological observations of flowering phases were made according to the ?ukasiewicz method. While observing the emergence of individual phenological symptoms and measurements of the concentration of pollen of the investigated taxa in the air of Pozna?, a distinct acceleration was observed in 2004, a year that was characterized by a milder winter. This applied not only to the species blooming in early spring, but also to the later ones. Pollen grains of the investigated taxa, except for Aesculus, appeared earlier in aeropalinological observations than the macroscopically observed beginning of flowering in selected trees. Apart from a poplar, the end of flowering in the other trees occurred each year earlier than would follow from the aerobiological observations. This may be explained by the abundance of species within a taxon, and the effect of medium - and long-distance transport.

  10. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Chiffelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fruit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v, with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extractos de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v, con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos.

  11. Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

    2008-04-01

    We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts. PMID:18244941

  12. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.

    2007-12-01

    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  13. Dalby Söderskog revisited: long-term vegetation changes in a south Swedish deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oheimb, Goddert; Brunet, Jörg

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we report on 67 years of secondary succession in the temperate deciduous forest Dalby Söderskog, southern Sweden. In 2002 vegetation analyses were conducted in 74 systematically distributed plots and the results compared with similar investigations during the years 1935, 1969 and 1976. Additionally, a floristic survey of the forest was made and compared with inventories of the years 1925, 1935 and 1970. From 1970 to 2002, overall species richness of the forest continued to decline, but at a lower rate than before. In 2002, for the first time, shade-tolerant forest species constituted the largest group. In the upper tree layer Fraxinus excelsior became the most important species, at the expense of Quercus robur and Ulmus glabra. In the herb layer, no changes in total or mean species richness were exhibited at plot scale between 1976 and 2002. In contrast to the lack of quantitative changes in species richness, we observed major changes in species composition at the plot level. In particular, the former dominant species Mercurialis perennis had declined markedly. After release from a historical regime of livestock grazing and irregular cuttings, the predicted steady-state community dominated by Ulmus and Mercurialis only prevailed for a few decades before unexpected external events, in this particular case Dutch elm disease and invasion by the slug Arion lusitanicus, initiated a successional change. We conclude that unexpected diseases or pests or rare climatic extremes can play a decisive role in forest dynamics and strongly interact with more gradual autogenic changes of forest structure and composition.

  14. Antifeeding and Insecticide Properties of Aqueous and Ethanolic Fruit Extracts from Melia azedarach L.on the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller / Propiedades Antialimentaria e Insecticida de Extractos Acuosos y Etanólicos del Fruto de Melia azedarach L. en el Escarabajo de la Hoja del Olmo Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Italo, Chiffelle; Amanda, Huerta; Fernando, Azúa; Karla, Puga; Jaime E, Araya.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), un defoliador de especies de Ulmus presente en varias regiones de Chile central, causa daño severo en árboles principalmente en áreas de parques, árboles de calles, y jardines. Se determinó el efecto antialimentario e insecticida de extracto [...] s de frutos inmaduros de Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) sobre adultos de X. luteola en bioensayos de laboratorio. Se usaron varias concentraciones con agua y etanol de los extractos y se determinó su efectividad y su CL50. La acción antialimentaria de los extractos de agua causó un 100% de deterrencia sobre concentraciones de 3,6% p/v. Ambos extractos fueron efectivos como insecticidas contra los adultos, causando un 86% de mortalidad (2,4% p/v), con un mejor comportamiento de los extractos con etanol con una CL50 de 0,9% p/v al tercer día después de la exposición, y 6,6% p/v al quinto día con los extractos acuosos. Abstract in english Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a defoliator of Ulmus species currently present in several regions of central Chile, causes severe damage to trees, mainly in park areas, street tree-lines and gardens. The antifeeding and insecticidal activities of extracts from immature fr [...] uit of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were determined on adults of X. luteola in laboratory bioassays. Several concentrations of the extracts obtained with water and ethanol were used and their effectiveness and LC50 were determined. The antifeeding action of the water extracts caused 100% deterrence over concentrations of 3.6% w/v. Both extracts were effective insecticides against adults, causing 86% mortality (2.4% w/v), with a better performance of the ethanol extracts, with a LC50 of 0.9% w/v on the 3rd day after exposure, and 6.6% w/v on the 5th day with the water extract.

  15. THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF EMBRYOGENIC CELL LINES OBTAINING AND PLANTLETS OF CONIFEROUS SPECIES IN SIBERIA IN CULTURE IN VITRO

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    Tretiakova I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of culturing the immature isolated embryos and megagamethophytes of Siberian coniferous species were carried out on different modified media: ½ LV medium for Pinus sibirica and Pinus pumila, MSG and AI media (patent ? 2431651 for Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, DCR medium for Picea ajanensis. For induction of embryogenic callus every species needs the optimized medium supplemented with L-glutamine, casein hydrolysate, ascorbic acid and hormones with different concentrations and their different proportions. The active proliferation of embryonal masses is observed on the same medium with reduced concentration of cytokinins. The proliferation of embryonal masses was significantly improved when they were subcultured after dispersing in liquid medium. The somatic embryos from embryonal masses are matured on basal medium with ABA (60-120 mM and PEG. In spite of species specificity the embryogenesis of morphogenic structures had the same scheme: elongation and asymmetric division of somatic cells, formation of initial cells and embryonal tubes, development of globular, torpedo and bipolar somatic embryos, embryos maturation and germination. However, not all donor-plants of coniferous species can form the embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The active development of embryonal masses and formation of somatic embryos are observed from zygotic embryo of hybrid seeds of P. sibirica and L. sibirica. The obtained embryogenic lines were characterized by different proliferative activity. During 10 months cultivation the value of embryonal masses in different lines was 140-570 g. The number of somatic embryos varies from 210 to 410 per 100 mg of callus fresh weight. Decreasing proliferation activity did not observed during 24-45 months cultivation. However, development of somatic embryos in long cultivated lines decreased. Maturation of somatic embryos and development of plantlets were established in L. sibirica and P. pumila 50-60 somatic embryos were matured per 1g of callus fresh weight. Somatic embryogenesis passes over the strong genetic control. Only donor tree genotypes with high reproductive potential form embryogenic cell lines and somatic embryos. The maternal affect was very strong relative to paternal and other effects. The studying molecular mechanisms involved in the control regulation of embryo development (embryo maturation, desiccation and germination allows to understand many aspects of molecular biology of gymnosperms.

  16. Vantagens e desvantagens da utilização de peles-verdes em edificações residenciais em Porto Alegre segundo seus moradores / Advantages and disadvantages of using green walls in residential buildings in Porto Alegre in the view of their dwellers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariene, Valesan; Beatriz, Fedrizzi; Miguel Aloysio, Sattler.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pele-verde (trepadeiras recobrindo fachadas de uma edificação, muro ou outro elemento vertical) é uma técnica de baixo impacto ambiental e com benefícios para a edificação e seu entorno. O presente trabalho analisa peles-verdes encontradas em edifícios residenciais em Porto Alegre, a partir da perce [...] pção de seus moradores, como os objetivos de gerar um registro da utilização dessa técnica e de discutir suas principais vantagens e desvantagens. A metodologia de pesquisa valeu-se de entrevistas em profundidade, estruturadas por questionários, aplicadas junto a moradores de 38 edificações (unifamiliares e multifamiliares) revestidas por peles-verdes. As peles-verdes analisadas são do tipo autoaderentes, utilizando-se das espécies Ficus pumila e Parthenocissus tricuspidata. Os entrevistados confirmaram como principais vantagens da técnica o embelezamento da paisagem, a integração do ambiente urbano e da natureza, os efeitos positivos para o bem-estar do homem e a melhoria da temperatura interna das edificações. A principal desvantagem citada foi o trabalho de manutenção do revestimento vegetal. Assim, esta pesquisa indica que a pele-verde é uma técnica que tem o potencial de melhorar o ambiente urbano e, por isso, o desenvolvimento de pesquisa sobre ário. Abstract in english Green walls (climbing plants that cover the facades of a building, walls or any other vertical elements) is a technique that produces low environmental impact and brings benefits to the building and its surroundings. This study analyzes green walls found in residential buildings in Porto Alegre, con [...] sidering the perception of their dwellers, aiming to produce a record of the use of this technique, and to point out its main advantages and disadvantages. The research methodology used was a series of in-depth interviews, in which a structured questionnaire was applied to dwellers of 38 buildings (comprised of one or more housing units) covered by green walls. The analyzed green walls are self-clinging climbers, of the species Ficus pumila and Parthenocissus tricuspidata. The dwellers confirmed, as main advantages of the technique, the aesthetic improvement of the landscape, the integration between urban environment and nature and also the positive effects on the wellbeing of humans and on the internal temperatures of the building. The main disadvantage cited was the necessary maintenance work. Therefore, this study suggests that green wall is a technique that has the potential of improving the urban environment, and, for that reason, further studies on this type of covering are recommended.

  17. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de los aceites en las diferentes semillas varió del 9 al 16%. Todos los aceites mostraron un alto grado de insaturación con índices de iodo de 94 a 122 Kl/g. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron el oleico y linoleico. Todos los aceites crudos resultaron de buena calidad y comparables a los aceites convencionales como el de soya, maíz, girasol, colza y uña de gato. Así mismo, su calidad fue comparable a la de otros aceites de leguminosas de la misma región.

  18. EFEITO DA POLINIZAÇÃO DIRIGIDA ENTRE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus sp. NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO EFETIVA E NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FRUTOS EM SÃO JOAQUIM-SC EFFECT OF THE ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION AMONG APPLE ROOTSTOCK (Malus spp. IN THE EFFECTIVE FRUIT SET AND FRUIT DEVELOPMENT IN SÃO JOAQUIM/SC

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    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo específico de obter uma população segregante, visando à avaliação na frutificação efetiva, quantidade de sementes normais e peso e diâmetro de frutos oriundos de polinização aberta e dirigida, foram realizados cruzamentos entre dois porta-enxertos de macieira, Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Borkh. e M.9 (Malus pumila Mill. na Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' apresentou florescimento mais precoce e mais prolongado que a cultivar M.9. A percentagem de frutificação efetiva, para o porta-enxerto 'M.9' usado como progenitor feminino, foi de 26% e 32%, e usado como doador de pólen, foi de 5% e 25%, no anos de 1999 e 2000, respectivamente. Foram encontrados frutos deformados nos cruzamentos de 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' e com um maior número de sementes atípicas quando comparadas ao sistema de polinização aberta. O mesmo não ocorreu no cruzamento recíproco. O peso e o diâmetro dos frutos foram maiores quando houve a polinização dirigida em 'M.9', o mesmo não acontecendo com 'Marubakaido', comparativamente à polinização aberta. A análise via contrastes ortogonais revelou valores de F significativos também para número de sementes normais e anormais frente aos dois sistemas de polinização em 'M.9'.This work had as objective to evaluate the fruit set, fruit weight and diameter and amount of normal and atypical seeds of two apple rootstocks in both open and artificial pollination conditions. Crosses among 'Marubakaido' (Malus prunifolia Borkh. and 'M.9' (Malus pumila Mill and reciprocal were performed at Estação Experimental de São Joaquim -- EPAGRI/SC. 'Marubakaido' required least cool temperatures to blooming and kept longer than M.9 cultivar. The percentage of effective fruit set when 'M.9' were used as female was 26% and 32% and when it was used as pollen donor, 5% e 25%, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The cross 'M.9' X 'Marubakaido' produced deformed fruits, with a higher number of atypical seeds, in comparison with the open pollination system. The same results did not occurred in the reciprocal cross. The 'M.9' fruit weight and diameter were larger in the artificial crosses than in those produced by open pollination. No differences among pollination systems for the same variables were found in 'Marubakaido'. In addition, orthogonal contrast analyses revealed significant F values for number of normal seeds, number of atypical seeds when pollination systems in 'M.9' were compared.

  19. As espécies de Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta do Brasil The species of the genus Lellingeria A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran (Grammitidaceae - Pteridophyta from Brazil

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    Paulo H Labiak

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um tratamento taxonômico para as 14 espécies de Lellingeria (L. apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran e L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran que ocorrem no Brasil. São apresentados uma análise crítica sobre cada espécie e seus sinônimos, considerações acerca da classificação, morfologia e distribuição geográfica das espécies, bem como chave para identificação, comentários sobre as espécies mais semelhantes e ilustrações.This works presents a taxonomic treatment for the 14 species of Lellingeria that occurs in Brazil (Lellingeria apiculata (Kunze ex Klotzsch A.R. Smith & R.C. Moran, L. brasiliensis (Rosenst. Labiak, L. brevistipes (Mett. ex Kuhn A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. depressa (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. hirsuta A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. itatimensis (C. Chr. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. limula (Christ A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. myosuroides (Sw. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. organensis (Gardner A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. pumila Labiak, L. schenckii (Hieron. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. suspensa (L. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, L. tamandarei (Rosenst. A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran, and L. wittigiana (Fée A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran. In this paper are included a critical analysis of each species and their synonymy, as well as, considerations about classification, morphology, geographical distribution, identification key, comments about ecology and related species, and illustrations.

  20. Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations / Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tomislav, Curkovic; Jay, F. Brunner.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en l [...] a copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula Abstract in english This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canop [...] y were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.  It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.

  1. Formación Anta (Mioceno Temprano/Medio), Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), en el río Piedras, Pcia. de Salta: Datos palinológicos / Anta Formation (Miocene), Metán Subgroup (Orán Group), in río Piedras, Salta Province: Palynological data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Quattrocchio; J., Durango de Cabrera; C., Galli.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Aproximadamente en el Eoceno medio -Fase Incaica- culminó la acumulación del Grupo Salta (Cretácico-Paleógeno). A continuación y coincidente con el inicio de un ambiente tectónico compresivo en los Andes Centrales comenzó el depósito del Subgrupo Metán (Grupo Orán), constituído por las formaciones R [...] ío Seco, Anta y Jesús María. La Formación Anta en río Piedras de 300 m de espesor, consta de arcilitas, calizas oolíticas y tobas acumuladas en un ambiente de lago salino. Se presenta en este trabajo, un análisis palinológico comparativo entre la Formación Anta (Subgrupo Metán) y el Subgrupo Santa Bárbara del Grupo Salta (Paleoceno-Eoceno). Regionalmente el espectro polínico reflejaría la presencia de la foresta sub-tropical húmeda (Verrustephanoporites simplex), en muy bajo porcentaje con respecto al Subgrupo Santa Bárbara. La relativa mayor representación de Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) asociado a Podocarpaceae y Anacardiaceae sugiere una paleocomunidad de mayor altitud (ambiente montano). Basado en estudios palinológicos y sedimentológicos el perfil analizado corresponde a un lago salino. Se registra la primera expansión de la estepa en el NO argentino asociado a condiciones relativamente áridas. Estas evidencias fueron corroboradas mediante el registro de hongos. Abstract in english Deposition of the Salta Group (Cretaceous-Paleogene) terminated in the mid Eocene - Inca Diastrophic Phase. Following a compressive tectonic event in the Central Andes, this was succeeded by deposition of Metán Subgroup, divisible into Río Seco, Anta and Jesús María formations. The Anta Formation (3 [...] 00m thick) in Río Piedras is characterised by claystone, oolitic limestone and tuff deposited in shallow lakes or on a muddy plain. A comparative palynological analysis between Santa Bárbara Subgroup and Anta Formation (Metán Subgroup) shows that the transitional forest flora of the Anta Formation was more impoverished than that of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, with higher percentages of Ulmaceae. The presence of Rhoipites sp. A (Rutaceae, cf. Ruta) in relative high percentages with Podocarpaceae and Anacardiaceae suggests a higher altitude (montane) palaeocommunity. Based on the palynological and sedimentological results the analised profile corresponds to a saline lake. These results indicate the first expansion of the steppe in a relatively dry climate in the NW of Argentina are also corroborated by fungal records.

  2. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14°C), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4°C) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  3. Contenido mineral y de clorofila de la hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don y de cuatro de sus árboles hospederos / Mineral and chlorophyll content of the Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC) G. Don hemiparasitic plant and four host trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. Carlos, Raya-Pérez; J. Gabriel, Ramírez-Pimentel; Jorge, Covarrubias-Prieto; Bryan, Acevedo-Lara; César, Aguirre-Mancilla.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaro [...] n con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM) equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS). Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más) que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05), U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05) que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05) tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %). Abstract in english We collected leaves from the Psittacanthus calyculatus hemiparasitic plant and Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata host trees, to understand and compare the contents of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, chlorophyll and protein. Analyses were performed with a scanning electr [...] on microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the hemiparasitic plant accumulated (at least twice) more K compared to its host trees, indicating that the hemiparasitic plant use an active mechanism to achieve this accumulation. According to the statistical analysis (P = 0.05), U. divaricate is the species that accumulates more S, Si and Ca. Mg content was also higher in U. divaricate, but was statistically similar (P = 0.05) than in the hemiparasitic plant. P content was similar (P = 0.05) in both P. calyculatus and their host trees. Fraxinus uhdei accumulated more C than the rest of the species. Chlorophyll content was higher in F. uhdei and S. taxifolia, while P. laevigata had the lowest content. P. calyculatus leaves had high protein content (21 %).

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is widely recognized as an efficient tool for carbon sequestration and soil fertility. The understanding of its chemical and physical properties, which are strongly related to the type of the initial material used and pyrolysis conditions, is crucial to identify the most suitable application of biochar in soil. A selection of organic wastes with different characteristics (e.g., rice husk (RH), rice straw (RS), wood chips of apple tree (Malus pumila) (AB), and oak tree (Quercus serrata) (OB)) were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 °C) in order to optimize the physicochemical properties of biochar as a soil amendment. Low-temperature pyrolysis produced high biochar yields; in contrast, high-temperature pyrolysis led to biochars with a high C content, large surface area, and high adsorption characteristics. Biochar obtained at 600 °C leads to a high recalcitrant character, whereas that obtained at 400 °C retains volatile and easily labile compounds. The biochar obtained from rice materials (RH and RS) showed a high yield and unique chemical properties because of the incorporation of silica elements into its chemical structure. The biochar obtained from wood materials (AB and OB) showed high carbon content and a high absorption character.

  5. Weed communities of root crops in the Pamir Alai Mts, Tajikistan (Middle Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Nowak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of weed vegetation conducted on root crops in Tajikistan (Middle Asia, one of the world cradles of weed flora. The main research was conducted in the Zeravshanian, southern Tajikistan and Hissar-Darvasian geobotanical regions in 2011. The study was based on 107 phytosociological relevés obtained in various geobotanical regions of the country. The collected material probably presents the majority of variations among the weed communities of root cultivations in the Middle Asia. As a result of numerical analyses, 7 associations were distinguished: Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi, Daturo stramonii-Hibiscetum trioni, Setario pumilae-Sorghetum halepensi, Galinsogo-Setarietum, Equiseto arvensi-Xanthietum italici, Portulacetum oleracei and Brassico campestris-Lamietum amplexicauli. The last mentioned is new to science. Additionally, one subassociation has been proposed (Convolvulo arvensis-Cyperetum rotundi kochietosum scopariae. The main discrimination factor for the data set is the floristic structure of the associations. The study shows that root-crop plantations with segetal vegetation may harbor a relatively rich flora. Almost 200 species were found in vegetation plots, including some, which are rare and have not been recorded until now in this part of Middle Asia. However, most of the recorded species are widespread weeds typical for the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian geobotanical provinces.

  6. Eradication of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms by plant extracts and putative identification of icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenye, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Rigole, Petra; De Witte, Evy; Honraet, Kris; Rossel, Bart; Nelis, Hans J

    2012-03-15

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. This organism is capable of biofilm formation and the decreased antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm-associated cells may hamper efficient treatment. In addition, the prolonged use of systemic antibiotic therapy is likely to lead to the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In the present study we investigated whether P. acnes biofilms could be eradicated by plant extracts or their active compounds, and whether other mechanisms besides killing of biofilm cells could be involved. Out of 119 plant extracts investigated, we identified five with potent antibiofilm activity against P. acnes (extracts from Epimedium brevicornum, Malus pumila, Polygonum cuspidatum, Rhodiola crenulata and Dolichos lablab). We subsequently identified icariin, resveratrol and salidroside as active compounds in three of these extracts. Extracts from E. brevicornum and P. cuspidatum, as well as their active compounds (icariin and resveratrol, respectively) showed marked antibiofilm activity when used in subinhibitory concentrations, indicating that killing of microbial cells is not their only mode of action. PMID:22305279

  7. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sarah Zanon, Agapito-Tenfen; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Frederico, Denardi; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.) is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need [...] for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  8. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

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    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  9. Concerning the preliminary results of space experiment with the seeds of rare plants (on the boad of BION-M No.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Yury; Kurganskaya, Lubov; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Ruzaeva, Irina; Rozno, Svetlana; Kavelenova, Ludmila

    The problem of native flora plants conservation appears today as one of the most actual for humanity. The wide spreading natural ecosystems degradation results in the status changes for formerly common species to rare, endangered or extincted ones. That is why the complex of biological diversity conservation measures must be used including ex situ and in situ forms. Last years the seed banks (special seed collections in controlled conditions, including temperature below zero) and field banks (special alive plants collections) were created in many countries taking in mind the future of humanity. The seed banks as long-term depositories can be placed on the space stations where the threat of earth catastrophes is removed. But we must make it clear how the complex of space flight factors effects upon the seed quality and germination and plants development from “cosmic” seeds. For instance, the action of residual ionizing radiation into space apparatus on plant seeds can alter its vitality maybe by the growth of free radicals pool in molecular and subcellular level. The unknown level of such action permits us to propose wide diapason of effects from the absence of any changes to the stimulation of vital activity, decrease of it, mutagenesis and maybe the death of seeds. Only the experiments that begin in space and continue on the Earth can show us the effect of space flight factors complex on plant seeds. Here we describe the first results of experiment held on the board of space apparatus “Bion-M” No1. Totally 79 experiments were included to the program of “Bion-M”, among them the experiment “Biocont-BS”. The equipment for it was prepared by Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-building; the seed material was selected and prepared by the Botanical Garden of Samara State University. The equipment with seeds was into space apparatus, which working orbit was average 575 km and the flight lasted for 30 days. The seed samples of 9 rare plants species of Samara region (?lematis integrifolia L.; Aster alpinus L.; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz.; Linum perenne L.; Polemonium caeruleum L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge; Iris pumila L.; Lilium martagon L.; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill., 8 from 9 are the plants of Samara Region Reed book) were packed into 3 marked plastic test tubes (Ø12/75, 4 ml). After the landing of “Bion-M” the seeds were sown on the experimental plot in the Botanical garden of Samara State University (25 July 2013). The sow time was near to the time of seeds ripening when they can fall on the ground in natural ecosystems. The abundant rains in the beginning of August 2013 made the beneficial conditions for sprouting and the first seedlings we found 10-15 days after sowing. The ground germination parameters varied from 3 to 78% for 6 different species (?lematis integrifolia L. 3%; Dianthus andrzejowskianus Kulcz. 8%; Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill 15%; .Linum perenne L. 67%; Polemonium caeruleum L. 75%; Iris pumila L. 78%), whereas 3 species did not sprout for that time (Lilium martagon L.; Aster alpinus L.; Primula macrocalyx Bunge). The most native flora species normally have no synchronic seed germination and many seeds each year are added in soil seed bank. Many ripe seeds are in dormancy that must be removed passing by autumn-winter period. That is a possible reason of seedlings absence in 3 of our species. We can mention the increase of ground germination parameters (comparing with their common germination levels) for Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L. as a positive (stimulating) effect of space flight factors complex. These seeds normally never demonstrate germination on the level of 70-80%. Also we found the increase of plants diversity on their initial stage of development. Some more developed and big specimens appeared among the seedlings, what more clearly demonstrated Linum perenne L. and Iris pumila L.. Maybe such heterogeneity is connected with different seed mass and size what resulted in more or less effect of flight. This study must be continued for finding po

  10. Similarity and diversity of the Desmodesmus spp. microalgae isolated from associations with White Sea invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, Olga A; Baulina, Olga I; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Chekanov, Konstantin A; Chivkunova, Olga B; Fedorenko, Tatiana A; Lobakova, Elena S

    2015-03-01

    Similarity and diversity of the phenotype and nucleotide sequences of certain genome loci among the single-celled microalgae isolated from White Sea benthic invertebrates were studied to extend the knowledge of oxygenic photoautotrophs forming microbial communities associated with animals. We compared four Desmodesmus isolates (1Hp86E-2, 1Pm66B, 3Dp86E-1, 2Cl66E) from the sponge Halichondria panicea, trochophore larvae of the polychaete Phyllodoce maculata, and the hydroids Dynamena pumila and Coryne lovenii, respectively. The microalgae appeared to be very similar featuring the phenotypic and genetic traits characteristics of unicellular representatives of the genus Desmodesmus. At the same time, isolates from different animal species displayed certain differences in (i) the epistructure morphology; (ii) type and number of the inclusions such as interthylakoid starch grains and cytoplasmic oil bodies and (iii) fatty acid composition; in Desmodesmus sp. 1Hp86E-2, these differences were most pronounced. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 and rbcL sequences showed that all isolates studied differ from known classified representatives of Desmodesmus combining a deletion in the conservative 5.8S rRNA gene and long AC-microsatellite repeats in the ITS1 whereas 1Hp86E-2 represented a distinct branch within this group. PMID:25189657

  11. Reproduction of Pratylenchus penetrans on 24 Common Weeds in Potato Fields in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G; Dauphinais, N; Benoit, D L; Fournier, Y

    2007-12-01

    Twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in Quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and rye (Secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. CFPM 101 (Pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. Pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (Pf/Pi >/= rye or brown mustard). Cirsium arvense, Leucanthemum vulgare and Matricaria discoida were classified as very good hosts with a Pf/Pi ranging from 1.60 to 2.54, while Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Cyperus esculentus were classified as poor hosts with a Pf/Pi from 0.01 to 0.15. Amaranthus powellii, A. retrqflexus, Raphanus raphanistrum, Rorippa palustris, Cerastium fontanum, Spergula arvensis, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album, Vicia cracca, Elytrigia repens, Digitaria ischaemum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum capillare, Setaria faberii, S. pumila, S. viridis, Polygonum convolvulus, P. scabrum and P. persicaria were intermediate hosts with Pf/Pi values ranging from 0.33 to 2.01. The plant species and the botanical family had a significant impact on nematode reproduction. The Brassicaceae family resulted in the greatest reproduction of P. penetrans, and the Cyperaceae resulted in the least. The plant life-cycle (annual vs. perennial) had no impact on nematode population. PMID:19259506

  12. Variation in weed infestation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris depending on the intensity of chemical protection of plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study was conducted over the period 2010–2012, using the Braun-Blanquet method, under which vegetation relevés were made in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris plantations in Lower Silesia. Fields with similar habitat conditions, which differed in the intensity of herbicide application to control weed infestation, were selected for observation. A total of 144 relevés were made and based on them a list was prepared of species found in fields in which different levels of chemical protection were used. A cover index and a constancy class were determined for each species found in the phytocoenoses studied. On the basis of these observations, the study found floristic  variation in the investigated agrophytocenoses as af- fected by the level of intensity of weed control chemicals used. In  herbicide-untreated plots, a total of 25 weed species were found and their aggregate cover index was 8705. Chenopodium album L., Polygonum persicaria L. and Setaria pumila (POIR. ROEM. & SCHULT by far dominated among them. Herbicide use caused an impoverishment in the floristic list. 20 taxa were observed in the plots treated with the lowest herbicide rates, while with increasing rates the number of species dropped to 18. The sum of the cover indices also decreased with increasing rates, successively reaching the values of 5907, 5212 and 4356.

  13. The phylogenetic position of Taxaceae based on 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaw, S M; Long, H; Wang, B S; Zharkikh, A; Li, W H

    1993-12-01

    The evolutionary position of the yew family, Taxaceae, has been very controversial. Some plant taxonomists strongly advocate excluding Taxaceae from the conifer order and raising its taxonomic status to a new order or even class because of its absence of seed cones, contrary to the case in the majority of conifers. However, other authors believe that the Taxaceae are not fundamentally different from the rest of the conifers except in that they possess the most reduced solitary-ovule cones. To resolve the controversy, we have sequenced the 18S rRNA genes from representative gymnosperms: Taxus mairei (Taxaceae), Podocarpus nakaii (Podocarpaceae), Pinus luchuensis (Pinaceae), and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoales). Our phylogenetic analysis of the new sequence data with the published 18S rRNA sequence of Zamia pumila (a.cycad) as an outgroup strongly indicates that Taxus, Pinus, and Podocarpus form a monophyletic group with the exclusion of Ginkgo and that Taxus is more closely related to Pinus than to Podocarpus. Therefore, Taxaceae should be classified as a family of Coniferales. Our finding that Taxaceae, Pinaceae, and Podocarpaceae form a clade contradicts both the view that the uniovulate seed of Taxaceae is a primitive character and the view that the Taxaceae are descendants of the Podocarpaceae. Rather, the uniovulate seed of Taxaceae and that of some species of Podocarpus appear to have different origins, probably all reduced from multiovulate cones. PMID:8114115

  14. Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jeom-Sook

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity, B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community, C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community, D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community, E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community.

  15. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, X T; Kou, C L; Zhang, F S; Christie, P

    2006-09-01

    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha(-1) on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha(-1), with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha(-1) in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha(-1) at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. PMID:16364521

  16. Nitrogen balance and groundwater nitrate contamination: Comparison among three intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha-1 on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8 times the corresponding values in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotations and 2.1, 10.4 and 68.2 times the values in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. The N surplus values were 349, 3327 and 746 kg N ha-1, with residual soil nitrate-N after harvest amounting to 221-275, 1173 and 613 kg N ha-1 in the top 90 cm of the soil profile and 213-242, 1032 and 976 kg N ha-1 at 90-180 cm depth in wheat-maize, greenhouse vegetable and orchard systems, respectively. Nitrate leaching was evident in all three cropping systems and the groundwater in shallow wells (<15 m depth) was heavily contaminated in the greenhouse vegetable production area, where total N inputs were much higher than crop requirements and the excessive fertilizer N inputs were only about 40% of total N inputs. - Intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems may pose a greater nitrogen pollution threat than apple orchards or cereal rotations to soil and water quality in north China

  17. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  18. Study on Life and Fertility Tables of Elm Leaf Beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller,on Four Different Hosts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seyedoleslami

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, life and fertility tables were investigated under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 70±5%R.H. and 16L: 8D, on Ulmus carpinifolia, U.c.var.umbraculifera, U. glabra var. pendula and Celtis caucasica, in spring and summer. Since the experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, feeding on hosts with different nutritional qualities was considered to be the only cause of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptible hosts to the pest. The initial population for each life table was 100 first larval instar on 20 cm foliage which continued to the end of adult longevity. For larval and adult feeding, the foliage was replaced regularly. Larval and adult mortality and eggs number per female were recorded on a daily basis. Results showed that the net reproductive rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm were higher on U. carpinifolia than the other hosts in both seasons. The net reproductive rate was less than one on Celtis caucasica in spring and on U. c. var. umbraculifera in summer, which represented the negative population growth on these hosts. Therefore, U. carpinifolia was the most susceptible host to Elm leaf beetle, the other susceptible hosts being U. glabra var. pendula and U. c. var. umbraculifera, in a descending order and Celtis caucasica was the least susceptible one. .

  19. Evidence of sexual reproduction of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanayaka, W R M; Bus, V G M

    2005-01-01

    Reproduction of the woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), can take place parthenogenetically or sexually when both host plants, apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and elm (Ulmus americana L.) are available. Since elm is not commonly grown in New Zealand, E. lanigerum, a major pest of apple, is thought to reproduce only parthenogenetically here. During our studies between 1999 and 2003, different morphs of E. lanigerum have been observed on apple trees, which were studied in more detail in 2003 and 2004. In the laboratory, alates reproduced mainly sexual morphs with degenerated mouthparts. Oviparous females lived for 8.95 +/- 0.17 days (n = 20) and males lived for 7.1 +/- 0.12 days (n = 20). Both went through 4 moults, without feeding or changing body size. Oviparous female laid a single egg and died soon after oviposition. In addition to sexual morphs, shiny brown, oblong eggs were seen on apple leaves grown outside as well as in the glasshouse. As the numbers of eggs and sexual morphs on trees grown outside were less than on those grown in the glasshouse, we suggest that alates disperse into the natural environment searching for an apple or elm tree to continue the sexual reproduction while spreading the population. PMID:17119609

  20. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  1. Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

  2. THE COP?CEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN B?LA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MURE? COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Cop?cel hill, between B?la and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Paw?. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Paw? species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Cop?cel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  3. Wood Species for the Biedermeier Furniture - A Microscopic Characterisation for Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gurau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important, compulsory step in the scientific conservation of the historic furniture as a significant part of the cultural heritage. It is known that a visual examination of an investigated sample does not always bring enough information about the original species and that a microscopic approach is more reliable. Species identification can be performed if the microscopic images are interpreted for common, but also for specific features and characteristics, by means of identification keys and in comparison with reference images. This paper provides the microscopic characterization with identification keys for six hardwood species, some of the most common in Biedermeier furniture (elm - Ulmus glabra Huds., cherry - Prunus avium L., walnut - Juglans regia L.,pear - Pyrus communis L., aspen - Populus tremula L., African mahogany - Khaya ivorensis A. Chev.. The characterization can be used for wood identification purposes by laboratories working in the field of cultural heritage wood conservation. This work is part of a recent research project that aims to develop and implement a scientific investigation for furniture conservation.

  4. A COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO OAK FORESTS IN MARSHALL AND POTTAWATOMIE COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, high school students from McLoud High School sampled an oak forest in Earlsboro, Pottawatomie County. In July, 2012, students in the Pre-collegiate Field Studies Camp at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station sampled the Marshall County forest at the Buncombe Creek camp ground, located approximately 100 miles south of the Earlsboro forest and 1 mile north of the University of Oklahoma Biological Station. One component of each botany course was to study the composition and structure of an oak forest. These 2 forests were chosen to compare because of their similarity in composition and physical distance apart. They found 10 hardwood species in the Marshall County forest and 9 in the PottawatomieCounty forest, with 6 species common to both. Quercus stellata was most important in both forests and most frequent in the Pottawatomie forest where the total density was 0.141/m2. Quercus stellata and Ulmus alata were most frequent in the Marshall County forest where the total density was 0.107/m2.

  5. Long-term forest dynamics at Gribskov, eastern Denmark with early-Holocene evidence for thermophilous broadleaved tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    We report on a full-Holocene pollen, charcoal and macrofossil record from a small forest hollow in Gribskov, eastern Denmark. The Fagus sylvatica pollen record suggests the establishment of a small Fagus population at Gribskov in the early Holocene together with early establishment of other thermophilous broadleaved trees, including Quercus sp., Tilia sp. and Ulmus sp. The macrofossils contribute to the vegetation reconstruction with evidence for local presence of species with low pollen productivity or easily degraded pollen types such as Populus. The charcoal record shows frequent burning during two periods of the early Holocene and from c. 3000 cal. BP to present. The early-Holocene part of the record indicates a highly disturbed forest ecosystem with frequent fires and abundant macrofossils of particularly Betula sp. and Populus sp. The sediment stratigraphy and age–depth relationships give no clear indication of post-depositional disturbance, although a possible short-lived hiatus occurs around 6500 cal.BP. The early pollen record from thermophilous trees could indicate that there may have been some downwash following sediment desiccation through wood peat layers deposited between c. 6500 and 10,000 cal. BP, but the overall biostratigraphy is consistent with other Danish small hollow records.

  6. Reproduction and dispersal in an ant-associated root aphid community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, A.B.F.; Kronauer, Daniel Jan Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free-living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant-tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and dispersal in a community of root aphids that are obligately associated with the ant Lasius flavus. We assessed the genetic population structure of four species (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in a Dutch population and found that all species reproduce predominantly if not exclusively asexually, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. We show that population viscosity is high and winged aphids rare, consistent with infrequent horizontal transmission between ant host colonies. The absence of the primary host shrub (Pistacia) may explain the absence of sex in three of the studied species, but elm trees (Ulmus) that are primary hosts of the fourth species (T. ulmi) occurred within a few km of the study population. We discuss the extent to which obligate ant-tending and absence of primary hosts may have affected selection for permanent parthenogenesis, and we highlight the need for further study of these aphids in Southern Europe where primary hosts may occur close to L. flavus populations, so that all four root aphid species would have realistic opportunities for completing their sexual life cycle.

  7. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  8. Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies. PMID:24116165

  9. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  10. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  11. CONTENIDO MINERAL Y DE CLOROFILA DE LA HEMIPARÁSITA Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC G. Don Y DE CUATRO DE SUS ÁRBOLES HOSPEDEROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Raya-P\\u00E9rez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron hojas de la planta hemiparásita Psittacanthus calyculatus y de sus árboles hospederos Salix taxifolia, Ulmus divaricate, Fraxinus uhdei y Prosopis laevigata, con el objetivo de conocer y comparar los contenidos de Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, clorofila y proteína. Los análisis se realizaron con un microscopio electrónico de barrido (SEM equipado con una sonda dispersiva de rayos X (EDS. Los resultados mostraron que la hemiparásita acumuló más K (al menos dos veces más que sus hospederos, lo que indica que usa un mecanismo activo para lograr esta acumulación. De acuerdo con el análisis estadístico (P = 0.05, U. divaricate es la especie que acumula más S, Si y Ca. El contenido de Mg también fue mayor en U. divaricate, pero fue estadísticamente similar (P = 0.05 que en la hemiparásita. El contenido de P fue similar (P = 0.05 tanto en P. calyculatus como en sus hospederos. Fraxinus uhdei acumuló más C que el resto de las especies. El contenido de clorofila fue mayor en F. uhdei y S. taxifolia, mientras que P. laevigata tuvo el contenido más bajo. Las hojas de P. calyculatus tuvieron alto contenido de proteína (21 %.

  12. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  13. Fluctuation of bacteria isolated from elm tissues during different seasons and from different plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Bertelli, Emanuela; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Mengoni, Alessio; Sfalanga, Alessandra; Viliani, Francesca; Caciotti, Anna; Tegli, Stefania; Surico, Giuseppe; Fani, Renato

    2003-03-01

    In this work we isolated a culturable endophytic aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community from the stem and root tissues of elm trees (Ulmus spp.) and analyzed its fluctuations. A total of 724 bacterial isolates were collected at different times (April, June, September and December) from two elm trees, one infected with Elm Yellows phytoplasmas, and one which was healthy-looking. The isolates were grouped into 82 haplotypes, identified by means of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using the restriction enzyme AluI, suggesting that the genetic diversity of the bacterial community was very high. The taxonomic position of the isolates belonging to the twelve main haplotypes, representing more than 72% of the total population, was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. The main genera were Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas, Enterobacter, and Staphylococcus. The fluctuations in the bacterial community, determined by different parameters (seasonal changes, plant organ, presence of phytoplasmas) were studied, revealing that they were influenced both by variations in temperature (warm or cold according to the season) and by the organ examined (roots or stems). The role of the phytopathogenic status in these fluctuations was also discussed. PMID:12648725

  14. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ?46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ?3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  15. Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation history in the southern part of Transylvania (Romania): pollen analysis of two sequences from Avrig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantau, Ioan; Reille, Maurice; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Farcas, Sorina

    2006-01-01

    We present here the results of pollen analysis of two sequences of about 8.06 m and 11.90 m length, originating from two adjacent peat bogs in the southern part of Transylvania province, Romania (155 and 122 pollen spectra). The vegetation record, which is supported by 17 14C dates, begins in the Late Glacial interstadial when forest recolonisation began with the development of Pinus, without a pioneer Betula phase. Picea began to expand from regional refuges. After a well-defined Younger Dryas, the Holocene opens with the expansion of Betula, Ulmus and Picea, followed, at about 10 400 cal. yr BP, by Fraxinus, Quercus and Tilia. The Corylus optimum is correlated with the Atlantic chronozone (after 8600 cal. yr BP). The local establishment of Carpinus occurred at about 6500 cal. yr BP, with a maximum at about 5700 cal. yr BP. Fagus pollen is regularly recorded after 8200 cal. yr BP. This taxon became dominant at about 3700cal.yrBP. The first indications of human activities appear at around 7200cal.yrBP.

  16. Trap trees for elm bark beetles : Augmentation with pheromone baits and chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, G N; Jones, A H

    1985-01-01

    European elm bark beetles,Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.), were strongly attracted to American elms,Ulmus americana L., baited with theS. multistriatus attractant, multilure, or killed by injection of the arboricide, cacodylic acid; a combination of the two treatments was most attractive. Comparisons of beetle catches on sticky bands affixed to the trees with samples of bark from the same trees showed that the number of beetles landing on cacodylic acid-treated trees was approximately 40 times greater than the number boring into them. Spraying the bark with the insecticide chlorpyrifos had no direct effect on attraction. No live bark beetle brood was found in trees that had been treated with cacodylic acid or chlorpyrifos, but trees that were only baited or left untreated (check) were attacked, killed, and colonized. We suggest that the contribution of the cacodylic acid trap tree technique to Dutch elm disease control will be enhanced by baiting treated trees with multilure and spraying their lower boles with 0.5% chlorpyrifos. This treatment will eliminate diseased and unwanted elms as potential breeding material and kill large numbers of elm bark beetles that might otherwise innoculate healthy elms with the Dutch elm disease fungus. PMID:24311092

  17. Cerato-ulmin, a hydrophobin secreted by the causal agents of Dutch elm disease, is a parasitic fitness factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, B; Horgen, P A; Bernier, L; Hintz, W E

    1997-08-01

    Dutch elm disease is caused by the aggressive Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and the nonaggressive O. ulmi. Both secrete the protein cerato-ulmin (CU). To determine what role CU plays in the pathology of Dutch elm disease, we constructed a CU overexpression mutant of the nonaggressive O. ulmi H5. Stable integration of a single copy of the cu gene from the aggressive O. novo-ulmi into the genome of the nonaggressive isolate resulted in increased secretion of CU protein. Trials with American elm, Ulmus americana, suggested no alteration of virulence of this overexpressing transformant. Using aggressive and nonaggressive wild types, the cu overexpressing mutant, and our cu- mutant (Bowden et al., 1996), we have demonstrated that CU production is correlated with an altered phenotype and more hydrophobic and adherent yeast-like cells. Our results also demonstrate that CU has a role in protecting infectious propagules from desiccation. These biological roles for CU would affect transmission of Dutch elm disease, and we therefore propose that this hydrophobin acts as a parasitic fitness factor. PMID:9344630

  18. Widespread horizontal transfer of the cerato-ulmin gene between Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Priscilla P; Frascella, Arcangela; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pepori, Alessia L; Santini, Alberto; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2014-08-01

    Previous work had shown that a sequence homologous to the gene encoding class II hydrophobin cerato-ulmin from the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch Elm Disease (DED), was present in a strain of the unrelated species Geosmithia species 5 (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) isolated from Ulmus minor affected by DED. As both fungi occupy the same habitat, even if different ecological niches, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer was proposed. In the present work we have analysed for the presence of the cerato-ulmin gene 70 Geosmithia strains representing 29 species, isolated from different host plants and geographic locations. The gene was found in 52.1 % of the strains derived from elm trees, while none of those isolated from nonelms possessed it. The expression of the gene in Geosmithia was also assessed by real time PCR in different growth conditions (liquid culture, solid culture, elm sawdust, dual culture with O. novo-ulmi), and was found to be extremely low in all conditions tested. On the basis of these results we propose that the cerato-ulmin gene is not functional in Geosmithia, but can be considered instead a marker of more extensive transfers of genetic material as shown in other fungi. PMID:25110129

  19. Intradiurnal variations of allergenic tree pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Badia, Rosa; Vaquero, Consolación; Sardinero, Santiago; Galán, Carmen; García-Mozo, Herminia

    2010-12-01

    To study the impact of inhaling airborne pollen on health, it is important to know not only their average daily concentrations but also the intradiurnal behaviour of these biological particles. This study reports the bi-hourly distribution of the arboreal airborne pollen types more abundant in the atmosphere of Toledo (central Spain), many of them triggering important allergic processes in Toledo citizens and tourist visitors. Knowledge of bi-hourly pattern atmospheric variation pollen may help pollinosis patients to adopt preventive measures and plan their outdoor activities accordingly. Intradiurnal variation has been studied for the arboreal pollen types: Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Olea, Platanus, Populus, Quercus and Ulmus, during the period 2005-2008. The main hourly pollen concentrations were observed during sunlight hours and the maximum pollen values obtained at midday and in the afternoon, except for pollen types Quercus and Platanus, whose maximum pollen concentrations were obtained during the night. The statistical analyses performed to compare pollen concentration and main hourly meteorological variables proved to be significant for most of the taxa. The results show a significant and positive effect of temperature, solar radiation and wind speed on the daily variability undergone by atmospheric pollen. Relative humidity influenced in a negative way on the intradiurnal variation of pollen in the atmosphere of Toledo. PMID:21186770

  20. Viabilidad de polen, receptividad del estigma y tipo de polinización en cinco especies Echeveria en condiciones de invernadero / Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination type in five Echeveria species under greenhouse conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa J., Rodríguez-Rojas; María, Andrade-Rodríguez; Jaime, Canul-Ku; Antonio, Castillo-Gutiérrez; Edgar, Martínez-Fernández; Dagoberto, Guillén-Sánchez.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echeveria, género representativo de Crassulaceae por representar 97% de especies endémicas; sus plantas tienen características morfológicas atractivas para la horticultura ornamental. El conocimiento de las características reproductivas es útil para el mejoramiento genético, necesario para ser utili [...] zado en las polinizaciones y aumentar la posibilidad de éxito de la fecundación. El objetivo fue conocer la viabilidad de polen, receptividad del estigma y tipo de polinización de cinco especies de Echeveria, con fines de mejoramiento genético. El trabajo se realizó de 2011 a 2013, en Cuernavaca, Morelos. Se usaron cinco especies E. agavoides, E. elegans, E. runyonii, E. pumila, E. perle. La viabilidad de polen se determinó mediante el método de tinción con ácido ácetico-carmín. La receptividad del estigma se evaluó con el método de Osborn; la evaluación fue a las 8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, y 18:00 h. Para tipo de polinización se realizaron cuatro modalidades: 1) autopolinización; 2) emascular y cubrir flores; 3) polinización cruzada intra específica; y 4) polinización cruzada inter específica; se evaluo amarre de fruto y viabilidad de semillas. E. agavoides tuvo mayor porcentaje de polen viable (72.7%). La mayor receptividad se tuvo de 12:00 a 14:00 h (94.6 a 98%). En las cuatro modalidades de polinización se obtuvó 100% de amarre de fruto; solo hubo semilla viable en los frutos de polinización cruzada intra-específica (12.3%) y polinización cruzada inter-específica (11.3 a 12.3%). La polinización de las especies estudiadas fue cruzada. E. perle y E. runyonii no pueden fungir como hembras por no formar semillas viables. Abstract in english Echeveria, is a representative genus from Crassulaceae to represent 97% of endemic genus; its plants have attractive morphological characteristics for ornamental horticulture. Knowledge of reproductive characteristics are useful for genetic improvement, necessary to be used in pollination and increa [...] se the chance of successful fertilization. The objective was to determine pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination type of five species of Echeveria, for breeding purposes. The work was done from 2011 to 2013, in Cuernavaca, Morelos. Five species E. agavoides, E. elegans, E. runyonii, E. pumila, E. perle were used. Pollen viability was determined by staining with carmine acetic acid. Stigma receptivity was assessed with the Osborn method; assessment was at 8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, and 18:00 h. For pollination type four modes were performed: 1) self-pollination; 2) emasculating and cover flowers; 3) intra-specific cross-pollination; and 4) inter-specific cross-pollination; fruit set and seed viability was evaluated. E. agavoides had higher percentage of viable pollen (72.7%). Greater receptivity was from 12:00 to 14:00 hrs (94.6 to 98%). In the four modes of pollination 100% of fruit set was obtained; there was only viable seeds in fruits of intra-specific cross pollination (12.3%) and inter-specific cross pollination (11.3 to 12.3%). The pollination of the species studied were crossed E. perle and E. runyonii can not serve as females by not forming viable seeds.

  1. Fluctuación diaria del fitoplancton en la capa superficial del océano durante la primavera de 1997 en el norte de Chile (20°18´S): II. Composición específica y abundancia celular / Daily fluctuation of phytoplankton in the upper layer of the ocean during the spring of 1997 in the north of Chile (20°18´S): II. Specific composition and cellular abundance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgardo, Santander; Liliana, Herrera; Carlos, Merino.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la respuesta de la comunidad microfitoplanctónica a los cambios en la estructura física y química producidos por un evento de surgencia sobre una escala diaria. La época en la cual se realizó el estudio coincidió con la presencia de “El Niño” 1997-1998, pero los resultados no evidenciaron [...] una condición anómala asociada a dicho evento. Los valores del índice de surgencia permitieron dividir el período de estudio en dos fases, la primera, entre el 26 de agosto y el 7 de septiembre, cuando las magnitudes de los eventos estuvieron centradas en los 1.000 m³s-1, y la segunda entre el 9 y el 17 de septiembre, cuando los valores superaron los 2.000 m³s-1. La estructura comunitaria del microfitoplancton estuvo fuertemente acoplada a las fluctuaciones físicas y químicas ocasionadas por la variabilidad de los eventos de surgencia. Durante la primera fase hubo una predominancia absoluta de Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle, la cual contribuyó con un 82,8% al total de las abundancias celulares, resultando en una comunidad con un carácter monoespecífico. La declinación y desaparición de T. subtilis estuvieron relacionadas con un cambio en las condiciones oceanográficas de la capa superficial, producido por la intensificación de la surgencia. En la segunda fase, la diversidad se incrementó en directa relación con un cambio en la componente específica de la comunidad fitoplanctónica, que condujo a la dominancia de Detonula pumila (Cleve) Grunow y Leptocylindrus danicus Cleve. La salinidad resultó ser la variable que influyó significativamente la estructura comunitaria observada Abstract in english The response of the microphytoplanktonic community to the physical and chemical changes during an upwelling event is analyzed on a daily scale. The study coincided with the “El Niño” 1997-1998 presence, but the results did not show the anomalous condition associated with this event. The Upwelling In [...] dex values allowed us to divide the study period in two phases, the first one, from August 26 to September 7, when the events magnitudes were about 1,000 m³s-1, and the second from September 9 through 17, when the values were higher than 2,000 m³s-1. The microphytoplanktonic community structure was strongly coupled with the physical and chemical fluctuations caused by the variability of the upwelling events. During the first phase, Thalassiosira subtilis (Ostenfeld) Gran emend. Hasle was absolutely dominant, contributing 82.8% to the total cellular abundance, resulting in a community with a monospecific character. The decline and disappearance of T. subtilis was related to a change in the oceanographic conditions of the superficial layer, produced by the change in the upwelling intensity. In the second phase, the diversity increased in direct relation to a change in the specific composition of the microphytoplanktonic community, which led to Detonula pumila and Leptocylindrus danicus dominance. Salinity was the variable that significantly affected the observed community structure

  2. Characteristics of Plant Distribution in the Reclaimed Dredging Area in Gwangyang Bay, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam, Woong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the mechanisms affecting plant distributions in the reclaimed dredging areain the Gwangyang steelworks, in the Gwangyang Bay, Korea, we examined soil characteristics and plant distributionsin four study sites and a control site in the study area. Desalination occurring along a gradient withincreasing elevation, resulting in decrease of soil pH, EC, P, K, Cl, Ca, Mg, and salt and an increase in soilT-N, silt, clay contents. From site 1 (the lowest-elevation site to site 5 (the highest-elevation site, halophytesdecreased in abundance and nonhalophytes increased. The dominant species in each site were: Phragmitescommunis, Limonium tetragonum, and 12 additional species at site 1, Carex pumila, Suaeda japonica, and 15additional species at site 2, Spergularia marina, Scirpus planiculmis, and 22 additional species at site 3,Miscantus sinensis, Lespedeza bicolor, and 26 additional species at site 4 and Pinus thunberii, Rhododendronmucronulatum, and 39 additional species at site 5, which resembled a naturally-occurring P. thinbergii community.Cluster analysis of the vegetation data matrix grouped the 35 plots into 5 major groups, and cluster analysisusing the soil environment data matrix revealed 4 major groups. CCA of the floristic and environmental datamatrix showed a positive relationship of SAR, EC, Na, Cl, and Ca, which are related to salt, in the 1st axis and2nd axis, but negative relationships for altitude, organic contents, silt, and clay contents. Notably, plant speciesin the reclaimed dredging area that were separated along the 1st axis showed strong relationships with factorsthat related to salt. Long-term exposure to natural rainfall in the reclaimed dredging area changed the soilcharacteristics, such as salinity. This change in soil characteristics might alter the SAR, which affects plantsurvival strategies in a given habitat. These results strongly indicated that factors related to salt and elevationplay important roles in determining the overall plant distribution in the reclaimed dredging area.

  3. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  4. Riego parcial de la raíz en manzano `golden delicious´ en un mbiente semi-árido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Zegbe-Dom\\u00EDnguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua para riego es un recurso limitado y costoso en la producción de manzano (Malus pumila Mill. en las regiones semi-áridas del mundo, como en la región Norte de México donde se cultivan 44 mil hectáreas. Se ha demostrado que el riego parcial de la raíz (RPR es una técnica que ahorra agua en manzano cultivado en regiones húmedas, pero en climas semi-áridos aún no se evalúa. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto del RPR sobre el rendimiento y calidad de fruto del manzano ?Golden Delicious? cultivado en un clima semi-árido donde la demanda evapotranspiratoria del cultivo es mayor que en un ambiente húmedo. Los tratamientos fueron: riego completo (RC, testigo y RPR; en éste se aplicó 50 % del RC, pues el riego se alternó del lado húmedo al seco del sistema radical cada 8 d o cuando el contenido del agua en el suelo alcanzó un umbral de abatimiento. En general, el rendimiento y componentes del rendimiento fueron estadísticamente iguales en ambos tratamientos, pero la eficiencia en el uso del agua fue significativamente mejorada en 70 % con el RPR en relación al RC. El RPR ahorró 44 % del agua. El peso medio, la firmeza y la concentración de sólidos solubles totales del fruto fueron estadísticamente iguales entre tratamientos. La concentración de la materia seca del fruto fue significativamente mayor en árboles con RPR que en aquéllos con RC. El RPR necesita ser validado en otros cultivares de manzano y ambientes agro-ecológicos antes de que esta técnica sea comercialmente difundida.

  5. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  6. Anti-Iipase and antioxidant properties of 30 medicinal plants used in Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nemesio, Villa-Ruano; Guilibaldo G, Zurita-Vásquez; Yesenia, Pacheco-Hernández; Martha G, Betancourt-Jiménez; Ramiro, Cruz-Durán; Horacio, Duque-Bautista.

    Full Text Available We report the results of in vitro anti-lipase and antioxidant assays using crude ethanolic extracts from 30 plants grown in Oaxaca, México. Anti-lipase tests were performed by using porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) [EC 3.1.1.3] from Affymetrix/USB. The extracts of Solanum erianthum, Salvia microphyll [...] a, Brungmansia suaveolens and Cuphea aequipetala showed up to 60% PPL inhibition. The effect of these extracts on the kinetic parameters of PPL (Km= 0.36 mM, and Vmax=0.085 mM min -1) revealed that the alcoholic preparations of S. erianthum and C. aequipetala engendered a non-competitive inhibition (Vmax=0.055 mM min -1; Vmax= 0.053 mM min -1), whereas those of S. microphylla and B. suaveolens produced a mixed inhibition (Km= 0.567 mM, Vmax=0.051 mM min _1; Km=0.643 mM, Vmax= 0.042 mM min ¹). In addition to these findings, seven extracts from different plants were able to inhibit PPL in the range of 30-50%. Antioxidant tests against 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) confirmed that Arctostaphylos pungens, Gnaphalium roseum, Crotalaria pumila, Cuphea aequipetala, Rhus chondroloma, and Satureja laevigata possess relevant antioxidant activity (IC(5)0=50-80 ?g mL¹). The general composition of the most effective ethanolic extracts was obtained in order to confirm their known chemistry reported by previous works. Comprehensive chemical analysis of the ethanolic extracts and their poisoning effects suggests that S. microphylla, C. aequipetala and A. pungens could be considered as the best sources with both desired properties.

  7. Mires and mire types of Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grootjans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a field visit by members of the International Mire Conservation Group (IMCG to the Atlantic coast of Peninsula Mitre (the easternmost part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina gathered information on mire diversity in this remote wild area with largely pristine mires. Our expedition showed that Peninsula Mitre hosts a wide variety of habitats across two exciting ecological gradients: (i a regional west–east gradient from Sphagnum magellanicum dominated mires in the west to Astelia pumila dominated mires in the east; and (ii a gradient from extremely acid to extremely carbonate rich mire types induced by local bedrock. The large variety of hydromorphological mire types comprises raised bogs, blanket bogs, sloping fens, string fens, flat fens and calcareous spring fens. In the Atlantic coastal area, the abundance of Sphagnum magellanicum in the ombrogenic systems decreases conspicuously from west to east with the species being almost absent in the east. However, the fossil record shows thick layers of Sphagnum peat close beneath mire surfaces everywhere, indicating that substantial hydrological and ecological changes have taken place in the recent past. We observed large scale erosion in the mires along the Atlantic coast. Locally, well-developed fen systems are present, including calcareous spring fens with active travertine (tufa deposition. The regional vegetation can be regarded as a parallel to that of boreal oceanic regions in the northern hemisphere. The mires and peatlands of the peninsula are of global significance. They are impressive, peculiar, extensive and largely pristine mires in a globally very rare climatic and biogeographical context embedded in a landscape with significant natural dynamics. The damaging impact of free-roaming cattle on the mires and upland vegetation is, however, conspicuous and needs urgent attention. Peninsula Mitre deserves the highest possible protection, e.g. as a provincial protected area and a World Heritage Site.

  8. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl2, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ?g/ Cd/cm2 with CdCl2 (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plbtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place

  9. Cuticular behavior of cadmium studies using isolated plant cuticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, A.R.; Gambonnet, B.; Genova, C.; Jourdain, A.

    The cuticular retention and penetration of /sup 115m/Cd (metastable cadmium-115) were studied using isolated pear (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) leaves, and apple (Malus pumila Mill. Akane) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit cuticles to obtain a better understanding of the behavior of Cd deposited on the aerial parts of plants. Results show that Cd, as CdCl/sub 2/, may be taken up by isolated cuticles. The mean value calculated from results obtained with different cuticular species was 1.4 ..mu..g/ Cd/cm/sup 2/ with CdCl/sub 2/ (11.8 mg Cd/L, pH approx. = 6). The cuticular retention depended greatly on the plant species when results are expressed on the basis of the dry weight. The study of the washing with water or exchange solutions suggests that the retention corresponds to a fraction sorbed as solute and to another fraction constituted by exchangeable Cd ions. At first it increased rapidly, then progressively tended to a saturation level as the concentration varied from 0.5 mg to 1.1 Cd/L. It was observed with dewaxed cuticles that the cuticular matrix was predominantly implicated in the retention. There appeared an interaction with Zn, suggesting a competition for the same sites of fixation. It was possible to reveal the cuticular penetration of Cd through intact cuticles; it was very slow but was greater with diluted HCl than with pure water as a receiver. These results are consistent with data obtained from experiments on the entire plants, showing that the greatest part of Cd deposited on leaves is recovered at the deposit place.

  10. Transgene expression in the vegetative tissues of apple driven by the vascular-specific rolC and CoYMV promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittins, John R; Pellny, Till K; Biricolti, Stefano; Hiles, Elizabeth R; Passey, Andrew J; James, David J

    2003-08-01

    The ability of the heterologous promoters, rolCP and CoYMVP, to drive expression of the gusA reporter gene in the vegetative tissues of apple (Malus pumila Mill.) has been studied using transgenic plants produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Replicate plants of each transgenic clone were propagated in soil to a uniform size and samples of leaf, petiole, stem, and root were taken for the measurement of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity by fluorometric assay. The levels of expression were compared with those in tissues of a representative clone containing the CaMV 35S promoter. These quantitative GUS data were related to the copy number of transgene loci assessed by Southern blotting. The CoYMV promoter was slightly more active than the rolC promoter, although both expressed gusA at a lower level than the CaMV 35S promoter. In clones containing the rolC promoter with multiple transgene loci, expression values were generally among the highest or lowest in the range. The precise location of GUS activity in each tissue was identified by staining of whole leaves and tissue sections with a chromogenic substrate. This analysis demonstrated that with both the rolC and CoYMV promoters the reporter gene activity was primarily localised to vascular tissues, particularly the phloem. Our results indicate that both promoters would be suitable to drive the expression of transgenes to combat pests and diseases of apple that are dependent on interaction with the phloem. PMID:12885161

  11. The effect of intercropping on weed infestation of a spring barley crop cultivated in monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kwieci?ska-Poppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the years 2005-2007 in the Bezek Experimental Farm near the city of Che?m, Poland, on heavy mixed rendzina soil. The effect of intercropping, using red clover (cv. Dajana and white clover (cv. Astra, on weed infestation of a spring barley crop was studied. The species composition of weeds in the spring barley crop changed to a small extent under the influence of the application of clover intercropping, whereas the population size of particular species showed large fluctuations. In the spring barley crop with the red clover intercrop, Sonchus arvensis occurred in greatest numbers among dicotyledonous weed species. In the barley crop with white clover and without intercrop, Viola arvensis and Sonchus arvensis were the dominant dicotyledonous species. Setaria pumila was the dominant monocotyledonous species in all the treatments. Intercropping using red and white clover clearly limited the growth and development of weeds. The red clover intercrop in the spring barley crop better reduced the infestation with dicotyledonous weeds and also significantly reduced the number of monocotyledonous weeds and the total number of weeds, whereas the white clover intercrop limited only the number of monocotyledonous weeds. The application of the herbicide Chwastox Extra 300 SL significantly reduced the fresh weight of weeds found in the spring barley crop. The presence of the intercrop resulted in different total numbers of weeds in particular treatments. Intercropping distinctly limited the occurrence of the following weed species: Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Melandrium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Veronica arvensis and Medicago lupulina. The investigated intercrop species also reduced the biomass of weeds. The application of the herbicide did not differentiate the number of monocotyledonous weeds, which resulted from the application of Chwastox Extra 300 SL that controls only dicotyledonous species.

  12. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla-Carmona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%, Polydesmida (81.3%, Blattodea (25% y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos.Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro. Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%, Coleoptera (32.8%, Hemiptera (38.5% and Polydesmida (81.3%. Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  13. Concentración natural de compuestos antimaláricos en artrópodos tropicales (in vitro)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Misael, Chinchilla-Carmona; Olga Marta, Guerrero Bermúdez; Giselle, Tamayo-Castillo; Ana, Sittenfeld Appel; Alberto, Jiménez-Somarribas; Idalia, Valerio-Campos.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extractos alcohólicos, hexánicos y diclorometánicos de 751 muestras de artrópodos fueron estudiados por la presencia de actividad antimalárica. En este trabajo se empleó un modelo murino usando el Plasmodium berghei, modelo que es biológicamente similar a la malaria humana. El estudio fue realizado [...] determinando el efecto del extracto sobre el parásito por la inclusión o no del colorante azul de cresil brillante. Estimando como positivos aquellos extractos cuya actividad antimalárica se mostró en concentraciones no mayores de 50 mg, se encontró que los órdenes más promisorios fueron Lepidoptera (24.1%), Polydesmida (81.3%), Blattodea (25%) y Opiliones, entre otros. Las formas inmaduras de Lepidoptera fueron las más positivas, por lo que se analizaron las plantas hospederos de donde se alimentaban dichos organismos. Las familias de estas plantas eran Malvaceae, Acanthaceae, Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Urticaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae y Caprifoliaceae. Especies de casi todas estas familias han sido reportadas con actividad antimalárica. En el caso de los órdenes Polydesmida, Opiliones y Blattodea, cuyas formas adultas presentaron alguna actividad contra P. berghei, encontramos que todos esos grupos se alimentan también de plantas. En el caso de Opiliones sus especies son predadores de lepidópteros, coleópteros, hemípteros fitófagos y otros artrópodos, además de que producen sustancias de defensas tales como alcoholes, cetonas y quinonas, entre otros, todo lo cual podría explicar la actividad encontrada. Algunas especies del Orden Polydesmida, también secretan ciertas sustancias químicas, las cuales podrían tener un efecto antiparasitario. Así, a través de este trabajo en artrópodos hemos llegado a identificar fuentes vegetales potenciales para componentes antimaláricos. Abstract in english Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro). Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the [...] extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 473-485. Epub 2008 June 30.

  14. Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa / Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regiane F., Travensolo; Luciane P., Ciapina; Eliana G. M., Lemos.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD) em videira (Vitis vinifera). Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oli [...] gonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3') e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3') utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3'), que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus), citros (Citrus spp.), café (Coffea arabica), olmo (Ulmus americana), amora (Morus rubra), carvalho (Quercus rubra), vinca (Catharantus roseus), ameixa (Prunus salicina) e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD) in grapes (Vitis vinifera). The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCC [...] IGGC-3') and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3') using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3') which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s) 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus), citrus (Citrus spp.), coffee (Coffea arabica), elm (Ulmus americana), mulberry (Morus rubra), oak (Quercus rubra), periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus), plums (Prunus salicina) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.

  15. Development of a scar marker for Pierce's Disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa Desenvolvimento de um marcador scar para Xylella fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane F. Travensolo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop a primer for a polymerase chain reaction specific for Xylella fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease (PD in grapes (Vitis vinifera. The DNA amplification of 23 different strains of X. fastidiosa, using a set of primers REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' and REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3' using the following program: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min and 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produced a fragment of 630 bp that differentiated the strains that cause disease in grapes from the other strains. However, REP banding patterns could not be considered reliable for detection because the REP1-R and REP 2 primers correspond to repetitive sequences, which are found throughout the bacterial genome. The amplified product of 630 bp was eluted from the agarose gel, purified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence information was used to identify and synthesize an specific oligonucleotide for X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's Disease denominated Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3' which was used jointly with the REP-2 primer at the following conditions: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. The DNAs isolated from strains of X. fastidiosa from other hosts [almond (Prumus amygdalus, citrus (Citrus spp., coffee (Coffea arabica, elm (Ulmus americana, mulberry (Morus rubra, oak (Quercus rubra, periwinkle wilt (Catharantus roseus, plums (Prunus salicina and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] and also from other Gram negative and positive bacteria were submitted to amplification with a pair of primers Xf-1/REP 2 to verify its specificity. A fragment, about 350 bp, was amplified only when the DNA from strains of X. fastidiosa isolated from grapes was employed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um oligonucleotídeo iniciador para reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR específico para as estirpes de Xylella fastidiosa que causam o mal de Pierce (PD em videira (Vitis vinifera. Amplificações de DNA de 23 diferentes hospedeiros, usando o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos REP1-R (5'-IIIICGICGIATCCIGGC-3' e REP 2 (5'-ICGICTTATCI GGCCTAC-3' utilizando o programa: 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 45 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/5 min, produziu um fragmento de 630 pb que diferenciou as estirpes de videiras dos demais. Entretanto, padrões de bandeamento REP não são considerados confiáveis para detecção devido ao par de oligonucleotídeos REP 1 e REP 2 corresponderem a seqüências repetitivas encontradas por todo o genoma bacteriano. Desse modo, o produto amplificado de 630 pb foi eluído do gel de agarose, purificado e seqüenciado. A informação da seqüência nucleotídica foi usada para identificar e sintetizar um oligonucleotídeo específico para o isolado de X. fastidiosa causadora do mal de Pierce denominado Xf-1 (5'-CGGGGGTGTAGGAGGGGTTGT-3', que foi utilizado juntamente com o oligonucleotídeo REP-2 nas condições 94 ºC/2 min; 35 X (94 ºC/1 min, 62 ºC/1 min; 72 ºC/1 min and 30 s 72 ºC/10 min. Os DNAs das estirpes de X. fastidiosa de outros hospedeiros [amêndoa (Prumus amygdalus, citros (Citrus spp., café (Coffea arabica, olmo (Ulmus americana, amora (Morus rubra, carvalho (Quercus rubra, vinca (Catharantus roseus, ameixa (Prunus salicina e ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia] e de bactérias Gram negativas e positivas foram submetidos a amplificação com o conjunto de oligonucleotídeos Xf-1/REP 2. Um fragmento, de aproximadamente 350 pb, foi amplificado apenas com o DNA de X. fastidiosa isolada de videira.

  16. Estratigrafía y paleoambiente asociados a un Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) en Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, México / Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment associated to a Gomphoteriidae (Cuvieronius hyodon) in Tzintzuntzan, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jasinto, Robles-Camacho; Pedro, Corona-Chávez; Miguel, Morales-Gámez; Ana Fabiola, Guzmán; Óscar J., Polaco; Gabriela, Domínguez-Vázquez; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Arturo, Oliveros-Morales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción estratigráfica, petrográfica y del contenido de polen de la columna volcánico-sedimentaria fluvial de la Barranca Rancho Viejo, ubicada al suroeste del poblado de Tzintzuntzan y al norte de Pátzcuaro. Esta columna contiene horizontes que alojan restos vegetales y fragmento [...] s óseos, entre los que destaca una mandíbula bien preservada de un gonfoterio, la cual fue recuperada de un depósito de lahar intercalado con una sucesión piroclástica asociada al volcanismo monogenético basáltico del Cerro Catio. Con base en la morfología dentaria, la especie ha sido clasificada como Cuvieronius hyodon. La descripción estratigráfica indica que el depósito de lahar en donde fueron encontrados los fragmentos, estuvo asociado a depósitos de caída, escasos flujos piroclásticos y un derrame basáltico de olivino±ortopiroxeno emplazados en la cercanía de una cuenca fluvial restringida a la porción septentrional del Lago de Pátzcuaro. El análisis isotópico de 14C de un fragmento leñoso carbonizado, encontrado en un horizonte subyacente al que contenía la mandíbula, arrojó una edad de 26 ka ± 190 AP. Las relaciones estratigráficas permiten asignar esta edad del Pleistoceno tardío al gonfoterio, así como al evento volcánico basáltico del Cerro Catio. El estudio petrográfico y polínico de los sedimentos muestra que la actividad volcánica estuvo caracterizada por una intensidad variable, con periodos recurrentes de calma hasta su extinción definitiva. Las condiciones climáticas húmedasfavorecieron el proceso de desvitrificación de las cenizas volcánicas generando un material felsofídico-criptocristalino propicio para la recuperación gradual y desarrollo de una vegetación de Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betulay Juglans. De acuerdo con otros autores, se concluye que el paleoambiente dominante en el Lago de Pátzcuaro durante el Pleistoceno tardío corresponde a un clima similar pero más frío que el actual, donde vivió mastofauna terrestre que aprovechó la relativa abundancia de una vegetación mesófila, la cualfue aparentemente perturbada por las exhalaciones asociadas al volcanismo monogenético en esta parte del Campo Volcánico Michoacán-Guanajuato. Abstract in english The stratigraphic, petrographic and pollinic description of the fluvial volcanic-sedimentary column of the Barranca Rancho Viejo, Tzintzuntzan and north of the Pátzcuaro lake is presented. This column contains vegetation remnants and bone fragments, including a well preserved jaw of a gomphothere, w [...] hich was recovered from a volcanic lahar deposit intercalated with fluvial deposits and a pyroclastic succession associated to the basaltic monogenetic volcanism of the Cerro Catio. On the basis of the dental morphology, the gomphothere has been classified as Cuvieronius hyodon. The stratigraphic description indicates that the deposit of this lahar was associated to a volcanic succession with a predominant pyroclastic fall, scarce pyroclastic flows and a basal basaltic lava flow with olivine ± ortopyroxene. The complete volcanic sequence was emplaced within a fluvial endorreic basin restricted to the northern portion of the Pátzcuaro lake. Isotopic 14C analysis of a woody fragment found in a horizon underlying the fossil fragments, provided an age of 26 ky ± 190 BP. This late Pleistocene age can be assigned to the gomphothere as well as to the basaltic volcanic event of the Cerro Catio. Petrographic and pollinic studies of the sediments and basaltic tephra show that the volcanic activity was characterized by variable intensity, with recurrent waning periods, followed by volcanic quiescence. Moist climatic conditions favored the devitrification process of the volcanic ash and the weathering of other minerals, which provided good conditions for recovering of the mesophillic vegetation: Fraxinus, Acer, Corylus, Ulmus, Betula, and Juglans. In agreement with other authors, we conclude that the preponderant paleoenvironment ofthe Pátzcuaro lake during late Pleistocene was s

  17. A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard SØrensen, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from Trelde Klint, Denmark, and analyse its biostratigraphy, correlation with other European records, vegetation development, fire dynamics and absolute dating. Except for a slight truncation of the early part of the record, the pollen stratigraphy exhibits a full interglacial succession, including temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus and Tilia) during its mesocratic stage. Macrofossil analysis allowed identification to species level for Quercus robur, Picea abies and two mosses. Conifers (Pinus and Picea) dominate the pollen record of the interglacial sequence, and the occurrence of Larix pollen in the top part of the interglacial record as well as in the interstadial sediments is especially indicative of this interglacial. The overall diversity of tree genera is rather low. These biostratigraphical features suggest that Trelde Klint is unique among Danish records, but it is similar to records from northern Germany. Numerical analyses (REVEALS and DCA) indicate that forests during the temperate stage were dense and that vegetation openness increased only towards the end of the interglacial, accompanied by increased fire occurrence. A short interstadial sequence with a dominance of Pinus and Betula and the presence of Larix is present above the interglacial deposit. We argue that lack of attention to differences in fire regimes may hamper understanding of between-site correlations of interglacial pollen records. OSL dating, using a novel feldspar technique, yields an average age of 350±20 ka for the sandy sediments above the interglacial layers at Trelde Klint, suggesting that the whole interglacial–interstadial succession belongs to Marine Isotope Stage 11.

  18. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  19. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Could canopy forests survive agricultural colonization in the Polabi lowland (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B?ízová E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Polabi lowland is one of the most important agricultural areas in Central Europe. Since the Neolithic Age, agriculture has prevented full expansion of the mixed deciduous forest. We studied the succession of molluscan assemblages and/or fossil pollen in this area to answer the question as to how long the canopy forest could survive ongoing human impact. Environments suitable for the fossilization of these two fossil types differ, and the joint occurrence of both is rare. However, the 0.75 m deep profile of alluvial loams and clays situated in the irregularly inundated floodplain area of the Dubanka stream yielded material rich in both mollusc shells and pollen. Very rich molluscan assemblages occur only in a 45 cm thick layer, which was dated using the AMS radiocarbon method to the Bronze Age (1796 - 1258 BC. The molluscan assemblages consist of continuously occurring rare deciduous woodland species (such as Discus perspectivus, Platyla polita, Cochlodina orthostoma, Ruthenica filograna and species of relict wetlands (e.g. Perpolita petronella, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, Vallonia enniensis. Pollen analyses also suggest the presence of wetland assemblages, with a huge proportion of alder in the central part of the succession followed by willow. The deciduous forests consist of elm (Ulmus, oak (Quercus, lime tree (Tilia, maple (Acer and hazel (Corylus. Pollen grains of spruce (Picea, white fir (Abies and beech (Fagus confirm the late Holocene age of the profile. These results provide evidence of a woodland and wetland mosaic which still covered this landscape during the Bronze Age, in contrast with the present-day monotonous open lowland.

  1. Inhibitory effect of phytoglycoprotein on tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 at initiation stage of colon cancer in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the chemopreventive potentials of plant originated glycoprotein (UDN glycoprotein, 116 kDa) isolated from the stems of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated ICR mice. UDN glycoprotein was administered to mice at 0.01% and 0.02% levels for 5 weeks. The mice were treated with 20 mg/kg DMH twice a week for 2 weeks in presence of UDN glycoprotein and killed at week 6. We found that UDN glycoprotein has inhibitory effects on the frequency of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), activation of colonic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and release of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in DMH-treated mice. In addition, UDN glycoprotein has anti-oxidative effects on the formation of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the production of plasma inducible nitric oxide (NO) in DMH-treated mouse. Also, 0.02% UDN glycoprotein suppressed the DNA binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), accompanying the inhibitions of its subunits (p50, p65, c-Jun, and c-Fos), pro-inflammatory proteins [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)], and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6] on DMH-stimulated ACF formation. On the basis of these results, we assume that UDN glycoprotein may be useful for colon cancer prevention at initiation stager prevention at initiation stage

  2. The subfossil tree deposits from the Garonne Valley and their implications on Holocene alluvial plain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, Jean-Michel; Carozza, Laurent; Valette, Philippe; Llubes, Muriel; Py, Vanessa; Galop, Didier; Danu, Mihaela; Ferdinand, Laurie; David, Mélodie; Sévègnes, Laurent; Bruxelles, Laurent; Jarry, Marc; Duranthon, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Subfossil tree trunks deposits are common in large rivers, but their status as a source for dating alluvial sequences and palaeoenvironmental studies is still discussed. Particularly their origin and the process(es) of deposition as well as a possible remobilization were pointed as a limit to their use to document river alluvial changes. In this work we report the discovery of the largest subfossil trunks deposits in the Garonne valley. These new data are compared to the previous ones. A set of 17 tree trunks and more than 300 smaller wood fragments were collected. The xylologic study shows the prevalence of Quercus and a single occurrence of Ulmus. These two hardwood species are commonly associated with riparian forest. The 14C dating carried out on seven trunks and a single branch of Quercus on the outermost identified growth rings, indicates age ranging from 8400-8000 cal. BP for the oldest fragment (bough) to 4300-4000 cal. BP for the most recent tree trunk. Radiocarbon ages of the trunks are aggregated into two main periods: 5300-5600 cal. BP (four trunks) and 4300-4000 cal. BP (three trunks). The radiocarbon (charcoal) dating of the top of the alluvial sequence overlaying the trunks gives an age between 1965-1820 and 1570-1810 cal. BP, i.e. between the 2nd and the 5th c. AD. In addition, the discovery of two unpublished subfossil tree trunks deposits in Finhan are reported (six trunks). At the light of these results, we discuss previously proposed models for the Garonne floodplain building.

  3. Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, H J; Noh, J W

    2001-04-19

    Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752

  4. Anti-protozoal efficacy of medicinal herb extracts against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, H J; Lakritz, J; Kim, D Y; Rottinghaus, G E; Marsh, A E

    2003-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alcohol extracts of herbs (Sophora flavescens Aiton, Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder and E.H. Wilson, Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex T. Mori, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.) from South Korea, possess in vitro anti-protozoal activity against cultures of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. These herbs have been used as human anti-parasitics in Asian countries for many years. Alcohol extracts of these herbs were serially diluted to final concentrations ranging from 625 to 19.5 ng/ml in media and added to wells containing either T. gondii or N. caninum tachyzoites in equine dermal (ED) cells. Parasite growth inhibition was measured using 3H-uracil incorporation as compared to untreated controls. T. japonica inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 99.3, 95.5, 73.0 and 54.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml, and S. flavescens inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 98.7, 83.0 and 27.2% in the range from 156 to 39 ng/ml. T. japonica inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 97.8, 97.9, 85.3 and 46.4% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. S. flavescens inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 98.6, 97.0, 69.5 and 14.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. Toxicity to host cells was noted when concentrations of T. japonica and S. flavescens exceeded 625 ng/ml. The herb extracts from S. acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, and U. macrocarpa also showed toxicity at higher levels but did not achieve the same inhibition effects at the lower concentrations against T. gondii and N. caninum as T. japonica and S. flavescens. PMID:14519322

  5. Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2013-04-01

    An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought. PMID:23053227

  6. a Gamma-Ray Study of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Relative Water Content of Tree STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zainal Abidin B.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The importance and role of water in plant growth have been studied for many years. The water is stored in various parts of the plant and is known to vary from one species to another, and with time of the year and some environmental factors. Most of the present methods of water content determination are destructive, and continuous monitoring of water content is not possible since the plant will be altered thereby. In this thesis, a non-destructive method of estimating water content in a live standing tree stem based on the computed tomography technique is described and verified. A portable gamma-ray scanner specifically designed for parallel computed tomography data collection was constructed and tested both in the laboratory and on actual field experiments. The cross-sectional images of the object under study, represented as a spatial variation of linear attenuation coefficients, were reconstructed using the filtered back-projection method. Experiments on small stem sections in the laboratory were found to show a linear decrease in attenuation coefficients as the water content decreased. The spatial change in water content can be obtained by taking the difference between two corresponding images. Scans on Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr.) and Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) trees in the field have shown significantly low attenuation coefficient values at the central region indicating low water content of the heartwood. However, for the Elm (Ulmus wheatlyii) tree the central heartwood was not well defined. Small fluctuations of relative water content (about 1%) were observed in overnight measurements for both on the Rowan and the Elm. Measurements over an extended period have also indicated seasonal variations in water content. Lower water contents were observed for scans made during the end of summer months.

  7. Establishment of invasive and non-invasive reporter systems to investigate American elm-Ophiostoma novo-ulmi interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, S; Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Saxena, P K

    2014-10-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by ascomycete fungi in the Ophiostoma genus, is the most devastating disease of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees. Cerato ulmin (CU), a hydrophobin secreted by the fungus, has been implicated in the development of DED, but its role in fungal pathogenicity and virulence remains uncertain and controversial. Here, we describe reporter systems based on the CU promoter and three reporter proteins (GFP, GUS and LUC), developed as research tools for quantitative and qualitative studies of DED in vitro, in vivo and in planta. A strain of the aggressive species Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was transformed with the reporter constructs using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the fungal transformants, namely M75-GFP, M75-GUS and M75-LUC, were examined for mitotic stability after repeated subcultures. The intensity of GFP fluorescence was strong in M75-GFP spores and hyphae, allowing microscopic investigations of spore structure, fungal morphogenesis and fungal development. The interaction of M75-GFP and U. americana callus cells was explored with scanning laser confocal microscopy facilitating qualitative studies on fungal strategies for the invasion and penetration of elm cells. M75-GUS was generated to provide an invasive, yet quantitative approach to study fungal-plant interactions in vitro and in planta. The generation of M75-LUC transformants was aimed at providing a non-destructive quantitative approach to study the role of CU in vivo. The sensitivity, low background signal and linearity of LUC assays all predict a very reliable approach to investigate and re-test previously claimed roles of this CU in fungal pathogenicity. These reporter systems provide new tools to investigate plant-pathogen interactions in this complex pathosystem and may aid in better understanding the development of DED. PMID:25139300

  8. Accumulation of perchlorate in aquatic and terrestrial plants at a field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kui; Anderson, Todd A; Jones, Matthew W; Smith, Philip N; Jackson, W Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Previous laboratory-scale studies have documented perchlorate ClO(-)(4) uptake by different plant species, but less information is available at field scale, where ClO(-)(4) uptake may be affected by environmental conditions, such as distance to streams or shallow water tables, exposure duration, and species. This study examined uptake of ClO(-)(4) in smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and watercress (Nasturtium spp.) as well as more than forty trees, including ash (Fraxinus greggii A. Gray), chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.), elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), willow (Salix nigra Marshall), mulberry [Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.], and hackberry (Celtis laevigata Willd.) from multiple streams surrounding a perchlorate-contaminated site. Results indicate a large potential for ClO(-)(4) accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, with ClO(-)(4) concentration in plant tissues approximately 100 times higher than that in bulk water. Perchlorate accumulation in leaves of terrestrial plants was also dependent on species, with hackberry, willow, and elm having a strong potential to accumulate ClO(-)(4). Generally, trees located closer to the stream had a higher ClO(-)(4) accumulation than trees located farther away from the stream. Seasonal leaf sampling of terrestrial plants indicated that ClO(-)(4) accumulation also was affected by exposure duration, with highest accumulation observed in the late growing cycle, although leaf concentrations for a given tree were highly variable. Perchlorate may be re-released into the environment via leaching and rainfall as indicated by lower perchlorate concentrations in collected leaf litter. Information obtained from this study will be helpful to understand the fate of ClO(-)(4) in macrophytes and natural systems. PMID:15356223

  9. Genomics of the Dutch elm disease pathosystem: are we there yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernier L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the development of ever more powerful genetic, molecular and omic approaches has provided plant pathologists with a wide array of experimental tools for elucidating the intricacies of plant-pathogen interactions and proposing new control strategies. In the case of the Dutch elm disease (DED pathosystem, these tools have been applied for advancing knowledge of the host (Ulmus spp. and the causal agents (Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and O. himal-ulmi. Genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification, cloning and characterization of a few genes that contribute to parasitic fitness in the pathogens. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput methods, such as expressed sequence tag analysis, have been used for measuring gene expression and identifying subsets of elm genes that are differentially expressed in the presence of O. novo-ulmi. These analyses have also helped identify genes that were differentially expressed in DED fungi grown under defined experimental conditions. Until recently, however, functional analysis of the DED fungi was hampered by the lack of protocols for efficient gene knockout and by the unavailability of a full genome sequence. While the selective inactivation of Ophiostoma genes by insertional mutagenesis remains a challenge, an alternative approach based on RNA interference is now available for down-regulating the expression of targeted genes. In 2013, the genome sequences of O. ulmi and O. novo-ulmi were publicly released. The ongoing annotation of these genomes should spark a new wave of interest in the DED pathosystem, as it should lead to the formal identification of genes modulating parasitic fitness. A better understanding of DED, however, also requires that omic approaches are applied to the study of the other biotic components of this pathosystem.

  10. Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, John C.; Konrad, Heino; Blomquist, Stacy R.; Kirisits, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) is a destructive vascular wilt disease of elm ( Ulmus) trees caused by the introduced Ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In Europe, this DED pathogen is transmitted by elm bark beetles in the genus Scolytus. These insects carry phoretic mites to new, suitable habitats. The aim of this study was to record and quantify conidia and ascospores of O. novo-ulmi on phoretic mites on the three elm bark beetle species Scolytus multistriatus, Scolytus pygmaeus, and Scolytus scolytus. Spores of O. novo-ulmi were found on four of the ten mite species phoretic on Scolytus spp. These included Elattoma fraxini, Proctolaelaps scolyti, Pseudotarsonemoides eccoptogasteri, and Tarsonemus crassus. All four species had spores attached externally to their body surfaces. However, T. crassus carried most spores within its sporothecae, two paired pocket-like structures adapted for fungal transmission. Individuals of Pr. scolyti also had O. novo-ulmi conidia and ascospores frequently in their digestive system, where they may remain viable. While E. fraxini and P. eccoptogasteri rarely had spores attached to their bodies, large portions of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus carried significant numbers of conidia and/or ascospores of O. novo-ulmi. P. scolyti and T. crassus, which likely are fungivores, may thus contribute to the transmission of O. novo-ulmi, by increasing the spore loads of individual Scolytus beetles during their maturation feeding on twigs of healthy elm trees, enhancing the chance for successful infection with the pathogen. Only S. scolytus, which is the most efficient vector of O. novo-ulmi in Europe, carried high numbers of Pr. scolyti and T. crassus, in contrast to S. multistriatus and S. pygmaeus, which are known as less efficient vectors. The high efficiency of S. scolytus in spreading Dutch elm disease may be partly due to its association with these two mites and the hyperphoretic spores of O. novo-ulmi they carry.

  11. Analysis of cutin and suberin biomarker patterns in alluvial sedi-ments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschbach, Jennifer; Sesterheim, Anna; König, Frauke; Fuchs, Elmar

    2015-04-01

    Cutin and suberin are the primary source of hydrolysable aliphatic lipid polyesters in soil organic matter (SOM). They are known as geochemical biomarkers to estimate the contribution of different plant species and tissues to SOM. Despite their potential as biomarkers, cutin and suberin have received less attention as flood plain sediment biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate the efficiency of cutin and suberin as biomarkers in floodplains. Therefore similarities between the lipid pattern in alluvial sediments and in the actual vegetation were considered. Lipids of plant tissues (roots, twigs, leaves) from different species (reed (e.g. Phalaris arun-diacea), Salix alba, Ulmus laevis and grassland (e.g. Carex spec.)) and of the un-derlying soils and sediments were obtained and investigated at four sites in the nature reserve Knoblauchsaue (Hessen, Germany). The four sampling sites differ not only with respect to their vegetation, but also within their distance to the river Rhine. Cutin and suberin monomers of plants and soils were analysed by alkaline hydrolysis, methylation and acetylation and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Resulting lipid patterns were specific for the appropriate plant species and tissues. However, the traceability of single selected lipids was decreasing alongside the soil profile, with the exception of monomers in softwood floodplain soils. Selected tissue specific lipid ratios showed a higher traceability due to strong attributions of lipid ratios in soils and roots of U. laevis and Carex spec. and in leaves of U. laevis and S. alba. In contrast, there was no accordance between the suberin specific lipid ratios in soils and roots of S. alba and P. arundiacea. The most robust interpretations were afforded when a set of multiple biomarkers (i.e. a combination of free lipid ratios and ratios of hydrolysable lipids) was used to collectively reconstruct the source vegetation of different sediment layers.

  12. Estimating Biophysical Parameters of Individual Trees in an Urban Environment Using Small Footprint Discrete-Return Imaging Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Wynne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of biophysical parameters of urban trees is important for urban planning, and for assessing carbon sequestration and ecosystem services. Airborne lidar has been used extensively in recent years to estimate biophysical parameters of trees in forested ecosystems. However, similar studies are largely lacking for individual trees in urban landscapes. Prediction models to estimate biophysical parameters such as height, crown area, diameter at breast height, and biomass for over two thousand individual trees were developed using best subsets multiple linear regression for a study area in central Oklahoma, USA using point cloud distributional metrics from an Optech ALTM 2050 lidar system. A high level of accuracy was attained for estimating individual tree height (R2 = 0.89, dbh (R2 = 0.82, crown diameter (R2 = 0.90, and biomass (R2 = 0.67 using lidar-based metrics for pooled data of all tree species. More variance was explained in species-specific estimates of biomass (R2 = 0.68 for Juniperus virginiana to 0.84 for Ulmus parviflora than in estimates from broadleaf deciduous (R2 = 0.63 and coniferous (R2 = 0.45 taxonomic groups—or the data set analysed as a whole (R2 = 0.67. The metric crown area performed particularly well for most of the species-specific biomass equations, which suggests that tree crowns should be delineated accurately, whether manually or using automatic individual tree detection algorithms, to obtain a good estimation of biomass using lidar-based metrics.

  13. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

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    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2?cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7?cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8?cM/marker to 0.5?cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10?cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a cost-effective manner, and the identification of SNPs that have been assigned erroneous positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ reference sequence will assist in the continued improvement of the genome sequence assembly for that variety.

  14. Fractured Epikarst Bedrock as Water Source for Woody Plants in Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Goodsheller, K. R.; Schwartz, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    Study of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system has been overwhelmingly dominated by systems with deep soils, yet large portions of the world are characterized by shallow soils underlain by fractured bedrock. In these systems, fractured bedrock may provide significant water storage, but we know little about the function of fractured bedrock as a water source for plants. In this study we examined the water use of three co-dominant tree species on the eastern rim of the karstic Edwards Plateau where the soil is extremely rocky, only 20 -30 cm thick, and overlies a well-developed epikarst. We used Granier sap flow sensors to estimate changes in sapflow velocity with the onset of summer drought. Simultaneously, we measured precipitation inputs and drip rates in a shallow cave below the field site. Precipitation, stem and drip water were also periodically sampled for stable isotope analysis to match stem water with potential source waters. The year of the study, 2009, was characterized by extreme drought conditions developing during summer. Sap flow rates began to decline in mid-May for all three species, but there were distinct species differences in the development of water stress: live oak (Quercus fusiformis) was the first to show significant loss of transpiration, reaching minimal sap flow values by early June. Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia) reached minimal sap flow values by early July, while Ashe juniper’s (Juniperus ashei) loss of transpiration was very gradual, continuing to decline until early August. The isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water were not significantly different between species, suggesting that root development and water uptake was similarly constrained for the three species. In summer, all stem water isotope ratios were enriched relative to precipitation, while all drip waters coincided with the local meteoric water line. This suggests that tree water sources were relatively shallow and water draining out of the root zone did not have a long residence time in regions where it could be evaporatively enriched or taken up by tree roots. The study also suggests that fractured and karstified bedrock at this site stored limited amounts of plant-available water and that differences in the onset of water stress conditions were related to differential sensitivity of species to low water potentials, rather than differences in water supply.

  15. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Enik? Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen records suggest uninterrupted presence of mesophilous temperate trees (Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains throughout the LPG. We demonstrate that the LPG vegetation in this area was characterized by increasing grass cover and high frequency of wildfires. We conclude that pollen spectra over represent trees in the forest-steppe landscape of the LPG, furthermore pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions for the LPG are challenging in this area due to the scarcity of modern analogues.

  16. Comparison of commercial elm cultivars and promising unreleased Dutch clones for resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buiteveld J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elms, and especially Ulmus × hollandica have been dominant and very much appreciated trees in cities and rural landscape for centuries in the Netherlands. As a result of two Dutch Elm Disease (DED epidemics in the 20th century these trees largely disappeared from the landscape. Despite the introduction of new cultivars with increased levels of DED-resistance, by the end of the 20th century the elm had disappeared from the top 20 list of trees produced by Dutch nurseries. New cultivars with increased resistance to DED are used to a limited extent only. Apparently the lasting problems with DED in old cultivars has led to a lack of confidence in the resistance of these latest released cultivars among urban foresters and landscape managers. This paper reports on a study that aims at restoring the position of the elm as a street tree in the Netherlands by providing information on resistance to O. novo-ulmi causing DED of the currently available cultivars. All elm cultivars currently on the Dutch market were compared in an inoculation test. In 2007 a field experiment of 18 cultivars, one species and 10 non-released clones from the Dutch elm breeding program was established. Two cultivars were used as reference clones: “Commelin” (relatively susceptible and “Lobel” (relatively resistant. In 2008 and 2009 the elms were stem-inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and disease development was assessed throughout the summer and the following year. Clear differences in resistance to O. novo-ulmi were found between the cultivars, with “Columella”, “Sapporo Autumn Gold”’ and “Rebella” being highly resistant and significantly different from “Lobel” and “Regal”, “Urban”, “Belgica”, “Den Haag” and the U. laevis seedlings being the most susceptible and comparable to “Commelin”. The non-released clones performed comparable to “Lobel’”or even better. The ranking of the cultivars based on their level of resistance to O. novo-ulmi in this field test corresponds well with experience in urban green practice. Our conclusion is that there is a wide range of cultivars available with a good to excellent level of resistance. The available cultivars have a broad genetic base due to different parentage and use of exotic germplasm in the crossings. This broad genetic background may contribute to the stability of resistance in case new forms of the disease appear. The non-released clones performed well compared to the released cultivars and give good opportunities to further broaden the current range of cultivars on the Dutch and European market.

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla vulgaris are fed for retained placenta. Conclusion Some of the plants showing high levels of validity were Hedera helix for retained placenta and Euphrasia officinalis for eye problems. Plants with high validity for wounds and injuries included Hypericum perforatum, Malva parviflora and Prunella vulgaris. Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea.

  18. The potential of subfossil trunks for deriving floating dendrochronologies in NE Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Nechita; Maria, Radoane; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Nicolae, Radoane; Ionel, Popa

    2015-04-01

    The subfossil wood material collected along rivers from north-eastern part of Romania was dated with radiocarbon and dendrochronological investigated. The study area is represented by Siret and Moldova rivers. Both rivers originate in the Eastern Carpathians where they collect the majority of their tributaries, further crossing through the eastern sector of the mountains by creating transverse valleys. Along these rivers, on reaches covering lengths of 100 km and 140 km, tree-rings samples were collected (n = 40 along Moldova River and n = 37 along Siret River). Of the total number of 77 collected wood samples, we dated 26 in order to determine the absolute age. The species of subfossil trunks belong to Quercus (n=51), Ulmus (n=20) and Alnus genus (n=3). The ratio between the average growth and the trunk age varies greatly, from trees aged as little as 38 years with average diameters above 32 cm, to trees as old as 184 years with diameters of just 45 cm. The absolute age of subfossil trunks varied from few decades to 6900-6670 cal yrs BP. The obtained result consists in dendrochronological series which covers periods from Mid to Late Holocene. The highest concentration of deposited subfossil trunks was carried out in the last 3000 yrs BP. Therefore, it is possible to create an exclusively dendrochronological sequence for this time frame. A first step in this direction is the extension of living tree rings series (180 yrs.) with modern wood in order to create an enlarged series of 383 years, (as illustrated for rings series of modern oaks in Dolhasca site, Siret Valley). Albeit there are many gaps in the reconstruction of these phases, several clusters are easily distinguishable, i.e. 3500-2900 years BP, 2200-2075 years BP, and 1000-800 years BP extending to LIA. By relating this data to obtained information from other proxies (lacustrine sediments, pollen records, lake levels, etc) we may conclude that the two major periods in Holocene history were characterized by large hydrological events and were, thus, conducive to significant changes in the fluvial domain (avulsion, sedimentation), which strongly affected riparian forests, as well. This is the first tree-ring chronology to cover such a long time frame (nearly 7000 years, based on incomplete information), albeit with many gaps, in our geographical region. About 95 - 97% of riparian trees can rarely provide series longer than 400 years (Becker, 1993; Friedrich et al., 2004) and this is directly linked to the frequency of flood events destroying floodplain forests. We consider our longest tree ring series (322 yrs.) ranks between the limits quoted above by the latter authors for oaks vegetating in floodplain forests.

  19. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

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    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed good performances in terms of diameter and total height of R. pseudoacacia, E. camaldulensis and E. angustifolia. The highest mortality percentage was recorded for S. nigra, P. nigra, P. alba both in “collection” and “experimental” plots. All other species showed mortality percentage lower than 20%.

  20. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

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    Janusz B. Fali?ski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Bia?owie?a National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Bia?owie?a National Park.

  1. Environmental and climatic conditions at a potential Glacial refugial site of tree species near the Southern Alpine glaciers. New insights from multiproxy sedimentary studies at Lago della Costa (Euganean Hills, Northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenrieder, Petra; Belis, Claudio A.; Hofstetter, Simone; Ammann, Brigitta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Tinner, Willy

    2009-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that refugia of thermophilous tree species were located in Northern Italy very close to the Alps, though, this hypothesis has yet to be tested thoroughly. In contrast to Central and Southern Italy with its relative wealth of data, only a few fragmentary records are currently available from Northern Italy for the last Glacial (Würm, Weichselian). Our new study site Lago della Costa lies adjacent to the catchment of the megafans of the Alpine forelands and the braided rivers of the Northeastern Po Plain that have so far inhibited the recovery of continuous Glacial and Late-Glacial records. We analyze pollen, plant macrofossils, charcoal and ostracods to reconstruct the vegetation, fire and lake history for the period 33,000-16,000 cal. BP. We compare our data with Glacial records from Southern Europe to discuss similarities and dissimilarities between these potential refugial areas. A comparison with independent paleoclimatic proxies allows to assess potential linkages between environmental and climatic variability. New macrofossil and pollen data at Lago della Costa unambiguously document the local persistence of boreal tree taxa such as Larix decidua and Betula tree species around the study site during the last Glacial. The regular occurrence of pollen of temperate trees in the organic lake sediments (fine-detritus calcareous gyttja) suggests that temperate taxa such as Corylus avellana, Quercus deciduous, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica, most likely survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at favorable sites in the Euganean Hills. The percentage values of temperate trees are comparable with those from Southern Europe (e.g. Monticchio in Southern Italy). We conclude that the Euganean Hills were one of the northernmost refugial areas of temperate taxa in Europe. However, the relative and absolute abundances of pollen of temperate trees are highly variable. Pollen-inferred declines of temperate tree communities (e.g. Quercetum mixtum) and low ostracod-inferred water levels at Lago della Costa correspond to the cold Heinrich events H-2 (LGM; 23,000-19,000 cal. BP) and H-3 (around 28,000 cal. BP), as recorded in the marine sediments of the North Atlantic. Similar patterns of significant temperate tree population collapses during cold Heinrich events are recorded at southern Mediterranean sites (e.g. Monticchio and the Alboran Sea). These findings suggest close linkages between Northern Atlantic and South-Central European climates during the past Glacial.

  2. Forest Reproductive Material and Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources in Croatia

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    Davorin Kajba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of genetic diversity of forest tree species represents the foundation for sustainable forest management and preservation of natural structure of forest stands in Croatia. Diversity of geographical regions in Croatia has generated various ecological conditions and thus diverse forest communities which are directly affected by habitat degradation, various anthropogenic effects like pollution of air and water, excessive use of certain more valuable species of forest trees and by the increasing impact of global climatic changes. The need for conservation of genetic diversity is related to the species pertaining to social broadleaves—the prevailing species in terms of economic utilization as Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur, Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea and Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica. Among the conifers Silver Fir (Abies alba is the most endangered species, with more than 70% of its population being seriously damaged. Other native coniferous species must be preserved from a decrease in genetic diversity as well. Conservation of the noble broadleaves should encompass a larger number of species from various genera (Fraxinus, Alnus, Ulmus, Prunus, Juglans, Castanea, Sorbus, Acer, Malus, Pyrus, Tilia. These are partially endangered because of their exposure to different pests and diseases, as well as by permanent exploitation due to their technical value. Changes in hydrological conditions of rivers have led difficulties in regeneration of the riparian forests and decreased the genetic variability of European Black and White Poplar in their habitats (Populus nigra, P. alba. In Croatia’s Adriatic coastal areas, there is a need for conservation of genetic resources of Dalmatian Black Pine (P. nigra ssp. dalmatica and Mediterranean Oaks (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens. Conservation of genetic diversity of various forest tree species is conducted within the programmes that include in situ and ex situ methods with ensuring quality forest reproductive materials. In Croatia, a total of 125 seed stands have been selected, covering a total area of 3885.53 ha. The ex situ method is implemented by establishment of a total of 50 plots (clonal seed orchards, provenances and progeny trials, clonal archives, covering 114.85 ha.

  3. Functional categorization of unique expressed sequence tags obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of the elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

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    Breuil Colette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly aggressive pathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi continues to be a serious threat to the American elm (Ulmus americana in North America. Extensive studies have been conducted in North America to understand the mechanisms of virulence of this introduced pathogen and its evolving population structure, with a view to identifying potential strategies for the control of Dutch elm disease. As part of a larger study to examine the genomes of economically important Ophiostoma spp. and the genetic basis of virulence, we have constructed an expressed sequence tag (EST library using total RNA extracted from the yeast-like growth phase of O. novo-ulmi (isolate H327. Results A total of 4,386 readable EST sequences were annotated by determining their closest matches to known or theoretical sequences in public databases by BLASTX analysis. Searches matched 2,093 sequences to entries found in Genbank, including 1,761 matches with known proteins and 332 matches with unknown (hypothetical/predicted proteins. Known proteins included a collection of 880 unique transcripts which were categorized to obtain a functional profile of the transcriptome and to evaluate physiological function. These assignments yielded 20 primary functional categories (FunCat, the largest including Metabolism (FunCat 01, 20.28% of total, Sub-cellular localization (70, 10.23%, Protein synthesis (12, 10.14%, Transcription (11, 8.27%, Biogenesis of cellular components (42, 8.15%, Cellular transport, facilitation and routes (20, 6.08%, Classification unresolved (98, 5.80%, Cell rescue, defence and virulence (32, 5.31% and the unclassified category, or known sequences of unknown metabolic function (99, 7.5%. A list of specific transcripts of interest was compiled to initiate an evaluation of their impact upon strain virulence in subsequent studies. Conclusions This is the first large-scale study of the O. novo-ulmi transcriptome. The expression profile obtained from the yeast-like growth phase of this species will facilitate a multigenic approach to gene expression studies to assess their role in the determination of pathogenicity for this species. The identification and evaluation of gene targets in such studies will be a prerequisite to the development of biological control strategies for this pathogen.

  4. Implementing the dynamic conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe: case studies and perspectives

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    Collin E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many European countries have undertaken the static preservation of native elm genotypes in clone collections maintained ex situ. Less development has been devoted to the dynamic conservation of elm populations in situ. Case studies of elm conservation in France are given here as an illustration of methods employed at country level. We also briefly review the process used by the “European Forest Genetic Resources Programme” (EUFORGEN to monitor elm dynamic conservation in a pan-European perspective. Dynamic conservation methods were promoted by EUFORGEN through leaflets, strategies, Technical Guidelines and the geo-referenced database EUFGIS on Dynamic Conservation Units (DCUs. Because the network of DCUs needs to be representative of the partitioning of adaptive diversity across the species distribution range, a GIS-aided approach has been developed to position DCUs in environmental zones and identify conservation gaps. The two DCUs of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall. selected in riparian forests of two different climatic zones of France show that management oriented toward habitat protection is compatible with dynamic conservation, and that the species can still be conserved in situ in spite of Dutch Elm Disease (DED. Collaboration with habitat conservationists enabled the monitoring of losses to DED and the assessment of within-population diversity for flowering phenology. Collaboration with forest geneticists revealed that the diversity of the Garonne population was low, but that it contained rare DNA variants and adaptive traits. Since 1987, experimental restoration of countryside hedges has been carried out, using field elm clones (U. minor Mill. selected from the French national collection and tested for lower susceptibility to the agent of DED in artificial inoculation tests. Such plantations can be viewed as a very dynamic form of conservation if they permit the local gene pool to be reinforced with trees able to reach sexual maturity and exchange pollen with elms in the neighborhood, hence contributing new genotypes that will be submitted to natural selection and provide fuel for ongoing adaptation processes. Initiatives assembling a large consortium of stakeholders, including habitat conservationists and hedge re-constructors, are needed to trigger new conservation projects.

  5. Evaluating methyl jasmonate for induction of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, F. circinatum and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, M.; Martin, J. a.; Gil, L.; Solla, A.

    2012-11-01

    Damping off is probably the most common disease affecting seedlings in forest nurseries. In south-western Europe, the pitch canker and the Dutch elm disease cause relevant economic looses in forests, mostly in adult trees. The ability of the chemical plant elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce resistance in Pinus pinaster against Fusarium oxysporum and F. circinatum, and in Ulmus minor against Ophiostoma novo-ulmi was examined. In a first experiment, an aqueous solution of MeJA 5 mM was applied to P. pinaster seeds by immersion or spray, and different concentrations of MeJA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mM) were tested in seedlings before inoculations with F. oxysporum (105 and 107 spores mL{sup -}1). In a second experiment, 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings were sprayed with 0 and 25 mM of MeJA, and later challenged with mycelium of F. circinatum. Finally, 4-year-old U. minor trees were sprayed with 0, 50 and 100 mM of MeJA and subsequently inoculated with O. novo-ulmi (106 spores mL{sup -}1). MeJA did not protect P. pinaster seeds and seedlings against F. oxysporum, probably because plants were too young for the physiological mechanisms responsible for resistance to be induced. Based on the morphological changes observed in the treated 6-months-old P. pinaster seedlings (reduction of growth and increased resin duct density), there is evidence that MeJA could have activated the mechanisms of resistance. However, 25 mM MeJA did not reduce plant mortality, probably because the spread of the virulent F. circinatum strain within the tree tissues was faster than the formation of effective defense responses. Based on the lack of phenological changes observed in the treated elms, there is no evidence that MeJA would cause induction of resistance. These results suggest that the use of MeJA to prevent F. oxysporum and F. circinatum in P. pinaster seedlings in nurseries and O. novo-ulmi in U. minor trees should be discarded. (Author) 42 refs.

  6. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (?13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased ?13C and low TOC values between ?12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ?11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ?8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ?4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ?1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with marshy elements i.e. Polygonum and Liliaceae between ?6732 and 3337 cal yr BP marked warm and wet Holocene climate optimum (HCO) period. The warm and moist climate from ?1158-647 cal yr BP corresponded with global Medieval Warm Period (MWP).

  7. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil / Composición y conservación de Orchidaceae en un inselberg en el bosque Atlántico brasileño y sus relaciones florísticas con áreas del este de Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre, Soares Pessanha; Luiz, Menini Neto; Rafaela, Campostrini Forzza; Marcelo, Nascimento.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La Mata Atlántica brasileña presenta altos niveles de riqueza y endemismo de varios grupos taxonómicos. Los inselbergs de la Mata Atlántica de Brasil son, en su mayoría, desconocidos en cuanto a su composición florística. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron hacer un análisis comparativo de las espe [...] cies de Orchidaceae en el Macizo de Itaoca, un inselberg ubicado en la región norte del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con otros sitios en el este de Brasil, y discutir la distribución geográfica, las relaciones florísticas y el estado de conservación de las especies de orquídeas presentes en los inselbergs. La composición florística de la zona de estudio se comparó con otras 24 localidades en el este de Brasil (13 de las cuales son inselbergs) y la influencia de los tipos de vegetación aledaña en la composición de la flora de Orchidaceae en los inselbergs. En Macizo de Itaoca registramos 18 especies de 17 géneros. La mayor similitud florística fue con la Pedra da Botelha (0,43), en Espírito Santo. Al parecer, los tipos de vegetación aledaña ejercen poca influencia sobre la flora de los inselbergs. Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the [...] Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  8. Lateglacial-Holocene Environment History, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremenetski, K.; Velichko, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kazakhstan is located in central Asia between Caspian Sea and Tiang-Shang Mountains. Few well dated holocene sequences from the forest-steppe and steppe belt of Kazakhstan provided information about the vegetation and climate history. Mokhovoe mire was studied in the watershed of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. That's the most thick peat mire in northern Kazakhstan. Sedimentation in the Mokhovoe sequence started ca. 7800 BP. At that time regional vegetation was represented by steppes and birch-poplar forests. Pine penetrated in the Tobol region likely between 6500 and 6000 BP. Pine grew on sand terraces of Tobol River together with birch. At 3000-2900 BP Tilia, Quercus, Ulmus grew in north-west Kazakhstan.The general structure of vegetation was the same as at 6500-6000 BP. At 1900-1500 BP climate became less continental and pine forests with pure pine canopy expanded on sandy terraces of Tobol and Ubagan rivers. Soon after 1500 BP broad-leaved trees were extinct from the regional forests. Pashennoe lake is located in Karkaralinsk mountains in the most elevated part in the south-east part of the Kazakhstan lowhills. Dry grass-wormwood and wormwood steppes were spread in the region at 10500-8200 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in protected parts in intermountain valleys of Karkaralinsk mountains. Salix and Betula also occurred in valleys. Between 8000 and 6000 BP forest vegetation in Karkaralinsk mountains was represented by birch forests. Pine penetrated to Karkaralinsk mountains between 6000 and 5500 BP, but it didn't formed large forests. At the same time the maximal spread of Alnus glutinosa was reconstructed. The general structure of regional vegetation was stable up to. At 1500 BP pure pine forests expanded over Karkaralinsk mountains and around Pashennoe lake. Few lakes were investigated in Borovoe mountains in south of Kokchetav region of Kazakhstan. In early Holocene birch forests dominated in regional vegetation. Pine expanded in Borovoe at ca 7000 BP. Pine forests have been dominating in regional vegetation since 5300-5200 BP. The section of lake-bog sediment of Ozerki mire in the Irtysh river valley represents the history of vegetation and climate in southern margin of the West Siberian Lowland since 14,000 BP. Dry cold steppes grew in the Irtysh valley at 14,000 BP. Picea obovata and Hippophäe rhamnoides occurred in the Irtysh valley together with Betula and Salix. Climate became slightly warmer between 12,000 and 9500 BP. After 9500 BP Picea was extinct in the Irtysh valley and regional vegetation was represented by dry steppes and birch forests with willows near streams and lakes. At 6300-6200 BP pine penetrated to the Irtysh valley around Ozerki. Pure pine forests have been dominating in the Ozerki region since 5500 BP and the general structure of regional vegetation is very similar to the modern one.

  9. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae (Pyrus sp., Prunus sp., etc.), Tilia sp. (Linden), Morus sp. (mulberry), Taxus baccata (yew), Papaveraceae (Papaver rhoeas etc.), Labiata (Lavandula sp.), Cannabaceae (Humulus sp. etc.), Liliaceae (Lilium sp.), Echium sp. (viper's bugloss). The most abundant taxa, detected in the highest quantities (grains/m3 air), by order of counting were as follows: holm-oak, olive, grasses, Plantago and Parietaria. With the data obtained we have established a pollen calendar for Salamanca and report the period in which each type of pollen is found along the years and the periods with the highest airborne concentrations of such pollens. The diversity and the spectrum of the pollen in the city of Salamanca correspond to the typical plant communities found on the dehesas (large ranges of grasslands) of Castile, where Salamanca is located, although the wind directions and the peculiar climatic characteristics of the area govern the peaks of maximum presence of the different taxa. As examples, in the case of olive, which is cultivated at some distance from the city, its maximum presence coincides with south-westerly winds; in the case of grasses, the peaks of maximum counts coincide with a sharp rise in mean temperature, close to or higher than 20 degrees C and between five and six weeks after rainfall equal to or greater than 5 L/m2. PMID:9885728

  10. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

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    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The total forest area of Dnipropetrovsk Region is 198,600 ha, of which 90,800 ha, 45.7% of the total area, comes under the administration of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region. 65,700 haor 72.4% of the total surface of the area under the region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration is actually covered by forest vegetation. The most prevalent types of forests in the territory of the Forestry and Hunting Department of Dnipropetrovsk Region (FHDDR are SD1H (dry pine-oak halogenic type, which takes up 13.1% of the forested area of Dnipropetrovsk region, D1H (dry oak halogenic forest – 11.6%, D1BP (dry elm-maple-oak – 10.7%, SB1OP (dry oak-pine – 7.6% D2BP (mesophilous elm-maple-oak – 7.8%, SD1P (dry maple-pine-oak – 6.5%. Forests of the region are classified under environmental, scientific, historical, cultural, recreational and health, protection (erosion control designations. Forests classified as having conservation, scientific, historical and cultural significance cover an area of 13,410 ha (14.8% of the area under Dnipropetrovsk Region’s Forestry and Hunting Administration; recreational forests cover 45,841.5 ha (50.5%. One third of the forests under FHDDR are classified as protective forests. These are anti-erosion forests which cover an area of 31,478.5 ha (34.7%. Commercially exploitable forests do not exist in the region. According to forest regulations the total area protected by the Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine subordinate to FHDDR is 12,952.6 ha. Objects of state importance are the Dnipro-Oril’ Nature Reserve (3,759.4 ha, wildlife reserves (4,903.1 ha and natural monuments (8,718.5 ha. Areas and sites of local importance include regional landscape parks (2,157.0 ha, wildlife reserves (1,730.0 ha, natural monuments (105.3 ha, park monuments of landscape architecture (208.0 ha, nature reserve boundaries (33.8 ha. The dominant species of conifer is the pine with a total stand area of 16,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  11. The radioecology study of the biosphere territory of Issik-Kul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By estimations of scientific biogeochemists and geochemists hollow of the Issyk Kul is a natural uranium biogeochemical province. However uranium ores consists other microelements. In the given uranium region the biogeochemistry of uranium, etc. microelements are studied poorly. Considering the social and economic and ecological importance of subregion of Issyk-Kul for republic and value of uranium for alive organisms, we have aim - to research biogeochemistry of uranium in territory hollow of Issyk Kul. Uranium waste is located in 2,5 km to the east from inhabited settlement, but natural factors (rains, underground waters, landslips) are dangerous for ecology of Issyk Kul lake and the nearest settlements. But after closing of mining combine of the Kadji-Say a lot of not conserving radioactive-industrial waste in coastal of Dzhili-Bulak, underwent intensive destruction, carry of its part to a exit of natural boundary. The reason was frequent storm rains. For 40 years there was an intensive raising a coastal part in area of industry zone. It was made by formation of terraces in highest natural boundaries of Dzhil-Bulak. On the kept terraces it is possible to meet here and there the radioactive-industrial waste, combined by ashed material mixed up with gravel material. The part of radioactive ashes achieved to Issyk Kul Lake, but it is not so important, because that is makes a drop in the sea for Issyk Kul Lake (we shall remind, that in the lake contains abouall remind, that in the lake contains about 100 thousand tons of uranium). By radiometric shooting turn out that a level of radiation in hollow of the Issyk-Kul and in around territory of the Kadji-Sai settlement is low and about from 15 up to 47 nZv/hour. In province of E-circumflexadji-Say and around territory the soil and covered ground are characterized by the various contents of uranium -from 0,1x10-6 g/g to 35,0x10-6 g/g. The analysis of 20 samples of soils and ground has shown, that on the uranium deposit in the upper horizon of a covered ground (0,20 sm) the contents of uranium about from 1,1 up to 2,6x10-6 g/g, and with depth it is increased a few - to 3,0x10-6 g/g. there is more concentration of uranium in the average zone of Uranium deposits, where has the contents of uranium in the upper horizon of a soil equally 4,2x10-6 g/g, and in the bottom of horizon, on depth of 40-60 sm consist - 35,0x10-6 g/g or in 8,3 times above. According to some authors quantity of uranium in waters of the rivers Tone, Ae-Suu in hollow of Issyk-Kul makes 5,6x10-6 g/l, and in river Jergalan about (depend on seasonally and places of selection) from 2,8x10-6 to 1x10-5 g/l i.e. the main waters of wells and the rivers a hollow of Issyk-Kul contain in 10, and in some cases it is in 100 times more uranium, than water from black earth and not from black earth zones. On the surface of uranium tail deposits founded 10 sorts of plants of desert type: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Elaeagnus songorica, Caragana Turfanica, Peganum harmala, Akantholimon alatavicum, Natraria sibirica, Clematis songorica... The contents of uranium in the listed plants was small and changed about 0.02-0.31x10-6 g/g at coefficient of enrich is - from 1,0 to 15,5 and coefficient of discrimination is - from 17,8 to 240,0. Growing of plants in the environment with the high concentration of uranium not only is accompanied by change of theirs bioproductivity but also causes of morphological variability. The infringement of pigmentation of a flower at various sorts of plants is most often shown in area of Issyk Kul. The Astragalus borodinii is has morphological variability of splitting of a sheet plate. The Peganum garmala and Potentilla argentea - instead of usual 5 petals have 6-7 and their bifurcation. But other plants are intensive growing and developing (Caragana, Scutellaria, Peganum, and Peganum harmala). By the results of the research work the common level of external radiation in researched territory and level of uranium are about limits of the norm, except of some technogenic territories