WorldWideScience
1

UA1 central detector  

CERN Multimedia

The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

2

Dust on UA1 central detector  

CERN Multimedia

In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

1982-01-01

3

UA1 prototype detector  

CERN Multimedia

Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

1980-01-01

4

Central hadron calorimeter of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (author)

5

The calibration of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1 proton-antiproton experiment at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important result of the UA1 experiment at CERN has been the discovery of the weak intermediate vector bosons W+, W- and Z0. We describe the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter, which gives the signature of the electronic mode of desintegration of the intermediate bosons and measures their masses. We shall discuss this process and give some experimental results

6

UA1 Megatek  

CERN Multimedia

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons. Comments : silent movie

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

7

Muons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/? and ? samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

8

Revisiting the UA(1) problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We survey various UA(1) problems and attempt to resolve the two puzzles related to the eta mesons that have experimental verification. Specifically, we first explore the Goldstone structure of the ? and ?' mesons in the context of ?-?' mixing using ideas based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Then we study the eta decays ??3?0, ?'?3?0, and ?'????. Finally, we arrive at essentially the same picture in the dynamical scheme based on consistently coupled Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter integral equations. This chirally well behaved bound-state approach clarifies the distinction between the usual axial-current decay constants and the ?? decay constants in the ?-?' complex. Allowing for the effects of the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking in the quark-antiquark annihilation, leads to an improved ?-?' mass matrix. (author)

9

Strong UA(1) breaking in radiative ? decays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the ????, ????-?+ and ???0?? decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the instanton induced UA(1) breaking interaction. We find that the ?-meson mass and ? decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the UA(1) breaking is rather strong

10

The UA1 trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

11

Proposal to the Department of Energy for participation in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proposal is to the Department of Energy for 501.6K dollars (349.6K operations and 152K equipment) for continued participation in the UA1 experiment on proton-antiproton collisions. The UA1 experiment is the study of high-energy proton-antiproton collisions in the Super-Proton-synchrotron (SPS) Collider at CERN. A major upgrade of the UA1 detector is in progress for operation with the upgraded antiproton source (ACOL). The US groups have played an increasingly prominent role in UA1 during the past few years. This paper discusses the data analysis that has been done by the group of the position detector and it's hardware

12

168/E online for UA1  

CERN Multimedia

Five 168/E processors and associated specialized interface hardware made an importartant contribution to the UA1 experiment. The processors provided an online event display facility, and also flagged candidate events. See Annual Report 1983 p. 75, and photo 8305815X, 8395813X. This photo shows the team including DD personnel and UA1 members. On the foreground left, is Michel Demoulin. On the background, 3rd from left, is Adolfo Fucci, last Sergio Cittolin.

1983-01-01

13

Results from UA1 W and Z production and decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than two years ago, the first observation of the W and Z particles was reported by the UA1 collaboration. Since then more data have been collected and a much greater number of intermediate vector bosons was observed. On this enlarged sample, more detailed tests of the theory are possible and the author begins by reviewing the results obtained so far on the W and Z physics. One of the nice characteristics of the UA1 detector is its ability to measure the missing transverse energy. A systematic search for events with an apparent lack of energy momentum conservation was carried through. This led us to the identification of the W ? tau? decay. In addition, this new data enabled progress in several other fields: QCD jets physics, dimuon physics and minimum bias events. These subjects are covered in this paper

14

Triggers in UA2 and UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x1030. The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

15

The new UA1 calorimeter trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

16

The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 ?s, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

17

Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. (orig.)

18

Development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high crossing-rate, high magnetic field environment. (author)

19

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

20

CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade  

OpenAIRE

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.

2007-01-01

21

DO detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hadron collider physics turned out very fruitful as shown in the recent results given by UA1 and UA2 groups. The Fermilab Tevatron project already has the CDF detector in its construction stage. The construction of a second major collider detector, the DO detector, was approved in 1984, and will be complimentary to the CDF detector. The DO detector is superior in its many design features compared with the other existing hadron collider detectors, including highly segmented calorimeters as well as better energy resolution for hadrons and leptons. In this respect, design requirements for the DO detector are listed and its general features are outlined citing the general overall detector parameters and performance specifications. The central detectors consist of the central section and the large angle section. The former is made up of a vertex detector, layers of transition radiation detectors and layers of drift chambers. For calorimetry, there are a central calorimeter, two end-cap calorimeters and two plug calorimeters. The reasons for the choice of the liquid argon calorimeter are described along with the reasons why the depleted uranium was chosen as the absorber. The muon detection system, trigger and data acquisition are also outlined. (Nogami, K.)

22

Particle identification and tracking in central detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is possible to combine both tracking and dE/dx in central detectors. Using current division to measure the z coordinate is in conflict with the limits on total charge collected to avoid saturation of the relativistic rise for electrons. The dE/dx resolution that can be achieved for an 80 cm path length with an ARGUS type chamber with as many wires installed as possible is probably limited to 8%. This combined with a spatial resolution of sigma/sub r,phi/ approximately equal to 150 microns and sigma/sub Z/ approximately equal to 1.5 mm (small angle stereo) provides an excellent central detector. For particle identification in the relativistic rise region sigma/sub dE/dx/ less than or equal to 4% which can only be obtained with a TPC like device. The high pressure TPC has yet to demonstrate an r,phi spatial resolution better than sigma/sub r,phi/ approximately equal to 300 ? which is about a factor of 2 worse that the JADE or CLEO type chamber, and which may be a problem

23

Performance of a UA1 hadron calorimeter prototype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hadron calorimeter for the UA1 experiment at the CERN SPS proton-antiproton collider consists of a lead-scintillator sandwich plus an iron-scintillator sandwich with wavelength shifter readout. The authors have tested prototype modules in muon and hadron beams in the momentum range from 0.7 to 90 GeV/c. For several angles of incidence, the authors have studied the uniformity of the response to hadrons as a function of position. This has included regions where there is reduced sensitivity due to mechanical constraints and the presence of the wavelength shifter readout. The response, resolution and degree of shower containment were measured as a function of incident momentum. (Auth.)

24

Study of methods for phase characterization in intermetallic UA1{sub x}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UA1{sub x} is an intermetallic compound used in the manufacture of irradiation targets for molybdenum-99 production. The fissionable uranium-235 is presented in the form of intermetallic UA1{sub x} powder, which is dispersed in an aluminum matrix. This paper aims at studying methods for phase characterization of the intermetallic. The index x identifies the phase composition of the compound, usually a mixture of UA1{sub 2}, UA1{sub 3}and UA1{sub 4}. The phase composition was quantified in the UA1{sub x} powder and UA1{sub x}-Al dispersion by means of image analysis and x-ray diffraction, applying the Rietveld method. Both methods allowed the quantification of the presented phases. The results from the two methods differed from each other with respect to the concentration determination. Possible error sources are discussed in this paper. The quantification method based on X-ray diffraction showed potential to be applied to the RMB project for phase quantification in UA1{sub x}-A1 dispersion targets, which is required by specification. (author)

Contubia, Giovanni; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Carvalho, Elita F. Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: gconturbia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

25

Missing-energy results from the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results from an analysis of events containing large missing transverse energy from the UA1 experiment at the CERN SPS pp-bar Collider are presented. A signal for tau production from the decay W ? tau? observed. The cross-section ?B (W ? tau?) is found to be consistent with the corresponding cross-sections for W ? e? and W ? rho? decays, providing a direct test at high energies (Q/sup 2/ = M/sup 2//sub w/) of the universality of W boson coupling strengths to e, ?, and tau leptons. The rate and properties of the large missing E/sub T/ events are consistent with expectations from W/sup +/, Z/sup 0/, and heavy-flavour production. Limits are set on the number of additional species of light neutrinos allowed in the Standard Model (?Ntau? 7 at 90% CL), on the mass of a new sequential charged heavy lepton (m/sub L/ > 41 GeV/c/sup 2/ at 90% CL), and on the masses of supersymmetric particles (m/sub q//sup --/ > 70 GeV/c/sup 2/, m/sub g//sup --/ > 60 GeV/c/sup 2/ at 90% CL)

26

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

27

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

28

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

29

Recent results from the UA1 experiment at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results based on a sample of events with large missing transverse energy corresponding to 715 nb-1 of data from the UA1 experiment at the CERN antipp Collider are presented. High transverse momentum tau-leptons from W decays are observed for the first time through their semi-hadronic decay modes. The first direct tests of the e-?-? universality of the weak charged couplings at Q2=m2W is provided. Measured W and Z0 rates and heavy flavour cross sections are used to predict rates of missing transverse energy events from all known Standard Model processes, and thereby to place limits on possible new sources. After taking into account all known sources of missing energy events, we find a mass limit on a fourth generation charged lepton of mL > 41 GeV/c2 and a limit on the number of additional neutrinos of N? 2 for the gluino and 70 GeV/c2 for the squark are also given. Finally, two events are presented in which two energetic hadronic jets and a high energy lepton are balanced by missing energy. These events are discussed and compared to all observed W + 2-jet events

30

Assembling the central detector of UA2  

CERN Multimedia

By the end of 1980 the 24 modules (photo 8005404, 8005402) of UA2 central calorimeter were complete and calibrated at the PS. The complete calorimeter was then provisionally assembled in the West Hall before being moved to LSS4. The photo shows it at an early stage. On the left, Georges Reiss.

1980-01-01

31

PHENIX central arm particle ID detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) and the Time-of-Flight (ToF) systems provide identification of charged particles for the PHENIX central arm. The RICH is located between the inner and outer tracking units and is one of the primary devices for identifying electrons among the very large number of charged pions. The ToF is used to identify hadrons and is located between the most outer pad chamber (PC3) and the electromagnetic calorimeter. A Time Zero (T0) counter that enhances charged particle measurements in p-p collisions is described. Details of the construction and performance of both the RICH, ToF and T0 are given along with typical results from the first PHENIX data taking run.

Aizawa, M.; Akiba, Y.; Begay, R.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Chappell, R.B.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Chujo, T.; Crook, D.W.; Danmura, A.; Ebisu, K.; Emery, M.S.; Enosawa, K.; Esumi, S.; Ferrierra, J.; Frawley, A.D. E-mail: frawley@fsuhip.physics.fsu.edu; Griffin, V.; Hamagaki, H.; Hara, H.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayashi, H.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hibino, M.; Higuchi, R.; Hirano, T.; Hoade, R.; Hutter, R.; Inaba, M.; Jones, K.; Kametani, S.; Kato, S.; Kennedy, M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kiyomichi, A.; Koseki, K.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Miake, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Moscone, G.G.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ono, M.; Oyama, K.; Raynis, R.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sako, H.; Salomone, S.; Sato, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimada, T.; Suzuki-Nara, M.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Urasawa, S.; Ushiroda, T.; Walker, J.W.; Wang, S.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Wright, L.W.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R

2003-03-01

32

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE ZEUS CENTRAL TRACKING DETECTOR  

OpenAIRE

The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. © 1994.

Foster, B.; Malos, J.; Saxon, D.; Clark, D.; Jamdagni, A.; Markou, C.; Miller, D.; Toudup, L.; Auty, C.; Blair, G.; Brooks, C.; Cashmore, R.; Hanford, A.; Harnew, N.; Holmes, A.

1994-01-01

33

The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

34

Study of methods for phase characterization in intermetallic UA1x  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1x is an intermetallic compound used in the manufacture of irradiation targets for molybdenum-99 production. The fissionable uranium-235 is presented in the form of intermetallic UA1x powder, which is dispersed in an aluminum matrix. This paper aims at studying methods for phase characterization of the intermetallic. The index x identifies the phase composition of the compound, usually a mixture of UA12, UA13and UA14. The phase composition was quantified in the UA1x powder and UA1x-Al dispersion by means of image analysis and x-ray diffraction, applying the Rietveld method. Both methods allowed the quantification of the presented phases. The results from the two methods differed from each other with respect to the concentration determination. Possible error sources are discussed in this paper. The quantification method based on X-ray diffraction showed potential to be applied to the RMB project for phase quantification in UA1x-A1 dispersion targets, which is required by specification. (author)

35

Strong and electromagnetic contributions to the UA(1) anomaly and the P0??? decays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a flavor basis we relate flavor axial anomalies to the mass matrix of pseudoscalar isoscalar fields in the context of a linear sigma model which includes UA(1) symmetry breaking. We incorporate additional contributions to these anomalies due to external electromagnetic fields invoking 't Hooft's argument on anomaly matching and work out the predictions of this formalism for ???? and ?'??? decays. We show that the only effect of the UA(1) anomaly in these processes is in the formation of the ? and ?' systems. From experimental data on these decays we extract the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the flavor basis as ?P is contained in [38.4 deg., 41.0 deg.

36

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

Bartsch, D.

2007-05-15

37

The UA(1) problem and the role of correlated q qbar exchange in effective theories of QCD  

OpenAIRE

The combined absence of physical realizations of the UA(1) symmetry possessed by the classical QCD action in the chiral limit, and of an isoscalar Goldstone boson associated with its spontaneous breakdown, has been dubbed the UA(1) problem. A formal resolution of this problem proposed by 't Hooft relies on instantons to provide a mass to the would-be Goldstone boson (eta '). An alternate scheme for the generation of an eta ' mass proposed by Kogut and Susskind derives from q...

Frank, M. R.; Meissner, T.

1997-01-01

38

Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)  

CERN Document Server

Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)

Muñoz, Carlos Villanueva

2007-01-01

39

U_A(1) anomaly and eta' mass from an infrared singular quark-gluon vertex  

OpenAIRE

The $U_A(1)$ problem of QCD is inevitably tied to the infrared behaviour of quarks and gluons with its most visible effect being the $\\eta^\\prime$ mass. A dimensional argument of Kogut and Susskind showed that the mixing of the pseudoscalar flavour-singlet mesons with gluons can provide a screening of the Goldstone pole in this channel if the full quark-quark interaction is strongly infrared singular as $\\sim 1/k^4$. We investigate this idea using previously obtained results...

Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S.; Williams, Richard

2008-01-01

40

Description of Protocol between ALICE Central Trigger and ALICE Sub-Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Abstract This document describes the protocol between the ALICE central trigger and each ALICE sub-detector. The protocol is the same for all sub-detectors and consists of a series of signals indicating trigger levels, sent by the central trigger, to which the sub-detector responds by sending a BUSY, which indicates that it is not ready to accept further new triggers. A generic block diagram of the sub-detector front-end electronics shows all the necessary stages of event buffering. The sub-detector groups are urged to study carefully the implications of the transfer rates and the chosen capacity of the multi-event buffers on the sub-detector dead time.

Villalobos Baillie, O; CERN. Geneva; Jokanovic, P

2000-01-01

41

A New Scintillator Tile/Fiber Preshower Detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

OpenAIRE

A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multi-anode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter...

Gallinaro, Michele

2004-01-01

42

U_A(1) breaking at finite temperature from the Dirac spectrum with the dynamical HISQ action  

CERN Document Server

We investigate $U_A(1)$ breaking above $T_c$ in terms of the Dirac spectrum on configurations with (2+1)-flavors, using the HISQ action. The strange quark mass is at its physical value. We use several light quark masses corresponding to the Goldstone pion masses in the range of about 115 -- 230 MeV on lattices of size 32$^3 \\times$8 and 48$^3 \\times$8. We calculate the 100 lowest-lying Dirac eigenvalues at temperatures below and above $T_c$. We investigate the volume dependence of the Dirac eigenvalue density to determine whether there is a gap around zero, which can appear if $U_A(1)$ symmetry is restored in the chiral symmetric phase. We also investigate the quark mass dependence of the Dirac eigenvalue density at zero and check whether there is a linear behavior that would signal the $U_A(1)$ breaking above $T_c$.

Ohno, H; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, S

2012-01-01

43

Identification of potential target genes for Adr1p through characterization of essential nucleotides in UAS1.  

OpenAIRE

Adr1p is a regulatory protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that binds to and activates transcription from two sites in a perfect 22-bp inverted repeat, UAS1, in the ADH2 promoter. Binding requires two C2H2 zinc fingers and a region amino terminal to the fingers. The importance for DNA binding of each position within UAS1 was deduced from two types of assays. Both methods led to an identical consensus sequence containing only four essential base pairs: GG(A/G)G. The preferred sequence...

Cheng, C.; Kacherovsky, N.; Dombek, K. M.; Camier, S.; Thukral, S. K.; Rhim, E.; Young, E. T.

1994-01-01

44

Renormalization group flow of linear sigma model with $U_A(1)$ anomaly  

CERN Document Server

In the presence of finite $U_A(1)$ breaking, chiral phase transition of massless two-flavor QCD is studied by tracing the renormalization group flow of the corresponding effective theory. In the framework of the $\\epsilon$ expansion, it is found that the nature of the phase transition depends on the initial condition for the parameters of the effective theory and that, when it undergoes second order phase transition, one of the universal exponents shows a different value from that in the standard $O(4)$ linear sigma model. We discuss that the origin of the difference is attributed to a non-decoupling effect. The present status of the calculation of the effective potential is presented.

Sato, Tomomi

2015-01-01

45

Measurement of the missing transverse energy in the UA1 experiment. Possible interpretations and futurs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of events with a large missing transverse energy (ETmiss) produced in the hadronic collisions, constitutes a very powerful method for testing the Standard Model and to search for new phenomena. We have analysed the events produced at the CERN pantip Collider (UA1 experiment) with a large missing transverse energy with one or several jets. Among this sample of events, we found a signal from the? lepton which is produced from the decay of the W, by observing the ?'s decay into hadrons. Using this analysis, we place an upper limit on the masses of gluinos and squarks in the absence of a signal of their production. We use a realistic simulation of a 4? very fine-grained calorimeter to study the direct production of the gluinos and squarks in pp collisions (ACOL, TEVATRON, LHC, SSC) in association with the background coming from the Standard Model which is dominated by QCD jets and the W and Z production. In this scheme, after a study of the signal and background behaviour as a function of the cuts applied, the limits with each of these Colliders for discovering the gluino and squark masses are given

46

A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

S. Lami

2004-08-12

47

A Scintillator Tile-Fiber Preshower Detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

OpenAIRE

The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers, in order to cope with the luminosity increase provided by the Main Injector during the Tevatron's Run II data taking. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

Lami, Stefano

2004-01-01

48

Vertex triggering using time difference measurements in the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of vertex triggering which uses a time difference measurement to determine the z coordinate of a track is under development for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. This incorporates a pipelined readout system. We describe the system and report on its performance. (orig.)

49

Effect of $U_A(1)$ Breaking on Chiral Phase Structure and Pion Superfluidity at Finite Isospin Chemical Potential  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the isospin chemical potential effect in the frame of SU(2) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. When the isospin chemical potential is less than the vacuum pion mass, the phase structure with two chiral phase transition lines does not happen due to $U_A(1)$ breaking of QCD. when the isospin chemical potential is larger than the vacuum pion mass, the ground state of the system is a Bose-Einstein condensate of charged pions.

He, L; Zhuang, P; He, Lianyi; Jin, Meng; Zhuang, Pengfei

2007-01-01

50

The hybridized front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accommodate the high packaging density requirements for the front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) in the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), the CDC front end electronics has been hybridized. The hybrid package contains eight channels of amplifiers together with all the associated circuits for calibration, event recognition and power economy switching functions. A total of 1280 such hybrids are used in the CDC

51

Performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

OpenAIRE

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionisation at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitisation frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterisation and compression. Test and operational performance results from th...

Morgado, Cjs; Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, Hf; Malos, J.; Tapper, Rj; Baird, Sa; Galagadera, Sb; Hardy, P.; Jaroslawski, S.; Matson, R.; Quinton, Sph

1994-01-01

52

Heavy flavor production and the evidence of B-bar B mixing in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the heavy flavor production at the CERN proton-antiproton collider (?s = 630 GeV). The heavy quarks were tagged in UA1 via their semileptonic decays into muons. The production cross section for beauty particles and the topology of the events were in good agreement with QCD calculations, once higher processes, like flavor excitation and gluon splitting, were taken into account. The large amount of like-sign dimuons was interpreted as evidence for beauty oscillations. These data are discussed and compared with similar measurements at e+e- colliders

53

The performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionization at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitization frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterization and compression. Test and operational performance results from the first electron-proton interactions are presented

54

The dramatic descent of the central section of the CMS detector  

CERN Document Server

Geneva, 28 February 2007. At 6:00 am this morning the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into the experiment's cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN1. Using a huge gantry crane, custom-built by the Vorspann System Losinger Group, the pre-assembled central piece, containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) is being gently lowered into place. The entire process is expected to take about ten hours to complete.

CERN

2007-01-01

55

Cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is concerned with the cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector (CTD). The CTD is being designed for charged track reconstruction and particle momentum measurement in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA electron-proton collider. The contents of the report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the techniques employed in the study, and includes: design overview, voltage optimisation, strategy evolution, electrostatic screens, and optimisation over many superlayers. The second part contains a critical assessment of the results obtained, including optimised parameters, operational stability and alternative field values. (U.K.)

56

The high-voltage and readout electronics of the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For experiments at the new BONN accelerator facility ELSA an experimental setup called SAPHIR (Spectrometer Arrangement for Photon Induced Reactions) is being built. The central detector of SAPHIR is a drift chamber matching the magnet gap of 1 m3. The subject of this paper is the high voltage supply including the control system and the readout of the chamber. The mechanical construction and the electronics are described. The time resolution of the readout chain has been studied and was found to be slightly better than 1 nsec in accordance to the specification for the TDCs. Furthermore first preliminary results from a check in the BONN electron test beam are presented. (orig.)

57

CDF central detector installation. An efficient merge of digital photogrammetry and laser tracker metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metrology for Run II at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) required a very complex geodetic survey. The Collision Hall network, surveyed with a Laser Tracker and digital level, provides a constraining network for the positioning of the Central Detector (CD). A part-based Laser Tracker network, which surrounded the 2,000-ton CD, was used as control for assembly. Subassembly surveys of the Detector's major components were measured as independent networks using Laser Tracker, V-STARS/S (Video-Simultaneous Triangulation And Resection System/Single camera) digital photogrammetry system, and BETS (Brunson Electronic Theodolite System) theodolite triangulation system. Each subassembly survey was transformed into and constrained by the part-based network. For roll-in, the CD part-based network was transformed into the Collision Hall network coordinate system. The CD was positioned in the Collision Hall using two Laser Trackers in 'stakeout mode.' This paper discusses the survey, adjustment, transformation, and precision of the various networks. (author)

58

Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

59

The design, status and performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The readout system developed for the ZEUS central tracking detector (CTD) is described. The CTD is required to provide an accurate measurement of the sagitta and energy loss of charged particles as well as provide fast trigger information. This must be carried out in the HERA environment in which beams cross every 96 ns. The first two aims are achieved by digitizing chamber pulses using a pipelined 104 MHz FADC system. The trigger uses a fast determination of the difference in the arrival times of a pulse at each end of the CTD. It processes this data and gives information to the ZEUS global first level trigger. The modules are housed in custom-built racks and crates and read out using a DAQ system based on Transputer readout controllers. These also monitor data quality and produce data for the ZEUS second level Trigger. (orig.)

60

The design, status and performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

The readout system developed for the ZEUS central trackign detector (CDT) is described. The CTD is required to provide an accurate measurement of the sagitta and energy loss of charged particles as well as provide fast trigger information. This must be carried out in the HERA environment in which beams cross every 96 ns. The first two aims are achieved by digitizing chamber pulses using a pipelined 104 MHz FADC system. The trigger uses a fast determination of the difference in the arrival times of a pulse at each end of the CTD. It processes this data and gives information to the ZEUS global first level trigger. The modules are housed in custom-built racks and crates and read out using a DAQ system based on Transputer readout controllers. These also monitor data quality and produce data for the ZEUS second level Trigger.

Cussans, D. G.; Fawcett, H. F.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R. S.; Heath, G. P.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C. J. S.; Tapper, R. J.; Gingrich, D. M.; Harnew, N.; Hallam-Baker, P.; Nash, J.; Khatri, T.; Shield, P. D.; McArthur, I.; Topp-Jorgensen, S.; Wilson, F. F.; Allen, D.; Baird, S. A.; Carter, R.; Galagardera, S.; Gibson, M. D.; Hatley, R. S.; Jeffs, M.; Milborrow, R.; Morissey, M.; Quinton, S. P. H.; White, D. J.; Lane, J.; Nixon, G.; Postranecky, M.; Jamdagni, A. K.; Marcou, C.; Miller, D. B.; Toudup, L.

1992-05-01

61

Dynamic magnetic shield for the CLAS12 central TOF detector photomultiplier tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Time-of-Flight detector for the Jefferson Laboratory 12-GeV upgrade is being designed with linear-focused photomultiplier tubes that require a robust magnetic shield against the CLAS12 main 5-T solenoid fringe fields of 100 mT (1 kG). Theoretical consideration of a ferromagnetic cylinder in an axial field has demonstrated that its shielding capability decreases with increasing length. This observation has been confirmed with finite element analysis using POISSON model software. Several shields composed of coaxial ferromagnetic cylinders have been studied. All difficulties caused by saturation effects were overcome with a novel dynamical shield, which utilizes a demagnetizing solenoid between the shielding cylinders. Basic dynamical shields for ordinary linear-focused 2-in. photomultiplier tubes were designed and tested both with models and experimental prototypes at different external field and demagnetizing current values. Our shield design reduces the 1 kG external axial field by a factor of 5000.

62

Dynamic magnetic shield for the CLAS12 central TOF detector photomultiplier tubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Time-of-Flight detector for the Jefferson Laboratory 12-GeV upgrade is being designed with linear-focused photomultiplier tubes that require a robust magnetic shield against the CLAS12 main 5-T solenoid fringe fields of 100 mT (1 kG). Theoretical consideration of a ferromagnetic cylinder in an axial field has demonstrated that its shielding capability decreases with increasing length. This observation has been confirmed with finite element analysis using POISSON model software. Several shields composed of coaxial ferromagnetic cylinders have been studied. All difficulties caused by saturation effects were overcome with a novel dynamical shield, which utilizes a demagnetizing solenoid between the shielding cylinders. Basic dynamical shields for ordinary linear-focused 2-in. photomultiplier tubes were designed and tested both with models and experimental prototypes at different external field and demagnetizing current values. Our shield design reduces the 1 kG external axial field by a factor of 5000.

Baturin, V., E-mail: baturin@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Burkert, V.; Carman, D.S.; Elouadrhyri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Grilli, D. [Magnetic Shield Corporation, 740 N. Thomas Drive, Bensenville, IL 60106 (United States); Kashy, D.; Pasyuk, E.; Quettier, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Wieland, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Old Dominion University, 5115 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

2012-02-01

63

Present and Future of Central Production with STAR Detector at RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status and future of the physics program of Central Production using the STAR detector at RHIC are described. The program focuses on particle production resulting from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process. Forward protons from the DPE interaction are detected in the Roman Pot system installed at 55.5 m and 58.5 m on both sides of the STAR interaction point. The recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process is measured in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The first data were taken during the 2009 RHIC Run 9 using polarized proton-proton collisions at ?s = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity abs(?) < 1, are presented. Plans to take data with the current system at ?s = 500 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system, so that it can reach higher masses and obtain large data samples in searching for glueballs that could be produced in the DPE process, are discussed. (author)

64

Production and muonic decay of the intermediate vector boson Z0 in the UA1-experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the production of the z0 in proton-antiproton collisions and the subsequent decay of the Z-0 into two muons is experimentally studied. I was first responsible for the faultless readout of the muon detector. In the analysis I have first selected the Z0 data of the runs of 1984 and 1985, as well as determined the efficiency of this selection. Furthermore I have collaborated in the establishment of the pt ? > 15 GeV/c selection. In the following the Z0 sample was examined on completeness and the background calculated again. At c.m. energies of ?S = 546 GeV and ?S = 630 GeV in the whole 21 Z0 events were identified by their muonic decay. The analysis of the data yielded the following essential results: MZ = 90.7-4.8+5.2 (stat.)±3.2(syst.) GeV/c2. From the asymmetry of the muon angular distribution we calculate the electroweak mixing angle to sin 2?W = 0.24-0.04+0.05. The mixing can be better determined from the ratio of the W± and Z0 masses. In the muon channel we obtain sin2?W = 0.187±0.148(stat.)±0.033(syst.). If the weak mixing angle is given from the mass ratio the ? parameter can be calculated. In the muon channel we obtain ? = 1.05±0.16(stat.)±0.05(syst.). The measured cross sections of (?.B)?546GeV = 98.4±49.8(stat.)±19.9(syst) and (?.B)?630Gev = 65.9±17.2(stat.)±10.9(syst) are compatible with the prediction of the Drell-Yan production mechanism. From the ratio of the cross sections the number of the light neutrino generations N? can be limited to above. With 90% confidence N? 0 further heavy vector bosons below a mass of 173 GeV/c2 are excluded. (orig./HSI)

65

Functional integral approaches to the bosonization of effective multi-quark interactions with $U_\\A (1)$ breaking  

CERN Document Server

Low energy hadron phenomenology involving the (u,d,s) quarks is often approached through effective multi-quark Lagrangians with the symmetries of QCD. A very successful approach consists in taking the four-quark Nambu -- Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian with the chiral $U(3)_L\\times U(3)_R$ symmetry in the massless limit, combined with the $U_A(1)$ breaking six-quark flavour determinant interaction of 't Hooft. We review the present status and some very recent developments related to the functional integration over the cubic term in auxiliary mesonic variables that one introduces to bosonize the system. Various approaches for handling this functional, which cannot be integrated exactly, are discussed: the stationary phase approximation, the perturbative expansion, the loop expansion, their interrelation and importance for the evaluation of the effective action. The intricate group structure rules out the method of Airy's integral. The problem of the instability of the vacuum is stated and a solution given by including...

Hiller, B; Bernard, V; Blin, A H; Hiller, Brigitte; Osipov, Alexander A.; Bernard, Veronique; Blin, Alex H.

2006-01-01

66

Optimization of the pulse arrival time determination in the ZEUS central tracking detector FADC system  

Science.gov (United States)

The constant fraction discriminator algorithm for finding the arrival time of pulses from a drift chamber is outlined. Using a Monte Carlo simulation the effect of noise and pulse rise time on the timing resolution is studied. A simple correction to this algorithm, which reduces the effect of non-linearities in the pulse rising edge is described. The effect of the correction on the ZEUS central tracking detector, instrumented with an eight-bit flash analogue to digital converter system is studied. Using calibration pulses the timing resolution of the system is measured to be 0.021 ± 0.003 digitizing periods, which is in agreement with 0.024 ± 0.001 predicted by the Monte Carlo simulation. Without the correction the resolution is 0.17 ± 0.02 digitizing periods. The optimum risetime for the ZEUS system is estimated from this model. The model is applicable to other systems which require accurate timing of pulses and have a relatively constant pulse shape.

Cussans, D. G.; Heath, H. F.

1995-02-01

67

Virtual endoscopy of the upper, central and peripheral airways with multirow detector CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtual endoscopy of the upper, central and peripheral airways (virtual laryngoscopy or virtual bronchoscopy) produces endoluminal images similar to those of fiberoptic endoscopy. In particular, virtual endoscopy is useful for the assessment of endoluminal tumor extent and tracheobronchial stenosis. Especially since the introduction of multirow detector CT, high-resolution virtual-endoscopic images of the airways can be reconstructed. Either surface rendering or volume rendering can be used for realistic depiction of the airways. Semitransparent color-coded volume rendering is advantageous, because adjacent structures can be displayed in addition to endoluminal views. A major advantage of virtual endoscopy over fiberoptic endoscopy is its non-invasiveness. With virtual endoscopy, even a high-grade stenosis is passable, enabling evaluation of the distal airways. Disadvantages are its inability to depict mucosal color and to perform therapeutic maneuvers. In comparison to other CT display modes, virtual endoscopy allows a more realistic assessment of tracheobronchial stenosis than axial CT slices and multiplanar reformats. Virtual endoscopy of the airways can be used complementary to fiberoptic endoscopy before tracheotomy, stent implantation or lung resection and for post-operative follow-up. In the future, virtual airway endoscopy will be increasingly applied for interactive virtual reality guidance of airway procedures such as bronchoscopy and surgery. (orig.)s bronchoscopy and surgery. (orig.)

68

Trigger strategies for central exclusive $H \\to b\\overline{b}$ studies with the AFP detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) upgrade proposes to install proton detectors at 220 m and 420 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point, turning the LHC into a giant magnetic spectrometer. The physics motivation for this upgrade focuses on ?nal states in which the colliding protons remain intact, allowing a full reconstruction of the event, even in the forward region. One such process is the production of the Higgs boson in the central exclusive channel and tagging the outgoing protons allows the possible extraction of the Higgs quantum numbers, mass and couplings regardless of the decay channel. Studying this exclusive production channel for the presently favoured low Higgs mass depends on the possibility of ef?ciently triggering, up to the highest luminosities, on a pair of relatively soft jets coming from the decay of b quarks or ? leptons. As jet triggers will inevitably be heavily pre-scaled, even at modest luminosities, it is essential to make a coincidence betweeen information from the tagging d...

Brown, G J A; Kupco, A; Pilkington, A; Tasevsky, M

2009-01-01

69

Comparison of the triggers of the ATLAS, ALICE and CMS experiments and the trigger of the UA1 experiment. Analysis of proton-proton and protonantiproton interactions on basis of the MC event generator Pythia  

CERN Document Server

Comparison of the triggers of the ATLAS, ALICE and CMS experiments and the trigger of the UA1 experiment. Analysis of proton-proton and protonantiproton interactions on basis of the MC event generator Pythia

Abramovskaya, N V

2013-01-01

70

Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

71

Recent results on jet-physics and QCD tests by UA1 and UA2 at the CERN proton-antiproton collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The jet cross-sections of the UA1 and UA2 experiments at CERN are discussed and compared with the predictions of QCD at order ?s2 (inclusive and two-jet cross sections), ?s2 (three-jet events), ?s4 (four-jet events). Inclusive cross-section has been measured for production of high-PT direct photons and is compared with QCD predictions. A status report is given on the search for the decay of the intermediate vector bosons W and Z into a quark-antiquark pair. 13 figs., 39 refs

72

Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

73

The central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector - implementation into the experiment and study of its properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA the large solid angle detector SAPHIR was built for the investigation of photon induced reactions. A main component of SAPHIR is the central drift chamber (CDC) matching the magneto gap of 1m3. The diameter of the in total 1828 hexagonal drift cells is about 18 mm. The subject of this paper is the implementation of the CDC in the experiment. After the description of the hardware follows the presentation of the software tools for filtering and monitoring the data, which have been developed and tested. An algorithm for extracting the space time relationship is presented. The properties of the chamber with an improved gas mixture (Helium/Neon/Isobutane8 21.25:63.75:15) have been investigated. A spatial resolution of about 200 ?m was achieved. The efficiency of the chamber is 97% at a tagged photon of 5x104 per second crossing the chamber. (orig.)

74

U_A(1) Symmetry Restoration from an In-Medium eta' Mass Reduction in sqrt(s(NN)) = 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions  

CERN Document Server

A reduction of the mass of the eta'(958) meson may signal restoration of the U_A(1) symmetry in a hot and dense hadronic matter, corresponding to the return of the 9th, "prodigal" Goldstone boson. We report on an analysis of a combined PHENIX and STAR data set on the intercept parameter of the two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation functions, as measuremed in sqrt(s(NN)) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC. To describe this combined PHENIX and STAR dataset, an in-medium eta' mass reduction of at least 200 MeV is needed, at the 99.9 % confidence level in a broad model class of resonance abundances.

Csorgo, T; Sziklai, J

2010-01-01

75

Picomolar nitric oxide signals from central neurons recorded using ultrasensitive detector cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread signaling molecule with potentially multifarious actions of relevance to health and disease. A fundamental determinant of how it acts is its concentration, but there remains a lack of coherent information on the patterns of NO release from its sources, such as neurons or endothelial cells, in either normal or pathological conditions. We have used detector cells having the highest recorded NO sensitivity to monitor NO release from brain tissue quantitatively and in real time. Stimulation of NMDA receptors, which are coupled to activation of neuronal NO synthase, routinely generated NO signals from neurons in cerebellar slices. The average computed peak NO concentrations varied across the anatomical layers of the cerebellum, from 12 to 130 pm. The mean value found in the hippocampus was 200 pm. Much variation in the amplitudes recorded by individual detector cells was observed, this being attributable to their location at variable distances from the NO sources. From fits to the data, the NO concentrations at the source surfaces were 120 pm to 1.4 nm, and the underlying rates of NO generation were 36-350 nm/s, depending on area. Our measurements are 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than reported by some electrode recordings in cerebellum or hippocampus. In return, they establish coherence between the NO concentrations able to elicit physiological responses in target cells through guanylyl cyclase-linked NO receptors, the concentrations that neuronal NO synthase is predicted to generate locally, and the concentrations that neurons actually produce. PMID:22016390

Wood, Katherine C; Batchelor, Andrew M; Bartus, Katalin; Harris, Kathryn L; Garthwaite, Giti; Vernon, Jeffrey; Garthwaite, John

2011-12-16

76

Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

77

Search for Open Charm with a Combined Analysis of Single-Muon Events in the Central and Muon arms of the PHENIX detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of cc pairs in p+p collisions at the RHIC energy is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion. Therefore the production of single muons from charm decay in polarized p+p collisions is expected to be sensitive to the polarized gluon distribution in the proton. In order to develop discriminants and selection cuts for enriching the charm content of a sample of single-muon events, a multistage simulation has been conducted including the PHENIX detector response to investigate correlations between muon tracks in the Muon Arm and charged hadron/lepton tracks in the Central Arm of the PHENIX detector. Two separate simulation outputs have been produced and compared: for open charm (cc) events and minimum-bias (i.e., mostly light-quark) events. The goal is to develop multivariate selection criteria which can significantly enhance the charm content of a sample of single-muon events, by studying and comparing different kinematic quantities of the Muon Arm tracks and the Central Arm tracks. A leading-order simulation indicates stronger tendency for charm events to have the maximum-pT Central-Arm and Muon-Arm tracks emitted back-to-back in azimuthal angle ?. More detailed simulations are planned.

Stepanov, Mikhail

2008-10-01

78

Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector; Etude complete du mouvement collectif de la matiere nucleaire dans les collisions centrales d'ions lourds avec le detecteur FOPI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

Bendarag, A

1999-07-09

79

The First Order Absolute Central Moment as an Edge-Detector in Cardiovascular Imaging: A Comparison with Two Well-Known Edge-Detectors  

OpenAIRE

Cardiovascular imaging usually requires the detection and the localization of contours. Many mathematical operators have been studied to improve the performances of the edge detection algorithms but the most frequently used operators in literature remain the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) and the gradient of Gaussian (GoG). Recently, a new mathematical operator, which has been obtained from the generalization of the first absolute central moment, has been proposed. The aim of this paper is to co...

Faita, Francesco; Gemignani, Vincenzo; Giannoni, Massimo; Benassi, Antonio; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Demi, Marcello

2005-01-01

80

Centrality and jet performance in p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Controlling the geometry of proton-nucleus collisions is an essential aspect of testing whether the observed production of hard and soft particles deviates from a simple scaling with the number of collisions. Traditionally, a wounded nucleon model in which the distribution of a bulk observable scales with the number of participant nucleons has been used to describe the correlation between the number of collisions and the centrality of the event. We describe the centrality determination in proton-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The class of minimum bias events seen by the ATLAS detector include contributions from diffractive and photonuclear processes, which cannot be modeled through the standard Glauber approach. These are rejected through the identification of large forward pseudorapidity gaps, which are a strong indicator of an event topology that is consistent with single and double diffractive excitation.

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

81

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/? yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/? mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ?b-1, J/? mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ?+?- pairs. The measured J/? yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ?+?- final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/? and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

82

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/{psi} yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/{psi} mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 {mu}b{sup -1}, J/{psi} mesons are reconstructed via their decays to {mu}{sup +{mu}-} pairs. The measured J/{psi} yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the {mu}{sup +{mu}-} final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/{psi} and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

Aad, G. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Abbott, B. [University of Oklahoma, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, 440 West Brooks, Room 100, Norman, OK 73019-0225 (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, ES-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Abdelalim, A.A. [Universite de Geneve, Section de Physique, 24 rue Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Abdesselam, A. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, H. Javid Avenue 33, AZ 143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Abi, B. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Physics, 145 Physical Sciences Building, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States); Abolins, M. [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics Group, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Ramat Aviv, IL, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Abreu, H. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Acerbi, E. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Acharya, B.S. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine (Italy); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, IT-34014 Trieste (Italy); Ackers, M. [University of Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Adams, D.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Addy, T.N. [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adelman, J. [Yale University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT, 06520-8121 (United States)

2011-03-14

83

Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2011-01-01

84

The spiral projection chamber (SPC): A central detector with high resolution and granularity suitable for experiments a LEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of projection chamber with cylindrical structure and radial electric drift field is proposed. This detector should improve by one order of magnitude the spatial accuracy and double-track resolution obtainable with other types of wire-chamber configurations in the region close to the beam pipe in colliding beam machines. (orig.)

85

The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3NeT detector  

CERN Document Server

The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3") photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time Over Threshold of the photomulti- pliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Cen- tral Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests.

Biagi, S

2014-01-01

86

Track recognition in the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector at ELSA and first reconstruction of real tracks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FORTRAN program for pattern recognition in the central drift chamber of SAPHIR has been modified in order to find tracks with more than one missing wire signal and has been optimized in resolving the left/right ambiguities. The second part of this report deals with the reconstruction of some real tracks (? ? e+e-), which were measured with SAPHIR. The efficiency of the central drift chamber and the space-to-drift time-relation are discussed. (orig.)

87

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions in the high-density nuclear environment. In the forward direction and at small pT jets may even explore the transition from a dilute to saturated partonic system. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 31/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of p+Pb events is determined by applying the Glauber model to the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. The jet yields in central and peripheral p+Pb collisions are found to be suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometr...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

88

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}=5.02$~TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions (PDF) in the high-density nuclear environment. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in $p$+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 29/nb of proton-lead collisions at $5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of $p$+Pb events is characterized through the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. In minimum bias $p$+Pb collisions, the jet yields are seen to be consistent with expectations from nuclear PDF effects. However, the jet yields in central and peripheral $p$+Pb collisions are found to be strongly suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

89

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in ?{sNN} = 5.02 TeV p + Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions (PDF) in the high-density nuclear environment. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p + A collisions has implications for understanding the strong suppression seen in central A + A collisions. The latest results on inclusive jet production in 29/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. The centrality of p + Pb events is characterized through the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. In minimum bias p + Pb collisions, the jet yields are seen to be consistent with calculations incorporating nuclear PDF effects. However, the jet yields in central and peripheral p + Pb collisions are found to be strongly suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometric expectations. Furthermore, the modifications at forward rapidities are seen to be consistent with a scaling in the total jet energy, suggesting that the modifications may depend on the initial kinematics of the hard parton-parton scattering.

Perepelitsa, D. V.

2014-11-01

90

A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV  

CERN Multimedia

In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

2002-01-01

91

GlcUA?1-3Gal?1-3Gal?1-4Xyl(2-O-phosphate) Is the Preferred Substrate for Chondroitin N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

A deficiency in chondroitin N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (ChGn-1) was previously shown to reduce the number of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, leading to skeletal dysplasias in mice, suggesting that ChGn-1 regulates the number of CS chains for normal cartilage development. Recently, we demonstrated that 2-phosphoxylose phosphatase (XYLP) regulates the number of CS chains by dephosphorylating the Xyl residue in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. However, the relationship between ChGn-1 and XYLP in controlling the number of CS chains is not clear. In this study, we for the first time detected a phosphorylated tetrasaccharide linkage structure, GlcUA?1-3Gal?1-3Gal?1-4Xyl(2-O-phosphate), in ChGn-1(-/-) growth plate cartilage but not in ChGn-2(-/-) or wild-type growth plate cartilage. In contrast, the truncated linkage tetrasaccharide GlcUA?1-3Gal?1-3Gal?1-4Xyl was detected in wild-type, ChGn-1(-/-), and ChGn-2(-/-) growth plate cartilage. Consistent with the findings, ChGn-1 preferentially transferred N-acetylgalactosamine to the phosphorylated tetrasaccharide linkage in vitro. Moreover, ChGn-1 and XYLP interacted with each other, and ChGn-1-mediated addition of N-acetylgalactosamine was accompanied by rapid XYLP-dependent dephosphorylation during formation of the CS linkage region. Taken together, we conclude that the phosphorylated tetrasaccharide linkage is the preferred substrate for ChGn-1 and that ChGn-1 and XYLP cooperatively regulate the number of CS chains in growth plate cartilage. PMID:25568321

Izumikawa, Tomomi; Sato, Ban; Mikami, Tadahisa; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Igarashi, Michihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

2015-02-27

92

Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e+e--collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of ?-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.)

93

The Upgraded D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0

94

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

CERN Document Server

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

95

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

OpenAIRE

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-ar...

Collaboration, D.

2005-01-01

96

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |?| NN = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point 'tracklets' and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 ch/d?, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |?| NN results. The shape of the dNch/d? distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

97

Simultaneous determination of 222Rn and 22Rn exhalation rates from building materials used in Central Italy with accumulation chambers and a continuous solid state alpha detector: Influence of particle size, humidity and precursors concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method to determine simultaneously the rates of 222Rn and 22Rn released from building materials quarried in Central Italy is presented. The method makes use of a continuous monitor equipped with a solid state alpha detector, in-line connected to a small accumulation chamber. The effects of chamber leakage and back diffusion on 222Rn free exhalation rate is evaluated. The influence of available exhalation surface, humidity content and precursors concentration on radon and thoron exhalation rates is investigated

98

Stanford's big new detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

99

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D*± meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D* mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D* mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D* ? K??s with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D* mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb-1. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q2?p* mesons with transverse momenta above 1.8 GeV and in the central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke ?(D*) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

100

Neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

101

Radiation detectors; Detectores de radiacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements.

NONE

2013-11-15

102

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Document Server

For the HERA luminosity upgrade in the year 2000, the ZEUS experiment is preparing a high-precision vertex detector using single-sided silicon microstrip detectors with capacitive charge division. The readout pitch of the detectors is 120 mu m with five intermediate strips. The paper reviews the design of the microvertex detector consisting of a central part with three double layers and four wheels in the forward region. Results on electrical measurements before and after irradiation on the detectors and on the test structures designed for quality-control measurements are presented. For a number of prototype detectors mounted to the prototype readout electronics (HELIX-128) the pulse height distribution and the position resolution has been measured in a test beam using 6 GeV electrons. The expected position resolution of about 7.5 mu m at normal incidence has been achieved.

Coldewey, C

2000-01-01

103

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at ?(sNN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at ?(sNN) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, ?2, was measured in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke ? vertical stroke ? 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum pT, thus reducing the uncertainty in ?2 integrated over pT, a 1 ?b-1 data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated ?2 is compared to other measurements obtained with higher pT thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with vertical stroke ? vertical stroke. The integrated ?2 transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data. (orig.)

104

Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer; Calibration de l'experience VIRGO: de l'etalonnage du detecteur a la recherche de signaux de coalescences binaires avec l'interferometre central  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

Veziant, O

2003-05-01

105

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

Hennekemper, Eva

2011-12-15

106

D+s production at central rapidity in pp collisions at ?S = 7 TeV and in Pb–Pb collisions at ?SNN = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the measurements of the D+s production in pp collisions at ?S = 7 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at ?SNN = 2.76 TeV performed in the central rapidity region with the ALICE detector through the reconstruction of the hadronic decay channel D+s ? ??+ ? K+K??+. The ratios of the yields of D+s and non-strange D mesons as a function of the transverse momentum are also shown for both pp and Pb-Pb collisions

107

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at $\\sqrt(s_{NN})$= 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Multiplicity distributions of charged particles as function of pseudorapidity dNch/d? have been measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in p+Pb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC. The multiplicity of charged particles was measured in |?| < 2.7 using correlation of space points into tracklets in the Pixel detector. These measurements are presented as function of the centrality of the collision defined using forward energy deposited at 3.1 < ? < 4.9 and three Glauber type Monte-Carlo simulations of the collisions. The measured multiplicity distributions have similar shapes as the ones measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions.

Debbe, R R

2014-01-01

108

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium. PMID:21231581

Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Ackers, M; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Aleppo, M; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, J; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Bella, L Aperio; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arms, K E; Armstrong, S R; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Silva, J; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Aubert, B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Pedrosa, F Baltasar Dos Santos; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Galtieri, A Barbaro; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, D; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Battistoni, G; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Harpaz, S Behar; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, G; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocci, A; Bock, R; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Booth, P; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Brambilla, E; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Bright-Thomas, P G; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Buira-Clark, D; Buis, E J; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byatt, T; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caccia, M; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camard, A; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Cammin, J

2010-12-17

109

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally-segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The underlying event is measured and subtracted event-by-event, giving estimates of jet transverse energy above the ambient background. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres is observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, and which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2010-01-01

110

Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ? kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ? sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert

2012-01-01

111

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.  

CERN Document Server

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert

2014-01-01

112

Time Projection Chambers for the T2K Near Detectors  

CERN Document Server

The T2K experiment is designed to study neutrino oscillation properties by directing a high intensity neutrino beam produced at J-PARC in Tokai, Japan, towards the large Super-Kamiokande detector located 295 km away, in Kamioka, Japan. The experiment includes a sophisticated near detector complex, 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to better understand neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. A key element of the near detectors is the ND280 tracker, consisting of two active scintillator-bar target systems surrounded by three large time projection chambers (TPCs) for charged particle tracking. The data collected with the tracker is used to study charged current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. The tracker is surrounded by the former UA1/Nomad dipole magnet and the TPCs measure the charges, momenta, and ...

,

2010-01-01

113

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter covers basic principal of radiation detectors, which employed detection system based on the ionisation, excitation, molecular dissociation, Cherenkov effects, neutron detection. The following subjects are briefly discussed: gas-filled detector, ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, semiconductor detector, scintillation method, scintillators, scintillation detectors i.e. NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tubes, neutron detectors, boron trifluoride detectors, neutron detectors, photographic film, chemical dosimeter, TLD, pocket dosimeter. Auxiliary equipment, refers to electronic gears specially designed in support of radiation detectors, is also discussed in this chapter

114

The D0 detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

115

Particle Detector R&D  

OpenAIRE

Recent results on the particle detector R&D for new accelerators are reviewed. Different approaches for the muon systems, hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeters, particle identification devices, and central trackers are discussed. Main emphasis is made on the detectors for the International Linear Collider and Super B-factory. A detailed description of a novel photodetector, a so called Silicon Photomultiplier, and its applications in scintillator detectors is presented.

Danilov, M. V.

2005-01-01

116

The VENUS detector at TRISTAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

117

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Collaboration has measured the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton-lead ($p$+Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV proton-proton collisions in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $27.8$ nb$^{-1}$ and $4.0$ pb$^{-1}$, respectively, recorded at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 <\\eta <4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with $R=0.4$ from energy deposits measured in the ATLAS calorimeter. Results are presented for the double differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum for both minimum bias and centrality-selected $p$+Pb collisions. The central-to-peripheral ratio $R_\\mathrm{CP}$ and the nuclear modification factor $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$ are evaluated to probe...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

118

GLD Detector Outline Document  

OpenAIRE

The GLD is a detector for the experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). It consists of a large calorimeter and a gaseous central tracker placed in a moderate magnetic field, both electro-magnetic and hadron calorimeters being placed inside the magnetic coil to have enough hermeticity and good jet energy resolution. The outline of the GLD is presented.

Gld, Concept Study Group

2006-01-01

119

Tomographic reconstruction of plasma electron temperature profiles using semiconductor detector arrays in the elliptic transition region and the circular central cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror  

CERN Document Server

Elliptically shaped transition-region plasmas located between circularly shaped central cell and fish-tail shaped anchor-cell plasmas have been observed using X-ray tomography techniques for the first time in the world largest tandem mirror device, GAMMA 10. These three regions are connected through the lines of magnetic forces. Electrons are, therefore, anticipated to move easily through these regions along the magnetic field lines when neither appreciable electron losses into the transverse direction across the magnetic field lines nor the formation of electron transport barrier potentials in the parallel direction are expected. From this viewpoint, comparisons of electron temperature (T sub e) profiles in these regions, thus, give information on one of the most critical issues in tandem mirror plasma confinement. The first data on good agreement in T sub e profiles of the central cell and the transition region have supported this basic and essential concept of tandem mirror confinement. Development of posi...

Hirata, M; Kohagura, J; Kanke, S; Kondoh, T; Minami, R; Numakura, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, M; Sasuga, T; Nishizawa, Y; Tamano, T; Yatsu, K; Miyoshi, S

2002-01-01

120

Transmutation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Ku?era, J.; K?s, P.; Marek, M.

2011-03-01

121

Transmutation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

122

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, ?{sub 2}, was measured in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke ? vertical stroke ? 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum p{sub T}, thus reducing the uncertainty in ?{sub 2} integrated over p{sub T}, a 1 ?b{sup -1} data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated ?{sub 2} is compared to other measurements obtained with higher p{sub T} thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with vertical stroke ? vertical stroke. The integrated ?{sub 2} transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data. (orig.)

Aad, G. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Abbott, B. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); Collaboration: The ATLAS Collaboration; and others

2014-08-15

123

Central diffraction at ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

2011-02-01

124

Central Diffraction at ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lämsä, Jerry W

2011-01-01

125

The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

126

MUON DETECTOR  

CERN Multimedia

DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

F. Gasparini

127

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a self-powered radiation detector particularly applicable to flux determination in nuclear reactors. The invention particularly concerns a detector sensitive to gamma rays, with automatic supply, and which is intended for flux measurements in the reactor core. A usual self-powered detector (or with automatic supply) comprises a central emitter-conductor, surrounded by a dense metal oxide insulation around this emitter and an electrode in the shape of a conducting collecting leaf around the dense insulation. Such detectors are particularly described in patents U.S. 3787,697 and 3872,311

128

Centrality dependence of charged jets in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV measured with the ALICE detector  

CERN Document Server

Highly energetic jets are sensitive probes for the kinematics and the topology of nuclear collisions. Jets are collimated sprays of charged and neutral particles, which are produced in the fragmentation of hard scattered partons in an early stage of the collision. The measurement of jet spectra in p-Pb collisions provides an important way of quantifying the effects of cold nuclear matter in the initial state on jet production, fragmentation, and hadronization. Unlike in Pb-Pb collisions, strong hot nuclear matter effects - e.g. from quark-gluon plasma formation - are not expected to occur in p-Pb collisions. Hence, cold nuclear matter effects can be investigated in isolation. The impact of cold nuclear matter effects on charged jet spectra is expected to depend on the event centrality. Higher event centralities are principally connected to a higher probability for an interaction of proton and lead-nucleus and therefore also for a possible nuclear modification. This article is the conference proceeding of a ta...

Haake, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

129

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuji Electric is manufacturing various radiation detectors such as GM counter tube, gas flow counters, ionization chamber, scintillators and BF3 thermal newtron counters, and at the same time, promoting research and development of new radiation detectors. This report outlines these detectors, manufacturing systems, quality control systems and researching work. (author)

130

Silicon Detectors  

CERN Document Server

These lectures review silicon strip detectors and their use in high energy physics experiments. The principles of operation, their performance, the effect of radiation damage, methods of fabrication, their construction into silicon detector modules, their read-out electronics and their usage in current experiments are described. In addition a short discussion of other types of silicon detectors is included.

Honma, Alan

2003-01-01

131

Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < pT(avg) < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the POWHEG-BOX, an all-order resummation using the HEJ calculation and the PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges

2011-01-01

132

ALICE Transition Radiation Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high P? tracks in one single TRD stack.

Pachmayer, Y

2013-01-01

133

Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems  

CERN Document Server

Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

Hilke, H J

2011-01-01

134

Studies on the influence of pressure fluctuations of the chamber gas on the operation of the central track chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central jet chamber (CJC) of the H1-experiment at HERA is filled with Argon-Ethane (50/50). Due to the coupling of the gas system to the atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure (and density) of the chamber gas fluctuates. The effects of this vibration were investigated with a full prototype of the CJC measuring cosmic muons within a magnetic field. It turns out that there is no influence on the drift velocity in the range of 1022 to 1779 hPa (drift field: 120 V/mm). The influence of the measured charge can be fitted by the function a P exp(-bP) (P: pressure). At a pressure of 1022 hPa the relative FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the energy loss spectrum is 96.9 ± 2.3%. With the truncated mean method on an energy resolution of the prototype of 11.0 ± 0.3% (1022 hPa) is obtained. The variation of pressure leads to no significant dependence on the relative FWHM and the energy resolution. (orig.)

135

Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 ± 3 to 2330 ± 48 Bq·m-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 ± 84 Bq·m-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

Bourai, Abhay Anand; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra Prasad; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2013-08-01

136

Particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book about particle detectors gives a survey on the measuring methods, as they are mainly applied in nuclear and particle physics and in experiments in the field of cosmic radiation. The physical foundations for the understanding of the detectors are presented, a detailed derivation of complicated formulas was in most cases abandoned. For the illustration of the application possibilities of particle detectors examples from archeology, astrophysics, cosmic radiation, medicine, and radiation protection are presented. A glossary and a comprehensive key-word list facilitate the fast finding of the ''right'' detector for a special application

137

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation

138

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector is manufactured of a lead dichloride monocrystal and its surface is covered with a layer of magnesium oxide. There may also be a layer of tantalum pentoxide between the scintillator surface and the MgO layer. The advantages of such detectors are their improved radiometric parameters such as energy resolution and radioluminescence efficiency. (E.J.)

139

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Document Server

A new vertex detector for the ZEUS experiment at HERA will be installed during the 1999-2000 shutdown, for the high-luminosity runs of HERA. It will allow to reconstruct secondary vertex tracks, coming from the decay of long-lived particles with a lifetime of about 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s, and improve the global momentum resolution of the tracking system. The interaction region will be surrounded with single-sided silicon strip detectors, with capacitive charge division: three double layers in the central region (600 detectors), and 4 'wheels' in the forward region (112 silicon planes). Due to the high number of readout channels, 512 readout strips per silicon plane in the barrel region and 480 in the forward part, and the large coverage of the vertex detector (almost 1 m long), the front-end electronics has to be placed on top of the detectors and has to be radiation tolerant since doses up to 2 kGy are expected near the interaction region. The HELIX chip has been chosen as analog chip with a low-noise, charg...

Garfagnini, A

1999-01-01

140

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here

141

The ALICE detector at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated detector designed to exploit the unique physics opportunities which will be offered by nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. ALICE has been conceived as a general-purpose detector, in which hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the interaction can be measured and identified. The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle densities anticipated in Pb-Pb interactions at the LHC (8000 per unit of rapidity). An acceptance of about two units of rapidity has been chosen, which has been calculated to be sufficient to define most of the variables sensitive to the onset of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The baseline design of ALICE consists of a central (??0.9) detector covering the full azimuth, complemented by a multiplicity detector covering the forward rapidity region (up to ?=4.8) and a zero degree calorimeter. The central detector will be embedded in large magnet with a weak field of 0.2 T, and will consist of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (time of flight or ring imaging Cherenkov detectors) and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades to this baseline design are currently under study, including a muon identification system and a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter. (orig.)

142

The ALICE detector at LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated detector designed to exploit the unique physics opportunities which will be offered by nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. ALICE has been conceived as a general-purpose detector, in which hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the interaction can be measured and identified. The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle densities anticipated in Pb?Pb interactions at the LHC (8000 per unit of rapidity). An acceptance of about two units of rapidity has been chosen, which has been calculated to be sufficient to define most of the variables sensitive to the onset of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The baseline design of ALICE consists of a central (| ?| ? 0.9) detector covering the full azimuth, complemented by a multiplicity detector covering the forward rapidity region (up to ? = 4.8) and a zero degree calorimeter. The central detector will be embedded in large magnet with a weak field of 0.2 T, and will consist of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (time of flight or ring imaging Cherenkov detectors) and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades to this baseline design are currently under study, including a muon identification system and a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter.

Giubellino, P.; Alice Collaboration

1994-04-01

143

Cryogenic detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

144

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During this period, our AGS E802/E859/E866 experiments focused on strange particle production, and the fluctuation phenomenon associated with correlation studies in nucleus nucleus central collisions. We have designed and are implementing a new detector to replace the Target Multiplicity Array (TMA) for the E866 runs. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, we contributed to the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and worked on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project, the central core of the multiplicity-vertex detector (MVD). In the coming year, we planned to complete the New Multiplicity Array (NMA) detector for the gold projectile E866 experiment, and analyzed the data associated with this new system. We are continuing our efforts in the preparation of the PHENIX detector system

145

Hydrogen detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

146

Intermediate silicon layers detector for the CDF experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) detector is currently being built as part of the CDF II detector upgrade project. The ISL detector will significantly improve tracking in the central region and, together with the Silicon Vertex detector, provide stand-alone 3D track information in the forward/backward regions. In this article, we present the quality of the production sensors manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, which account for roughly half of the silicon sensors used in the ISL detector

147

Intermediate silicon layers detector for the CDF experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) detector is currently being built as part of the CDF II detector upgrade project. The ISL detector will significantly improve tracking in the central region and, together with the Silicon Vertex detector, provide stand-alone 3D track information in the forward/backward regions. In this article, we present the quality of the production sensors manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, which account for roughly half of the silicon sensors used in the ISL detector.

Affolder, A.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Barker, G.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bisello, D.; Blusk, S.; Caskey, W.P.; Chiarelli, G.; Connolly, A.; Demina, R.; Ely, R.; Field, R.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giolo, K.; Goldstein, D.; Goldstein, J.; Grim, G.P.; Guerzoni, M.; Haas, R.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartmann, F.; Heiss, A.; Hill, C.; Hrycyk, M.; Incandela, J.; Kato, Y.; Knoblauch, D.; Kruse, M.; Lander, R.L.; Lei, C.M.; Leonardi, G.L.; Leone, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Moggi, A.; Muller, T.; Munar-Ara, A.; Okusawa, T.; Palmonari, F.; Paulini, M.; Piacentino, G.; Pellett, D.E.; Raffaelli, F.; Roederer, F.; Saltzberg, D.; Shimojima, M. E-mail: mako@fnal.gov; Stuart, D.; Suzuki, H.; Takano, T.; Takikawa, K.; Tanaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tipton, P.; Turini, N.; Volobouev, I.; Wenzel, H.; Wilkes, T.D.; Yao, W.; Yoshida, T.; Zetti, F.; Zucchelli, S

2000-10-11

148

Detector applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

149

Particle detectors  

CERN Document Server

This comprehensive book provides a detailed introduction to the principles of particle detectors used in physics, biology and medicine. Introductory chapters review the interactions of particles and radiation with matter, introduce the principles of and define different types of measurement and their units. The main body of the book encompasses all currently used detectors and counters. Each description covers basic principles, potential uses and limitations. The scope of the book includes detectors for ionization and track measurement, methods for time, energy and momentum measurement, and for particle identification. Two chapters are about electronics (readout methods, monitoring, data acquisitio A final chapter gives examples of detector systems. The book concludes with a detailed glossary of terms, tables of units and physical constants and a detailed reference list.

Grupen, Claus; Smolik, Ludek

1996-01-01

150

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

151

Detectors course  

CERN Document Server

This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

2006-01-01

152

Electronics and results for the central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electronics system for the readout of a large drift chamber (25 m3, 6110 sense wires) with image readout, to be used at the CERN p-anti p collider, is described. The system uses a flash analog-to-digital converter and is able to measure directly the drift time, the charge division, and the energy losses for many tracks on each wire. The results obtained with chamber and electronics prototypes are reported. (orig.)

153

Design of a lepton detector for ISABELLE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical background is given for a proposed experiment to detect W mesons using their leptonic decay mode. A lepton detector was designed for use at the planned ISABELLE proton--proton colliding beam storage rings. The general configuration of the detector is shown, and an electron identification module, an electron-hadron calorimeter, methods of muon identification, and an optional central detector (magnetic solenoid spectrometer) are discussed

154

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

D. Acosta

155

Pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the characterisation of three different pixel detectors are presented. The first is an energy resolving detector (ERDI) which has been characterised using laboratory sources and the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) at Daresbury. The ERDI is a 16 by 16 array of 300 ?m by 300 ?m square pixels, the detector is 300 ?m thick Si and is bump-bonded using gold studs to the RAL PAC5 read out. Energy spectra and diffraction lines acquired at the SRS are presented and show the imaging and simultaneous spectroscopic capabilities of the ERDI. The energy resolution was investigated using X-rays of energies between 6 and 60 keV from laboratory sources. The achieved full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the photo peaks is in the range of 300 eV to 500 eV with an electronic noise of 227 ± 43 eV. Charge sharing was investigated for different energy X-rays and is shown to be significant with up to around 10 % of events sharing some charge. The second detector is a large area detector (LAD1). It is based on single photon counting and is designed for imaging in synchrotron radiation applications. Results of tests performed with a single chip module at the Daresbury SRS are presented. The detector is 300 ?m thick Si with 150 ?m by 150 ?m pixels bump-bonded to an (RAL ALADIN) array of 64 by 64 read out channels. The spatial resolution was determined using the modulation transfer function (MTF) with a result of (5.1 ± 0.1) lp/mm at an MTF value of 0.3. Theoretical studies value of 0.3. Theoretical studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge sharing due to the limited mean free drift lengths of the charge carriers, the improvement of the CCE in unipolar detectors with decreasing pixel size and the 'small pixel effect' which shows the improved CCE of the photo peak with smaller pixels. The third detector is a graphite pixel detector for ion beam profiling. The system was tested in the ion implanters at the University of Salford and Surrey. Results are presented showing real time profiling of the ion beam and the measurement of the beam current. The secondary electron emission was qualitatively measured for different beam energies and different positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. (author)

156

Particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments are based on the ability of the researcher to detect particles produced by these accelerators or storage rings. The detecting equipment has undergone three major developments during the past ten years: the size of experiments has been increasing; for fixed-target experiments, this is a natural consequence of the larger momenta of particles involved and the correspondingly larger lever arms for magnetic analysis required. Also, larger target masses were needed for reactions with small cross-section, as in neutrino physics. For storage ring detectors, the large size is dictated by the necessity to cover most of the 4? solid angle around the interaction point. The second development concerns the speed of data acquisition: while pulsed devices like bubble or spark chambers were limited to 1-10 recorded events per accelerator pulse, the invention of proportional and drift chambers has increased this rate by a factor of 100 enabling experiments with 10/sup 8/ recorded events. In parallel with this goes the third evolution: the increase in complexity of the detectors. The number of independent analog informations from a large experiment can reach 10/sup 4/, and after digitization this yields up to 10/sup 5/ bits of information for one event from such a detector. Experiments of this type have become possible because the reliability of the equipment has increased considerably during this time and because fast on-line computers enable permanent control and monitoriers enable permanent control and monitoring of the detector. In spite of the complexity of large experiments, the basic principles of detectors are simple. In this article, the author goes through these principles and some of the newer developments, following the list of physical quantities measured by the detector: position, time, mass, energy and momentum

157

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |?|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector

158

BES detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

159

Infrared detectors  

CERN Document Server

This is an expertly written, broadly approachable treatment of the fundamental principles and latest developments in the science and technology of infrared detection. The author, an internationally recognized pioneer, presents each topic with a brief summary of historical background followed by clear explanation of key principles underlying performance, overview of properties, and analysis of the state-of-the-art. The four sections cover introductory aspects, infrared thermal detectors, infrared photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It includes coverage of cutting edge developments such as

Rogalski, Antonio

2010-01-01

160

Aerosol detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aerosol detector of the ionization chamber type (fire or smoke detector) has got a testing device for simulation of an aerosol, which is necessary especially for battery-powered instruments. The instrument essentially consists of a chamber with two electrodes, a radioactive source, as well as analyzing electronics. Simulation can be performed by means of a damping device which, in the form of a flat spring, is manually brought into the radiation path from outside the chamber. By this means there is achieved an attenuation of the radiation resp. of the ionizing current between the electrodes. The attenuation may be increased until an alarm signal is given. (DG)

161

Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

2009-01-01

162

Vertex detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10-13 s, among them the ? lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

163

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a book on 'Medical Physics', one of the chapters discusses the different types of radiation detectors. These include several types of ionization chambers, Geiger counters, scintillation counters, film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. At the end of the chapter, these are questions on the content of the chapter. (UK)

164

XMASS detector  

CERN Document Server

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

2013-01-01

165

XMASS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

2013-07-11

166

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD) of the T2K experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine-shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

167

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment  

CERN Document Server

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A; Blocki, J; Brinson, J; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Dziewiecki, M; Ellison, B; Golyshkin, L; Gould, R; Hara, T; Hartfiel, B; Holeczek, J; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kisiel, J; Kozlovskii, T; Kudenko, Yu; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Liu, J; Marzec, J; Metcalf, W; Mijakowski, P; Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Naples, D; Nauman, M; Northacker, D; Nowak, J; Paolone, V; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Reid, J; Rondio, E; Shaykhiev, A; Sienkiewicz, M; Smith, D; Sobczyk, J; Stodulski, M; Straczek, A; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Wachala, T; Warner, D; Yershov, N; Yano, T; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M

2009-01-01

168

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

T. Camporesi

169

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation detector, particularly suitable for use in computerized tomographic scanning systems, comprises a scintillator crystal having one window surface optically connected with a photodiode and having other surfaces diffused and preferably tapered whereby the window surface is enabled to see all other surfaces so as to provide efficient passage of light photons from the crystal through the polished window surface to the photodiode. Photovoltaic diodes may be used. They can form an array on a common substrate with suitable scintillator shielding, the photodiodes being shielded from the X-rays being measured. An interdigitated arrangement of scintillators may be provided between two detector substrates. Scintillators may be NaI, CsI, gadolinium oxysulphide, various calcium compounds or plastics; reflection coatings may be silicon oxide, magnesium fluoride or aluminium; optical coupling is by silicone or epoxy resin. (UK)

170

Smoke detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A smoke detector comprising a smoke detection cell of the ionization type and an electrical network which provides for ac operation of the detection cell is described. The impedance of the smoke detection cell is very high (40,000 megohms) and changes in the presence of airborne combustion products. The network senses the impedance change by an ac measurement of the short circuit current through the chamber, a technique facilitating the use of bipolar transistors. (Auth.)

171

Charged particle detector system for ISABELLE spectrometers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector system combining the good time resolution and low dead time of PWC's and the good space resolution of drift chambers is proposed for use in ISABELLE spectrometers. Central to this detector is the development of two integrated electronic circuit systems. The detectors are described with special emphasis on the electronic systems. The detector system proposed will be capable of handling particle flux rates typical of conventional PWC's yet providing a spacial resolution of 100 ?m. Another advantage is that a large area detector of such performance will become technically feasible as well as economicaly viable. The detector is a conventional narrow anode spacing drift chamber with field wires. A digital delay-time encoder circuit is used for readout

172

The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle ?13 by observing ?e appearance via the sub-dominant ?? ? ?e oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described

173

Measurement of the centrality-dependence of inclusive jet production in $p$+Pb data at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

ATLAS has measured the centrality dependence of jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV $p$+Pb collisions at the LHC. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterized using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 < \\eta < 4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. Jets were reconstructed from energy deposits measured in the ATLAS calorimeter using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with R = 0.4. The per-event jet yields were measured in different centrality bins as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum ($p_\\mathrm{T}$). The ratios of jet spectra between different centrality bins corrected for the centrality dependent partonic luminosities show a strong suppression of jet production at forward rapidities over a wide range of $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and near mid-rapidity at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$.

The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

174

Thermocouple detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparatus for determining the direction of orientation of pulsed sources includes a detector having two rectangular arrays of thermocouple strips fixed to opposite surfaces of a substrate. Radiation from the source is restricted to be incident on only one of the rectangular arrays. The incident radiation is thermalized quickly by the first array, and a voltage differential between the two rectangular arrays is sensed. The orientation of the source with respect to the optical axis of the apparatus can be calculated from an indentification of that portion of the array wherein local thermalization takes place

175

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

176

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation detector is described which comprises a wafer of semiconductor material (silicon) having a high-low junction formed on one planar surface, the high-low junction also continuing around the edge and an annular region at the periphery of the reverse planar surface. An electrically isolating region is formed around the inner edge of the annular region of the reverse planar surface of the water and a rectifying junction formed over the remainder of the reverse surface of the wafer. Means are provided for making electrical contact to the high-low and rectifying junctions. (author)

177

Radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A radiation detector is described which comprises a wafer of semiconductor material (silicon) having a high-low junction formed on one planar surface, the high-low junction also continuing around the edge and an annular region at the periphery of the reverse planar surface. An electrically isolating region is formed around the inner edge of the annular region of the reverse planar surface of the water and a rectifying junction formed over the remainder of the reverse surface of the wafer. Means are provided for making electrical contact to the high-low and rectifying junctions. (author).

Harper, R.E.; Rawlings, K.J.; Totterdell, D.H.J.

1990-04-18

178

Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is given. It is a calorimetric detector, which covers almost the complete solid angle around the interaction region with segmented calorimeter ''towers''. A 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid, 3m in diameter and 5m long, provides a uniform magnetic field in the central region for magnetic analysis of charged particles. The magnetic field volume is filled with a large cylindrical drift chamber and a set of Time Projection Chambers. Muon detection is accomplished with drift chambers outside the calorimeters in the central region and with large magnetized steel toroids and associated drift chambers in the forward-backward regions. The electronics has a large dynamic range to allow measurement of both high energy clusters and small energy depositions made by penetrating muons. Interesting events are identified by a trigger system which, together with the rest of the data acquisition system, is FASTBUS based

179

Ion detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved ionization detective device is described comprising: an ionization chamber; a central electrode within the chamber; a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber; and a collet electrode member within the chamber; and a collet frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collet has electrical contact means carried in a groove therein to contact a surface of at least one of the electrodes

180

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

181

Particle detectors  

CERN Document Server

Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

Hilke, Hans Jürgen; CERN. Geneva

1991-01-01

182

Explosives detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparatus for non-invasively inspecting an object, such as an item of luggage, for explosives material is described. It comprises a multi-channel thermal neutron inspection system having a plurality of neutron irradiation chambers. Simultaneous operation of several channels increases the maximum system throughput several times. Each chamber has a lithium neutron source which is stimulated to neutron production by a proton beam. Beam switching magnets are energised by pulsing to divert a common proton beam to each source in turn. The initial beam is generated by a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The advantages of this system are very low residual source activity and controllable neutron production thereby minimising safety hazards. The irradiation chamber may contain several different gamma ray detectors to identify the elements present in explosives material. In addition, a neutron radiography imaging means may be employed to identify the presence of potential shielding materials. (author)

183

An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter  

CERN Document Server

The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

Katta, S

2002-01-01

184

Ionization smoke detector and alarm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

185

The Detector DCR  

OpenAIRE

The Detector Concept Report (DCR) consists of two parts, one for the physics and the other for ILC detectors. It has been prepared as the accompany document of the ILC Accelerator Reference Design Report. The detector DCR describes ILC detector designs, R&Ds on detector technologies and expected performances. The overview of the Detector DCR and the plan for the final release are presented.

Miyamoto, Akiya

2007-01-01

186

CLIC Detector Power Requirements  

CERN Document Server

An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

Gaddi, A

2013-01-01

187

Improved germanium well detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germanium well detectors with metal surface barrier contact are comparable for general use with conventional germanium coaxial detectors. They offer very high sensitivity, the highest presently available

188

Charged particle detector system for the MPS and ISABELLE spectrometers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector system combining the good time resolution and low dead time to PWC's and the good space resolution of drift chambers is proposed to upgrade the MPS and for future use in Isabelle spectrometers. Central to this detector is the development of two integrated electronic circuit systems. The detectors are described with special emphasis on the electronic systems. The detector system proposed will be capable of handling particle flux rates typical of conventional PWC's yet providing a spacial resolution of 100 ?m. Another advantage is that a large area detector of such performance will become technically feasible as well as economically viable

189

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

190

A centralizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A centralizer is presented which is mainly rotodynamic, and which contains a body with a circulator evenly mixing a solid lubricant. In order to guarantee that the soft metal will be transferred to the working surface of the centralizer when it is used in uncased parts of a well, the solid lubricant is evenly mixed along blades from the leading side of the blades.

Gybarev, A.S.; Kidrlman, Y.N.; Mardakhaev, A.A.; Seifi, R.N.

1981-05-28

191

New generation of ?-ray detector systems: HERA at Berkeley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using conventional systems (for example a sum spectrometer to select entry spin and several NaI detectors to observe the ?-ray decay), only the gross properties of nuclei at high spins could be studied. More detailed studies are now becoming possible with the advent of a new generation of ?-ray detector systems. The main criteria are: high energy resolution, good response function, high total ?-ray efficiency but low individual ?-ray efficiency, possibility of selecting ''good'' events. Such detector systems are large arrays of Compton-suppressed germanium (CSG) detectors surrounding a 4? central ?-ray detector (ball). He will describe the system, HERA, of 21 CSG detectors, and a central ball, emphasizing its particularities: mainly versatility and detection at high rates. He will also indicate the main features of the data acquisition. Finally, a few examples of new phenomena observed with HERA will be given

192

Gas detectors for neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles involved in gas detectors for neutrons and the techniques for position encoding in such detectors are reviewed. This forms the basis for a discussion of the limitations on gas detector position resolution and maximum data rates, and of the aging effects in such detectors. Current capabilities and possible areas for improvement are noted

193

The GRANDE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

194

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

1988-01-01

195

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

196

Particle identification with the fast COMPASS RICH-1 detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A new photon detection system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector has been designed and installed. In the central region, the project is based on multi-anode photo-multiplier technology accompanied by charge sensitive, high resolution and dead-time free time digitization. In the outer area, only the readout electronics for the existing photon detectors has been replaced. Details on the detector upgrade and its performance are presented.

Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Angerer, H.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M. L.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Deschamps, H.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Kolosov, V. N.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pizzolotto, C.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schröder, W.; Silva, L.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

2010-11-01

197

Vertex detector R and D for the D0 upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe some aspects of the research and development performed for the 850 00 channel D0 upgrade silicon tracking system. The system includes seven disk/barrel modules in the central detector and four stations of large area disk detectors. Results are reported for the SVX II chip, radiation damage, and studies of ''black holes'' caused by faulty detector channels. Production and testing status is briefly described. (orig.)

198

Superconducting quantum detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of high-temperature superconductors spawned many potential applications, including optical detectors. Realizing viable superconducting detectors requires achieving performance superior to competing and more mature semiconductor detector technologies, and quantum detector technologies in particular. We review why quantum detectors are inherently more sensitive than thermal or bolometric detectors. This sensitivity advantage suggests that for operation at cryogenic temperatures, we should be developing only quantum superconducting detectors. Accordingly, we introduce and describe the structure and the operation of a superconducting quantum detector with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit. The superconducting quantum detector, consisting of a superconducting loop, produces a photosignal in response to photoinduced changes in the superconducting condensate's kinetic inductance. The superconducting quantum detector is designed to operate only in the superconducting state and not in the resistive or transition states.

Bluzer, Nathan; Forrester, Martin G.

1994-03-01

199

Phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrometric characteristics of a scintillation phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy are described. The phoswich detector is composed of two detectors, one of which is an inorganic scintillator (calcium chlor borate) and the other is a scintillating plastic. The background of this phoswich detector is a factor of 9.3 lower than that of a single detector based on a plastic scintillator. At the same time, the dependence of its pulse heights on the ?-particle energy is shown to be proportional

200

Centrality, rapidity and pT dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at ?{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in ?{sNN} = 2.76 TeV Pb + Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14nb-1. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. Using a selection based on shower shapes and an isolation criterion gives measured purities between approximately 50-90%, depending on pT, ? and centrality. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are determined as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals | ? | PDF effects.

Steinberg, Peter

2014-11-01

201

Measurement of muons in hadronic events with the MARK J detector at PETRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the reaction e+e-??+hadrons is studied. The basing data were taken with the MARK J detector at the e+e--storage ring PETRA. Comprehensive studies were performed in order to test the different fragmentation models for the transmutation of the primarily produced quarks and gluons in observable particles. In the framwork of the precise study of hadronic events with muons an increased number of events with two equally charged muons in opposite jets was found. This result can be interpreted as effect of a particle-antiparticle mixing in the B0anti B0 system. From the measured number a lower limit for the parameter ? can be determined which indicates the relative contribution of all originary B mesons which decay as antiparticles anti B: ?>0.05 with 90% C.L.. By this regarding the relative frequency of the different B mesons a common lower limit for the mixing in the Bd0anti Bd0 and Bs0anti Bs0 can be determined. The found values represent an independent confirmation of results of UA1 and ARGUS which were measured at the panti p storage ring respectively on the ? resonance. (orig./HSI)

202

The CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is one of the Large Hadron Collider multi-purpose experiments. Its large subsystems size sum up to around 6 million Detector Control System (DCS) channels to be supervised. A cluster of ~100 servers is needed to provide the required processing resources. To cope with such a size a scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made a clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing for plugging in functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ease the component development task, a framework based on PVSSII [1] has been developed by the CERN Joint Controls Project [2] (JCOP). This paper describes the current status of CMS Detector Control System, giving an overview of the DCS computing infrastructure, the integration of DCS subsystem functional components an...

Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

2009-01-01

203

Central Diffraction at the LHCb  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb experiment is shown to be ideal for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, molecules, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its distinct design features, the LHCb can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the FSC system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lamsa, Jerry W

2009-01-01

204

Legri Operations. Detectors and Detector Stability  

Science.gov (United States)

Two years after launch (04.21.97), LEGRI is operating on Minisat-01 in a LEO orbit. The LEGRI detector plane is formed by two type of gamma-ray solid state detectors: HgI_2 and CdZnTe. Detectors are embedded in a box containing the FEE and DFE electronics. This box provides an effective detector passive shielding. Detector plane is multiplexed by a Coded Aperture System located at 54 cm and a Ta Collimator with a FCFOV of 22° and 2° angular resolution. The aim of this paper is to summarize the detector behaviour in three different time scales: before launch, during the in-orbit check-out period (IOC), and after two years of routine operation in space. Main results can be summarized as follows: A large fraction of the HgI_2 detectors presented during LEGRI IOC very high count ratios from their first switch-on (May 1997). Therefore, they induced saturation in the on-board mass memory. After some unsuccessful attempts to reduce the count ratios by setting up different thresholds during LEGRI IOC, all of them were switched off except nine detectors in column 4, with a higher degree of stability. Oppositely, the 17 CdZnTe detectors present a remarkable stability in both their count-ratios and spectral shapes. Details about CdZnTe ground energy calibration, in-flight calibration (using the Crab) and detector stability are discussed hereafter. Detector efficiency function has been computed with the fixed flight threshold used within the calibrated energy range (20-80 KeV). It presents a maximum at 60 KeV, and decreasing efficiencies in the lower and upper energy range ends. Both, non-linear threshold cutting and the drop in the detector efficiency explain the CdZnTe computed operational efficiency response.

Reglero, V.; Ballesteros, F.; Blay, P.; Porras, E.; Sánchez, F.; Suso, J.

2001-03-01

205

Advanced UV Detectors and Detector Arrays  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallium Nitride (GaN) with its wide energy bandgap of 3.4 eV holds excellent promise for solar blind UV detectors. We have successfully designed, fabricated and tested GaN p-i-n detectors and detector arrays. The detectors have a peak responsivity of 0.14A/W at 363 nm (3.42 eV) at room temperature. This corresponds to an internal quantum efficiency of 56%. The responsivity decreases by several orders of magnitude to 0.008 A/W at 400 nm (3.10 eV) giving the excellent visible rejection ratio needed for solar-blind applications.

Pankove, Jacques I.; Torvik, John

1998-01-01

206

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

CERN Document Server

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

2010-01-01

207

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

208

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERMES Collaboration installed a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the existing spectrometer to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) and hence to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. The HERMES Recoil Detector mainly consists of three components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector with three layers of tungsten and scintillator bars in three different orientations. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnet which provides a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector was installed in January 2006 and data taking will last until July of 2007. (orig.)

209

Centrality, rapidity and $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from approximately 50-90%, depending on $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, $\\eta$ and centrality. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (pertur...

Steinberg, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

210

Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

1992-04-01

211

Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

1989-07-01

212

Report of the Central Tracking Group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4? detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 1033 cm-2s-1. Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4? detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved

213

Central Park  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the worldâ??s greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâ??s many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a â??Central Park Newsâ? feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.

2006-01-01

214

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

G. Iaselli

2010-01-01

215

Infrared Detector: Card Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource describes the physics of a simple infra-red detector. A simulation is used to illustrate energy level dependence and electron transitions in the detector. Discussion problems and comparison with other physical applications are included.

Zollman, Dean

216

Picosecond timing with diamond detectors for the TOTEM experiment  

CERN Document Server

The TOTEM upgrade programme focuses on improving the experiment's capability to explore and measure new physics in Central Diffractive processes thanks to the installation of proton-time-of-flight detectors in Roman Pots to eliminate the event pileup. Therefore the vertical Roman Pots will be equipped with timing detectors with ~50 ps resolution. For the time measurement diamond detectors are planned to be used. In this work I have developed offline algorithms for signal processing allowing to considerably improve the resolution of the time of flight measurement obtained earlier by my colleagues. The algorithms have been tested with data from a test beam measurement where signals from diamond detectors have been collected.

Lucsanyi, David

2014-01-01

217

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hangst, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hardy, W.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayden, M.E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Humphries, A.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

2012-08-21

218

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

219

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

2012-01-01

220

Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron array detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron array detector aiming the investigation of halo neutron pair pre emission in Si (11 Li, fusion) has been experimented. To test the true n-n coincidences against cross talk a Monte Carlo simulation with MENATE program was used to generate neutrons incident on the central detector and to obtain their interactions in the array detector. To construct the denominator in the correlation function the program MENATE was used to generate neutrons incident on the whole area of the array detector. Some results were analyzed with PAW program

221

The DO detector at Fermilab: recent results and future plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DO collaboration at Fermilab consists of about 400 physicists from institutions in 8 countries. The detector built by this collaboration has three main parts, a central detector, a liquid argon-uranium calorimeter and an outer muon detector. A very successful run was completed in May of 1993, analyses of this data are nearing completion and several physics results have already been presented. Another run started in January of 1994 and is still continuing. Some of the results from the first run, prospects for forthcoming physics results and plans for detector upgrades will be presented in this paper. (author)

222

Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

Cavicchioli, C

2011-01-01

223

The OSMOND detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

224

The ATLAS Pixel Detector  

OpenAIRE

The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, m...

Grosse-knetter, J.

2004-01-01

225

Segmented pyroelector detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

1981-01-21

226

The OSMOND detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2013-01-11

227

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight

228

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1995-09-01

229

DELPHI detector for LEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DELPHI detector used for identification of leptons, photons and hadrons in the LEP storage ring in a wide energy range and in full (90%) spatial angle is briefly described. The detector includes: a magnet, track detectors, Cherenkov counters (to identify hadrons), an electromagnetic calorimeter, a hadron calorimeter, a muon identifier, systems for data readout and acquisition. Their main characteristics are presented

230

HP Ge planar detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

231

Gas filled detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

232

Circumferential centralizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pumpdown tool for an ocean-floor oil or gas well is described. The tool includes a housing having a circumferentially extending seal on its outer surface and circumferential centralizer to protect the seal while the tool is being run in the well tubing.

Churchman, R.K.; Yonker, J.H.

1977-08-02

233

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-05-19

234

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the ?rst ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

T. Camporesi

235

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status

236

UA2 central calorimeter  

CERN Multimedia

The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

237

The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter covers the polar region between 300 and 1500 and a full 2? in azimuth. It consists of 48 steel-scintillator central modules with 2.5 cm sampling and 48 steel-scintillator endwall modules with 5.0 cm sampling. A general description of the detector is given. Calibration techniques and performance are discussed. Some results of the test beam studies are shown. (orig.)

238

Centrality, rapidity and ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN} }=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from 50% at low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ to greater than 90% at high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (perturba...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

239

High-energy detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

240

Garlic Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

241

Central hypothyroidism  

OpenAIRE

Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary) or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus) in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually ...

Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

2011-01-01

242

central t  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

Manuel R. Pi\\u00F1a Monarrez

2007-01-01

243

Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method  

Science.gov (United States)

An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge.

He, Zhong (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01

244

Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC  

CERN Multimedia

% RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

2002-01-01

245

Overview of the CBM detector system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a fixed target experiment designed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities. The CBM detector system will access beams directly from the superconducting synchrotrons SIS100 and SIS300. It is designed for interaction rates up to 107 Hz to enable measurements of rare observables and diagnostic probes created in the early and dense phase of the fireball evolution. The layout of the CBM detector system is adapted to the experimental requirements concerning the acceptance in the laboratory frame (mid and forward rapidities), reaction rates, radiation tolerance, determination of the vertices with accuracy of 50 ?m, particle densities (up to 700 particles passing through the active area of the detector in single central Au+Au collision at 25 GeV/nucleon) and selectivity [1, 2].

Balog, Tomáš

2014-04-01

246

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)  

CERN Multimedia

Pit commissioning activities The last 4 months have seen various major achievements in hardware commissioning, global data taking, readiness of the DPGs to deal with LHC data flows and alignment and calibration workflows. Since February, the global commissioning has been characterized on the one side by more and more of the final CMS detector becoming available for global readout and triggering and on the other side by consolidation of many of the central software infrastructure and of most of the services infrastructure. The reliability of services like cooling, power, gas has markedly improved with respect to what we observed in the second half of 2007.   Of particular note are the delivery of all low voltage power supplies, the commissioning of the final power distribution, the progressive commissioning ( still ongoing)  of the Detector Safety System and of the associated DCS early warning and alarm system. On the detector side, while already we are used to seeing all of HCAL being exe...

Tiziano Camporesi

247

... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

2006-01-01

248

The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 < |?| < 2.0, while the TRT barrel central ? region |?| < 1.0. The TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

249

Detectors for Particle Radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

Kleinknecht, Konrad

1999-01-01

250

Intelligent detector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

251

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

252

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERMES Collaboration is installing a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the spectrometer for measurements of hard exclusive electron/positron scattering reactions, in particular deeply virtual Compton scattering. These measurements will provide access to generalised parton distributions and hence to the localisation of quarks inside hadrons and to their orbital angular momentum. The HERMES Recoil Detector consists of three active components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector consisting of three layers of tungsten/scintillator. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The Recoil Detector was extensively tested with cosmic muons over the summer of 2005 and is being installed in the winter of 2005/6 for data taking until summer 2007

253

Noble Gas Detectors  

CERN Document Server

This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

2006-01-01

254

Study on Silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm2), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

255

Digital synchronous detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scheme of digital synchronous detector characterized by large integrating constant is described. Transformation of analogous signal into a discrete one with itssubsequent accumulation is used in the detector which increases the signal integrating time up to 104-155 s. The detector can single out a signal with the peak signal/noise ratio (S.N.) at the entrance up to 2.5x10-5

256

Electron identification in the D OE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the techniques used to identify electrons in the D0 detector. The D0 electron identification algorithm is based on the full covariance matrix of energy deposits in the calorimeter cells occupied by an electromagnetic shower and information from the central tracking system. The method exploits the fine longitudinal and transverse segmentation of the D0 calorimeter to achieve excellent pion rejection. Performance criteria are derived from test beam electron and pion data and from collider data

257

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is AC coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undesirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described. (Auth.)

258

ALFA Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

259

MD-1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MD-1 detector installed in the electron-positron VEPP-4 storage ring is described. The peculiarity of the detector is that its magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the beam orbit plane. The detector includes: a magnet, a vacuum chamber, proportional counters, shower-run chambers, muon chambers, scintillation counters, Cherenkov gas counters, a system for detecting scattered electrons, a system of measuring luminocity and a trigger placed in a CAMAC crate. The detector main characteristics are presented and background conditions are discussed

260

The LHC detector challenge  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

Virdee, Tejinder S

2004-01-01

261

ALFA Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

262

The ALICE silicon strip detector system  

CERN Document Server

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

Kuijer, P

2000-01-01

263

Central scar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the diagnostic specificity of scar tissue associated with primary liver tumors (PLT), the authors compared MR tissue characteristics and morphologic features with gross and microscopic pathologic findings in 38 patients with PLT. Central scars were detected in three of 14 hemangiomas, three of 18 hepatocellular carcinomas, one of four hepatic adenomas, and one of two focal nodular hyperplasias. The scar shape on MR images correlated well with the morphologic scar formation on the cut pathologic specimen. Histopathologic analysis shows that scars composed of dense collagenous tissue (n = 4) appeared hypointense on T1-weighted (spin-echo repetition time = 260 msec, echo time = 14 msec) [SE 260/14] and T2-weighted (SE 2,350/60, 120, 180) images. However, scars composed of loose fibrous tissue with greater cellular content, vascular structures, edema, hemorrhage and/or necrosis appeared isointense (n = 3) or hyperintense (n = 1) to tumor on T2-weighted images. This study shows no significant tissue specificity for PLT based on the MR appearance of central scars

264

TTC distribution for LHC detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At each of the CERN LHC experiments, timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals must be distributed to numerous electronic systems from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. A multichannel optical distribution system has been developed which can broadcast the signals to several thousand destinations from a few relatively high power laser sources over a passive optical fiber network with uncontrolled path lengths. The system delivers the LHC timing reference and first-level trigger decisions with the corresponding bunch and event numbers. It incorporates facilities to compensate for particle flight times and detector, electronics and propagation delays. In addition it provides for the simultaneous transmission of synchronized broadcast commands and individually-addressed controls and parameters, such as channel masks and calibration data

265

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons

266

New detector concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows nondestructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one- or two-dimensional pixel arrays. (orig.)

267

Solid state track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

268

The TOPAZ muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TOPAZ muon detector is constructed from rectangular drift tubes and a hadron absorber, which cover both the barrel and the forward-backward regions. It operated successfully for eight years until the end of the TOPAZ experiment in the summer of 1995. This paper gives a detailed description of the muon detector and the muon identification software. (orig.)

269

Drift chamber detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

270

Pixel detector readout chip  

CERN Multimedia

Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

1991-01-01

271

The TESLA Detector  

OpenAIRE

For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

Moenig, Klaus

2001-01-01

272

BESII Detector Simulation  

OpenAIRE

A Monte Carlo program based on Geant3 has been developed for BESII detector simulation. The organization of the program is outlined, and the digitization procedure for simulating the response of various sub-detectors is described. Comparisons with data show that the performance of the program is generally satisfactory.

Bes, Collaboration

2005-01-01

273

ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < ? < 3.9.

Nayak, T

2013-01-01

274

Intrusioned ? spectrometric detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure is developed for the manufacture and design of immersion-type silicon spectrometric detectors of ?-particles for operation in aggressive media. The principal characteristics are presented of the detectors and also the results of measurements of the spectra of ?-radiators in samples of process solutions

275

Detector development summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Work on several detectors useful at ISABELLE included the following: drift and proportional chambers (chamber lifetime, position resolution, dE/dx measurements and particle identification), Cherenkov counters, calorimetry, and hodoscopes and microchannel plate detectors. Other work examined the problems of event selection in the high-rate environment expected at ISABELLE. The comments are rather general, with little hard design information. 1 table

276

ALICE Silicon Strip Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

Nooren, G

2013-01-01

277

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?{sub av}, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?{sub 0}. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?{sub av}/?{sub 0} was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the {sup 64}Zn+{sup 112}Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Rodrigues, M.R.D. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wada, R., E-mail: wada@comp.tamu.edu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Keutgen, T. [FNRS and IPN, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-Neuve (Belgium); Kowalski, S. [Institute of Physics, Silesia University, Katowice (Poland); Hagel, K.; Barbui, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Bonasera, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J.B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Schmidt, K.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); and others

2013-05-01

278

First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...  

CERN Multimedia

ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

2006-01-01

279

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code

280

Central Nervous System Vasculitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Central Nervous System Vasculitis joseph July 18, 2012 No Comments What is Central Nervous System Vasculitis? Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis ... the CNS (PACNS). What is the cause of Central Nervous System Vasculitis? How the vessels in the ...

281

Central Pain Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological ...

282

Central Cord Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Central Cord Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Central Cervical Cord Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Cord Syndrome? Central cord syndrome is the most ...

283

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

284

Advanced far infrared detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > ? > 50 ?m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

285

Undepleted silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

286

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

287

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a self-powered radiation detector used, for example, for controlling radiation in the core of a nuclear reactor. With this in view, this invention relates to a detector that generates an electric signal corresponding to the radiation flux, between a first electrode or emitting electrode and a second or collecting electrode, at a distance from the first, this signal resulting from the different sensitivity to the incident radiation flux of the first and second electrodes. The emitting electrode is made of a conducting tubular material and the second or collecting electrode is formed of a central conductor coaxially housed in the first emitting electrode, with an insulation separating the two electrodes. An external tubular part coaxially surrounds the first emitting electrode and is separated by an insulation. The central conductor and the external tubular part are joined electrically to form the second or collecting electrode. According to this first claim, the first tubular emitting electrode is made of a conducting material with a high neutron cross section and the second or collecting electrode of a material with a low neutron cross section. The emitter is then in rhodium, vanadium or cobalt. For the application of gamma radiations to the detection of the flux, the first emitting tubular electrode is made of a conducting material with a high atomic number, sensitive to the gamma flux and the second collecting electrode in a conducting materiollecting electrode in a conducting material with a lower atomic number having a weaker interaction to the gamma flux. The emitting electrode is then in platinum. According to any of the claims, the collecting electrode is in high nickel steel or in nickel-chromium stainless steel

288

International Large Detector. Letter of intent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their own goals of detector technology development. Members of the detector concept groups participate in the R and D collaborations and make sure that the detector technologies are successfully applied to the detector concept designs. By the creation of the ILD concept group, the application efforts became more focused. Currently, the ILD management includes subdetector contacts who are also key members of the detector R and D collaborations. This scheme is working efficiently such that we can finish basic R and D in time for the Technical Design Report which is envisaged around 2012. Overall, the ILD group structure is efficient while keeping exibility and openness. Even though we are still short on person power and funding at this time, we believe that we are well positioned to successfully complete a technical design for a detector at the International Linear Collider. The ILD group is firmly committed to the ILD project. (orig.)

289

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

290

CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

291

Micromegas detectors for CLAS12  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability

292

A timing detector for the ATLAS AFP project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project is an upgrade plan to operate detectors continuously at high instantaneous luminosities of up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the vicinity of the beam and measure precisely very forward protons at ATLAS in conjunction with the corresponding central detectors as a means to study Standard Model physics and to search for new physics phenomena. AFP consists of movable beam pipes housing silicon pixel tracking detectors and fast timing detector at {proportional_to}220 m upstream and downstream of the ATLAS interaction point. One prototype of the fast timing detector exploits quartz Cerenkov radiators coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier. This presentation focuses on the design of this prototype and results of testbeam measurements.

Dueren, Michael; Stenzel, Hasko; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Liu, Yong [II. Phys. Inst., Univ. Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

2012-07-01

293

The intermediate silicon layers detector at CDFII: Design and progress  

CERN Document Server

The Intermediate Silicon Layers Detector is presently being built as part of the CDF upgrades to prepare for the next Tevatron data taking run, scheduled to start in the year 2000. The ISL will be located in the radial region between the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Outer Tracker. It will add tracking in the forward region and significantly improve tracking in the central region. Together with the SVX II, the ISL forms a standalone, 3D silicon tracker. In this article we present the design of the ISL and the current status of its construction. (author)

Affolder, A; Bacchetta, N; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Basti, A; Bedeschi, F; Bisello, D; Blusk, S; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Connolly, A; Demina, R; Donati, S; Ely, R; Field, R; García-Sciveres, M; Goldstein, J; Grim, G; Guerzoni, M; Haber, C; Hara, K; Hartmann, F; Heiss, A; Hill, C; Hrycyk, M; Incandela, J R; Kato, Y; Kim, B J; Knoblauch, D; Kruse, M; Lei, C M; Leone, S; Martignon, G; McYntire, P; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, A; Müller, T; Munar-Ara, A; Okusawa, T; Palmonari, F; Paulini, M; Pellett, D; Piacentino, G; Raffaelli, F; Saltzberg, D; Sanders, E; Schilling, M; Shimojima, M; Stuart, D; Takano, T; Takikawa, K; Tipton, P; Turini, N; Volobuev, I P; Wenzel, H; Yao, W; Yoshida, T; Zetti, F; Zucchelli, S

1999-01-01

294

The intermediate silicon layers detector at CDFII: Design and progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers Detector is presently being built as part of the CDF upgrades to prepare for the next Tevatron data taking run, scheduled to start in the year 2000. The ISL will be located in the radial region between the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Outer Tracker. It will add tracking in the forward region and significantly improve tracking in the central region. Together with the SVX II, the ISL forms a standalone, 3D silicon tracker. In this article we present the design of the ISL and the current status of its construction. (author)

Affolder, A.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Bisello, D.; Blusk, S.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Connolly, A.; Demina, R.; Donati, S.; Ely, R.; Field, R.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Goldstein, J.; Grim, G.; Guerzoni, M.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hartmann, F. E-mail: hartmann@fnal.gov; Heiss, A.; Hill, C.; Hrycyk, M.; Incandela, J.; Kato, Y.; Kim, B.J.; Knoblauch, D.; Kruse, M.; Lei, C.M.; Leone, S.; Martignon, G.; Mcyntire, P.; Miyazaki, Y.; Moggi, A.; Muller, T.; Munar-Ara, A.; Okusawa, T.; Palmonari, F.; Paulini, M.; Pellett, D.; Piacentino, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Saltzberg, D.; Sanders, E.; Schilling, M.; Shimojima, M.; Stuart, D.; Takano, T.; Takikawa, K.; Tipton, P.; Turini, N.; Volobouev, I.; Wenzel, H.; Yao, W.; Yoshida, T.; Zetti, F.; Zucchelli, S

1999-10-01

295

The intermediate silicon layers detector at CDFII: Design and progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers Detector is presently being built as part of the CDF upgrades to prepare for the next Tevatron data taking run, scheduled to start in the year 2000. The ISL will be located in the radial region between the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Outer Tracker. It will add tracking in the forward region and significantly improve tracking in the central region. Together with the SVX II, the ISL forms a standalone, 3D silicon tracker. In this article we present the design of the ISL and the current status of its construction. (author)

296

The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

1991-12-31

297

The Muon system of the run II D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov,; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech.

2005-03-01

298

Intermittency studies in anti pp collisions at ?s=630 GeV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant intermittency signal is observed in 630 GeV anti pp collisions measured in the UA1 central detector. It occurs with similar magnitude in different variables: Pseudorapidity, rapidity and azimuthal angle. The signal increases with decreasing charged particle multiplicity in the event. Its strength in a sample of low pperpendicular to tracks and its multiplicity dependence are not reproduced by commonly used Monte Carlo models of high energy interactions. (orig.)

299

Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-08-01

300

Profile detectors of GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design phase of GANIL, which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beam lines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The profile detectors are unavoidable tools in displaying the GANIL beams for adaptation and adjustment of the beam line optics. The installed detector assembly (about 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beams extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beams (VHIB), secondary ion beams emitted by LISE and SPEG spectrometers targets, different lines of SPIRAL project (HE, BE, ME): This detector assembly must meet the following standard requirements: flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; identical analog electronics for all the detectors with networking; unique visualization system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (the beam profile and ion packet length allow an in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability

301

ATLAS Detector Interface Group  

CERN Multimedia

Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

Mapelli, L

302

The HERMES recoil detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

303

The HERMES recoil detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

2013-02-15

304

The HERMES recoil detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

305

Systems integration for the L* detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The L* is proposed as one of two large detectors to be installed at interaction points of the Superconducting Super Collider. The principal feature of the L* is a large solenoidal magnet which provides the field necessary for particle tracking within the device. This approach is based on the L3, a somewhat smaller detector presently in operation at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The detector is made up of four major subsystems: central tracker, electromagnetic calorimeter, hadron calorimeter, and muon chambers. These systems will deliver over 300,000 channels of electronic signals requiring massive computing systems for high speed data processing. The configuration of the L* represents a significant challenge for design, fabrication, construction and installation. It has an outer diameter of 24 meters and an overall length of 53 meters. The size and weight of the major components requires large facilities for on-site fabrication and assembly. The detector is to be installed in an experimental hall 55 meters below ground level. Precision alignment and calibration requires special fixtures and support structures which are continuously monitored. Present plans call for installation to be completed in early 1999. The L* collaboration consists of a worldwide team of scientists and engineers representing over 100 institutions. Major national centers have been established in the US to be the focal point for the collaboration: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (for the Hadron Cidge National Laboratory (for the Hadron Calorimeter and Engineering Coordination), Los Alamos National Laboratory (for the Central Tracker), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for the Muon Chamber). This presentation describes the principal features of the detector and it's supporting facilities. Systems integration activities involved in the design and planning of the project are discussed

306

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 106/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator and the dead-time free F1 TDC chip. The project was completely designed and implemented in less than two years: The upgraded detector is in operation since the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and test studies to characterise the single photon response of the MAPMTs coupled to the read-out system as well as the detector performance based on the 2006 data. (authorsrformance based on the 2006 data. (authors)

307

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10{sup 6}/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator and the dead-time free F1 TDC chip. The project was completely designed and implemented in less than two years: The upgraded detector is in operation since the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and test studies to characterise the single photon response of the MAPMTs coupled to the read-out system as well as the detector performance based on the 2006 data. (authors)

Colantoni, M.L.; Panzieri, D. [Univ E Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); Joosten, R.; Naehle, O. [Univ Bonn, Helmholtz Inst Strahlen and Kernphys, D-5300 Bonn (Germany); Kolosov, V.N. [CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Schroeder, W.; Teufel, A. [Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, D-8520 Erlangen (Germany); Fischer, H.; Hagemann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Konigsmann, K.; Mutter, A.; Nerling, F.; Schill, C.; Wollny, H. [Univ Freiburg, Inst Phys, Freiburg (Germany); Kramer, D.; Polak, J.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M. [Tech Univ Liberec, Liberec (Czech Republic); Silva, L. [LIP, P-1000 Lisbon (Portugal); Von Harrach, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Kernphys, D-6500 Mainz (Germany); Angerer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.; Paul, S. [Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-8046 Garching (Germany); Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Slunecka, M.; Steiger, L. [Joint Inst Nucl Res Dubna, Dubna, (Russian Federation); Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Slunecka, M.; Steiger, L. [Charles Univ Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Abbon, P.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Alekseev, M.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Costa, S.; Dibiase, N.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Maggiora, A. [Univ Turin, Turin (Italy); Alekseev, M.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Costa, S.; Dibiase, N.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Maggiora, A. [Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, (Italy); Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Ciliberti, P.; Torre, S. Dalla; Diaz, V.; Duic, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Pagano, P.; Pesaro, G.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Sozzi, F.; Tessarotto, F. [Univ Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Ciliberti, P.; Torre, S. Dalla; Diaz, V.; Duic, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A. [and others

2008-07-01

308

Wire GEM detector  

OpenAIRE

A wire GEM (WGEM) detector with a gas gap between meshes was constructed. The detector provides the amplification 5x10E5 for the gas mixture of Ar +20% CO2 at atmospheric pressure. As compared with well-known GEM detectors produced by perforation the plastic plate metalized on both sides the WGEM does not suffer from breakdowns between its electrodes and the effect of accumulation of charges on holes walls is absent. As a result the WGEM has high reliability and stability.

Ovchinnikov, B. M.; Razin, V. I.; Reshetin, A. I.; Filippov, S. N.

2009-01-01

309

Angular coverage of detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decay products from large p/sub T/ scatters and heavy particles will show up at large angles (more than a few degrees) and emphasis should be placed on this region when designing a general purpose 4? detector. In addition to optimizing the system for a fixed cost, this means that less space is required along the beam than might be first estimated by looking at the nominal rapidity range. Smaller angles can be covered with a crude detector to tag any events with significant p/sub T/ at angles less than that covered by the high-quality detector

310

The Silicon Cube detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

311

Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57Co and 60Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

312

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AGILE is a {gamma}-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10{sup -4}. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS.

Perotti, F. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: franz@mi.iasf.cnr.it; Fiorini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Incorvaia, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Mattaini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Sant' Ambrogio, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy)

2006-01-01

313

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

314

Lithium germanium detectors reactivation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author)

315

The CDF detector: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a 5000 t magnetic detector built to study 2 TeV anti pp collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron. Event analysis is based on charged particle tracking, magnetic momentum analysis and fine-grained calorimetry. The combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimetry has approximately uniform granularity in rapidity-azimuthal angle and extends down to 20 from the beam direction. Various tracking chambers cover the calorimeter acceptance and extend charged particle tracking down to 2 mrad from the beam direction. Charged particle momenta are analyzed in a 1.5 T solenoidal magnetic field, generated by a superconducting coil which is 3 m in diameter and 5 m in length. The central tracking chamber measures particle momenta with a resolution better then ?pT/pT2=2x10-3 (GeV/c)-1 in the region 400 0 and ?PT/pT2 ? 4x10-3 for 210 0 and 1400 0. The calorimetry, which has polar angle coverage from 20 to 1780 and full azimuthal coverage, consists of electromagnetic shower counters and hadron calorimeters, and is segmented into about 5000 projective 'towers' or solid angle elements. Muon coverage is provided by drift chambers in the region 560 0, and by large forward toroid system in the rang forward toroid system in the range 30 0 and 1640 0. Isolated high momentum muons can be identified in the intermediate angular range by a comparison of the tracking and calorimeter information in many cases. A custom front-end electronics system followed by a large Fastbus network provides the readout of the approximately 100 000 detector channels. Fast Level 1 and Level 2 triggers make a detailed pre-analysis of calorimetry and tracking information; a Level 3 system of on-line processors will do parallel processing of events. This paper provides a summary of the aspects of the detector which are relevant to its physics capabilities, with references to more detailed descriptions of the subsystems. (orig.)

316

The central tracking detectors for D/O/  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D/O/ experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Clark, A.; Goozen, F.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kerth, L.T.; Loken, S.; Strovink, M.; Trippe, T.G.; Bantly, J.; Buchholz, D.; Claes, D.

1988-01-01

317

Myon Density Measurements with the KASCADE Central Detector  

CERN Document Server

Frequency distributions of local muon densities in high-energy extensive air-showers (EAS) are presented as signature of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in the knee region. Together with the gross shower variables like shower core position, angle of incidence, and the shower sizes, the KASCADE experiment is able to measure local muon densities for two different muon energy thresholds. The spectra have been reconstructed for various core distances, as well as for particular subsamples, classified on the basis of the shower size ratio N_mu/N_e. The measured density spectra of the total sample exhibit clear kinks reflecting the knee of the primary energy spectrum. While relatively sharp changes of the slopes are observed in the spectrum of EAS with small values of the shower size ratio, no such feature is detected at EAS of large N_mu/N_e ratio in the energy range of 1--10 PeV. Comparing the spectra for various thresholds and core distances with detailed Monte Carlo simulations the validity of EAS simulat...

Antoni, T; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bernlöhr, K; Blümer, H; Bollmann, E; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Büttner, C; Chilingarian, A A; Daumiller, K; Doll, P; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haeusler, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Holst, T; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Kempa, J; Klages, H O; Knapp, J; Kohler, K U; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Müller, M; Oehlschläger, J; Petcu, M; Rebel, H; Risse, M; Roth, M; Schatz, G; Scholz, J; Sokhoyan, S H; Thouw, T J; Ulrich, H; Vulpescu, B; Weber, J H; Wentz, J; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S

2001-01-01

318

Novel Photo-Detectors and Photo-Detector Systems  

OpenAIRE

Recent developments in photo-detectors and photo-detector systems are reviewed. The main emphasis is made on Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) - novel and very attractive photo-detectors. Their main features are described. Properties of detectors manufactured by different producers are compared. Different applications are discussed including calorimeters, muon detection, tracking, Cherenkov light detection, and time of flight measurements.

Danilov, M.

2008-01-01

319

Burst diaphragm leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

New method replaces flowmeter approach with readily available burst diaphragm leak detector assembly mounted to all drain ports. This allows simultaneous leak detection of all flange seals under operating conditions.

Pascolla, J. A.

1969-01-01

320

Sensitive detectors in HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

321

Hybrid photon detectors  

CERN Document Server

Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

D'Ambrosio, C

2003-01-01

322

OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter  

CERN Multimedia

Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

1988-01-01

323

Europe plans megaton detector  

CERN Multimedia

A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

Cartlidge, Edwin

2004-01-01

324

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

Christensen, C

2013-01-01

325

ATLAS Inner Detector developments  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a Transition Radiation Tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch ($50 \\times 300~\\mu$m) and low occupancy ($<3 \\times 10^{-4}$ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the SCT and the TRT. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between $b$-jets and jets produced by light quarks.

Barberis, D

2000-01-01

326

Range sensitive detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector for identification of heavy ions at extended energy range is described. The particle energy loss is measured with ionization chamber supplied with the range-sensitive charge collection system. (author)

327

Czochralski silicon radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of some of the recent results concerning the suitability of Czochralski silicon to High Energy Physics (HEP) radiation detectors. It has been shown that an elevated oxygen concentration within the bulk silicon of detectors offers increased radiation hardness to charged particle radiation. Silicon produced using the Czochralski growth method has an intrinsically higher concentration of oxygen than the standard silicon growth method, float zone, which is extensively used in HEP radiation detectors. The research reviewed in this paper aims to understand the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of Czochralski and compares the performance to standard silicon radiation detectors. The majority of this work has been performed in the framework of the RD50 collaboration

328

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of ? 104 m2, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with ?800 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000

329

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of {approx} 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with {approx}800 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000.

Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg, E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; LOwder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

1999-03-01

330

The Micro Wire Detector  

CERN Document Server

We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 micron apertures, crossed by 25 micron anode strips to which it is attached by 50 micron kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture like in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material.

Adeva, B; Pazos, A; Pfau, R; Pló, M; Rodríguez, J M; Vázquez, P; Labbé, J C

1999-01-01

331

Pixel detectors hybridisation  

CERN Document Server

Modern pixel detectors have up to 100 millions of sensing elements which need to be individually connected to their read-out chains. High-density reliable connectivity is therefore one of the key issues for the success of pixel detectors and the most important step in the hybridisation process. An overview of the hybridisation techniques used in the various particle physics experiments and the results obtained so far is presented. Critical issues are underlined and commented.

Rossi, L

2003-01-01

332

Microsonic detector (MSD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

333

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

334

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV ?- beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e-. (orig.)

335

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

2008-01-01

336

Detectors for CBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

337

Protecting detectors in ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

338

Protecting Detectors in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related...

Mateusz Lechman, Mateusz; Chochula, Peter; Di Mauro, Antonio; Jirden, Lennart Stig; Schindler, Heinrich; Rosinsky, Peter; Moreno, Alberto; Kurepin, Alexander; Pinazza, Ombretta; De Cataldo, Giacinto

2011-01-01

339

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

Mathieson, K

2001-01-01

340

ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)  

CERN Multimedia

To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

ATLAS Outreach

2006-01-01

341

Neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and programme were drawn up for calculating the signal of delayed response SPN detectors for such cases when the emitter material is vanadium, rhodium or silver, in the form of I=f(phisub(c)) where I is the measured electrical current and phisub(c) is the neutron flux density in the place the detector is located. It is important that the detector electric signal be correctly measured as the detector output signal is relatively low (10-9 to 10-6 A) and is supplied through a spurious electromagnetic field to a distance of up to 50 m. In WWR-S reactor experiments 2 to 3 detectors and a SOLATRON measuring central are used and results are processed by a Hewlett-Packard computer using the DISA programme. Detector sensitivities determined theoretically and experimentally and the results of measurements using different types of detectors are compared. The results of measurements with SPN detectors with vanadium emitters 0.5 and 1 mm in diameters and 50 mm in length are shown graphically. (Z.M.)

342

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

343

Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed

344

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Barklow, T.; Glanzman, T.; Lankford, A.J.; Riles, K.

1985-09-01

345

Development of PMT high voltage control system for LASCAR detector array at RIBLL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is described in this paper that the multi-channel PMT high voltage power supply control system, which matches with the PMT high voltage module CC123 of the LASCAR detector array at RIBLL experiment terminal. The MCU AT89C51 is selected as the central control part and other suitable accessories are also adopted in our design. The PMT control system of the detector array works steadily and effectively in out performance test of LASCAR detector array. (authors)

346

Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

347

The CLIC Vertex Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a measurement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t ? Wb will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit timing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC vertex detector. It comprises fast, low-power and small-pitch readout ASICs implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology (CLICpix) coupled to ultra-thin planar or active HV-CMOS sensors via low-mass interconnects. The power dissipation of the readout chips is reduced by means of power pulsing, allowing for a cooling system based on forced gas flow. This contribution reviews the requirements and design optimisation for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensors, readout and detector integration.

Dannheim, D.

2015-03-01

348

A study of Central Exclusive Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh ? h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME

349

Central Pontine Myelinolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Central Pontine Myelinolysis Information Page Synonym(s): Extrapontine Myelinolysis Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Central Pontine Myelinolysis? Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a ...

350

Central serous choroidopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Central serous retinopathy ... of stress may be more likely to develop central serous retinopathy. The condition can also occur as ... Your health care provider can usually diagnose central serous ... confirms the diagnosis. It may be done with a noninvasive ...

351

Central Serous Retinopathy Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Central Serous Retinopathy? Tweet The retina is the light- ... retina is key to clear vision. What is Central Serous Retinopathy? Central Serous Retinopathy Symptoms Who is ...

352

Hybrid photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array tubes with finely segmented anodes for photon-sensitive imaging devices. Some of the hybrid photon detectors' applications and achievements in radiation detection are discussed and compared with competing devices such as photomultipliers, image intensifiers, photodiodes, silicon drift chambers, charge coupled devices, visible light photon counters, and photographic emulsions

353

The LHCb upgrade detector  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform precision measurements of CP asymmetries and to investigate potential effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Results obtained from data collected in 2010 and 2011 show that the detector is robust and functioning well. While LHCb will be able to measure a host of interesting channels in heavy flavor decays in the coming years, a limit of about 1-2 fb$^{-1}$ of data per year can only be overcome by upgrading the detector. With a detector read out at 40 MHz, a much more flexible software-based triggering strategy will allow a large increase not only in the data rate, as the detector will collect 5 fb$^{-1}$ per year, but also in the ability to increase trigger efficiencies especially in decays to hadronic final states. In addition, it will be possible to modify trigger algorithms in order to explore different physics as LHC discoveries point to the most interesting channels. Here a short description of the physics motivations and proposed detector changes f...

Schmidt, Burkhard

2011-01-01

354

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

CERN Document Server

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1 Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end...

Airapetian, A; Belostotski, S; Borissov, A; Borisenko, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capitani, G P; Carassiti, V; Ciullo, G; Clarkson, A; Contalbrigo, M; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Guler, H; Gregor, I M; Hartig, M; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Jo, H S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kisselev, A; Krause, B; Krauss, B; Lagamba, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lu, S; Lu, X -G; Lumsden, S; Mahon, D; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nowak, W -D; Naryshkin, Y; Osborne, A; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrov, A; Pickert, N; Prahl, V; Protopopescu, D; Reinecke, M; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shutov, V; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vilardi, I; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B

2013-01-01

355

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

Science.gov (United States)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11

356

Improved photon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

357

The LHCb Detector Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

358

Detector arrays in spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially dispersed spectra of ions, electrons or photons are traditionally measured by scanning the spectra across a narrow slit behind which is a detector. However, the efficiency increase offered by arrays of detectors is so large that their development is increasingly demanding the attention of spectrometer manufacturers. One-dimensional arrays of independent detectors (discrete electrode arrays) offer the highest data accumulation rate as detection can occur simultaneously at many sites, but a high resolution array of this type requires much associated electronics and this has limited the size and the market of such devices. The design and performance issues relating to discrete electrode arrays are discussed and a new high resolution array with all electronics integrated on a single silicon chip developed at Aberystwyth is described. A familiarity with silicon technology is not required by the reader. It is shown that integration brings not only advantages of scale but also of performance.

Birkinshaw, K.

359

The H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

360

Cryogenic Tracking Detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

2002-01-01

361

The Delphi outer detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design criteria, construction and performance of the Delphi outer detector are discussed. The detector is a 5-layer, 5 m long, 2 m inner radius, 2.1 m outer radius 'cylindrical' drift chamber consisting of 3480 individual 1.65x1.65 cm2 drift tubes operating in limited streamer mode. The drift time-distance relationship for a single tube has been measured using a pulsed laser as a function of both track angle and longitudinal magnetic field. These data have been used to reconstruct cosmic rays in a completed detector module and yield a transverse resolution of 80 ?m per point over most of the cell, rising to 90 ?m near the corners of the tubes. The detection efficiency per cell for minimum ionising particles is greater than 98.5%. (orig.)

362

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ILC physics case has been well documented, most recently in the ILC Reference Design Report, RDR. A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD, which is based on the GLD and the LDC detector concepts, is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle flow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which stresses redundancy and efficiency. In addition, efficient reconstruction of secondary vertices and excellent momentum resolution for charged particles are essential for an ILC detector. The interaction region of the ILC is designed to host two detectors, which can be moved into the beam position with a 'pube moved into the beam position with a 'push-pull' scheme. The mechanical design of ILD and the overall integration of subdetectors takes these operational conditions into account. The main features of ILD are outlined below. The central component of the ILD tracker is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which provides up to 224 precise measurements along the track of a charged particle. This is supplemented by a system of Silicon (Si) based tracking detectors, which provide additional measurement points inside and outside of the TPC, and extend the angular coverage down to very small angles. A Si-pixel based vertex detector (VTX) enables long lived particles such as b- and c-hadrons to be reconstructed. This combination of tracking devices, which has a large degree of redundancy, results in high track reconstruction efficiencies, and unprecedented momentum resolution and vertex reconstruction capabilities. One of the most direct measures of detector performance at the ILC is the jet-energy resolution. Precise di-jet mass reconstruction and separation of hadronically decaying W and Z bosons are essential for many physics channels. The ultimate jet energy resolution is achieved when every particle in the event, charged and neutral, is measured with the best possible precision. Within the paradigm of particle flow calorimetry, this goal is achieved by reconstructing charged particles in the tracker, photons in the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), and neutral hadrons in the ECAL and hadronic calorimeter (HCAL). The ultimate performance is reached for perfect separation of charged-particle clusters from neutral particle clusters in the calorimeters. Thus, a highly granular calorimeter outside the tracker is the second key component of ILD. Sampling calorimeters with dense absorber material and fine grained readout are used. A tungsten absorber based electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) covers the first interaction length, followed by a somewhat coarser steel based sampling hadronic calorimeter (HCAL). Several ECAL and HCAL readout technologies are being pursued.

363

Semiconductor neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

364

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of ? 30%/?E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design

365

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of ?30%/?E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design

366

High efficiency scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

367

Radio detector array simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently radio signals originating from extensive air showers have been observed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. In this note we present software to simulate the response of an array of antenna detectors and to reconstruct the radio signals. With this software it is possible to investigate design parameters of an antenna array and to visualize the radio data. We show comparisons between measurements of radio signals from air showers and simulated data which were generated with the REAS2 generator and then processed with the detector simulation and reconstruction software.

368

Compton current detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.)

369

Glow discharge detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01

370

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

371

Radial gradient coaxial detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germanium crystals with radial impurity gradients have been prepared by diffusing Li into p-type material and then extracting most of it at the surface to produce n-core crystals. The diffusion is designed to produce coaxial detectors which reach full depletion at the inner and outer radii simultaneously, thereby minimizing the leakage which is caused by electrical stress at the electrodes. The depletion voltage and leakage current of these crystals are measured by methods which do not require that they be sectioned to expose the junction. Preliminary measurements of detectors made from radial gradient crystals are also reported

372

Calibration of phoswich detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two important aspects for the calibration of phoswich detector arrays have been investigated. It is shown that common gate ADCs can be used: The loss in particle identification due to fluctuations in the gate timing in multi-hit events can be corrected for by a simple procedure using the measured time difference between gate and phoswich signal. The response of phoswich detectors to particles with given Z, A and E was studied using a magnetic spectrograph. In the absence of mass identification the energy calibration is limited by the width of the experimental mass distribution for a given element. (orig.)

373

A Novel Supernova Detector  

OpenAIRE

We discuss the prospects for detecting nu_{mu,tau} and nu_{tau}neutrinos from Type II supernovas using the novel detector at the Supernova Burst Observatory (SNBO) or OMNIS that is being designed for an underground laboratory in the USA. This detector would collect ~2000 flavor selected events from a Galactic supernova and could probe neutrino mass down to a few eV, as well as the dynamics of the supernova process. We believe this is essential to further our understanding of...

Cline, David B.

2000-01-01

374

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

1998-06-01

375

Range sensitive telescope detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A telescope detector for the identification of heavy ions over an extended energy range is described. The particle energy loss ..delta..E is measured with an ionisation chamber supplied with the range-sensitive charge collection system. The particle residual energy E can be measured with a solid state detector. Two modes of operation are available: a standard ..delta..E - E identification, or a charge integration along the track with a continuous resistivity anode. By a proper formation of this resistivity, one can obtain an identification signal proportional to the Z value in a large range of incident energies.

Sosin, Z.; Kozik, T.; Micek, S.; Grotowski, K. (Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Krakow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki)

1984-07-15

376

Range sensitive telescope detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A telescope detector for the identification of heavy ions over an extended energy range is described. The particle energy loss ?E is measured with an ionisation chamber supplied with the range-sensitive charge collection system. The particle residual energy E can be measured with a solid state detector. Two modes of operation are available: a standard ?E - E identification, or a charge integration along the track with a continuous resistivity anode. By a proper formation of this resistivity, one can obtain an identification signal proportional to the Z value in a large range of incident energies. (orig.)

377

Fissile material detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

Ivanov, Alexander I. (Dubna, RU); Lushchikov, Vladislav I. (Dubna, RU); Shabalin, Eugeny P. (Dubna, RU); Maznyy, Nikita G. (Dubna, RU); Khvastunov, Michael M. (Dubna, RU); Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA)

2002-01-01

378

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

379

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip detector modules for LHC  

OpenAIRE

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3·1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers...

Perea Solano, Blanca

2004-01-01

380

Status of the KEDR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e+e--collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/? meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed

381

Central tracking with micro strip gas chambers in CMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A central tracking detector based on micro strip gas chambers (MSGC) for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) at LHC is part of a hybrid inner tracking system to be operated in a 4 Tesla magnetic field. Expected performance in terms of momentum resolution, rate capability and long term survivability will be discussed. Considerable efforts in simulation studies have been made, to optimize the tracking system for pattern recognition and track finding efficiencies. A preliminary engineering study on mechanical stability and heat load shows that the detector structures can be made sufficiently stiff to maintain systematic alignment precision within the intrinsic spatial measurement accuracy of the detector. (orig.)

382

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

2005-07-06

383

Solid state parallel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss semiconductors phoso-sensitive arrays and channel plate electron multiplier detectors. Currents applications include light detection in the spectral range from visible to X-rays, with sensitivity threshold from 103 to a single photon, and single electron/ion detection. (A.C.A.S.)

384

Superconducting particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of a nuclear particle or x-ray with a superconductor leads to the breaking of Cooper pairs and the creation of excess quasi-particles and phonons. Under certain conditions this can produce a transition from the superconducting state to the normal state which can be detected in a number of ways. In other cases the quasi-particle excitations are detected with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction. The phonon excitations can also be detected with an SIS junction or arrays of SIS junctions, or with superconducting transition edge bolometers. In addition, these superconducting sensors can detect the phonons produced by individual particle interactions in dielectric absorbers. At very low temperatures individual particles can also be detected with normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions due to the increase in electron temperature on the N side. Because of the smallness of the superconducting energy gap and the sharpness of the normal-to-superconducting transition, better energy resolution and sensitivity to smaller energy depositions can be achieved using superconductors as compared to conventional detectors. Moreover, a wide range of materials can be made into detectors for specific physics applications. The basic physics of the interactions of nuclear particles and x-rays in superconductors and in dielectrics is outlined, and the present status of superconducting particle detectors is reviewed. (author)cle detectors is reviewed. (author)

385

First ALICE detectors installed!  

CERN Multimedia

Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

2006-01-01

386

Bismuth germanate detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luminescence properties of Bi4Ge3O13 (BGO) bismuth germanate crystals are investigated. Comparison of BGO and NaI(Tl) scintillator characteristics is conducted. Data on BGO-detector energy resolution under ?-radiation, proton, ?-particle, ?-meson and electron detection at 0.1-1000 MeV energy are presented. BGO scintillators are characterised by high conversion and bremsstrahlung-produced capabilities due to a high bismuth atomic number (Z=83) and a high BGO density (7.13 g/cm3). Relation of NaI(Tl) and BGO radiation lengths is equal to 2.3; BGO crystals are chemically stable and are characterised by mechanical strength and can be processed by any device. They are nonhydroscopic and therefore do not require hermetic packing. A conclusion is drawn, that in the region of low and medium energy physics BGO-detectors appear to be quite perspective in those cases, when, in the first place, a high efficiency is required, as for example in anti-compton spectrometers, multi-detector units for studying the reaction mechanism under heavy ion effect. Application of BGO crystals instead of NaI(Tl) allows to considerably reduce in such cases dimensions and cost of experimental plants. BGO crystal advantages are more clearly manifested in high energy physics. Several projects concerning BGO-detector application in electromagnetic calorimeters are developed, the expected total volume of BGO crystals being 1600 lbeing 1600 l

387

Pixel detector insertion  

CERN Multimedia

Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

CMS

2015-01-01

388

The BABAR Detector  

CERN Document Server

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the upsilon 4S resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

CERN. Geneva

2002-01-01

389

Ionization chamber smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

390

TESLA detector magnet design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TESLA detector asks for a strong and very homogeneous magnetic field within its useful volume. In this respect, a large superconducting magnet has been designed, with special attention to get the requested field homogeneity. The design of the magnet, a superconducting solenoid with its iron yoke, is described in this paper, with some emphasis on the achievement of the field homogeneity

391

Solid state detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

392

Ionic smoke detectors  

CERN Document Server

Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

2002-01-01

393

Diamond Pixel Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

394

Diamond Pixel Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

2001-06-01

395

Diamond pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

2001-01-01

396

Smoke Detector Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

397

The CLIC Vertex Detector  

CERN Document Server

The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t ? W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

Dannheim, D

2014-01-01

398

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01

399

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

Manzari, V

2013-01-01

400

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

P. Paolucci

2012-01-01

401

The Friendship Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

402

New detectors: fundamental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the fundamental aspects of the X-ray radiation detection in the particular case of the mammography, the performances criterion of the digital detectors and the main technological solution of the market. The authors also detailed the use possibilities to enhance the images representation by correcting the acquisition channel degradations. (A.L.B.)

403

Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or other failures in those systems. In another type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors of this type could be optoelectronically instrumented for monitoring to provide measured digital indications of color changes indicative of the presence of hydrogen.

Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

2009-01-01

404

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

405

Neutron detectors at IPNS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three more instruments under development. Six of these instruments use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs) of various types. These PSDs include a 30 cm {times} 30 cm, {approximately}3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, {approximately}0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm {times} 20 cm, {approximately}5 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm {times} 40 cm, {approximately}4 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 25 cm long, {approximately}1.6 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia and 60 cm long and has {approximately}14 mm resolution. In addition to these PSDs, {approximately}750 standard cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counters of various sizes are utilized on IPNS instruments, and {approximately}20 BF{sub 3} pulsed ion chambers are in use as beam monitors. This paper discusses these various detectors and associated electronics, with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of detectors. Observed performance of these detectors is also discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1990-01-01

406

OPAL detector end-cap  

CERN Multimedia

An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

1988-01-01

407

Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as 12C and 16O . All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C (?,?) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

Gai, Moshe

2015-02-01

408

Beam tests of prototype fiber detectors for the H1 forward proton spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different prototypes of fiber detectors with an internal trigger system were tested in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY. A silicon microstrip telescope was used for an external reference measurement of the beam to study the spatial resolution of the fiber detectors. On average 75% of all crossing electron tracks could be reconstructed with a precision better than 150 ?m. These successful methodical investigations led to the installation of similar detectors in the proton beamline 81 m downstream of the central H1-detector at HERA as part of a forward proton spectrometer in spring 1994. (orig.)

409

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared

410

STRAW based precision tracking detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic results on developing the thin-film drift tubes, which became the basis for creating the precision tracking detectors at the ATLAS and COMPASS (CERN) facilities, are discussed. The STRAW-chambers are characterized by the detector low radiation thickness, cylindrical geometry for each registration channel, simple chamber design and detector high performance reliability

411

Area detector design. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Classical expressions of area detector performance, the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the dynamic range (DR), provide a description of the fundamental properties of a detector. However, since they contain no information regarding the experimental context in which the detector will be used, they do not necessarily provide an accurate prediction of how the detector will perform during data collection. In this paper, the standard definitions of the DQE and DR are extended to provide four new expressions of an area detector's performance: (1) The detective collection efficiency (DCE) - the fraction of the required measurements which can be made at one time by the detector, multiplied by the DQE; (2) the experimental detective quantum efficiency (XDQE) - the ratio of the variance in the measurement of interest made with the detector to that made with an ideal detector; (3) the experimental detective collection efficiency (XDCE) - the fraction of the required measurements which can be made at one time by the detector, multiplied by the XDQE; (4) the experimental dynamic range (XDR) - the dynamic range of the detector for the measurement of interest. Using these general expressions, equations are developed to model the performance of a CCD-based detector for X-ray crystallography. This formulation allows experimental conditions such as the unit cell size, peak size and profile, maximum reciprocal-space resolution and beam characteristics to be incorporated into the aracteristics to be incorporated into the design of an area detector. (orig.)

412

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K

2005-07-01

413

The PANDA Detector at FAIR  

OpenAIRE

The PANDA detector is under design to be installed at the HESR storage ring for antiproton of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei will be pursued using a multipurpose set-up which includes innovative detectors. Here, the FAIR facility and the PANDA detector are described.

Marcello, Simonetta

2008-01-01

414

The Cleo III Rich Detector  

OpenAIRE

CLEO III upgrade was completed with the integration of Ring Imaging CHerenkov(RICH) detector for charged particle identification. The design of this cylindrical detector consists of LiF crystal radiators and multi-wire proportional chamber photon detectors coupled through a N2 filled expansion gap. Early performance on K/pion separation is presented.

Majumder, Gobinda

2000-01-01

415

Detector characterization in GEO 600  

OpenAIRE

The GEO 600 interferometric gravitational wave detector conducted its first science run (S1) from 23 August 2002 to 9 September 2002. The GEO 600 data acquisition system is described together with some software tools developed for doing detector characterization and data analysis. Detector characterization results are also being presented.

Sintes, A. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Barr, B. W.; Berukoff, S.; Borger, S.; Cagnoli, G.; Cantley, C. A.; Casey, M. M.; Chelkowski, S.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C. N.; Crooks, D. R. M.

2003-01-01

416

Radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-photon-emitting or positron-emitting radionuclides employed in nuclear medicine are detected by using sophisticated imaging devices, whereas simpler detection devices are used to quantify activity for the following applications: measuring doses of radiopharmaceuticals, performing radiotracer bioassays, and monitoring and controlling radiation risk in the clinical environment. Detectors are categorized in terms of function, the physical state of the transducer, or the mode of operation. The performance of a detector is described by the parameters efficiency, energy resolution and discrimination, and dead time. A detector may be used to detect single events (pulse mode) or to measure the rate of energy deposition (current mode). Some detectors are operated as simple counting systems by using a single-channel pulse height analyzer to discriminate against background or other extraneous events. Other detectors are operated as spectrometers and use a multichannel analyzer to form an energy spectrum. The types of detectors encountered in nuclear medicine are gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. The ionization detector, Geiger-Müller detector, extremity and area monitor, dose calibrator, well counter, thyroid uptake probe, Anger scintillation camera, positron emission tomographic scanner, solid-state personnel dosimeter, and intraoperative probe are examples of detectors used in clinical nuclear medicine practice. PMID:10194791

Ranger, N T

1999-01-01

417

[Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun

418

On the possiblity of using vertically pointing Central Laser Facilities to calibrate the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

OpenAIRE

A Central Laser Facility is a system composed of a laser placed at a certain distance from a light-detector array, emitting fast light pulses, typically in the vertical direction, with the aim to calibrate that array. During calibration runs, all detectors are pointed towards the same portion of the laser beam at a given altitude. Central Laser Facilities are used for various currently operating ultra-high-energy cosmic ray and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays....

Gaug, Markus

2014-01-01

419

Correlations of forward energy flow and central track multiplicity in W and Z boson events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A study of the correlations of the energy flow in the forward detectors and the track multiplicity in the central detector using events with centrally produced W and Z bosons at 7 TeV pp collisions is presented. The contribution of multi parton interactions between proton remnants is studied in more detail, specially in relation with a diffractive component in the hard interaction and in the multi parton interaction. (author)

420

Central Forests in Trees  

CERN Document Server

A new 2-parameter family of central structures in trees, called central forests, is introduced. Minieka's $m$-center problem and McMorris's and Reid's central-$k$-tree can be seen as special cases of central forests in trees. A central forest is defined as a forest $F$ of $m$ subtrees of a tree $T$, where each subtree has $k$ nodes, which minimizes the maximum distance between nodes not in $F$ and those in $F$. An $O(n(m+k))$ algorithm to construct such a central forest in trees is presented, where $n$ is the number of nodes in the tree. The algorithm either returns with a central forest, or with the largest $k$ for which a central forest of $m$ subtrees is possible. Some of the elementary properties of central forests are also studied.

Rao, Shrisha

2008-01-01

421

Report of the large solenoid detector group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

422

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

CERN Document Server

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01

423

Central Forests in Trees  

OpenAIRE

A new 2-parameter family of central structures in trees, called central forests, is introduced. Minieka's $m$-center problem and McMorris's and Reid's central-$k$-tree can be seen as special cases of central forests in trees. A central forest is defined as a forest $F$ of $m$ subtrees of a tree $T$, where each subtree has $k$ nodes, which minimizes the maximum distance between nodes not in $F$ and those in $F$. An $O(n(m+k))$ algorithm to construct such a central forest in t...

Rao, Shrisha; Grover, Babita

2008-01-01

424

Design, Commissioning and Performance of the PIBETA Detector at PSI  

OpenAIRE

We describe the design, construction and performance of the PIBETA detector built for the precise measurement of the branching ratio of pion beta decay, pi+ -> pi0 e+ nu, at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The central part of the detector is a 240-module spherical pure CsI calorimeter covering 3*pi sr solid angle. The calorimeter is supplemented with an active collimator/beam degrader system, an active segmented plastic target, a pair of low-mass cylindrical wire chambers and a...

Frlez, E.; Pocanic, D.; Assamagan, K. A.; Bagaturia, Yu; Baranov, V. A.; Bertl, W.; Broennimann, Ch; Bychkov, M. A.; Crawford, J. F.; Daum, M.; Fluegel, Th; Frosch, R.; Horisberger, R.; Kalinnikov, V. A.; Karpukhin, V. V.

2003-01-01

425

Aerogel for FARICH detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2-3-4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30-45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Gulevich, V. V.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Lopatin, S. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Predein, A. Yu.; Protsenko, R. S.

2014-12-01

426

Television area detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

427

Terahertz sources and detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the support of the US Army Research Office we are developing terahertz sources and detectors suitable for use in the spectroscopy of chemical and biological materials as well as for use in imaging systems to detect concealed weapons. Our technology relies on nonlinear diodes to translate the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks that have been developed for this application include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These components rely on planar Schottky diodes and integrated diode circuits and are therefore easy to assemble and robust. They require no mechanical tuners to achieve high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper will review the range of performance that has been achieved with these terahertz components and briefly discuss preliminary results achieved with a spectroscopy system and the development of sources for imaging systems.

Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David W.; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Bishop, William L.; Kurtz, David S.; Hui, Kai

2005-05-01

428

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

Owens, Alan

2012-01-01

429

Future liquid Argon detectors  

CERN Document Server

The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

Rubbia, A

2013-01-01

430

How Metal Detectors Operate  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, provides an explanation of how a metal detector functions. Most people take for granted this common piece of equipment, but the science behind its function is actually quite remarkable. Bartelt uses flash animations and diagrams to examine how these machines work. These animations show everything from the different pieces of the machine to the sine waves and magnetic fields employed by the detector. Without such a detailed outline, these concepts would be much more difficult to grasp, and the author makes the presentation accessible for almost any grade level. Because of this, this would be a wonderful activity for a physics, or even mathematics, course.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

431

Gated strip proportional detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

1987-01-01

432

Performances of HPGe detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance specification such as relative efficiency, energy resolution FWHM, ratio of FWTM to FWHM and the ratio of the peak height to Compton plateau of three N-type and one P-type HPGe detectors have been measured at gamma-ray energy of 1.33 MeV of Co-60. The results were compared with those specified by the manufacturers'. One N-type detector had shown total agreement, whereas the rests were marginally outside the acceptable range. Probable reason for this, together with the results obtained from the well performed experiment the daily routine check and the determination of Fano factor were discussed. Recommendations for the practice of quality control program were also given

433

Ionizing radiation detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

434

Stable glow discharge detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

2004-05-18

435

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

436

Semiconductor gamma-detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma detector essentially consists of a monocrystalline body of semiconducting material of the compound type A(II)B(VI), e.g. CdS, CdTe or self-conducting silicon. Both types of charge carrier are mobile in the material, and the product of mobility and lifetime is greater than 10-9 m2 V-1 for each type. In a type model, two metal electrodes are placed on two opposite parallel surfaces of a 3 mm thick plate of silicon. They are separated from the crystal surface by polyester foils of 2.5 x 10-4 cm thickness aluminated on one side. The resolving power of the detector is about 1.3 keV at the 122 keV line. The charge carrier can be discharged by short-circuiting the electrodes and exposing the crystal. (DG/LH)

437

Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perforated semiconductor neutron detectors are compact diode detectors that operate at low power and can be fashioned to have high thermal neutron detection efficiency. Fabricated from high-purity Si wafers, the perforations are etched into the diode surface with ICP-RIE and backfilled with 6LiF neutron reactive material. The intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency depends upon many factors, including the perforation geometry, size, and depth. Devices were fabricated from high resistivity 10k? cm n-type Si with conformal p-type shallow junction diffusions into the perforations, which demonstrate improved neutron detection performance over previous selectively diffused designs. A comparison was made to previous selectively diffused designs, and pulse height spectra show improved signal-to-noise ratio, higher neutron counting efficiency, and excellent gamma-ray discrimination. Devices with 20(average)?m wide 100?m deep sinusoidal trenches yielded intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiencies of 11.94±0.078%.

438

Memristive fuzzy edge detector  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

2011-01-01

439

MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT  

CERN Multimedia

Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

G.Gomez

440

Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Perforated semiconductor neutron detectors are compact diode detectors that operate at low power and can be fashioned to have high thermal neutron detection efficiency. Fabricated from high-purity Si wafers, the perforations are etched into the diode surface with ICP-RIE and backfilled with 6LiF neutron reactive material. The intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency depends upon many factors, including the perforation geometry, size, and depth. Devices were fabricated from high resistivity 10 k? cm n-type Si with conformal p-type shallow junction diffusions into the perforations, which demonstrate improved neutron detection performance over previous selectively diffused designs. A comparison was made to previous selectively diffused designs, and pulse height spectra show improved signal-to-noise ratio, higher neutron counting efficiency, and excellent gamma-ray discrimination. Devices with 20 (average) ?m wide 100 ?m deep sinusoidal trenches yielded intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiencies of 11.94±0.078%.

McGregor, D. S.; McNeil, W. J.; Bellinger, S. L.; Unruh, T. C.; Shultis, J. K.

2009-09-01

441

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

G. Iaselli.

442

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

443

Ion beam detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion beam detecor for a mass-spectrometer is developed allowing one to sufficiently decrease the background current, due to tritium nucleus ?-decay and increase the accuracy of chemical and isotopic analysis of gas mixtures containing tritium. The detector is based on the principle of ion transformation into secondary electrons with their subsequent transformation into the light quanta, which are registered by a photoelectron multiplier. The main peculiarities of the detector is the presence of a protective layer which is applied to the scintillator. A monolithic scintillating shield of CaF2(Eu) is used as a scintillator. The shield operating surface is coated with fp-25 photoresistor with the thickness of about 6.5 ?m. In its turn the protective layer is coated with a thin Al layer with the thickness of -17 A

444

Liquid level detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

445

The LHCb Detector at the LHC  

OpenAIRE

Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics; Particle tracking detectors; Gaseous detectors; Calorimeters; Cherenkov detectors; Particle identification methods; Photon detectors for UV. visible and IR photons; Detector alignment and calibration methods; Detector cooling and thermo-stabilization; Detector design and construction technologies and materials. The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadr...

Jr, Aaa; Andrade Filho, Lm; Barbosa, Af; Bediaga, I.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Guerrer, G.; Jr, Lhp; Machado, Aa; Magnin, J.; Marujo, F.; Miranda, Jm; Reis, A.; Santos, A.; Toledo, A.; Akiba, K.

2008-01-01

446

Development of Gas Flow Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gas flow detector has been developed for use in nuclear physics research. The detector consists of a ?20 mmx100 mm long aluminium tube filled with Argon-Methane (P-10) at a flow rate of 1 L/min, a detector cathode and anode. This detector is being used more and more to provide the measurement systems for X-ray and gamma ray detection. We can conclude that by performing plateau scan, the operating voltage for this detector is approximately 2725 volts

447

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detectorat the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effectivearea for TeV neutrinos of similar to 10(4) m(2), has been taking datasince 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties,as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage20-string detector AMANDA-II with similar to 800 PMTs will be completedin spring 2000.

Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstrom, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg,E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren,A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark,S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold,M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; de, los, Heros, CP.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering,C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

1999-08-23

448

Selective fast neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A ZnO(Ga) scintillator has been developed which selectively detects 14 MeV neutrons in a large 2.5 MeV neutron and hard x-ray background. The detector will be useful in measuring the 14 MeV neutron emission with trace concentrations of tritium in a predominately deuterium plasma during early experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) or the Joint European Torus

449

A fossils detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

450

Detectors for particle identification  

OpenAIRE

The paper reviews recent progress in particle identification methods. A survey of motivations and requirements for particle identification in various experimental environments is followed by the main emphasis, which is on the recent development of Cherenkov counters, from upgrades of existing devices to a novel focusing radiator concept and new photon detectors. The impact of including a precise measurement of the time of arrival of Cherenkov photons to increase the kinemati...

Krizan, Peter

2007-01-01

451

Thermal detector; Thermsiche verklikker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How much extra power will go through the different types of connection and cables in houses? Even though the knowledge of network companies with regard to their own cables is decreasing, they are forced to get more out of their own networks or even to squeeze them dry. In this way they can earn a great deal of money. A brief description is given of a thermal telltale (detector) which shows how far they can go.

Van der Wey, A.; Dijkman, R. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

2001-12-01

452

LHCb velo detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

Patrice Loïez

2001-01-01

453

Vertex Detector Cable Considerations  

OpenAIRE

Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, pulsed power is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

Cooper, W. E.

2009-01-01

454

Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector  

OpenAIRE

This thesis gives an overview of the Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector designed to measure optical radiation with theoretical relative uncertainty of 1 ppm (parts per million). The device is based on two custom made large area induced junction silicon photodiodes arranged in a wedged trap structure. High internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the photodiodes is achieved by means of low doping concentration and usage of the reverse bias voltage. The IQE is predicted to be improved furthermo...

Sildoja, Meelis-mait

2013-01-01

455

Thin epitaxial silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

456

Biological detector and method  

Science.gov (United States)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

457

Analog pixel array detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray pixel array detectors (PADs) are generally thought of as either digital photon counters (DPADs) or X-ray analog-integrating pixel array detectors (APADs). Experiences with APADs, which are especially well suited for X-ray imaging experiments where transient or high instantaneous flux events must be recorded, are reported. The design, characterization and experimental applications of several APAD designs developed at Cornell University are discussed. The simplest design is a ;flash' architecture, wherein successive integrated X-ray images, as short as several hundred nanoseconds in duration, are stored in the detector chips for later off-chip digitization. Radiography experiments using a prototype flash APAD are summarized. Another design has been implemented that combines flash capability with the ability to continuously stream X-ray images at slower (e.g. milliseconds) rates. Progress is described towards radiation-hardened APADs that can be tiled to cover a large area. A mixed-mode PAD, design by combining many of the attractive features of both APADs and DPADs, is also described. PMID:16495611

Ercan, A; Tate, M W; Gruner, S M

2006-03-01

458

Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n ? ? + 7Li, with ? and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

2015-03-01

459

Nanowire-based detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

2014-06-24

460

Sensor readout detector circuit  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

461

Double sided silicon strip detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of double sided silicon strip detectors has been built that incorporates capacitive coupling of the strips to the readout electronics by integrating the capacitors into the detector design, made possible by introducing a new detector biasing concept. The detectors are read out using custom designed low noise VLSI CMOS electronics mounted on ceramic carriers which simultaneously serve as mechanical support and substrates for thick film hybrid circuitry. Prototype detectors have been installed in the ALEPH detector at the e+e- collider LEP at CERN and hits from hadronic Z0 decays have been observed on both sides of the detectors. This report is a compilation of three articles on the design and tests of these devices that have been prepared for the IEEE transactions on Nuclear Science in 1988 and 1989. (orig.)

462

The STAR Vertex Position Detector  

CERN Document Server

The 2x3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2x19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

Llope, W J; Nussbaum, T; Hoffmann, G W; Asselta, K; Brandenburg, J D; Butterworth, J; Camarda, T; Christie, W; Crawford, H J; Dong, X; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Geurts, F; Hammond, J; Judd, E; McDonald, D L; Perkins, C; Ruan, L; Scheblein, J; Schambach, J J; Soja, R; Xin, K; Yang, C

2014-01-01

463

Axioms for Centrality  

CERN Document Server

Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we try to provide a mathematically sound survey of the most important classic centrality measures known from the literature and propose an axiomatic approach to establish whether they are actually doing what they have been designed for. Our axioms suggest some simple, basic properties that a centrality measure should exhibit. Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas's classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way. As a sanity check, we examine in turn each measure under the lens of information retrieval, leveraging sta...

Boldi, Paolo

2013-01-01

464

Central line infections - hospitals  

Science.gov (United States)

... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

465

Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors  

CERN Document Server

Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

2004-01-01

466

Target Mass Monitoring and Instrumentation in the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors  

CERN Document Server

The Daya Bay experiment measures sin^2 2{\\theta}_13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time ant...

Band, Henry R; Greenler, Lee S; Heeger, Karsten M; Hinrichs, Paul; Kang, Li; Lewis, Christine; Li, Shanfeng; Lin, Shengxin; McFarlane, Michael C; Wang, Wei; Webber, David M; Wei, Yadong; Wise, Thomas; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhijian

2012-01-01

467

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed