WorldWideScience
1

Dust on UA1 central detector  

CERN Multimedia

In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

1982-01-01

2

UA1 prototype detector  

CERN Multimedia

Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

1980-01-01

3

First running experience with the laser calibration system of the UA1 central detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a UA1 technical run made with four nitrogen lasers mounted on the UA1 Central Detector during the 1987 proton-antiproton collider run. With only moderate laser power (TMPD]) straight 2 m calibration tracks can be produced. The unexpected effect of track fading under high luminosity conditions was observed. A model is presented explaining this phenomenon, which is based on the removal of neutral TMPD molecules from the drift volume via positive ion charge exchange.

Beingessner, Sean P.; Meyer, Thomas C.; Norton, Alan; Pimiä, Martti; Rubbia, Carlo; Vuillemin, Vincent

1989-07-01

4

First running experience with the laser calibration system of the UA1 Central Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a UA1 technical run made with four nitrogen lasers mounted on the UA1 Central Detector during the 1987 proton-antiproton collider run. With only moderate laser power (2) and the help of gas seeding (1 ppb of tetra-methyl-phenylene-diamine [TMPD]) straight 2 m calibration tracks can be produced. The unexpected effect of track fading under high luminosity conditions was observed. A model is presented explaining this phenomenon, which is based on the removal of neutral TMPD molecules from the drift volume via positive ion charge exchange. (orig.)

5

Central hadron calorimeter of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (author)

6

Monitoring and calibration of the muon detector at the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis a system for monitoring the muon chambers at the UA1 experiment is presented. This system was constructed in VME crates and taken in operation at the beginning of October 1988. It can process during the data taking process up to 15 events per second. These events are distributed to several processes, which are dedicated to different requirements. One of these processes serves for the monitoring of the muon chamber during the running data taking. With the help of this a series of technical defects in the chambers, in the trigger processor and in the readout electronics could be detected and localized. The histograms are daily stored and saved. They are therefore also later available. Three further processes were developed and applied by which it was studied, how far with the data, which the monitoring system contains, a calibration of the detector can be performed. The measurement of the zero-point of the drift-time spectrum, the T0, and the drift velocity of the electron vd could be performed by a simple procedure with large statistics. A timely variation of vd was by this procedure observed and measured for the first time. This variation makes a periodical fitting of the calibration constant necessary. By the large statistics it was for the first time possible to measure wire-dependent corrections of the T0. The results show that for a series of parameters the calibration can be performed with a system of the kind presented here. The careful calibration in the reconstruction of the data can by this be essentially improved. Especially by the large statistics also small components of the detector can be studied, which are otherwise not accessible. The continuous control of the calibration constants represents a valuable supplement of the monitoring system. (orig./HSI)

7

The calibration of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1 proton-antiproton experiment at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important result of the UA1 experiment at CERN has been the discovery of the weak intermediate vector bosons W+, W- and Z0. We describe the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter, which gives the signature of the electronic mode of desintegration of the intermediate bosons and measures their masses. We shall discuss this process and give some experimental results

8

UA1: Z particle decay  

CERN Multimedia

A colour treated picture of the computer reconstruction of the real particle tracks emerging from a high energy proton-antiproton collision recorded in the UA1 detector at the SPS (converted to act as a collider). This picture shows the production of a Z particle that has decayed into a high energy electron and positron flying off in opposite directions (in yellow). The UA1 detector ran on the SPS accelerator at CERN between 1981 and 1993.

1992-01-01

9

UA1 Megatek  

CERN Multimedia

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons. Comments : silent movie

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

10

Muons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/? and ? samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

11

Study of dimuon events in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that the dimuon events produced at the SPS collider and observed in the UA1 detector come mainly from bb-bar production. The inclusive cross section for direct beauty production is large: ?(pp-bar?bb-barX) = (1.2 +- 0.1 +- 0.4) ?b for p/sub T/ > 5 GeV/c and vertical bar eta vertical bar 0 ? B-bar0 oscillations

12

A Centrality Detector Concept  

OpenAIRE

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from system...

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-01-01

13

A Centrality Detector Concept  

CERN Document Server

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This article describes the concept of the centrality detector for heavy ion experim...

Tarafdar, Sourav; Milov, Alexander

2014-01-01

14

CDF central muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Design, construction and performance characteristics of the streamer chambers for the central muon detector at CDF are described. A single hit TDC is used for measurements in the drift (azimuth) direction while charge division is used for measurements along the sense wire (pseudorapidity). The chambers operate in the limited streamer mode with a 50%/50% ratio of argon/ethane bubbled through ethanol. Measurements in a cosmic ray test stand, pion test beam and as part of the CDF detector indicate that an rms resolution of 250 ?m in the drift direction and an rms resolution of 1.2 mm along the sense wire are attainable. (orig.)

15

A centrality detector concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

16

168/E online for UA1  

CERN Multimedia

Five 168/E processors and associated specialized interface hardware made an importartant contribution to the UA1 experiment. The processors provided an online event display facility, and also flagged candidate events. See Annual Report 1983 p. 75, and photo 8305815X, 8395813X. This photo shows the team including DD personnel and UA1 members. On the foreground left, is Michel Demoulin. On the background, 3rd from left, is Adolfo Fucci, last Sergio Cittolin.

1983-01-01

17

UA1: first Z event recorded  

CERN Multimedia

This image taken by the UA1 experiment on 30 April 1983 was the first detection of a Z0 particle. UA1 observed proton-antiproton collisions on the SPS between 1981 and 1993 to look for the Z and W bosons, which mediate the weak fundamental force. The Z0 decays very quickly so cannot be seen, but the electron-positron pair produced in the decay can be seen in blue.

1983-01-01

18

Proposal to the Department of Energy for participation in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proposal is to the Department of Energy for 501.6K dollars (349.6K operations and 152K equipment) for continued participation in the UA1 experiment on proton-antiproton collisions. The UA1 experiment is the study of high-energy proton-antiproton collisions in the Super-Proton-synchrotron (SPS) Collider at CERN. A major upgrade of the UA1 detector is in progress for operation with the upgraded antiproton source (ACOL). The US groups have played an increasingly prominent role in UA1 during the past few years. This paper discusses the data analysis that has been done by the group of the position detector and it's hardware

19

The PS 170 central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the design and construction of the apparatus for the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) experiment PS 170. Topics considered include MWPC and TPC prototypes, electronics, the TPC trigger, and results of test runs. The detector is designed to measure two electron final states. Electron detection is performed both by Cherenkov counters and a limited streamer tube calorimeter, and momentum measurement is accomplished by a central detector inside the magnet. In order to have clean identification of electrons by outer detectors, the central one must be as light as possible. The low center of mass energy, giving a quasi isothropic distribution of secondary particles, and the simplicity of the final states will allow a triggered operation and therefore a low cost for the chamber electronics

20

The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 ?s, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

21

Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. (orig.)

22

CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade  

OpenAIRE

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.

2007-01-01

23

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

24

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine p{sub T} of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges.

Adcox, K.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Alexander, J.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Azmoun, B.; Barish, K.N.; Baublis, V.V.; Belkin, R.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J.C.; Borland, D.; Botelho, S.; Bryan, W.L.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S.A.; Chang, W.C.; Christ, T.; Dietzsch, O.; Drees, A.; Rietz, R. du; El Chenawi, K.; Evseev, V.A.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Fraenkel, Z.; Franz, A.; Fung, S.Y.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Godoi, A.L.; Greene, S.V.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Harder, J.; Hemmick, T.K. E-mail: hemmick@skipper.physics.sunysb.edu; Heuser, J.M.; Holzmann, W.; Hutter, R.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V.I.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Johnson, S.C.; Kandasamy, A.; Kann, M.R.; Kelley, M.A.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Komkov, B.G.; Kopytine, M.L.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, V.S.; Kravtsov, P.A.; Kudin, L.G.; Kuriatkov, V.V.; Lacey, R.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V.D.; Li, X.H.; Libby, B.; Liccardi, W.; Machnowski, R.; Mahon, J.; Markushin, D.G.; Matathias, F.; Marx, M.D.; Messer, F.; Miftakhov, N.M.; Milan, J.; Miller, T.E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Nandi, B.K.; Negrin, J.; Nilsson, P.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Oskarsson, A.; Oesterman, L.; Otterlund, I.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petersen, R.; Pinkenburg, C.H.; Pisani, R.P.; Purwar, A.K.; Rankowitz, S.; Ravinovich, I.; Riabov, V.G.; Riabov, Yu.G.; Rosati, M.; Rose, A.A.; Roschin, E.V.; Samsonov, V.M.; Sangster, T.C.; Seto, R.; Silvermyr, D.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, M.; Solodov, G.P.; Stenlund, E.; Takagui, E.M.; Tarakanov, V.I.; Tarasenkova, O.P.; Thomas, J.L.; Trofimov, V.A.; Tserruya, I.; Tydesjoe, H.; Velkovska, J.; Velkovsky, M.; Vishnevskii, V.I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Vznuzdaev, E.A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, H.Q.; Weimer, T.; Wolniewicz, K.; Wu, J.; Xie, W.; Young, G.R

2003-03-01

25

Chiral and UA(1) symmetry in correlation functions in medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, we will discuss how the chiral symmetry and UA(1) breaking effects are reflected in the correlation functions. Using the Banks–Cas her formula, one can identify the density of zero eigenvalues to be the common ingredient that governs the chiral symmetry breaking in correlation functions between currents composed of light quarks with or without a heavy quark. Similarly, the presence of the UA(1) breaking effect is determined through the contribution of the topologically nontrivial configurations that depends on the number of flavors. We also discuss how the symmetry breaking effects are reflected in the gluon correlation functions. Finally, we review the Witten–Veneziano (Wv) formula for the ?' mass in medium. (author)

26

Central Tracking Detector Based on Scintillating Fibres  

CERN Multimedia

Scintillating fibres form a reasonable compromise for central tracking detectors in terms of price, resolution, response time, occupancy and heat production. \\\\ \\\\ New fluorescents with large Stokes shifts have been produced, capable of working without wavelength shifters. Coherent multibundles have been developed to achieve high packing fractions. Small segments of tracker shell have been assembled and beam tests have confirmed expectations on spatial resolution. An opto-electronic delay line has been designed to delay the track patterns and enable coincidences with a first level trigger. Replacement of the conventional phosphor screen anode with a Si pixel chip is achieved. This tube is called ISPA-tube and has already been operated in beam tests with a scintillating fibres tracker. \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the proposal is to improve hit densities for small diameter fibres by increasing the fraction of trapped light, by reducing absorption and reflection losses, by reflecting light at the free fibre end, and by inc...

2002-01-01

27

Study of methods for phase characterization in intermetallic UA1{sub x}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UA1{sub x} is an intermetallic compound used in the manufacture of irradiation targets for molybdenum-99 production. The fissionable uranium-235 is presented in the form of intermetallic UA1{sub x} powder, which is dispersed in an aluminum matrix. This paper aims at studying methods for phase characterization of the intermetallic. The index x identifies the phase composition of the compound, usually a mixture of UA1{sub 2}, UA1{sub 3}and UA1{sub 4}. The phase composition was quantified in the UA1{sub x} powder and UA1{sub x}-Al dispersion by means of image analysis and x-ray diffraction, applying the Rietveld method. Both methods allowed the quantification of the presented phases. The results from the two methods differed from each other with respect to the concentration determination. Possible error sources are discussed in this paper. The quantification method based on X-ray diffraction showed potential to be applied to the RMB project for phase quantification in UA1{sub x}-A1 dispersion targets, which is required by specification. (author)

Contubia, Giovanni; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Carvalho, Elita F. Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: gconturbia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

28

Comparison of forward and central collider detectors for beauty physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of geometry, tracking, and muon triggering indicates that a central detector has a higher efficiency than a forward detector of equal psuedo rapidity coverage at both Tevatron and SSC energies. The difference at the Tevatron is considerable, about a factor of four. At the SSC, however, the difference is about a factor of two, so other considerations such as vertexing, particle ID, or cost may make a large forward detector an attractive option

29

OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)  

CERN Multimedia

OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

30

Recent results from the UA1 experiment at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results based on a sample of events with large missing transverse energy corresponding to 715 nb-1 of data from the UA1 experiment at the CERN antipp Collider are presented. High transverse momentum tau-leptons from W decays are observed for the first time through their semi-hadronic decay modes. The first direct tests of the e-?-? universality of the weak charged couplings at Q2=m2W is provided. Measured W and Z0 rates and heavy flavour cross sections are used to predict rates of missing transverse energy events from all known Standard Model processes, and thereby to place limits on possible new sources. After taking into account all known sources of missing energy events, we find a mass limit on a fourth generation charged lepton of mL > 41 GeV/c2 and a limit on the number of additional neutrinos of N? 2 for the gluino and 70 GeV/c2 for the squark are also given. Finally, two events are presented in which two energetic hadronic jets and a high energy lepton are balanced by missing energy. These events are discussed and compared to all observed W + 2-jet events

31

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

32

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

33

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

34

Interference suppression improvements of the UA1 electronics at the CERN Proton-Antiproton Collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 experiment for investigations on proton-antiproton interactions has a detection unit comprising a cylindrical drift chamber, an electromagnetic calorimeter, a hadronic calorimeter and additional drift chambers for the muon detection. Especially with the em calorimeter the interference from nearby power circuits exceeded the specified level. The task for the author was to reduce the interference to an acceptable level without major infringement into the existing electronics. The causes and propagation paths of interferences were found out and simulated in the laboratory. An improvement strategy was derived consisting mainly in changes of the grounding configuration, the periferies of the electronics proper, and only to a small degree on the experiment electronics itself. The author developed a new current supply system featuring the same modularity as the detector itself enabling a nearly complete guard-shield configuration for the 12 channels of the same cable. The signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by 40 in the most afflicted channels. 44 refs., 32 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

35

The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

36

Construction and performance of the L3 central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The L3 central tracking detector has been in operation since the start-up of LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) in 1989. This detector consists of a Time Expansion Chamber (TEC), a layer of Plastic Scintillating Fibers and a Z-chamber. The TEC gives a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability. The fibers are designed to calibrate the drift velocity with high precision. The Z-Chamber provides TEC with accurate information about the z-coordinates of the tracks. A description of the design and the infrastructure of these three detectors, including the readout and data acquisition system, is given. The performance of the detectors during the 1990 and 1991 LEP running periods is presented. (orig.)

37

Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

Sommer, Wolfgang

2008-03-26

38

Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

39

Study of methods for phase characterization in intermetallic UA1x  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1x is an intermetallic compound used in the manufacture of irradiation targets for molybdenum-99 production. The fissionable uranium-235 is presented in the form of intermetallic UA1x powder, which is dispersed in an aluminum matrix. This paper aims at studying methods for phase characterization of the intermetallic. The index x identifies the phase composition of the compound, usually a mixture of UA12, UA13and UA14. The phase composition was quantified in the UA1x powder and UA1x-Al dispersion by means of image analysis and x-ray diffraction, applying the Rietveld method. Both methods allowed the quantification of the presented phases. The results from the two methods differed from each other with respect to the concentration determination. Possible error sources are discussed in this paper. The quantification method based on X-ray diffraction showed potential to be applied to the RMB project for phase quantification in UA1x-A1 dispersion targets, which is required by specification. (author)

40

Data acqusition for the Zeus central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the SSC environment. This paper describes the Transputer based data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector, and outlines some proposed development work on the use of parallel processing techniques in this field.

Quinton, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

1989-04-01

41

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

42

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

Bartsch, D.

2007-05-15

43

The central tracker of the P-bar ANDA detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main components of the new international research facility called FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) [Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. (http://www.gsi.de/fair/index e.html)], to be constructed in Darmstadt, Germany, is a storage ring for phase-space-cooled antiprotons-High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). The P-bar ANDA (P-bar (antiproton) ANnihilation in DArmstadt) [Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons, Technical Progress Report for P-bar ANDA. (http://www-panda.gsi.de/archive/public/pandatpr.pdf)] experiment is a state-of-the-art detector at HESR covering almost the complete solid angle with an internal target. This experiment will investigate QCD in the charmonium mass region. The central tracker is the essential part of the P-bar ANDA detector, providing information about primary and secondary decay vertices, momenta of charged particles and particle identification.

44

$U_A(1)$ Symmetry Breaking and the Scalar Sector of QCD  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that most of the unusual properties of the lowest lying scalar (and pseudoscalar) mesons can be understood, at the qualitative and quantitative level, on the basis of the breakdown of the $U_A(1)$ symmetry coupled to the vacuum expectation values of scalars by the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry.

Napsuciale, M; Napsuciale, Mauro; Rodriguez, Simon

2001-01-01

45

Observation of tau decay from W ? tau?sub(tau) in a UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of the W by the UA1 Collaboration in 1983, we have published the measurements of its decay in leptonic and muonic modes. We report here the first observation of the decay W ? tau?sub(tau), in 1983 data. (author)

46

Investigation of the $U_A(1)$ in high temperature QCD on the lattice  

CERN Document Server

In this project we study the effect of the $U_A(1)$ anomaly for (2+1)-flavour QCD at high temperature. We apply the overlap operator as a tool to probe the topological properties of gauge field configurations which have been generated within the Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) discretization scheme on lattices of size $32^3\\times 8$ with $m_l/m_s=1/20$, commonly used for the study of QCD thermodynamics. Although we have at present, only results for one value of the quark masses and thus cannot monitor the change of the eigenvalue distributions with the light quark mass, the distribution of the low-lying eigenvalues of the overlap operator suggests that the $U_A(1)$ is not restored effectively even at 1.5 times the pseudo critical temperature. The corresponding low-lying eigenmodes show localization properties.

Sharma, Sayantan; Karsch, Frithjof; Laermann, Edwin; Mukherjee, Swagato

2013-01-01

47

A point mutation in the CYC1 UAS1 creates a new combination of regulatory elements that activate transcription synergistically.  

OpenAIRE

Dissection of the upstream activation site 1 (UAS1) of the yeast CYC1 gene showed that the A and B regions respond individually to regulation by the HAP1 protein, and that a point mutation in the B region converts this region to a translation upstream factor (TUF)-regulated element. Combinatorial analyses revealed that the transacting factors involved with these wild-type and mutant UAS1 target sites combine to activate transcription in a synergistic manner. Furthermore, combinations of heter...

Sousa, R.; Arcangioli, B.

1989-01-01

48

Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)  

CERN Document Server

Prestaciones del Detector Central de Muones del Experimento CMS: las Camaras de Deriva y su Sistema de Trigger (Performance of the Central Muon Detector of the Experiment CMS: the Drift Tube Chambers and its Trigger System)

Muńoz, Carlos Villanueva

2007-01-01

49

b-flavour production in the forward arm of the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent experiment at the CERN ISR have measured with solid statistics the forward production of strange baryons and shown evidence for the production of the lowest state of the charmed baryon family (?c+). On the basis of these data the expected cross section for b flavoured particles and the acceptance for a restricted set of decay modes involving J/PSI and V0's production in the framework of the UA1 experiment at the CERN anti-pp collider can be inferred

50

Effects of the UA(1) breaking interaction on the baryonic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the UA(1) breaking interaction on the baryon number one and two systems are estimated employing the six-quark flavour determinantal interaction as the effective interaction of quarks which reproduces the observed mass difference of ? and ?' mesons. This is done by calculating the matrix elements of the UA(1) breaking Hamiltonian with respect to unperturbed states of the MIT bag model and the nonrelativistic quark model. The determinantal interaction induces not only three-body but also two-body interactions of valence quarks. The two-body interaction is attractive, which gives rise to the N-? mass difference with the magnitude less than one tenth of the observed one and attraction of two octet baryons at short distances whose magnitude ranges 20?80 MeV depending on the flavour channels and the choice of parameters. The three-body interaction is repulsive, which gives about 10?20 MeV repulsion in the H-dibaryon channel and somewhat weaker repulsion in the flavour SU(3) octet and antidecuplet channels of two octet baryons at short distances. We also compare our results with those obtained by using the instanton induced interaction. (author)

51

Radiation loads of the detectors for the central region of the LHCb experiment at LHC  

CERN Document Server

The formation of the secondary-radiation field in the central region of the future LHCb experiment at LHC (CERN) was numerically simulated. The specific features of the field characteristics were revealed for different configurations of detectors in the experiment. The radiation loads governing the detector operation in a given radiation environment were evaluated. Methods for optimizing the design of the detectors and the accelerator vacuum chamber were proposed. (15 refs).

Talanov, V V

2002-01-01

52

Specific heat of UAs1-xSbx and USb1-xTex single crystals at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report specific-heat experiments on UAs1-xSbx (x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) and USb1-xTex (x=0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) in the temperature range between 1.5 and 11 K. For UAs1-xSbx the parameter ? of the electronic specific heat changes by a factor of ?20 within a concentration range of ?x=0.3. In the USb1-xTex series the variation of ? is much smaller in magnitude. (orig.)

53

Renormalization group flow of linear sigma model with $U_A(1)$ anomaly  

CERN Document Server

In the presence of finite $U_A(1)$ breaking, chiral phase transition of massless two-flavor QCD is studied by tracing the renormalization group flow of the corresponding effective theory. In the framework of the $\\epsilon$ expansion, it is found that the nature of the phase transition depends on the initial condition for the parameters of the effective theory and that, when it undergoes second order phase transition, one of the universal exponents shows a different value from that in the standard $O(4)$ linear sigma model. We discuss that the origin of the difference is attributed to a non-decoupling effect. The present status of the calculation of the effective potential is presented.

Sato, Tomomi

2015-01-01

54

Long distance expansion for the NJL model with SU(3) and UA(1) breaking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is a follow up of recent investigations, where we study the implications of a generalized heat kernel expansion, constructed to incorporate non-perturbatively the effects of a non-commutative quark mass matrix in a fully covariant way at each order of the expansion. As underlying Lagrangian we use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of QCD, with SUf(3) and UA(1) breaking, the latter generated by the 't Hooft flavour determinant interaction. The associated bosonized Lagrangian is derived in leading stationary phase approximation (SPA) and up to second order in the generalized heat kernel expansion. Its symmetry breaking pattern is shown to have a complex structure, involving all powers of the mesonic fields allowed by symmetry. The considered Lagrangian yields a reliable playground for the study of the implications of symmetry and vacuum structure on the mesonic spectra, which we evaluate for the scalar and pseudoscalar meson nonets and compare with other approaches and experiment

55

QCD background for the UA1 W?tb-bar signal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cc-barX and bb-barX background affecting the W?tb-bar e/?+2 jets signal reported by the UA1 Collaboration is discussed. Calculations are based on an O(?/sub s/ 2)+leading-pole approximation scheme, which includes jet radiation in the initial and final states of the hard binary parton process, and include the heavy-flavor excitation contribution, the stability of which has been checked. The main conclusions are the following. (i) Selection cuts naturally induce a topological event structure on the surviving background mimicking that expected for a W?tb-bar signal. (ii) The background rates for ?+2 jets events, on which we concentrate, are compatible within theoretical uncertainties with the number of events experimentally observed. The importance of purely leptonic decay modes, which survive the lepton-isolation cuts, and the bias induced by lepton-isolation cuts on background event topologies are also clarified

56

On $U_V(1)\\times U_A(1)$ gauge invariance in a Lorentz-violating QED  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a Lorentz-symmetry violating master quantum electrodynamics which preserves the $U_V(1)\\times U_A(1)$ gauge symmetry. The master fermionic sector can radiatively induce a master effective action which simultaneously displays the same electromagnetic terms present in the Carroll-Field-Jackiw, Myers-Pospelov and Aether actions.

Anacleto, M A; Passos, E

2014-01-01

57

Optical position monitoring system for the central muon detector of the CMS experiment at CERN  

CERN Document Server

The CMS experiment (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the experiments on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN (European Organization for Particle Physics). To achieve the best performance in the reconstruction of the particle tracks the knowledge of the positions of the tracking detectors is required. In this paper the optical position monitoring system of the Central Muon part of the CMS Detector is described. (4 refs).

Mocholí-Mocholí, J; Szillási, Z; Raics, P; Szabó, Z; Molnár, J; Borsic, M; Butorac, J

2002-01-01

58

Measurement of the missing transverse energy in the UA1 experiment. Possible interpretations and futurs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of events with a large missing transverse energy (ETmiss) produced in the hadronic collisions, constitutes a very powerful method for testing the Standard Model and to search for new phenomena. We have analysed the events produced at the CERN pantip Collider (UA1 experiment) with a large missing transverse energy with one or several jets. Among this sample of events, we found a signal from the? lepton which is produced from the decay of the W, by observing the ?'s decay into hadrons. Using this analysis, we place an upper limit on the masses of gluinos and squarks in the absence of a signal of their production. We use a realistic simulation of a 4? very fine-grained calorimeter to study the direct production of the gluinos and squarks in pp collisions (ACOL, TEVATRON, LHC, SSC) in association with the background coming from the Standard Model which is dominated by QCD jets and the W and Z production. In this scheme, after a study of the signal and background behaviour as a function of the cuts applied, the limits with each of these Colliders for discovering the gluino and squark masses are given

59

One half of the central detector for the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS)experiment R807  

CERN Multimedia

This experiment was setup at the ISR intersection I-8 by the Brookhaven-CERN-Copenhagen-Lund-Rutherford Lab.-Tel Aviv Collaboration to study large transverse momentum phenomena (see Annual Report 1979 p. 69). The central detector (here shown for a part) was a cylindrical drift chamber with fine azimuthal segmentation.

1979-01-01

60

Results and Future Plans on Central Exclusive Production with the LHCb Detector  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb detector and LHC running conditions are ideally suited to measuring central exclusive production. Several recent measurements of exclusive dimuon, single and double charmonia are reviewed. The potential for future measurements across a broad range of physics channels is discussed.

McNulty, Ronan

2014-01-01

61

A Scintillator tile-fiber preshower detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

S. Lami

2004-08-12

62

A Scintillator Tile-Fiber Preshower Detector for the CDF Central Calorimeter  

OpenAIRE

The front face of the CDF central calorimeter is being equipped with a new Preshower detector, based on scintillator tiles read out by WLS fibers, in order to cope with the luminosity increase provided by the Main Injector during the Tevatron's Run II data taking. A light yield of about 40 pe/MIP at the tile exit was obtained, exceeding the design requirements.

Lami, Stefano

2004-01-01

63

Test stands for the Central Drift Chamber front end hybrid in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD) uses 1280 front end electronic hybrid modules. Each of these modules contains over 450 components and performs numerous functions. This paper describes the four test stands for production and detailed circuit characterizations of these hybrids. Descriptions and performance of some of the important functions of the test systems will be presented here

64

Improvement in the CDF L2 electron trigger using the central shower max detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a trigger upgrade for CDF run 1b, new electronics will bring the central shower max detector (CES) into the open-quote level-2 close-quote trigger algorithm. This upgrade will allow the trigger to select electrons within a finer segmentation in the r - ? view. This will be achieved by requiring a pulse height in the shower max detector be associated with a projected track from the central fast tracker to within 2 degrees. In CDF run la, the track was only required to point to the same 15 degree wedge as the electron electromagnetic cluster. This tighter matching will decrease the open-quote level-2 close-quote electron cross section by about a factor 2, while maintaining the electron purity

65

Right and left support feet of the Central Barrel Yoke of the CMS Detector  

CERN Document Server

Fully loaded the Central Barrel will weigh 3000 tonnes. Those feet have tosupport this weight. Therefore they are made of 120 mm thick steel plates.To guarantee a maximum coverage for the muon detctor they will house a muon detector just benaeth the top plate. Weight of 1 foot is 35 tonnes.Its height is 3.5 m and it is 2.5 m large

Franz Leher, DWE

2000-01-01

66

The hybridized front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accommodate the high packaging density requirements for the front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) in the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), the CDC front end electronics has been hybridized. The hybrid package contains eight channels of amplifiers together with all the associated circuits for calibration, event recognition and power economy switching functions. A total of 1280 such hybrids are used in the CDC

67

The commissioning of the central interferometer of the Virgo gravitational wave detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Virgo is a laser Michelson interferometer with 3-km long Fabry-Perot in the arms, aiming at the detection of gravitational waves emitted by astrophysical sources in the frequency band from 10 Hz to few kHz. The core of the detector, the central interferometer, was installed first. It is a recycled Michelson interferometer, with 6-m long arms, obtained by replacing the 3-km long Fabry-Perot cavities with high reflectivity mirrors and using the same components designed for Virgo. In particular all the mirrors of the interferometer are suspended from the seismic isolators that represent the main unique characteristic of the Virgo detector. The interferometer has been controlled by means of a fully digital control system, capable of monitoring and controlling the relative position of the mirrors with an accuracy of 10-12 m. The best displacement sensitivity was 10-13 m/?Hz at 10 Hz and 8×10-17 m/?Hz above 1 kHz. This article describes the detector configuration, the tests performed in view of commissioning the full detector and the main results obtained.

Acernese, F.; Amico, P.; Arnaud, N.; Babusci, D.; Barillé, R.; Barone, F.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Beauville, F.; Bizouard, M. A.; Boccara, C.; Bondu, F.; Bosi, L.; Bracci, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Brocco, L.; Buskulic, D.; Calamai, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, E.; Cavalier, F.; Cella, G.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cleva, F.; Cokelaer, T.; Corda, C.; Coulon, J. P.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; de Rosa, R.; di Fiore, L.; di Virgilio, A.; Dujardin, B.; Eleuteri, A.; Enard, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Giordano, G.; Guidi, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heusse, P.; Holloway, L.; Kreckelbergh, S.; La Penna, P.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Loupias, M.; Mackowski, J. M.; Majorana, E.; Man, C. N.; Marion, F.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Massonnet, L.; Mazzoni, M.; Milano, L.; Moreau, F.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Mornet, F.; Mours, B.; Pacheco, J.; Pai, A.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Perniola, B.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qipiani, K.; Ramonet, J.; Rapagnani, P.; Reita, V.; Remillieux, A.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Russo, G.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Trinquet, H.; Varvella, M.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Veziant, O.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J. Y.; Vocca, H.; Yvert, M.

2004-04-01

68

Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UA1 detector at the Spanti pS collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first full solid angle analysis of large transverse energy events in panti p collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at ?s=630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (? ?s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (orig.)

69

Construction of a cylindrical MWPC for the central tracking detector of H1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of two cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers, 2.2 meter long and 1 meter in diameter, are being built as part of the central tracking detector of the H1 experiment, at HERA. The chamber bodies are of sandwich type; the cathodes are segmented in pads. The transmission line, which is part of the sandwich, has an impedance matched to the preamplifiers. The electronic readout has been tested on a flat prototype chamber; the time resolution is well below the 96 ns bunch crossing time at HERA. (orig.)

70

Construction of a cylindrical MWPC for the central tracking detector of H1  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of two cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers, 2.2 meter long and 1 meter in diameter, are being built as part of the central tracking detector of the H1 experiment, at HERA. The chamber bodies are of sandwich type; the cathodes are segmented in pads. The transmission line, which is part of the sandwich, has an impedance matched to the preamplifiers. The electronic readout has been tested on a flat prototype chamber; the time resolution is well below the 96 ns bunch crossing time at HERA.

Bertrand-Coremans, G.; De Roeck, A.; Dewulf, J. P.; Evrard, E.; Huet, P.; Johnson, D.; Marage, P.; Moreels, J.; Roosen, R.; Van Beek, G.

1990-08-01

71

The high-voltage and readout electronics of the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For experiments at the new BONN accelerator facility ELSA an experimental setup called SAPHIR (Spectrometer Arrangement for Photon Induced Reactions) is being built. The central detector of SAPHIR is a drift chamber matching the magnet gap of 1 m3. The subject of this paper is the high voltage supply including the control system and the readout of the chamber. The mechanical construction and the electronics are described. The time resolution of the readout chain has been studied and was found to be slightly better than 1 nsec in accordance to the specification for the TDCs. Furthermore first preliminary results from a check in the BONN electron test beam are presented. (orig.)

72

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system studied by neutron diffraction from single crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system (temperature versus composition) has been determined from neutron diffraction measurements in zero applied magnetic field on single crystals with x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50, as well as from measurements in finite applied magnetic fields on single crystals with x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30. For x ? 0.40 and incommensurate magnetic ordering (k=[0,0,k]; mkparallelk) develops below TN down to TIC. The k-value at TN decreases with the increase of x; in decreasing temperatures the k-value approaches the commensurate value below TIC. At TIC an incommensurate-commensurate transition leads to the type-I phase (k=1) for x ? 0.05 (with a subsequent transition to type-IA at T0), to the type-IA phase (k=1/2) for 0.05 ? x ? 0.30, and to the squaring-up of the (5+,4-) phase (k ? 0.244) for x=0.40 below T ? 90 K. For x ? 0.50 the ordering is ferromagnetic. The nature of the multi-k structure is determined from measurements in finite fields. With the previously established single-k structure of type-I (in UAs), the UAs1-xSex system exhibits single-k, double-k and triple-k structures. A double-k-triple-k transition occurs for x ? 0.15 in the type-IA phase and for x ? 0.22 in the incommensurate phase. The ordered magnetic moment at T=4.2 K is practically independent of thecally independent of the ordering (m ? 2?B). (orig.)

73

Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John Alan (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

74

The magnetic field for the ZEUS central detector - analysis and correction of the field measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic field in the central tracking region of the ZEUS-detector - a facility to investigate highly energetic electron-proton-collisions at the HERA-collider at DESY Hamburg - is generated by a superconducting coil and reaches 18 kG (1.8 T). Some of the tracking devices particularly the drift chambers in the proton forward and rear direction (FTD1-3 and RTD) are not fully contained within the coil and therefore situated in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field: The radial component Br is up to 6.6 kG, maximum gradients are found to be 300 G/cm for ?Br/?r. Evaluating the space drifttime relation necessitates a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field. To reach this goal we analysed the field measurements and corrected them for systematic errors. The corrected data were compared with the field calculations (TOSCA-maps). Measurements and calculations are confirmed by studying consistency with Maxwell's equations. The accuracy reached is better than 100 G throughout the forward and central drift chambers (FTD1-3, CTD) and better than 150 G in the RTD. (orig.)

75

Production and muonic decay of the intermediate vector boson Z0 in the UA1-experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the production of the z0 in proton-antiproton collisions and the subsequent decay of the Z-0 into two muons is experimentally studied. I was first responsible for the faultless readout of the muon detector. In the analysis I have first selected the Z0 data of the runs of 1984 and 1985, as well as determined the efficiency of this selection. Furthermore I have collaborated in the establishment of the pt ? > 15 GeV/c selection. In the following the Z0 sample was examined on completeness and the background calculated again. At c.m. energies of ?S = 546 GeV and ?S = 630 GeV in the whole 21 Z0 events were identified by their muonic decay. The analysis of the data yielded the following essential results: MZ = 90.7-4.8+5.2 (stat.)±3.2(syst.) GeV/c2. From the asymmetry of the muon angular distribution we calculate the electroweak mixing angle to sin 2?W = 0.24-0.04+0.05. The mixing can be better determined from the ratio of the W± and Z0 masses. In the muon channel we obtain sin2?W = 0.187±0.148(stat.)±0.033(syst.). If the weak mixing angle is given from the mass ratio the ? parameter can be calculated. In the muon channel we obtain ? = 1.05±0.16(stat.)±0.05(syst.). The measured cross sections of (?.B)?546GeV = 98.4±49.8(stat.)±19.9(syst) and (?.B)?630Gev = 65.9±17.2(stat.)±10.9(syst) are compatible with the prediction of the Drell-Yan production mechanism. From the ratio of the cross sections the number of the light neutrino generations N? can be limited to above. With 90% confidence N? 0 further heavy vector bosons below a mass of 173 GeV/c2 are excluded. (orig./HSI)

76

Functional Integral Approaches to the Bosonization of Effective Multi-Quark Interactions with U_A(1 Breaking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low energy hadron phenomenology involving the (u,d,s quarks is often approached through effective multi-quark Lagrangians with the symmetries of QCD. A very successful approach consists in taking the four-quark Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Lagrangianwith the chiral $U_L(3imes U_R(3$ symmetry in the massless limit, combined with the $U_A(1$ breaking six-quark flavourdeterminant interaction of 't Hooft. We review the present status and some very recent developments related to the functionalintegration over the cubic term in auxiliary mesonic variables that one introduces to bosonize the system. Various approaches forhandling this functional, which cannot be integrated exactly, are discussed: the stationary phase approximation, the perturbative expansion, the loop expansion, their interrelation and importance for the evaluation of the effective action. The intricate group structure rules out the method of Airy's integral. The problem ofthe instability of the vacuum is stated and a solution given by including eight-quark interactions.

Brigitte Hiller

2006-02-01

77

Trigger strategies for central exclusive $H \\to b\\overline{b}$ studies with the AFP detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) upgrade proposes to install proton detectors at 220 m and 420 m either side of the ATLAS interaction point, turning the LHC into a giant magnetic spectrometer. The physics motivation for this upgrade focuses on ?nal states in which the colliding protons remain intact, allowing a full reconstruction of the event, even in the forward region. One such process is the production of the Higgs boson in the central exclusive channel and tagging the outgoing protons allows the possible extraction of the Higgs quantum numbers, mass and couplings regardless of the decay channel. Studying this exclusive production channel for the presently favoured low Higgs mass depends on the possibility of ef?ciently triggering, up to the highest luminosities, on a pair of relatively soft jets coming from the decay of b quarks or ? leptons. As jet triggers will inevitably be heavily pre-scaled, even at modest luminosities, it is essential to make a coincidence betweeen information from the tagging d...

Brown, G J A; Kupco, A; Pilkington, A; Tasevsky, M

2009-01-01

78

At UA1  

CERN Multimedia

David Myers and Jean-Pierre Vialle preparing for MERLIN. The MERLIN project provided a facility to interact with a three-dimensional moving image of the very complex events expected. MERLIN was based on a VAX-11/780 computer and two Megatek Graphics Stations (Annual Report 1980 p. 81).

1980-01-01

79

Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes an X-ray detector for obtaining a two-dimensional image of an object in biomedical radiography. The detector consists of an almost flat ionisation chamber with an electrode made of a high resistance material which can store charge on its surface. The radiation pattern is detected by means of a needle that moves in a groove on the electrode surface. The electrode has the form of a dish and rotates in order to allow the needle to scan the surface. (Th.W.P.)

80

Recent results on jet-physics and QCD tests by UA1 and UA2 at the CERN proton-antiproton collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The jet cross-sections of the UA1 and UA2 experiments at CERN are discussed and compared with the predictions of QCD at order ?s2 (inclusive and two-jet cross sections), ?s2 (three-jet events), ?s4 (four-jet events). Inclusive cross-section has been measured for production of high-PT direct photons and is compared with QCD predictions. A status report is given on the search for the decay of the intermediate vector bosons W and Z into a quark-antiquark pair. 13 figs., 39 refs

81

Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

82

Measurement of the Central Exclusive Production of pion pairs using tagged forward protons at the STAR detector at RHIC  

OpenAIRE

We present preliminary measurement of the invariant mass spectrum of the two oppositely charged pions produced in the process pp ? p?+??p (Central Exclusive Production), obtained with the STAR detector at RHIC at ?(s) = 200 GeV. The Roman Pots were used to tag forward protons and the invariant mass of the pion pair was obtained using tracks reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The non-exclusive background estimated from events with like-sign track pairs is small, t...

Turnau Jacek

2012-01-01

83

Measurement of the Central Exclusive Production of pion pairs using tagged forward protons at the STAR detector at RHIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present preliminary measurement of the invariant mass spectrum of the two oppositely charged pions produced in the process pp ? p?+??p (Central Exclusive Production, obtained with the STAR detector at RHIC at ?(s = 200 GeV. The Roman Pots were used to tag forward protons and the invariant mass of the pion pair was obtained using tracks reconstructed in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC. The non-exclusive background estimated from events with like-sign track pairs is small, thus proof of principle of this type of the measurement at small momentum transfer to proton is established. Plans for the future are also discussed.

Turnau Jacek

2012-12-01

84

Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

Alvarenga, T.A.; Andrade Filho, Luciano Manhaes; Nobrega, R.A. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Barbosa, A.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

85

Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

86

Simulation studies for reconstructed muon energy and direction resolutions in the central region of ICAL detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have used a GEANT4 based track reconstruction package developed by the INO collaboration for detailed simulation of ICAL geometry and propagation of particles. A Kalman filter based algorithm is used to reconstruct the muon energy and the direction at the vertex. We propagate an ensemble of muons with fixed energy (E) and direction (cos?) through the detector and make distributions of the reconstructed energy and direction to determine the resolutions ?E and ?cos?. We also obtain the resolution efficiencies ?R and ?C from these distributions. We have obtained the resolutions and efficiencies in the energy range 1-20 GeV and in the cos? range (-1,1). (author)

87

Search for a Light Higgs Boson in Central Exclusive Diffraction: Method and Detectors  

CERN Document Server

By detecting leading protons produced in the Central Exclusive Diffractive process, p+p ? p+X+p, one can measure the missing mass, and scan for possible new particle states such as the Higgs boson. This process augments - in a model independent way - the standard methods for new particle searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will allow detailed analyses of the produced central system, such as the spin-parity properties of the Higgs boson. The exclusive central diffractive process makes possible precision studies of gluons at the LHC and complements the physics scenarios foreseen at the next e+e? linear collider. This thesis first presents the conclusions of the first systematic analysis of the expected precision measurement of the leading proton momentum and the accuracy of the reconstructed missing mass. In this initial analysis, the scattered protons are tracked along the LHC beam line and the uncertainties expected in beam transport and detection of the scattered leading protons are accounte...

Kalliopuska, Juha

88

The central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector - implementation into the experiment and study of its properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA the large solid angle detector SAPHIR was built for the investigation of photon induced reactions. A main component of SAPHIR is the central drift chamber (CDC) matching the magneto gap of 1m3. The diameter of the in total 1828 hexagonal drift cells is about 18 mm. The subject of this paper is the implementation of the CDC in the experiment. After the description of the hardware follows the presentation of the software tools for filtering and monitoring the data, which have been developed and tested. An algorithm for extracting the space time relationship is presented. The properties of the chamber with an improved gas mixture (Helium/Neon/Isobutane8 21.25:63.75:15) have been investigated. A spatial resolution of about 200 ?m was achieved. The efficiency of the chamber is 97% at a tagged photon of 5x104 per second crossing the chamber. (orig.)

89

Picomolar Nitric Oxide Signals from Central Neurons Recorded Using Ultrasensitive Detector Cells*  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a widespread signaling molecule with potentially multifarious actions of relevance to health and disease. A fundamental determinant of how it acts is its concentration, but there remains a lack of coherent information on the patterns of NO release from its sources, such as neurons or endothelial cells, in either normal or pathological conditions. We have used detector cells having the highest recorded NO sensitivity to monitor NO release from brain tissue quantitatively and in real time. Stimulation of NMDA receptors, which are coupled to activation of neuronal NO synthase, routinely generated NO signals from neurons in cerebellar slices. The average computed peak NO concentrations varied across the anatomical layers of the cerebellum, from 12 to 130 pm. The mean value found in the hippocampus was 200 pm. Much variation in the amplitudes recorded by individual detector cells was observed, this being attributable to their location at variable distances from the NO sources. From fits to the data, the NO concentrations at the source surfaces were 120 pm to 1.4 nm, and the underlying rates of NO generation were 36–350 nm/s, depending on area. Our measurements are 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than reported by some electrode recordings in cerebellum or hippocampus. In return, they establish coherence between the NO concentrations able to elicit physiological responses in target cells through guanylyl cyclase-linked NO receptors, the concentrations that neuronal NO synthase is predicted to generate locally, and the concentrations that neurons actually produce. PMID:22016390

Wood, Katherine C.; Batchelor, Andrew M.; Bartus, Katalin; Harris, Kathryn L.; Garthwaite, Giti; Vernon, Jeffrey; Garthwaite, John

2011-01-01

90

Construction and test of the full-size prototype for the central jet chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the H1 project for the central track chamber CJC a prototype with the full wire length of 2.31 m was built and taken into operation. This full-size prototype comprehends three complete cells of the internal jet chamber CJC 1. The construction of the cells equals thereby in all points to that of the CJC. By this a chamber is available, by which important parameters like drift velocities, Lorentz angle, and position resolution can be determined before taking the CJC into operation. Furthermore reparatures can be first tried at the prototype. Besides the experiences obtained in the erection of the prototype and the taking of the chamber into operation help in the corresponding working steps of the CJC. The dependence of the position resolution on the position of the track in the detector was studied for the gas mixture Ar/CO2/CH4 in the mixing ratio 89/10/1. For this several measurement series were taken up, in which the distance of the track from the signal-wire plane, the angle ? between the track and the signal-wire plane, and the angel ? between track and longitudinal detector axis were varied. At a drift path of 10 mm in cell 2 a resolution of 160 ?m was reached, which increases for larger drift pathes because of the increasing of diffusion. For cell 1 however only a value of 180 ?m was reached. The determination of the position resolution in dependence on the track angle showed that the best values for the resolution were aimed at tracks, which run parallel to the signal-wire plane. (orig./HSI)

91

Implications of a new heat kernel expansion for an effective QCD chiral Lagrangian with SU(3) and U_A(1) breaking  

CERN Document Server

This work is a follow up of recent investigations, where we study the implications of a generalized heat kernel expansion, constructed to incorporate non-perturbatively the effects of a non-commutative quark mass matrix in a fully covariant way at each order of the expansion. As underlying Lagrangian we use the Nambu -- Jona-Lasinio model of QCD, with $SU_f(3)$ and $U_A(1)$ breaking, the latter generated by the 't Hooft flavour determinant interaction. The associated bosonized Lagrangian is derived in leading stationary phase approximation (SPA) and up to second order in the generalized heat kernel expansion. Its symmetry breaking pattern is shown to have a complex structure, involving all powers of the mesonic fields allowed by symmetry. The considered Lagrangian yields a reliable playground for the study of the implications of symmetry and vacuum structure on the mesonic spectra, which we evaluate for the scalar and pseudoscalar meson nonets and compare with other approaches and experiment.

Osipov, A A; Hiller, B

2004-01-01

92

Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

93

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!  

CERN Multimedia

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!

2004-01-01

94

Measurement of ttŻ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at s?=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

OpenAIRE

A measurement of the jet activity in ttŻ events produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb?1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttŻ events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction o...

Barton, Adam; Borissov, Guennadi; Bouhova-thacker, Eva; Brodbeck, Timothy; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Davidson, Ruth; Mora, Lee; Dearnaley, William; Fox, Harald; Henderson, Robert; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Roger William Lewis; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Long, Robin; Love, Peter

2012-01-01

95

A 4? solid angle detector to measure multiplicities of pions and protons produced in central collisions between relativistic heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many experiments have been done in the field of the collision between heavy ions. To improve this experimental situation various detection systems are under design to detect not only the presence of several particles in coincidence but also their nature, their angle of emission and their energy, all of this in a very large solid angle. The detector DIOGENE is of this type. We describe this detector, then we give the present status of the construction and, finally, we describe in a few words the first experiments that we intend to do with it at Saturne

96

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/? yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/? mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ?b-1, J/? mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ?+?- pairs. The measured J/? yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ?+?- final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/? and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

97

Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Ĺkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Ĺsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2011-01-01

98

The spiral projection chamber (SPC): A central detector with high resolution and granularity suitable for experiments at LEP  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type of projection chamber with cylindrical structure and radial electric drift field is proposed. This detector should improve by one order of magnitude the spatial accuracy and double-track resolution obtainable with other types of wire-chamber configurations in the region close to the beam pipe in colliding beam machines.

Gastaldi, U.

99

Measurement of t anti t production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at ?(s)=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of the jet activity in t anti t events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The t anti t events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC rate at NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space. (orig.)

100

The upgraded DŘ detector  

OpenAIRE

The DŘ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters ...

Abazov, Vm; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, Bs; Adams, Dl; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J-l; Ahmed, Sn; Ahn, Sh; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, Gd; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.

2006-01-01

101

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}=5.02$~TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions (PDF) in the high-density nuclear environment. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in $p$+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 29/nb of proton-lead collisions at $5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of $p$+Pb events is characterized through the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. In minimum bias $p$+Pb collisions, the jet yields are seen to be consistent with expectations from nuclear PDF effects. However, the jet yields in central and peripheral $p$+Pb collisions are found to be strongly suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

102

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in ?{sNN} = 5.02 TeV p + Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions (PDF) in the high-density nuclear environment. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p + A collisions has implications for understanding the strong suppression seen in central A + A collisions. The latest results on inclusive jet production in 29/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. The centrality of p + Pb events is characterized through the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. In minimum bias p + Pb collisions, the jet yields are seen to be consistent with calculations incorporating nuclear PDF effects. However, the jet yields in central and peripheral p + Pb collisions are found to be strongly suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometric expectations. Furthermore, the modifications at forward rapidities are seen to be consistent with a scaling in the total jet energy, suggesting that the modifications may depend on the initial kinematics of the hard parton-parton scattering.

Perepelitsa, D. V.

2014-11-01

103

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions in the high-density nuclear environment. In the forward direction and at small pT jets may even explore the transition from a dilute to saturated partonic system. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 31/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of p+Pb events is determined by applying the Glauber model to the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. The jet yields in central and peripheral p+Pb collisions are found to be suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometr...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

104

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV proton--lead collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead ($p$+Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV proton--proton collisions are presented. These quantities are measured in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 27.8 nb$^{-1}$ and 4.0 pb$^{-1}$, respectively, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $-4.9 < \\eta < -3.2$ in the direction of the lead beam. Results are presented for the double-differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum ($p_\\mathrm{T}$) for minimum-bias and centrality-selected $p$+Pb collisions, and are compared to the jet rate from the geometric expectation. The total jet yield in minimum-bias events is slightly enhanced above the expectation in a $p_\\mathrm{T}$-dependent mann...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Ĺkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ĺsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James

2014-01-01

105

A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV  

CERN Multimedia

In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

2002-01-01

106

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

CERN Document Server

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Ĺsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

107

Simultaneous determination of 222Rn and 22Rn exhalation rates from building materials used in Central Italy with accumulation chambers and a continuous solid state alpha detector: Influence of particle size, humidity and precursors concentration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method to determine simultaneously the rates of 222Rn and 22Rn released from building materials quarried in Central Italy is presented. The method makes use of a continuous monitor equipped with a solid state alpha detector, in-line connected to a small accumulation chamber. The effects of chamber leakage and back diffusion on 222Rn free exhalation rate is evaluated. The influence of available exhalation surface, humidity content and precursors concentration on radon and thoron exhalation rates is investigated

108

Neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

109

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

2007-01-01

110

Multiple chamber ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

111

Results of in-beam tests of an MCP-based vacuum sector prototype of the T0/centrality detector for ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on results of efficiency tests for MIPs and timing resolution studies obtained with different layouts of micro-channel plate (MCP) detector prototypes at CERN PS test beams. The detector is composed of an MCP stack and multipad readout anodes integrated with a passive isochronal summator. Several types of setups were tested, including MCPs with different gain. Also, a very first test of the Micro Sphere Plates detector was performed. The performance of fast electronics including Double Threshold Discriminators and a fast multiplicity discriminator for short 2 ns signals was studied. Currently, the best experimental results for MCP detectors show 75 ps timing resolution obtained at 75% efficiency for the registration of a single muon. We expect further enhancements, mostly through improvements in the fast electronics.

Bondila, M.; Efimov, L.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Feofilov, G.; Kondratiev, V.; Lyapin, V.; Nysten, J.; Otiougova, P.; Tulina, T.A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsimbal, F.; Vinogradov, L. E-mail: vinograd@hiex.phys.spbu.ru; Williams, C

2002-02-01

112

Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer; Calibration de l'experience VIRGO: de l'etalonnage du detecteur a la recherche de signaux de coalescences binaires avec l'interferometre central  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

Veziant, O

2003-05-01

113

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

Hennekemper, Eva

2011-12-15

114

D+s production at central rapidity in pp collisions at ?S = 7 TeV and in Pb–Pb collisions at ?SNN = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the measurements of the D+s production in pp collisions at ?S = 7 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at ?SNN = 2.76 TeV performed in the central rapidity region with the ALICE detector through the reconstruction of the hadronic decay channel D+s ? ??+ ? K+K??+. The ratios of the yields of D+s and non-strange D mesons as a function of the transverse momentum are also shown for both pp and Pb-Pb collisions

115

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at $\\sqrt(s_{NN})$= 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Multiplicity distributions of charged particles as function of pseudorapidity dNch/d? have been measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in p+Pb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC. The multiplicity of charged particles was measured in |?| < 2.7 using correlation of space points into tracklets in the Pixel detector. These measurements are presented as function of the centrality of the collision defined using forward energy deposited at 3.1 < ? < 4.9 and three Glauber type Monte-Carlo simulations of the collisions. The measured multiplicity distributions have similar shapes as the ones measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions.

Debbe, R R

2014-01-01

116

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at sqrt(S(NN))= 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad...[], G.; Dam, Mogens

2010-01-01

117

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium. PMID:21231581

Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Ackers, M; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Aleppo, M; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, J; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Bella, L Aperio; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arms, K E; Armstrong, S R; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Silva, J; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Aubert, B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Pedrosa, F Baltasar Dos Santos; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Galtieri, A Barbaro; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarăes; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, D; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Battistoni, G; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Harpaz, S Behar; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, G; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocci, A; Bock, R; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Booth, P; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Brambilla, E; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Bright-Thomas, P G; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Buira-Clark, D; Buis, E J; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byatt, T; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caccia, M; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camard, A; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Cammin, J

2010-12-17

118

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally-segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The underlying event is measured and subtracted event-by-event, giving estimates of jet transverse energy above the ambient background. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres is observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, and which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2010-01-01

119

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |eta| < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < |eta| < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dN_ch/deta, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |eta|<0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle y...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas

2012-01-01

120

Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ? kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ? sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert

2012-01-01

121

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.  

CERN Document Server

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Ĺkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Ĺsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert

2014-01-01

122

Silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

123

Measurement of the centrality dependence of open heavy flavour production in lead-lead collisions at sqrts = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of heavy quark production and suppression in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions probe the interactions of heavy quarks with the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured heavy quark production in sqrts = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions via semi-leptonic decays of open heavy flavour hadrons to muons. Results obtained from an integrated luminosity of approximately 7/mub collected in 2010 are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, pT, over the range of 4 centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral'' ratio, Rcp. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of 2.5 in central collisions relative to...

The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01

124

The D0 detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab collider program is undergoing a major upgrade of both the accelerator complex and the two detectors. Operation of the Tevatron at luminosities upwards of ten time that currently provided will occur in early 1999 after the commissioning of the new Fermilab Main Injector. The D0 upgrade program has been established to deliver a detector that will meet the challenges of this environment. A new magnetic tracker consisting of a superconducting solenoid, a silicon vertex detector, a scintillating fiber central tracker, and a central preshower detector will replace the current central tracking and transition radiation chambers. We present the design and performance capabilities of these new systems and describe results from physics simulations that demonstrate the physics reach of the upgraded detector

125

Combined detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combined detector intended for both experiments in search of anomalous nuclei and using as an integral differential monitor in the course of experiments with reactor antineutrinos is described. The combined detector consists of three independent detectors: neutron detector, liquid scintillation detector and semiconductor or gas scintillation detector, structurally united with each other. The neutron detector is made of wood and has dimensions of 800x800x1080 mm. Neutron detection is realized by 105 proportional counters each of which represents a steel cylinder filled with He3 and Ar mixture. To increase the neutron detector efficiency either a liquid scintillation detector or aluminium containers with 13 proportional counters are placed along the neutron detector axis. The neutron detector efficiency in experiments with 252Cf operating with a liquid scintillation detector constitutes 54 %, when operating with aluminium containers filled with D2O - 64%. The liquid scintillation detector of 10 l volume is filled with a scintillator on the hexafluoro-benzene (C6F6) base. Its energy solution at the 1 MeV level constitutes 20%. In the centre of the liquid scintillation detector a gas scintillation detector filled with Ar and N mixture at 500 kPa pressure is located. The efficiency of such detector to 252Cf fission is not less than 99.5 %. The results of the combined detector preliminary experiments are presented

126

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Collaboration has measured the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton-lead ($p$+Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV proton-proton collisions in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $27.8$ nb$^{-1}$ and $4.0$ pb$^{-1}$, respectively, recorded at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 <\\eta <4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with $R=0.4$ from energy deposits measured in the ATLAS calorimeter. Results are presented for the double differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum for both minimum bias and centrality-selected $p$+Pb collisions. The central-to-peripheral ratio $R_\\mathrm{CP}$ and the nuclear modification factor $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$ are evaluated to probe...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

127

Particle Detector R&D  

OpenAIRE

Recent results on the particle detector R&D for new accelerators are reviewed. Different approaches for the muon systems, hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeters, particle identification devices, and central trackers are discussed. Main emphasis is made on the detectors for the International Linear Collider and Super B-factory. A detailed description of a novel photodetector, a so called Silicon Photomultiplier, and its applications in scintillator detectors is presented.

Danilov, M. V.

2005-01-01

128

The VENUS detector at TRISTAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

129

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, ?{sub 2}, was measured in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke ? vertical stroke ? 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum p{sub T}, thus reducing the uncertainty in ?{sub 2} integrated over p{sub T}, a 1 ?b{sup -1} data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated ?{sub 2} is compared to other measurements obtained with higher p{sub T} thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with vertical stroke ? vertical stroke. The integrated ?{sub 2} transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data. (orig.)

Aad, G. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Abbott, B. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); Collaboration: The ATLAS Collaboration; and others

2014-08-15

130

Central diffraction at ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

131

Central Diffraction at ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lämsä, Jerry W

2011-01-01

132

Central diffraction at ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

2011-02-01

133

Particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic principles of particle detectors are discussed according to the experimental quantities to be measured: particle position, time, identity, energy, and momentum. For the first of these quantities, proportional chambers, drift chambers, time-projection chambers, and bubble, streamer, and flash chambers are appropriate detectors; they are compared according to their space and time resolution and their rate of data aquistion. For the second and third quantities to be measured, a wide range of detectors, including photomultipliers, scintillators, Cerenkov counters, and transition radiation detectors, are available. Finally, energy and momentum detectors are discussed. The actual usage and quality of three sample detectors (hadron beam detector, a neutrino detector, and a storage ring detector) are described

134

MUON DETECTOR  

CERN Multimedia

DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

F. Gasparini

135

Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < pT(avg) < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the POWHEG-BOX, an all-order resummation using the HEJ calculation and the PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarăes da Costa, Joăo; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges

2011-01-01

136

Passive detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term passive detector is interpreted as meaning one that will yield up its information after an irradiation is completed, and often only after some processing of the detector to obtain the data or some considerable data processing. Included in this presentation are sections on nuclear emulsion, activation detectors, integrating ionization chambers, and thermoluminescent dosimeters and a section on personnel dosimetry

137

Radiation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuji Electric is manufacturing various radiation detectors such as GM counter tube, gas flow counters, ionization chamber, scintillators and BF/sub 3/ thermal newtron counters, and at the same time, promoting research and development of new radiation detectors. This report outlines these detectors, manufacturing systems, quality control systems and researching work.

Tsukino, K.; Nara, S.; Hirono, K.; Otaka, N. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

1981-04-01

138

ALICE Transition Radiation Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high P? tracks in one single TRD stack.

Pachmayer, Y

2013-01-01

139

Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 ± 3 to 2330 ± 48 Bq·m-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 ± 84 Bq·m-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

Bourai, Abhay Anand; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra Prasad; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2013-08-01

140

Position sensitive neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last several years, the authors have been carrying out the design and manufacutre of the measuring systems for imported position sensitive neutron proportional counters. The detectors for which the authors have worked are one-dimensional 3He position sensitive proportional counters of central resistance wire type. This paper describes on the characteristics, processing circuits and problems of this type of counters. The signal processing circuit of the central resistance wire type detector is of electric charge split type, and the rise time method is also applicable to high resistance wire type detectors. In the charge split type circuit, the result of division which is realized with an analog IC divider shows the value proportional to the position of incidence of particles. Since, in the two-dimensional measurement of position and energy, a computer is used for data processing, the advantages of digital division become dominant. The measured results, anode resistance, the input impedance of a charge sensitive amplifier, and S/N ratio are considered. The positional resolution of 5.6 mm has been obtained for the 2 mm-slit input. The two-dimensional detector can be made by arranging multiple of resistance anode wires. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

141

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation

142

Central Diffraction in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

Schicker, R

2012-01-01

143

Position-sensitive detectors of the detector group at Juelich  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector group of the Central Institute of Electronics at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH was founded in 1968. First developments aimed at a detector system with a position-sensitive BF3 proportional counter for small-angle neutron scattering, which was later used at a beamline of the research reactor FRJ2. At the end of the 1970s first measurements were carried out with photomultiplier (PM)-based detector systems linked with a LiI crystal from Harshaw. Based on this experience we started with the spectrum of position-sensitive neutron scintillation detectors, which have been developed and designed in our institute during the last three decades comprising several high-resolution linear and two-dimensional detectors. The general design of those detectors is based on a modified Anger principle using an array of PMs and a 1 mm 6Li glass scintillator. The sensitive detector area varies on the type of the PMs used and is related to the spatial resolution of the detector type. The neutron sensitivity at 1 A is about 65% and the remaining gamma sensitivity is less than 10-4 with a maximum count rate up to 500 kHz depending on the used detector system.

144

Metal Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

1992-01-01

145

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Document Server

A new vertex detector for the ZEUS experiment at HERA will be installed during the 1999-2000 shutdown, for the high-luminosity runs of HERA. It will allow to reconstruct secondary vertex tracks, coming from the decay of long-lived particles with a lifetime of about 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s, and improve the global momentum resolution of the tracking system. The interaction region will be surrounded with single-sided silicon strip detectors, with capacitive charge division: three double layers in the central region (600 detectors), and 4 'wheels' in the forward region (112 silicon planes). Due to the high number of readout channels, 512 readout strips per silicon plane in the barrel region and 480 in the forward part, and the large coverage of the vertex detector (almost 1 m long), the front-end electronics has to be placed on top of the detectors and has to be radiation tolerant since doses up to 2 kGy are expected near the interaction region. The HELIX chip has been chosen as analog chip with a low-noise, charg...

Garfagnini, A

1999-01-01

146

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During this period, our AGS E802/E859/E866 experiments focused on strange particle production, and the fluctuation phenomenon associated with correlation studies in nucleus nucleus central collisions. We have designed and are implementing a new detector to replace the Target Multiplicity Array (TMA) for the E866 runs. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, we contributed to the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and worked on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project, the central core of the multiplicity-vertex detector (MVD). In the coming year, we planned to complete the New Multiplicity Array (NMA) detector for the gold projectile E866 experiment, and analyzed the data associated with this new system. We are continuing our efforts in the preparation of the PHENIX detector system

147

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here

148

Upgrading the CELLO track detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CELLO detector and its central tracking detector in particular are described. Improvements and limitations of the detector performance are discussed. A new design optimized for good pattern recognition and momentum and vertex resolution at highest PETRA energies is presented. It consists of a large pressurized all stereo wire chamber (SWC). The hexagonal cells are densely packed in two stereo views at +-20. A vertex chamber with a thin Be beampipe is an integral part of the drift chamber. Pattern recognition properties and chamber resolutions are discussed. A momentum resolution of 0.5%xp (GeV/c) and a vertex resolution of 120 ?m are expected. (orig.)

149

The ALICE detector at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated detector designed to exploit the unique physics opportunities which will be offered by nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. ALICE has been conceived as a general-purpose detector, in which hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the interaction can be measured and identified. The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle densities anticipated in Pb-Pb interactions at the LHC (8000 per unit of rapidity). An acceptance of about two units of rapidity has been chosen, which has been calculated to be sufficient to define most of the variables sensitive to the onset of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The baseline design of ALICE consists of a central (??0.9) detector covering the full azimuth, complemented by a multiplicity detector covering the forward rapidity region (up to ?=4.8) and a zero degree calorimeter. The central detector will be embedded in large magnet with a weak field of 0.2 T, and will consist of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (time of flight or ring imaging Cherenkov detectors) and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades to this baseline design are currently under study, including a muon identification system and a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter. (orig.)

150

Cryogenic detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

151

Detectors - Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X ? e- converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

152

The Mark II detector for the SLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring (?s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

153

The central tracking detectors for D O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D O experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

154

Intermediate silicon layers detector for the CDF experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) detector is currently being built as part of the CDF II detector upgrade project. The ISL detector will significantly improve tracking in the central region and, together with the Silicon Vertex detector, provide stand-alone 3D track information in the forward/backward regions. In this article, we present the quality of the production sensors manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, which account for roughly half of the silicon sensors used in the ISL detector

155

Radon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A device is described for reducing background noise in radon detectors used for uranium ore prospecting. The system consists of an alpha detector in a housing which has an aperture through which gases to be monitored have to pass. The aperture is covered by a non-porous permselective membrane which permits, but selectively retards, the passage of gases and which is itself substantially free of 220Rn or 222Rn. (UK)

156

The MAC detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb-1 between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make large-scale use of gas-sampling calorimetry. Electromagnetic calorimetry in the central selection employs alternating layers of lead and proportional wire chambers (PWCs), and hadron and the remaining electromagnetic calorimetry is accomplished with iron plate and PWC layers. A relatively small central drift chamber in an axial magnetic field provides pattern recognition and modest momentum determination. An outer blanket of drift tubes completes the muon identification system. During the latter two years of operation an innovative 'soda straw' vertex chamber made more precise lifetime measurements possible. With an evolving trigger system and highly automated data acquisition system, this modest detector has exceeded most of its designers' expectations and has produced a gratifying spectrum of physics results. (orig.)

157

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

D. Acosta

158

Photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

159

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objects of the invention are, first, to provide an ionization detector having a three chamber structure characterised by a built-in feedback path that regeneratively stabilizes the operating point of the detector. Secondly, to provide a specially designed chamber construction including electrodes shaped so as to enhance the efficiency of the chamber and reduce ion recombination. The ionization chamber described has a chamber structure with a first closed chamber and a second chamber able to receive gases from outside. These two chambers have a common boundary including a common electrode. One electrode associated with the second chamber, and one within the first chamber, define a third chamber within the first chamber allowing an ionization path between. A radioactive source provides ionizing radiation for all three chambers and establishes an ionization current. There is a detector coupled to the common electrode for detecting changes in this current. (U.K.)

160

Particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper surveys current detector systems used to detect particles in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Proportional tubes, drift chambers, time projection chambers, bubble, steamer, and flash chambers, are used to identify a particle by its position. The main instrument for obtaining time information on a particle is the photomultiplier tube. Anorganic or organic scintillators identify charged particles through their flight time between two scintillation counters. The Cerenkov counter and transition radiation detectors also measure time. Energy loss can be measured by electromagnetic shower counters and by hadronic shower calorimeters. To measure momentum magnet shapes for fixed target experiments and for storage ring experiments are given. Finally, a few of the full experimental detector systems in the world are reviewed

161

Pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

Passmore, M S

2001-01-01

162

Pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the characterisation of three different pixel detectors are presented. The first is an energy resolving detector (ERDI) which has been characterised using laboratory sources and the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) at Daresbury. The ERDI is a 16 by 16 array of 300 ?m by 300 ?m square pixels, the detector is 300 ?m thick Si and is bump-bonded using gold studs to the RAL PAC5 read out. Energy spectra and diffraction lines acquired at the SRS are presented and show the imaging and simultaneous spectroscopic capabilities of the ERDI. The energy resolution was investigated using X-rays of energies between 6 and 60 keV from laboratory sources. The achieved full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the photo peaks is in the range of 300 eV to 500 eV with an electronic noise of 227 ± 43 eV. Charge sharing was investigated for different energy X-rays and is shown to be significant with up to around 10 % of events sharing some charge. The second detector is a large area detector (LAD1). It is based on single photon counting and is designed for imaging in synchrotron radiation applications. Results of tests performed with a single chip module at the Daresbury SRS are presented. The detector is 300 ?m thick Si with 150 ?m by 150 ?m pixels bump-bonded to an (RAL ALADIN) array of 64 by 64 read out channels. The spatial resolution was determined using the modulation transfer function (MTF) with a result of (5.1 ± 0.1) lp/mm at an MTF value of 0.3. Theoretical studies value of 0.3. Theoretical studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge sharing due to the limited mean free drift lengths of the charge carriers, the improvement of the CCE in unipolar detectors with decreasing pixel size and the 'small pixel effect' which shows the improved CCE of the photo peak with smaller pixels. The third detector is a graphite pixel detector for ion beam profiling. The system was tested in the ion implanters at the University of Salford and Surrey. Results are presented showing real time profiling of the ion beam and the measurement of the beam current. The secondary electron emission was qualitatively measured for different beam energies and different positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. (author)

163

Muon chambers of Argus detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new universal ARGUS detector created to study e+e- interactions on the DORIS-II collider. The detector consists of a central drift chamber, time-of-flight counters, and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector is enclosed on all sides by three layers of muon counters for registration of muons. The entire system of muon chambers of the ARGUS detector has operated stably from October 1982 until today. The background loads of the muon chambers during an experiment are not great. The average number of signals in the chambers is 0.98 per start-up. The operation of the muon chambers has been constantly monitored according to the counting response of the tubes for cosmic particles, and the quality of the gas has been monitored by comparing the positions of the peaks from Fe 55 radioactive sources in test proportional counters at the inlet and outlet of the gas channel

164

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |?|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector

165

The ATLAS TRT Barrel Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS TRT barrel is a tracking drift chamber using 52,544 individual tubular drift tubes. It is one part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, which consists of three sub-systems: the pixel detector spanning the radius range 4 to 20 cm, the semiconductor tracker (SCT) from 30 to 52 cm, and the transition radiation tracker (TRT) from 56 to 108 cm. The TRT barrel covers the central pseudo-rapidity region |?|< 1, and the TRT while endcaps cover the forward and backward eta regions. These TRT systems provide a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. This paper describes the recently-completed construction of the TRT Barrel detector, including the quality control procedures used in the fabrication of the detector.

ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Ĺkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hanson, G.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rř; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

2008-02-01

166

Gaseous detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention of Micromegas and GEMs has made possible the development of a new generation of gaseous proportional detectors. By using a pixel chip as active (anode) readout, Time Projection Chambers become available where all information of the ionization can be read out. With the MEMS technology, developed for the integration of Micromegas and the pixel chip, a new electron multiplier may be feasible. The combination of this multiplier and an Electron Emission foil would result in a new and light detector with sub-nanosecond time resolution.

167

Nuclear radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to nuclear radiation detectors of the type of gas-filled proportional counters. It is characterized by a discharge confinement enclosure the inner face of which is coated with a neutron absorbing material, a conducting central member mounted with said enclosure, at least one end of said central member passing through said enclosure, a filling gas inside said enclosure, a portion of said filling gas being a gas capable of being dissociated when exposed to the radiations emitted by the neutron absorbing material, and a filling gas tank connected to said enclosure but protected from the latter so as to prevent the tank gas from being submitted to the radiations emitted by said neutron absorbing material. This can be applied to nuclear power stations

168

XMASS detector  

CERN Document Server

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

2013-01-01

169

XMASS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

2013-07-11

170

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a book on 'Medical Physics', one of the chapters discusses the different types of radiation detectors. These include several types of ionization chambers, Geiger counters, scintillation counters, film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. At the end of the chapter, these are questions on the content of the chapter. (UK)

171

Vertex detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10-13 s, among them the ? lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

172

Semiconductor Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

173

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved multi-cell detectors of X-ray and gamma radiation, particularly in computerized tomography are designed so that the electrode plates in the ionization cells are spaced closely and uniformly over the entire length of the array. Adhesives are used to achieve the required dimensional arrangement. (U.K.)

174

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment  

CERN Document Server

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A; Blocki, J; Brinson, J; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Dziewiecki, M; Ellison, B; Golyshkin, L; Gould, R; Hara, T; Hartfiel, B; Holeczek, J; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kisiel, J; Kozlovskii, T; Kudenko, Yu; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Liu, J; Marzec, J; Metcalf, W; Mijakowski, P; Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Naples, D; Nauman, M; Northacker, D; Nowak, J; Paolone, V; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Reid, J; Rondio, E; Shaykhiev, A; Sienkiewicz, M; Smith, D; Sobczyk, J; Stodulski, M; Straczek, A; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Wachala, T; Warner, D; Yershov, N; Yano, T; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M

2009-01-01

175

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

T. Camporesi

176

Nuclear detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This addendum refers to miniature nuclear detectors which can work on low voltages and can record with great efficiency and simultaneously alpha, beta and gamma rays as well as slow or fast thermal neutrons. The invention concerns a process for treating cadmium telluride crystals (CdTe) used in such detectors in order to suppress polarisation phenomena. The surface of the material is first heated mechanically by fine grinding or polishing, after which the surface is treated chemically and finally a thin insulating coat topped with at least one coat of a good conducting material is applied. This produces a final structure of the good conducting-insulating-semi-conducting metal or material type

177

New science with new detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility), with the help of the user community, is in the process of developing its long term strategy, covering the next 10 to 20 years. A central role in this strategy will be given to detector developments, since it is clear that the biggest possible improvement in performance is by increasing the overall detection capabilities. These improvements can be both quantitative, meaning more and larger detectors, and qualitative, meaning new detection concepts. This document gathers the abstracts and transparencies of most presentations of this workshop

178

Central and forward tracking chambers of CDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently studying 1.8 TeV anti pp interactions at the Fermilab Tevatron. This paper describes the design and construction of the detector's tracking chambers in the light of the measurement requirements dictated by physics goals. The chambers described are the Forward Tracking Chamber, the Central Tracking Chamber, the Central Drift Tubes, and the Vertex Time Projection Chamber. (orig.)

179

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle spectra and RCP in lead-lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Lead-lead collisions at the LHC provide an opportunity to study the properties of strongly interacting matter at the highest temperatures and energy densities ever achieved in the lab- oratory. In particular, jets are expected to be strongly quenched in the presence of the hot, dense medium, as illustrated by the centrality dependence of the dijet asymmetry already measured by ATLAS. Evidence of jet quenching can also be obtained from a measurement of inclusive charged particles at large transverse momentum, and in particular comparisons of spectral shapes between central and peripheral collisions. This note presents charged particle spectra as a function of centrality and rapidity, corrected for efficiency, fake tracks, secondaries and resolution. Using these, the ratio of scaled central to peripheral charged particle yields, RCP, is measured as a function of pT, centrality and pseudorapidity.

The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

180

Jet production and QCD in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparison was made between three-jet and two jet cross-sections in p anti p collisions measured in the UAI apparatus at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) p anti p Collidor. The motivation for this study stems from the need for a better understanding of general multijet production (three or more jets) in high-energy p anti p collisions. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), multijet events can occur as a result of strong radiative corrections to elastic parton-parton scattering processes. At sufficiently high process c.m.s. energies, single QCD bremsstrahlung should become the dominant mechanism for the production of three-jet events. In this paper the bremsstrahlung hypothesis is tested by comparing the measured three-jet differential cross-section, at the highest available energies, with the predictions of the single bremsstrahlung formulae. The observed relative rate of three-jet and two-jet events is used to obtain information on the value of the strong interaction coupling constant ?sub(s). Observations carried out include the two-jet and three jet angular distributions, Dalitz plot for a three-jet sample, and the three-jet/two-jet ratio, and dicussions are made based on results obtained. (Nogami, K.)

181

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a radiation detector which consists of an X-ray fluorescent material and a semiconductor assembly in order to improve the action of rays to be measured on the semiconductor assembly. The assembly acts as a photo electric converter. It is preferable to use a fluorescent material which is activated particularly well by the radiation to be measured and which gives off light which in turn well activates the converter. In this invention a scintillator based on the rare earths is foreseen; this converts with high efficiency X-rays into a light which has an exciting effect on an orange-fluorescing fluorescent dye layer. Next to this layer is a further layer containing a fluorescent material which fluoresces red upon excitation with the orange light. This latter layer is arranged parallel to the semiconductor assembly acting as a photo-electric converter and is well activated by the red light given off. Thus a good adaptation of the light acting upon the semiconductor is obtained. A radiation detector of the type described in this patent application is particularly suitable for detecting and measuring X-radiation. (orig.)

182

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent concerns an ionization detector specially designed for use in fire-detection systems. It comprises structures limiting a first chamber containing a first electrode, and a second chamber into which gases can be introduced from the surroundings, and which contains a second electrode. The chambers are separated from each other by a common electrode, in addition to which at least the second chamber contains a radioactive ?-source for establishing an ionization current between the electrodes, the common electrode being connected to an alarm-activated circuit that reacts to changes in the ionization current. The first electrode in the first chamber limits a third chamber, and it is at least partly open to achieve an ionization track between the first and the third chamber. This detector, which comprises a variable electrode that reaches at least partly into the chamber structure to regulate the ionization current, is characterized by the fact that the first electrode has an aperture, through which the variable electrode can be introduced into the third chamber. (author)

183

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

184

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

CERN Document Server

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

1999-01-01

185

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

Marco Dallavalle

2013-01-01

186

Schottky barrier photovoltaic detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A platinum-cadmium sulfide schottky barrier photovoltaic detector which is capable of sensing near ultraviolet and short wavelength visible radiation with extremely small response to wavelengths longer than about 5200 angstroms. The detector is fabricated with both the ohmic and barrier contacts located on the same side of the cadmium sulfide substrate to facilitate wire attachment by high-speed bonding techniques. A titanium-goldtitanium infrared shield structure is deposited directly on the substrate and is utilized to provide a connection between the ohmic contact and the substrate. An insulating layer of silicon dioxide covers the shield structure. A thin layer of platinum is deposited directly on the substrate in a small central optically active area surrounded by the insulated shield structure. A metal boundary layer overlies the periphery of the platinum layer and prevents the barrier contact metalization from affecting the properties of the schottky barrier. Both the ohmic and barrier contacts may be formed of a titanium adhesive layer and a layer of gold. The gold portions of these contacts touch the shield structure and the boundary layer through separate windows etched in the silicon dioxide insulating layer

187

Muon chambers of the ARGUS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new ARGUS universal detector was fabricated to study e+e- - interactions at the DORIS-2 storage ring. The detector comprises a central drift chamber, time-of-flight counters and electromagnetic calorimeter. The design, technique of test and utilization of muon chambers of the ARGUS detector assembled from proportional counters with the whole sensitive surface of approximately 400 m2 are described. Drift rate efficiency of detection and other characteristics of muon chambers were measured at the 2 GeV DESY electron beam

188

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

OpenAIRE

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |eta| < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from...

Atlas, Collaboration

2011-01-01

189

Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

190

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead–lead collisions at sNN????=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

OpenAIRE

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN????=2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, v2, was measured in the pseudorapidity range |?|?2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum pT, thus reducing the uncertainty in v2 integrated over pT, a 1 ?b?1 data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the ...

Allison, Lee; Barton, Adam; Borissov, Guennadi; Bouhova-thacker, Eva; Catmore, James; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Dearnaley, William; Fox, Harald; Grimm, Kathryn; Henderson, Robert; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Roger William Lewis; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Long, Robin; Love, Peter

2014-01-01

191

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

OpenAIRE

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, v_2, was measured in the pseudorapidity range |eta| <= 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum pT, thus reducing the uncertainty in v_2 integrated over pT, a 1 mu b-1 data sample without a magnetic field ...

Atlas, Collaboration

2014-01-01

192

Asia central  

OpenAIRE

Tres de los 24 estudios de caso emprendidos por EACH-FOR se centran en casos de Asia central (Kazajistán, Kirguistán y Tayikistán), donde diversos factores medioambientales están desembocando en desplazamientos de población.

Gemenne, Franc?ois; Reuchlin, Philip

2008-01-01

193

Centrality, rapidity and pT dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at ?{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in ?{sNN} = 2.76 TeV Pb + Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14nb-1. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. Using a selection based on shower shapes and an isolation criterion gives measured purities between approximately 50-90%, depending on pT, ? and centrality. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are determined as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals | ? | PDF effects.

Steinberg, Peter

2014-11-01

194

Central exclusive production in the ALICE experiment at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central exclusive production at the LHC.

Schicker, R

2014-01-01

195

Central exclusive production in the ALICE experiment at the LHC  

Science.gov (United States)

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central exclusive production at the LHC.

Schicker, R.

2014-11-01

196

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

197

Central diffraction at the LHCb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LHCb experiment is shown to be ideal for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its distinct design features, the LHCb can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

198

Particle identification with the fast COMPASS RICH-1 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new photon detection system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector has been designed and installed. In the central region, the project is based on multi-anode photo-multiplier technology accompanied by charge sensitive, high resolution and dead-time free time digitization. In the outer area, only the readout electronics for the existing photon detectors has been replaced. Details on the detector upgrade and its performance are presented.

Abbon, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); Angerer, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bordalo, P. [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Colantoni, M.L. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Dafni, T. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Delagnes, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Deschamps, H. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diaz, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dibiase, N. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Eyrich, W. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

2010-11-01

199

Phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrometric characteristics of a scintillation phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy are described. The phoswich detector is composed of two detectors, one of which is an inorganic scintillator (calcium chlor borate) and the other is a scintillating plastic. The background of this phoswich detector is a factor of 9.3 lower than that of a single detector based on a plastic scintillator. At the same time, the dependence of its pulse heights on the ?-particle energy is shown to be proportional

200

Self-powered neutron flux detector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-powered neutron flux detector has both the central emitter electrode and its surrounding collector electrode made of inconel 600. The lead cables may also be made of inconel. Other nickel alloys, or iron, nickel, titamium, chromium, zirconium or their alloys may also be used for the electrodes

201

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

202

Central Park  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the worldâ??s greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâ??s many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a â??Central Park Newsâ?ť feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.

2006-01-01

203

Centrality, rapidity and $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from approximately 50-90%, depending on $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, $\\eta$ and centrality. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (pertur...

Steinberg, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

204

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

CERN Document Server

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

2010-01-01

205

Performance measurements with the Medipix2 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Hybrid pixel detectors nowadays represent the central tracking devices in most of the high energy physics experiments. 2-dimensional position information is also a prerequisite for imaging applications such as medical imaging, crystallography or materials analysis. The single photon- counting pixel detectors developed at CERN within the framework of the Medipix collaboration are designed for various imaging applications. The Medipix1 and Medipix2 detectors count individual photons and provide high spatial resolution (170 ?m and 55 ?m pixel pitch respectively), high count rate, high signal-to-noise ratio and noise discrimination due to one/two comparators implemented per pixel. Recent performance measurements as well as images taken with Medipix1 and Medipix2 detectors will be presented. (author)

206

GADRAS Detector Response Function.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

2014-11-01

207

@central park  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

208

Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

1992-04-01

209

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

G. Iaselli

2010-01-01

210

Picosecond timing with diamond detectors for the TOTEM experiment  

CERN Document Server

The TOTEM upgrade programme focuses on improving the experiment's capability to explore and measure new physics in Central Diffractive processes thanks to the installation of proton-time-of-flight detectors in Roman Pots to eliminate the event pileup. Therefore the vertical Roman Pots will be equipped with timing detectors with ~50 ps resolution. For the time measurement diamond detectors are planned to be used. In this work I have developed offline algorithms for signal processing allowing to considerably improve the resolution of the time of flight measurement obtained earlier by my colleagues. The algorithms have been tested with data from a test beam measurement where signals from diamond detectors have been collected.

Lucsanyi, David

2014-01-01

211

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

2012-01-01

212

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

213

Radio-frequency induction for checking fire detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method of testing fire detectors in the glove-box lines has been developed. The method includes heating the fire detector by a strong electromagnetic field which induces eddy currents in the metal case of the fire detector. Developed as a radio-frequency induction heating system, a prototype was designed and built for use with fire detectors installed at the Rocky Flats Plant. The system has been tested and operates satisfactorily. It is concluded that the system could be installed in glove boxes and could easily be automated from a central point. Applications exist for glove-box lines on site or for facilities off site

214

500 MHz neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A {sup 10}B-loaded scintillation detector was built for neutron transmission measurements at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The efficiency of the detector is nearly 100% for neutron energies from 0 to 1 keV. The neutron moderation time in the scintillator is about 250 ns and is energy independent. The detector and data processing system are designed to handle an instantaneous rate as high as 500 MHz. The active area of the detector is 40 cm in diameter.

Yen, Yi-Fen; Bowman, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Matsuda, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

1993-12-01

215

500 MHz neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 10B-loaded scintillation detector was built for neutron transmission measurements at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The efficiency of the detector is nearly 100% for neutron energies from 0 to 1 keV. The neutron moderation time in the scintillator is about 250 ns and is energy independent. The detector and data processing system are designed to handle an instantaneous rate as high as 500 MHz. The active area of the detector is 40 cm in diameter

216

HIBP primary beam detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

217

Gas filled detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

218

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1995-09-01

219

The LHCb RICH detectors  

CERN Document Server

This contribution describes some aspects of the proposed RICH detectors for the LHCb experiment at the CERN LHC collider. Recent activity has focused on identifying which of three candidate photon detectors should be used to construct the LHCb RICH detectors. Some of the relevant measurements are discussed and comparisons of the results are presented. (8 refs).

Wotton, S A

2000-01-01

220

Tevatron detector upgrades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

221

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight

222

The JADE muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

223

Garlic Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

224

Central Solenoid  

CERN Multimedia

The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

2002-01-01

225

IPO Central  

Science.gov (United States)

IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

226

Centrality, rapidity and $p_T$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\energy$ Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from 50% at low $p_T$ to greater than 90% at high $p_T$. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < $p_T$ < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (perturbative QCD calculations at next to leading order), as are...

Steinberg, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

227

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the ?rst ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

T. Camporesi

228

Locating gamma radiation source by self collimating BGO detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for airborne collimated gamma detector system to estimate the radiation released from a nuclear accident has been established. A BGO detector system has been developed as an array of separate seven cylindrical Bismuth Germanate scintillators, one central detector symmetrically surrounded by six detectors. In such an arrangement, each of the detectors reduced the exposure of other detectors in the array to a radiation incident from a possible specific spatial angle, around file array. This shielding property defined as 'self-collimation', differs the point source response function for each of the detectors. The BGO detector system has a high density and atomic number, and therefore provides efficient self-collimation. Using the response functions of the separate detectors enables locating point sources as well as the direction of a nuclear radioactive plume with satisfactory angular resolution, of about 10 degrees. The detector's point source response, as function of the source direction, in a horizontal plane, has been predicted by analytical calculation, and was verified by Monte-Carlo simulation using the code EGS4. The detector's response was tested in a laboratory-scale experiment for several gamma ray energies, and the experimental results validated the theoretical (analytical and Monte-Carlo) results. (authors)

229

Device for glass detector tracks processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe a semi-automatic installation for measuring angular distribution of tracks from nuclear fission fragments. The measurements were performed on glass detectors represented by a cylinder surface section with central angle 110-120 deg, height 20 mm and radius 45 mm. The tracks were in the form of lunes, 10/25 mm deep. Treatment of one detector lasted 10-15 min. The installation affords the possibility of finding the angular distribution of tracks by counting them in zones, whose sizes may vary from 1 to 90 deg. Data output was performed on a digitizer

230

Shielding calculations for the SNO detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-ray background into the central D2O vessel of the SNO detector due to Th and U in the rock, concrete, and photomultipliers is calculated. A cylindrical geometry and concrete thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 m are assumed. The effect of adding boron to the concrete is also considered. It is concluded that backgrounds from (?,n) reactions can be reduced to the required level. These calculations will assist in finalizing the detector design but additional calculations will be required as new design details become known

231

The ATLAS Pixel Detector  

CERN Document Server

The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

Hügging, F G

2006-01-01

232

Radiation detectors laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

233

Radiation detectors laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

234

ATLAS Inner Detector developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixel detectors, four double layers of silicon microstrip detectors and a straw tube based Transition Radiation Tracker. The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch (50x300 ?m) and low occupancy (-4 at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the silicon microstrip detector system and the transition radiation tracker. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between b-jets and jets produced by light quarks

235

Gas optical neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental luminescent neutron detector and the results of its test in the reactor are described. The detector comprises a radiator of charged particles, light guide, junction of the light guide connection with the photodetector monovacuum gauge and a valve for the detector connection to the pumping and gas leak-in systems. 95% Ne and 5% He mixture was used for the detector filling. Determined is the detector sensitivity to thermal neutrons equalling 4.6x10-5 pulse/neutronxcm-2 at filling with different gases. The stability of the detector operation is shown to be determined by the stability of the photoreceiver operation. It is concluded that optical detectors can be used for the control of intense neutron fluxes and for detection of ionizing radiations under the conditions of intense electromagnetic background

236

Cooled detector system with a semiconductor detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector system for cooling uses a semiconductor detector of the type of a Si(Li)-, Ge(Li)-Ga(AS) element to detect radioactive radiation and is arranged in a borehole probe. The cooling takes place by means of at least one Peltier element whose cold side has thermal contact to the support for the semiconductor detector and whose warm side has thermal contact to the casing of the probe. The detector system is almost independent of the position of the energy supply or of the cooling aggregate and of the measuring site by means of this cooling method. It is also possible to connect several Peltier elements in cascade. (DG/LH)

237

Central and forward tracking collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this subsystem R ampersand D project is to carry out a detailed study and design of a complete wire chamber tracking system covering pseudorapidity |?| ? 2.5 in a solenoidal detector for the SSC. Most of our group are now part of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), so the work has evolved into developing a tracking system conceptual design for the SDC detector. The design discussed in this report uses straw tube drift chambers for the central tracking region. Because of the high rates in the SSC environment, a small cell design is needed for wire chambers in the central region. Straw tubes as small cells offer many advantages because the sense wire is enclosed in a continuous cathode, and the wire tension due to the sense wire only can be supported without a massive structure. The straw tubes are grouped together to form superlayers in order to provide local track segments. The superlayers are composed of modules consisting of about two hundred straw tubes enclosed in a carbon fiber composite shell. Straw tubes have been used in previous experiments for small vertex drift chambers. However, they have never before been used for a large tracking system

238

Neuropsychology Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

Browndyke, J. N.

1997-01-01

239

Hybrid Contacts for CZT Virtual Frisch-grid Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our previous design of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, the charge drift-lines can be terminated at the side surfaces before the carriers reach the collecting anode; this results in a loss of signal from the interacting events near the detector's edges. Here, we describe our new design for the anode contact that reduces these edge effects by focusing the electric field towards the detectors' central axes. Four detectors were fabricated with the new hybrid anode contact, and their performances were evaluated and compared to those from the previous design for our virtual Frisch-grid detectors. The results obtained for all four showed similar improvement: therefore, we illustrate them with the findings from one detector.

Camarda G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chan, W.; Cui, Y.; Gul R.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

2011-08-22

240

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is given. It is a calorimetric detector, which covers almost the complete solid angle around the interaction region with segmented calorimeter ''towers''. A 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid, 3m in diameter and 5m long, provides a uniform magnetic field in the central region for magnetic analysis of charged particles. The magnetic field volume is filled with a large cylindrical drift chamber and a set of Time Projection Chambers. Muon detection is accomplished with drift chambers outside the calorimeters in the central region and with large magnetized steel toroids and associated drift chambers in the forward-backward regions. The electronics has a large dynamic range to allow measurement of both high energy clusters and small energy depositions made by penetrating muons. Interesting events are identified by a trigger system which, together with the rest of the data acquisition system, is FASTBUS based

241

... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

2006-01-01

242

The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 < |?| < 2.0, while the TRT barrel central ? region |?| < 1.0. The TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

243

The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 TRT barrel central ? region |?| TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Ĺkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dobos, D.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rř; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

2008-10-01

244

A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector  

CERN Document Server

The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

Acconcia, T V; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencedi, G; Bencze, G; Berenyi, D; Boldizsar, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Cindolo, F; Chinellato, D D; D'Ambrosio, S; Das, D; Das-Bose, L; Dash, A K; De Cataldo, G; De Pasquale, S; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futo, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Iannone, G; Jimenez, R T; Kim, D W; Kim, J S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Levai, P; Nappi, E; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Mayani, D; Molnar, L; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patimo, G; Patino, M E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Takahashi, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I K

2013-01-01

245

Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC  

CERN Multimedia

% RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

2002-01-01

246

Neutrino factory near detector  

OpenAIRE

The neutrino factory is a facility for future precision studies of neutrino oscillations. A so-called near detector is essential for reaching the required precision for a neutrino oscillation analysis. The main task of the near detector is to measure the flux of the neutrino beam. Such a high intensity neutrino source like a neutrino factory provides also the opportunity for precision studies of various neutrino interaction processes in the near detector. We discuss the design concepts of suc...

Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.

2013-01-01

247

Noble Gas Detectors  

CERN Document Server

This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

2006-01-01

248

Study on Silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm2), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

249

Resonance detector instruments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper reports recent research activities in the development of Resonance Detector Spectrometers for electron volt neutron spectroscopy. Energy resolution of the resonance detector foil, a gamma-ray detector for cascade gammas, shielding, signal-to-background ratio, the geometrical effect on energy resolution, and other various contributions necessary for line profile analysis are described. As actual applications of the instrument, high Q scattering experiments performed at KENS for pyrolitic graphite and other crystalline solids, and for liquid helium are presented

250

The 'Diogene' detector, 4? drift chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Diogene' is a detector with a solid angle near the steradian 4?, mainly comprising a drift chamber and capable of detecting in coincidence several tens of charged particles. Built by several laboratories (Dph-N/Saclay, CRN/Strasbourg and LPC/Clermont-Ferrand) it should be ready round about June 1980 to use the heavy ion beams of Saturne II for studying the multiple production of pions and protons in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

251

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

1978-01-01

252

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is ac coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undersirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described

253

Diamond scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention provides a scintillation detector for nuclear radiation which comprises a synthetic diamond having a nitrogen impurity concentration of 150 ppm or less. The detector has solvent (or oxides thereof) impurity concentrations of 1000 ppm or less, where the solvents are any of the following: Ni, Cu, Mn, Al or Cr, or combinations thereof. The detector has Fe and Co impurity concentrations of less than 10 ppm. A practical version of the detector includes an optical fibre and a photomulitplier tube, the optical fibre collecting light emitted by the diamond and channelling it to the photomultiplier tube

254

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22

255

The ATLAS Pixel Detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the Pixel Detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The detector layout, results from final prototyping and the status of production are presented.

Grosse-Knetter, J

2006-01-01

256

LHCb Detector Performance  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjřrnstad, Pĺl Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardińas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianě, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Helena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter

2014-01-01

257

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is AC coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undesirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described. (Auth.)

258

Telescope silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One gives a review of designing and research efforts undertaken in the JINR Laboratory for Nuclear Problems to ensure designing of special-purpose silicon detectors characterized by essential sensitive area (>8 cm2) for multilayer telescopic spectrometers. Paper presents the results of investigation into their characteristics and describes the procedure to make surface-barrier detectors. One shows possibility to design lithium-drifting detectors with thin entrance windows (10-20 ?m) on diffusion layer side. The developed procedures to make detectors have enabled to minimize the dead regions and to ensure operation stability and high spectrometric parameters during long-term exposures at charged particle beams

259

Detector support head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The support head of detectors for densitometric measurements of the regional function of lungs using gamma radiation consists of a group of detectors placed in a common rack. The detectors are placed on holders with adjustable height which allow side movement. The holders are slidably connected to the converging quide rail on the frame via arms. Between the holders and the rack is fitted the drive mechanism consisting of a screw. The design allows the stable adjustment of detectors on the lung field during examination and thereby allows the comparison of results of measurements carried out at different times. (J.B.). 2 figs

260

ALFA Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

2015-01-01

261

The LHC detector challenge  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

Virdee, Tejinder S

2004-01-01

262

The ALICE silicon strip detector system  

CERN Document Server

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

Kuijer, P

2000-01-01

263

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

264

New technologies in the D0 central tracker upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 collaboration has undertaken an aggressive upgrade of its central tracking system. The existing tracker will be completely removed and replaced by a two Tesla superconducting solenoidal magnet, an 837 000 channel silicon vertex system, and 80 000 channel scintillating fiber tracker, followed by a 7 680 channel central preshower detector and a 16 000 channel forward preshower detector. In this paper the author discusses all of the subsystems of the D0 central tracker upgrade, but will emphasize those aspects which involve new technology: radiation hard scintillating fiber, VLPC's and extruded scintillating strips

265

Debate Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Courtesy of the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), Debate-Central.org offers resources related to this year's National Forensic League high school debate topic: "Resolved: That the United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction." The site, which is updated daily, features a wealth of links sorted into ten categories (each of which is further divided into subcategories). Resources are collected from periodicals, think tanks, and other sources, and the collection should be useful not just for debaters but for anyone looking for authoritative resources on these topics. Other debate topics are listed on the right-hand side of the page, though these are covered in a less comprehensive manner. Also at the site is a bulletin board, through which users can ask questions of experts such as Dr. Hans Mark, former Secretary of the Air Force and Deputy Administrator of NASA, and a link to NCPA's Terrorism in America site. NCPA's mission is "to develop and promote private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector."

2001-01-01

266

Local mapping of detector response for reliable quantum state estimation  

OpenAIRE

Improved measurement techniques are central to technological development and foundational scientific exploration. Quantum physics relies on detectors sensitive to non-classical features of systems, enabling precise tests of physical laws and quantum-enhanced technologies including precision measurement and secure communications. Accurate detector response calibration for quantum-scale inputs is key to future research and development in these cognate areas. To address this requirement, quantum...

Cooper, M.; Karpin?ski, M.; Smith, Bj

2014-01-01

267

A Reaction Plane Detector for PHENIX at RHIC  

OpenAIRE

A plastic scintillator paddle detector with embedded fiber light guides and photomultiplier tube readout, referred to as the Reaction Plane Detector (RXNP), was designed and installed in the PHENIX experiment prior to the 2007 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RXNP's design is optimized to accurately measure the reaction plane (RP) angle of heavy-ion collisions, where, for mid-central $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions, it achieved a $2^{nd}$ har...

Richardson, E.; Akiba, Y.; Anderson, N.; Bickley, A. A.; Chujo, T.; Cole, B. A.; Esumi, S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hanks, J.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hutchison, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Inaba, M.; Jia, J.; Lynch, D.

2010-01-01

268

Central exclusive production at RHIC  

Science.gov (United States)

The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ? {s} = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two-pion mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudorapidity |?| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ? {s} = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system are presented. Also a possible addition of the RPs to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, W?odek; Turnau, Jacek

2014-11-01

269

Pixel detector readout chip  

CERN Multimedia

Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

1991-01-01

270

ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < ? < 3.9.

Nayak, T

2013-01-01

271

New detector concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

272

The LHCb vertex detector  

CERN Document Server

LHCb is a dedicated LHC experiment for precision measurements of CP- violation and rare decays in the B meson sector. Achieving excellent resolution on the production and decay vertices of b-hadrons is vital to this programme. The design of the vertex detector is reviewed, the development programme outlined, and results from the first prototype detectors are provided. (3 refs).

Bowcock, T J V

1999-01-01

273

Lithium metal detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved alkali metal ionization detector is described which operates with a filament electrode temperature of at least 11000C to detect lithium atoms or compounds present in a gas. Alarm monitors based on this type of detector can be used to detect leaks of lithium to air in fusion reactors and test systems. (U.K.)

274

The TESLA Detector  

OpenAIRE

For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

Moenig, Klaus

2001-01-01

275

Detector Systems at CLIC  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

Simon, Frank

2011-01-01

276

Developments on RICH detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

277

ALICE Silicon Strip Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

Nooren, G

2013-01-01

278

Drift chamber detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

279

Gaseous dark matter detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the motivation for directional detectors, discuss the experimental techniques that make directional detection possible, and review the status of the experimental effort in this field.

280

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?{sub av}, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?{sub 0}. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?{sub av}/?{sub 0} was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the {sup 64}Zn+{sup 112}Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Rodrigues, M.R.D. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wada, R., E-mail: wada@comp.tamu.edu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Keutgen, T. [FNRS and IPN, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-Neuve (Belgium); Kowalski, S. [Institute of Physics, Silesia University, Katowice (Poland); Hagel, K.; Barbui, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Bonasera, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J.B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Schmidt, K.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); and others

2013-05-01

281

A very high momentum particle identification detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A new detector concept has been investigated to extend the capabilities of heavy-ion collider experiments, represented here through the ALICE detector, in the high transverse momentum ( p T region. The resulting Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/ c heavy-ion experiments with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at RHIC and LHC energies, where the creation of deconfined quark-gluon matter has been established. The detector is based on novel advances to the pressurized gaseous ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) concept, which yield a very compact, high resolution addition to existing heavy-ion experiments. We conclude that in order for the device to yield statistically significant results not only for single particle measurements, but also for di-hadron and jet-tagged correlation studies, it has to cover contiguously up to 30% of a central barrel detector in radial direction. This will allow, for the first time, identified charged hadron measurements in jets. In this paper we summarize the physics motivations for such a device, as well as its conceptual design, layout, and integration into ALICE.

Acconcia, T. V.; Agócs, A. G.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Cossyleon, K.; Chinellato, D. D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A. K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futó, E.; García-Solis, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jayarathna, S. P.; Jimenez, R. T.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. S.; Knospe, A.; Kovács, L.; Lévai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnár, L.; Oláh, L.; Pai?, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M. E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Pochybová, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J. B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.-K.

2014-05-01

282

First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...  

CERN Multimedia

ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

2006-01-01

283

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code

284

Detector cold shield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A shield for limiting the radiation received by electromagnetic energy radiation detectors to the radiation provided to the detectors by the optics of an electromagnetic energy detection system. The shield comprises a member transparent to a predetermined spectrum of radiation. An opaque thin film is deposited on a surface of the member, the thin film having apertures defined therein, the detectors viewing the optics through the member and the apertures. The thin film shields the detectors from electromagnetic radiation generated outside the field of view of the optics, thereby improving the sensitivity of the detection system. Virtually any desired thickness for the member may be used, thus allowing very close placement of the shield to the detectors and permitting use of very high density arrays

285

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a self-powered radiation detector used, for example, for controlling radiation in the core of a nuclear reactor. With this in view, this invention relates to a detector that generates an electric signal corresponding to the radiation flux, between a first electrode or emitting electrode and a second or collecting electrode, at a distance from the first, this signal resulting from the different sensitivity to the incident radiation flux of the first and second electrodes. The emitting electrode is made of a conducting tubular material and the second or collecting electrode is formed of a central conductor coaxially housed in the first emitting electrode, with an insulation separating the two electrodes. An external tubular part coaxially surrounds the first emitting electrode and is separated by an insulation. The central conductor and the external tubular part are joined electrically to form the second or collecting electrode. According to this first claim, the first tubular emitting electrode is made of a conducting material with a high neutron cross section and the second or collecting electrode of a material with a low neutron cross section. The emitter is then in rhodium, vanadium or cobalt. For the application of gamma radiations to the detection of the flux, the first emitting tubular electrode is made of a conducting material with a high atomic number, sensitive to the gamma flux and the second collecting electrode in a conducting materiollecting electrode in a conducting material with a lower atomic number having a weaker interaction to the gamma flux. The emitting electrode is then in platinum. According to any of the claims, the collecting electrode is in high nickel steel or in nickel-chromium stainless steel

286

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

287

CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

288

Micromegas detectors for CLAS12  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability.

Charles, Gabriel [CEA, SACLAY

2013-08-01

289

International Large Detector. Letter of intent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their own goals of detector technology development. Members of the detector concept groups participate in the R and D collaborations and make sure that the detector technologies are successfully applied to the detector concept designs. By the creation of the ILD concept group, the application efforts became more focused. Currently, the ILD management includes subdetector contacts who are also key members of the detector R and D collaborations. This scheme is working efficiently such that we can finish basic R and D in time for the Technical Design Report which is envisaged around 2012. Overall, the ILD group structure is efficient while keeping exibility and openness. Even though we are still short on person power and funding at this time, we believe that we are well positioned to successfully complete a technical design for a detector at the International Linear Collider. The ILD group is firmly committed to the ILD project. (orig.)

290

A timing detector for the ATLAS AFP project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project is an upgrade plan to operate detectors continuously at high instantaneous luminosities of up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the vicinity of the beam and measure precisely very forward protons at ATLAS in conjunction with the corresponding central detectors as a means to study Standard Model physics and to search for new physics phenomena. AFP consists of movable beam pipes housing silicon pixel tracking detectors and fast timing detector at {proportional_to}220 m upstream and downstream of the ATLAS interaction point. One prototype of the fast timing detector exploits quartz Cerenkov radiators coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier. This presentation focuses on the design of this prototype and results of testbeam measurements.

Dueren, Michael; Stenzel, Hasko; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Liu, Yong [II. Phys. Inst., Univ. Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

2012-07-01

291

A timing detector for the ATLAS AFP project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project is an upgrade plan to operate detectors continuously at high instantaneous luminosities of up to 1034 cm-2s-1 in the vicinity of the beam and measure precisely very forward protons at ATLAS in conjunction with the corresponding central detectors as a means to study Standard Model physics and to search for new physics phenomena. AFP consists of movable beam pipes housing silicon pixel tracking detectors and fast timing detector at ?220 m upstream and downstream of the ATLAS interaction point. One prototype of the fast timing detector exploits quartz Cerenkov radiators coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier. This presentation focuses on the design of this prototype and results of testbeam measurements.

292

The Muon system of the run II D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov,; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech.

2005-03-01

293

A Photon Multiplicity Detector for the ALICE Experiment  

CERN Document Server

We describe the basic characteristics of a preshower photon multiplicity detector. The event-by-event fluctuation in the detected Ngamma/Nch is less than 3% for central events of VENUS event generator compared to 2.3% value for the raw event generator, suggesting excellent sensitivity of the detector to study isospin fluctuations. Detector performance can be optimised using both silicon and gas as the sensitive medium. The preshower signal shows good sensitivity to provide estimates of transverse e.m. energy.

Viyogi, Y P; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

294

The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

1991-12-31

295

Measurement and alignment goals for the SDC detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two major goals driving the requirements for alignment and measurement of the detector being designed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). First is each subsystem's goal of measuring its particular physics data as accurately as possible. Second is the goal of correlating the data from all subsystems in order to form a complete picture of the event. It is the ability to correlate all of the data that makes the SDC detector so powerful. The major subsystems of the SDC detector surround the interaction point in a series of concentric layers. The tracker is at the center, surrounded by the superconducting solenoid magnet and the central calorimeter. The magnetic field of the solenoid is along the beamline, with the return path being through the steel of the calorimeter hadron section. The central systems sit within the muon system, which consists of a magnetized-iron barrel toroid, wire chamber modules and scintillation counters for muon identification and momentum measurement. At the ends of the barrel toroid are forward toroids and muon chambers, as well as a forward calorimeter. The SDC detector will be largely built on-site at the SSC Laboratory. The requirements for precise measurements, therefore, extend from basic manufacturing tolerance control to the final alignment of the entire detector. Manufacturing precisions are at the tens of microns level, while the overall alignment of the detector is at the hundreds of microns levelhundreds of microns level

296

Intermittency studies in anti pp collisions at ?s=630 GeV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant intermittency signal is observed in 630 GeV anti pp collisions measured in the UA1 central detector. It occurs with similar magnitude in different variables: Pseudorapidity, rapidity and azimuthal angle. The signal increases with decreasing charged particle multiplicity in the event. Its strength in a sample of low pperpendicular to tracks and its multiplicity dependence are not reproduced by commonly used Monte Carlo models of high energy interactions. (orig.)

297

ATLAS Detector Interface Group  

CERN Multimedia

Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

Mapelli, L

298

Profile detectors of GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design phase of GANIL, which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beam lines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The profile detectors are unavoidable tools in displaying the GANIL beams for adaptation and adjustment of the beam line optics. The installed detector assembly (about 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beams extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beams (VHIB), secondary ion beams emitted by LISE and SPEG spectrometers targets, different lines of SPIRAL project (HE, BE, ME): This detector assembly must meet the following standard requirements: flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; identical analog electronics for all the detectors with networking; unique visualization system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (the beam profile and ion packet length allow an in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability

299

Lightweight neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron detector is disclosed which uses the moderating material as the structural support for the neutron detector element. A thin metal liner is affixed to the inside of the plastic moderating material encasement for containing a neutron detecting gas. A high voltage supply is connected to an electrical conductor which extends between the ends of the encasement and serves to furnish output pulses to a pulse counter upon the occurrence of ionization of the counting gas in response to neutron flux through the volume of the detector

300

Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57Co and 60Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

301

Radiation detectors in medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation detectors are used as the sensing elements in medical imaging modalities, such as radionuclide scans (nuclear medicine) in X-ray imaging, and as monitors for radiation exposure. The simplest devices - usually gas filled ionization chambers are used to monitor relatively high fluxes. In the medical imaging situations, the detectors are usually position sensitive devices, with spatial resolutions ranging from a fraction of a millimeter to a few millimeters. The types of detectors used include gas filled MWPC and other configurations, scintillation counters using high Z inorganic crystals, Silicon and Germanium crystalline semiconductors, as well as Amorphous Selenium and Silicon layers. 25 figs

302

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AGILE is a ?-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10-4. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

303

X-ray detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

304

PIN Diode Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and ?-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector

305

Heavy charged particle detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heavy charged particle detector containing a sensitive element of a dielectric material is described. To increase the detection threshold, the sensitive element of the detector is made of strontium glass containing dimethasilicate of strontium and magnesium in equal molar concentrations. This glass makes it possible to detect fission fragments resulting from spontaneous fission of transuranium elements against a background of bombarding particles up to and including zinc ions. The detector can be used in nuclear and solid-state physics for detecting heavy charged particles (z>30)

306

First double-sided 3-D detectors fabricated at CNM-IMB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first results on double-sided three-dimensional (3-D) silicon radiation detectors are reported in this paper. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of electrodes that penetrate into the detector bulk with the anode and cathode electrodes etched from opposite sides of the substrate. The geometry of the detector is such that a central anode is surrounded by four cathode contacts. The maximum drift and depletion distances are equal to the electrode spacing rather than detector thickness. This structure is similar to a conventional 3-D detector, but has a simpler fabrication process. The technological and the electrical simulations together with the fabrication steps of this new detector configuration are reported in this paper. The first detectors fabricated at CNM are reported here and have been characterized by electrical measurements

307

Czochralski silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is presented of some of the recent results concerning the suitability of Czochralski silicon to High Energy Physics (HEP) radiation detectors. It has been shown that an elevated oxygen concentration within the bulk silicon of detectors offers increased radiation hardness to charged particle radiation. Silicon produced using the Czochralski growth method has an intrinsically higher concentration of oxygen than the standard silicon growth method, float zone, which is extensively used in HEP radiation detectors. The research reviewed in this paper aims to understand the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of Czochralski and compares the performance to standard silicon radiation detectors. The majority of this work has been performed in the framework of the RD50 collaboration.

Bates, Alison G.

2006-12-01

308

Czochralski silicon radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of some of the recent results concerning the suitability of Czochralski silicon to High Energy Physics (HEP) radiation detectors. It has been shown that an elevated oxygen concentration within the bulk silicon of detectors offers increased radiation hardness to charged particle radiation. Silicon produced using the Czochralski growth method has an intrinsically higher concentration of oxygen than the standard silicon growth method, float zone, which is extensively used in HEP radiation detectors. The research reviewed in this paper aims to understand the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of Czochralski and compares the performance to standard silicon radiation detectors. The majority of this work has been performed in the framework of the RD50 collaboration

309

Pendulum detector testing device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs

310

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

Christensen, C

2013-01-01

311

High resolution radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution detector having a scintillation crystal for receiving incident X-rays at a front face and interacting with the radiation to generate corresponding visible light radiation. Silicon photodiode arrays are positioned on top and bottom lateral faces of the scintillation crystal to receive the visible light that is radiated laterally with respect to the direction of propagation of the incident X-rays. Photodiode elements in each photodiode array extend from the forward face of the scintillation crystal in the direction of propagation of the incident X-rays. The length of the photodiode elements determines the radiation stopping power of the high resolution detector and the height of the front face of the scintillation crystal determines the resolution of the detector. The height of the forward face of the crystal may be made small with respect to the length of the photodiode elements to provide a detector having high resolution and high radiation stopping power

312

CMS pixel detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting in 2013, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN will deliver an increased luminosity, with an eventual goal of reaching 1035 cm-2s-1, to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. This increase will happen in two steps creating far reaching implications for the CMS detector, especially for the tracking system. The first step, Phase I, will double the LHC luminosity and only the pixel tracker detector will be replaced. The second step, Phase II or SLHC, will require a new granularity of the strip detector which should substitute its strips with short strips or 'strixels'. SLHC will also provide an unprecedented track rate and radiation level that demands a completely new readout architecture. This paper addresses these challenges, focusing on the replacement of the CMS inner pixel detector for Phase I and shows the status of the activities.

313

CMS pixel detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting in 2013, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN will deliver an increased luminosity, with an eventual goal of reaching 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. This increase will happen in two steps creating far reaching implications for the CMS detector, especially for the tracking system. The first step, Phase I, will double the LHC luminosity and only the pixel tracker detector will be replaced. The second step, Phase II or SLHC, will require a new granularity of the strip detector which should substitute its strips with short strips or 'strixels'. SLHC will also provide an unprecedented track rate and radiation level that demands a completely new readout architecture. This paper addresses these challenges, focusing on the replacement of the CMS inner pixel detector for Phase I and shows the status of the activities.

Radicci, Valeria [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1082 Malott, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr., Lawrence, KS (United States)], E-mail: valeria.radicci@psi.ch

2009-03-15

314

The LUX Prototype Detector  

CERN Document Server

The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

2012-01-01

315

Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper new developments and applications for the use of future liquid scintillator detectors like the proposed 50kt large LENA project are presented. New aspects of the scientific potential of LENA, including long baseline oscillation measurements, are discussed

316

Hybrid photon detectors  

CERN Document Server

Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

D'Ambrosio, C

2003-01-01

317

Sensitive detectors in HPLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

318

SRAM Detector Calibration  

Science.gov (United States)

Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

1994-01-01

319

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment : . SPD Structure . Bump Bonding . Test beam . ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip . Chip Tests . Data from the SPD

2003-01-01

320

Europe plans megaton detector  

CERN Multimedia

A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

Cartlidge, Edwin

2004-01-01

321

Modular optical detector system  

Science.gov (United States)

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

322

OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter  

CERN Multimedia

Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

1988-01-01

323

Microsonic detector (MSD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

324

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

325

Transition Radiation Detectors  

OpenAIRE

We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Si...

Andronic, A.; Wessels, J. P.

2011-01-01

326

Clinical dosimeter based on diamond detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Diamond detectors have found application in the relative dosimetry and their parameters have been described elsewhere. Today, the exclusive producer of the diamond detector is the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems, Russia, and exclusive dealer is the PTW-Freiburg. The main features of the diamond detector are good long time stability, suitable range of the energy dependence for photon and electron beams in clinical use, independence of the measured date from temperature and pressure. The high sensitivity per volume unit of the diamond detector (1500 times higher than ionization chamber) allowed using detectors with very small volume (1-5 mm3) and rather simple electronics for ionization current registration. The new dosimeter consists of the diamond detector itself, 40 m registration cable, pre-amplifier, micro-processor block for data handling and absorbed dose calculation using the calibration factor of diamond detector in terms of absorbed dose to water. Dosimeter has the possibility to work with PC using standard RS-232 interface. The main features of the dosimeter are as follows: the range of dose rate measurements for photon, electron and proton beams is within 0.01-1.0 Gy/s; the energy ranges for photons are 0.08-25 MeV, and 4-25 MeV for electrons, with energy dependence no more than ±2%; the main uncertainty of the dose measurements is within ±2%; the pre-irradiation dose for diamond detector is no more than 10 Gy; the sensitive volume of the used diamond detectors is within 1-5 mm3; the weight of the dosimeter no more than 2 kg. The new dosimeter was evaluated at the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St. Petersburg, Russia to verify its performance. The dosimeter was used as a reference instrument for dose measurements at Cobalt-60 unit, SL75-5 and SL-20 linear accelerators and the test results have shown that the device have met the specifications. It is planned to produce dosimeter as serial device by the Institute of Physical and Technical Problem after completion of the tests. (author)

327

Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An axial tomography system is disclosed which includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. The detector means is preferably of the ionization type, and may comprise an array of side-by-side mutually insulated strip electrodes, spaced from a common high voltage electrode. The principal axis of each electrode is oriented along a radius extending toward the radiation source, and the ionization space between such strip and the common electrode can be regarded as defining a cell the principal axis of which is similarly oriented. Collimating means overlie the detector means and serve to assure that the radiation incident on each such cell is only that which has passed through an appropriate element of the body portion being examite element of the body portion being examined

328

Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An axial tomography system is disclosed which includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. The detector means is preferably of the ionization type, and may comprise an array of side-by-side elongated cells, the principal axis of each cell being oriented along a radius extending toward the radiation source. Collimating means overlie the detector means and serve to assure that the radiation incident on each cell is only that which has passed through an appropriate element of the body portion being examined

329

Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An axial tomography system is disclosed which includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. The detector means is preferably of the ionization type, and may comprise an array of side-by-side elongated cells, the principal axis of each cell being oriented along a radius extending toward the radiation source. Collinating means overlie the detector means and serve to assure that the radiation incident on each cell is only that which has passed through an appropriate element of the body portion being examined

330

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

2008-01-01

331

High resolution radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under this invention the high resolution detector comprises a scintillation crystal located along the propagation path of the incident X rays so as to react of these X rays to produce a corresponding luminous radiation. The visible light passes through a lateral part of the crystal and comes out by a lateral upper and lower facet of the crystal. Networks of detectors with several solid state detector components are placed along the side emission facets of the crystals, so as to receive the visible light emitted and to produce corresponding electric signals. An optical coupling grease is provided between the solid state detectors and the lateral emission facets of the crystals. The succesive networks of solid state detectors are alternated in positions located between the lateral emission facets and overlap so as to form a continuous radiation receiving area along the crystal. The detector components of the network start at the front of the scintillation crystal, in the propagation direction of the incident X rays

332

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

Mathieson, K

2001-01-01

333

ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)  

CERN Multimedia

To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

ATLAS Outreach

2006-01-01

334

Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

2000-01-01

335

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

336

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements. (orig.)

337

Neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and programme were drawn up for calculating the signal of delayed response SPN detectors for such cases when the emitter material is vanadium, rhodium or silver, in the form of I=f(phisub(c)) where I is the measured electrical current and phisub(c) is the neutron flux density in the place the detector is located. It is important that the detector electric signal be correctly measured as the detector output signal is relatively low (10-9 to 10-6 A) and is supplied through a spurious electromagnetic field to a distance of up to 50 m. In WWR-S reactor experiments 2 to 3 detectors and a SOLATRON measuring central are used and results are processed by a Hewlett-Packard computer using the DISA programme. Detector sensitivities determined theoretically and experimentally and the results of measurements using different types of detectors are compared. The results of measurements with SPN detectors with vanadium emitters 0.5 and 1 mm in diameters and 50 mm in length are shown graphically. (Z.M.)

338

Central exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a review of central exclusive dijet production in \\bar pp collisions, where the proton and antiproton emerge intact, and only two jets of transverse energy above a certain threshold are present in the final state. The results are published in two papers by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) Collaboration, a PRL (2000) and a PRD (2008), based on data collected at ? s = 1.8 TeV and 1.96 TeV, respectively, and a D0 Collaboration paper from studies at 1.96 TeV. In all three cases predictions for the cross-section of Higgs boson production are discussed, a process that proceeds via a similar mechanism as dijet production. Roman Pot Spectrometers equipped with tracking detectors are used to measure the outgoing antiproton (CDF and D0) and proton (D0), and special forward detectors are employed to help reduce backgrounds and enrich the data in diffractive and exclusive dijet events.

Goulianos, Konstantin

2014-11-01

339

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

340

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded MARK II detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and preprocessing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing

341

The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features an ultraviolet laser and optical components that direct a beam of calibrated, pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors, which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility acts as a 'test beam' that is used to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the air fluorescence detectors. Additionally, the laser can send a light pulse via optical fiber to the nearest surface detector tank. This signal, which occurs simultaneously with light beamed into the sky, is used for the hybrid timing analysis of the surface and fluorescence detectors at the Observatory

342

The ALICE detector and trigger strategy for diffractive and electromagnetic processe  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer, zero degree calorimeters and additional detectors which are used for trigger purposes and for event classification. The main detector systems of relevance for measuring diffractive and electromagnetic processes are described. The trigger strategy for such measurements is outlined. The physics potential of studying diffractive and electromagnetic processes at the LHC is presented by discussing possible signatures of the Odderon.

Schicker, R

2008-01-01

343

The D0 inter-cryostat detector, massless gaps and missing E[sub T] resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps are located in the intermediate rapidity regions between the central and end calorimeters of the D0 detector and are designed to improve energy measurements in those regions. Results are presented from test beam and collider data showing the improvement of single particle and jet energy resolutions with the inclusion of the inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps. The calorimeter missing E[sub T] resolution in collider data is presented.

Streets, K. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

1992-12-01

344

Detectors on the drawing board  

CERN Document Server

Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

345

Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors, the Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and the Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). It covers the central pseudo-rapidity region ? < 1.0 for all vertices located within the length of the interaction diamond 1 ?. The outer layers of the ITS consist of double sided Silicon Strip Detectors mounted on carbon-fiber support structures. The SSD is crucial for the connection of tracks from the main tracking device of ALICE, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), to the ITS and also provides dE/dx information to assist particle identification for low-momentum particles. The detector consists of 1698 modules each one having 1536 p and n-side strips, resulting in total to more than 2.6 million channels. The SSD has been actively participating in all the testing, commissioning and run activities as well as in all the data taking periods of the ALICE experiment, making it the largest working double sided detector in the world. It has registered large statistics of cosmic data in 2008 and is included in the initial detector configuration of ALICE for the first LHC collisions. In this talk, the latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics will be presented. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring will be shown. In addition, the procedures l be shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to address the alignment with the rest of the ITS sub-detectors along with both on-line and off-line calibration strategies will be described. Finally, results from simulations as well as from the reconstruction of cosmic data demonstrating the performance of the detector will be presented, proving that the SSD is ready for the forthcoming proton-proton data taking. (author)

346

Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

347

A series of detector systems for MUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

The 24 IFU from MUSE are equipped with 4K x 4K CCD detectors which are operated at cryogenic temperature around 160 K. The large size of the chip combined with a rather fast camera (F/2) impose strong positioning constrains. The sensitive surface should remain in an angular envelope of less than 30 arc sec in both directions. The ambitious goal of having the same spectrum format on every detector imposes also a very accurate positioning in the image plane. The central pixel has to be located in a square smaller 50 microns relative to the external references. The first part of the paper describes the mechanical design of the detector head. We concentrate on the various aspects of the design with its very complex interfaces. The opto-mechanical concept is presented with an emphasis on the robustness and reliability. We present also the necessary steps for the extreme optimization of the cryogenic performance of this compact design driven with a permanent view of the production in series. The techniques and procedures developed in order to meet and verify the very tight positioning requirements are described in a second part. Then the 24 fully assembled systems undergo a system verification using one of the MUSE spectrographs. These tests include a focus series, the determination of the PSF across the chip and a subsequent calculation of the tip/tilt and shift rotation of the detector versus the optical axis.

Lizon, J. L.; Kelz, A.; Dupuy, C.; Accardo, M.; Reiss, R.; Deiries, S.; Fechner, T.; Srivastava, M.; Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P.; Hinterschuster, Renate

2012-09-01

348

The central part of CMS is lowered  

CERN Multimedia

On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

Maximilien Brice

2007-01-01

349

Radial efficiency gradients in Ge(Li) gamma detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Counting of radioactive sources on the surface of the vacuum container of a Ge(Li) detector may lead to errors because of large efficiency gradients. In order to explore the radial dimension of this problem, several point sources were stepped across in contact with the cap of several detectors, and curves of absolute efficiency against radius were measured. The insensitive core of an open-end coaxial detector reduced the central point-source efficiency at 122 keV at the cap to 20% less than a comparable closed-end detector. In compensation, however, there was a reduction in the radial efficiency gradient. The radial efficiency gradient was approximately proportional to the radius, with the central flattening for the open-end detector superimposed on the trend. Open-end detectors are favoured over closed-end coaxial ones for the most accurate work, although the differences in the two configurations are not marked. Differences are greatest for low energy and close geometry. (T.G.)

350

The STAR silicon strip detector (SSD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two-dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double-sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half-million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding, was used to fulfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given

351

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)  

CERN Document Server

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding (TAB), was used to fullfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

Arnold, L; Bonnet, D; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Coffin, J P; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Guilloux, G; Guedon, M; Hippolyte, B; Janik, M; Kisiel, A; Kuhn, C; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lefčvre, F; Le Moal, C; Leszczynski, P; Lutz, Jean Robert; Maliszewski, A; Martin, L; Milletto, T; Pawlak, T; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Przewlocki, M; Radomski, S; Ravel, O; Renard, C; Renault, G; Rigalleau, L M; Roy, C; Roy, D; Suire, C; Szarwas, P; Tarchini, A

2003-01-01

352

The STAR silicon strip detector (SSD)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two-dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double-sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half-million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding, was used to fulfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

Arnold, L.; Baudot, J.; Bonnet, D.; Boucham, A.; Bouvier, S.; Castillo, J.; Coffin, J.P.; Drancourt, C.; Erazmus, B.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Gojak, C.; Grabski, J.; Guilloux, G.; Guedon, M.; Hippolyte, B.; Janik, M.; Kisiel, A.; Kuhn, C.; Lakehal-Ayat, L.; Lefevre, F.; Le Moal, C.; Leszczynski, P.; Lutz, J.R.; Maliszewski, A.; Martin, L. E-mail: lilian.martin@subatech.in2p3.fr; Milletto, T.; Pawlak, T.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.; Przewlocki, M.; Radomski, S.; Ravel, O.; Renard, C.; Renault, G.; Rigalleau, L.M.; Roy, C.; Roy, D.; Suire, C.; Szarwas, P.; Tarchini, A

2003-03-01

353

The sand-glass gas detector (SGG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel position-sensitive micro-pattern gas detector called Sand-Glass is introduced. It has been manufactured using printed circuit board technique and its structure is based on two thin kapton foils joined together. The foils are copper-clad on both sides with the strip electrodes structure engraved on either side, and with a very dense perforation in the form of a conically shaped hole pattern etched through both foils, which forms the Sand-Glass shape. The two foils are in electrical contact; the outer faces form cathodes, and the inner layer becomes an anode. Due to the electric field symmetry, electrons from avalanches are collected on the central electrode of the Sand-Glass holes. This geometry may allow 2D readout in the single gas amplification structure. Preliminary results of the SGG detector prototype tests are reported

354

Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

355

Lead scintillation shower detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characteristics of the modulus lead-scintillation detector are investigated. A laminated shower detector consisting of moduli 7 radiation lengths each are investigated. Contribution of fluctuation losses of the shower energy to complete resolution is evaluated. It is shown that at the 1 GeV energy of electrons the resolution is 26 %. Total impulse amplitude from two and three moduli increases practically linearly with the electron energy as the energy losses are low: addition of the third modulus results in the amplitude increase by 3-4 %. In three blocks the shower is completely absorbed and energy resolution is determined by inner properties of the detector (lamination), convertor material, identity of light collection conditions. At the electron energy of 3.5 GeV amplitude and resolution remain constant over all square of the detector, except approximately 5 cm zone at the detector edges. The value of this zone is determined by the transverse dimensions of shower and cross section of entering particles

356

The LHCb upgrade detector  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb experiment has been designed to perform precision measurements of CP asymmetries and to investigate potential effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Results obtained from data collected in 2010 and 2011 show that the detector is robust and functioning well. While LHCb will be able to measure a host of interesting channels in heavy flavor decays in the coming years, a limit of about 1-2 fb$^{-1}$ of data per year can only be overcome by upgrading the detector. With a detector read out at 40 MHz, a much more flexible software-based triggering strategy will allow a large increase not only in the data rate, as the detector will collect 5 fb$^{-1}$ per year, but also in the ability to increase trigger efficiencies especially in decays to hadronic final states. In addition, it will be possible to modify trigger algorithms in order to explore different physics as LHC discoveries point to the most interesting channels. Here a short description of the physics motivations and proposed detector changes f...

Schmidt, Burkhard

2011-01-01

357

Lepton detector workshop summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A discussion is given of the initial detector design, focusing on the cost estimates and on the inner detector modules. With regard to inner modules, the rate problem was examined for the closest elements, and the question whether one should use argon or lead-liquid scintillator calorimeters was discussed. New designs which involved major modifications to the lepton detector are considered. The major motivations for alternative designs were twofold. One was that the original detector looked quite expensive, and a study of the tradeoff of money versus physics had not really been done yet. The second point was that, since the physics region to be explored was totally new ground, one would like to leave as many options open as possible and build a detector that was as flexible as possible. A scaled-down version of the original design, which was strongly favored by this study, appears to save an appreciable amount of money with a small decrease in the initial physics scope. The more modular designs seem quite attractive, but not enough time was spent to demonstrate feasibility

358

Hybrid photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array tubes with finely segmented anodes for photon-sensitive imaging devices. Some of the hybrid photon detectors' applications and achievements in radiation detection are discussed and compared with competing devices such as photomultipliers, image intensifiers, photodiodes, silicon drift chambers, charge coupled devices, visible light photon counters, and photographic emulsions

359

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

Science.gov (United States)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11

360

Semiconductor radiation detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01

361

Improved photon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

362

The LHCb Detector Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

363

Failed fuel element detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the failed fuel element detector of this invention, a truck capable of moving on a bridge across a coolant water tank of a pool type reactor has a pipe extending downward to or near the coolant drain port of an arbitrarily selected fuel element. Coolant in the element is drawn by a pump through this pipe and collected in a reservoir located in the truck. The radioactivity of the coolant in the reservoir is measured to determine the content of any radioactive effluent elected from the fuel element, into the coolant. Thus, a failed fuel element can be located using this detector system without extracting fuel elements from the reactor core. Labor required in the locating of failed elements. This detector in the fuel assembly may thus be reduced system may be positioned so as to monitor the radioactivity of the coolant in the tank, sudden increases in radioactivity indicate fuel element failure. (JPN)

364

Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-?m (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

365

Scintillation neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two basic types of scintillation area neutron detectors are reviewed. The first is the prompt detector which uses photomultipliers to convert the neutron scintillations to electrical pulses. These signals are combined in weighting or encoding circuits to give event location. Several embodiments of the weighted and coded scintillator approach are mentioned. The second type of scintillation detector is based on television techniques and has a delayed readout. In this method all the light (or as much as possible) is either focused with a fast lens or is coupled by being put in direct contact with the fiber-optic faceplate of an image intensifier tube. The light from the phosphor screen is intensified and coupled to a television camera tube instead of a photomultiplier, and further amplification is produced in the camera tube by accelerating the photoelectrons in order to produce secondary electrons

366

Target mass monitoring and instrumentation in the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The Daya Bay experiment measures sin 22?13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time antineutrino detector monitoring sensors and readout electronics.

Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Greenler, L. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Kang, L.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, S. F.; Lin, S. X.; McFarlane, M. C.; Wang, W.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, Y. D.; Wise, T. S.; Xiao, Q.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Z. J.

2013-04-01

367

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

1998-06-01

368

LHC Detector Upgrades  

OpenAIRE

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R&D, make p...

Green, Dan

2003-01-01

369

Gas ionization detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the operation principle of different kinds of gas ionization detectors including the up-to-date multiwire and gas scintillation proportional counters as well as corona counters and the traditional ionization chambers, proportional and Geiger-Mueller counters is given. The topics are devided into 4 parts: in the first one general theoretical questions are dealt with, in the second one the major types of detectors are discussed, in the third one analyzers for the evaluation of nuclear signals are reviewed. Finally, various fields of application to detect heavy charged particles, ?-particles, x-, ?-rays and neutrons are mentioned. A rich bibliography for interested experts is added. (V.N.)

370

The superheated drop detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Superheated Drop Detector (SDD) is a new tool for radiation spectrometry, area monitoring, and dosimetry that may find use in nuclear science, safety, and medicine. It is based on the principle of the bubble chamber, but unlike the bubble chamber, offers continuous radiation sensitivity, portability and adaptability, direct reading capability, and low cost. Moderately superheated drop detectors are insensitive to gamma rays and X-rays for energies less than 6 MeV, but sensitive to fast neutrons and have an energy threshold that can be adjusted by varying temperature, pressure, or drop composition. (Auth.)

371

CMS silicon strip detectors  

CERN Document Server

Robust tracking is an essential tool to address the full range of physics which can be accessed at LHC. The CMS Collaboration has chosen the detector technology for the Silicon Strip tracking system. Over the last few years considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the operation of silicon strip detectors in the harsh environment of the LHC. An overview of recent results is given with particular emphasis on resistivity and crystal orientation of the substrate, strip capacitance and breakdown voltage. (2 refs).

My, S

2001-01-01

372

Radio detector array simulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently radio signals originating from extensive air showers have been observed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. In this note we present software to simulate the response of an array of antenna detectors and to reconstruct the radio signals. With this software it is possible to investigate design parameters of an antenna array and to visualize the radio data. We show comparisons between measurements of radio signals from air showers and simulated data which were generated with the REAS2 generator and then processed with the detector simulation and reconstruction software.

373

Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

Singh, J. J. (inventor)

1973-01-01

374

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

375

Novel threshold Cherenkov detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are studying a novel threshold Cherenkov detector system for the discrimination between charged pions and kaons in an experiment on CP breaking at LEAR, CERN. Cherenkov UV-light is produced in an FC72 radiator and detected in a row of 2 cm diameter quartz tubes filled with TMAE vapour at 45/sup 0/C. Inside a tube a wire is stretched along the axis as anode and a nichrome spiral functions as cathode. Computer simulations have shown that good pion/kaon discrimination can be obtained. First results obtained with a small quartz-tube light detector are presented.

Okx, W.J.C.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Looman, M.; Tanner, N.W.

1988-12-15

376

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

377

Gaseous Radiation Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetic interactions of charged particles with matter; 3. Interactions of photons and neutrons with matter; 4. Drift and diffusion of charges in gases; 5. Collisional excitations and charge multiplication in uniform fields; 6. Parallel plate counters; 7. Proportional counters; 8. Multiwire proportional chambers; 9. Drift chambers; 10. Time projection chambers; 11. Multitube arrays; 12. Resistive plate chambers; 13. Micro-pattern gas detectors; 14. Cherenkov ring imaging; 15. Miscellaneous detectors and applications; 16. Time degeneracy and aging; Further reading; References; Index.

Sauli, Fabio

2014-06-01

378

Semiconductor neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

379

The ALICE detector at the CERN LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated heavy-ion detector designed to exploit the physics potential of nucleus-nucleus interactions at the LHC. As a general purpose experiment, it will allow a comprehensive study of hadrons, electrons, muons and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei, up to the highest particle multiplicities anticipated at the LHC. The central part of ALICE, which covers (90±45)o(|?|o - 9o, ?=2.5 - 4) has recently been added to study production and suppression of heavy quark resonances. (author)

380

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip detector modules for LHC  

OpenAIRE

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3·1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers...

Perea Solano, Blanca

2004-01-01

381

Report of the compact detector subgroup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

382

Method of preparing a thin-film, single-crystal photovoltaic detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thin-film single-crystal infrared detector exhibiting an increased frequency of response is described. A closed transverse junction, formed by diffusing a central electrode of an impurity rich metal into a lead-salt film epitaxially grown on an insulating substrate, provides an effective optical area in excess of the junction surface. An ohmic contact is spaced apart from the central electrode. Junction capacitance, a limitation upon the electrical response, is diminished by the detector geometry while detectivity is enhanced. In an alternative embodiment the detector may be segmented to provide directional detection

383

DEPFET-detectors: New developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available.

Lutz, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Eckardt, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Haelker, O. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Hermann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Lechner, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Richter, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Soltau, H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Treis, J. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Woelfl, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Zhang, C. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)

2007-03-01

384

Semiconductor detectors for telescope systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe new semiconductor detectors for telescope systems intended for electron spectrometry in the range 0.15-3.5 MeV. A cross section of a telescope consisting of five different semiconductor detecting modules is shown. In preparing the semiconductor detectors, the authors paid much attention to thru put dE/dx detectors. The electrophysical and spectrometric characteristics of semiconductor detectors are presented. The energy resolution for the better specimens was 16 keV for E detectors with respect to the 976-keV line of 207Bi beta-radiation and 18-keV for dE/dx detectors

385

Semiconductor detectors for telescope systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe new semiconductor detectors for telescope systems intended for electron spectrometry in the range 0.15-3.5 MeV. A cross section of a telescope consisting of five different semiconductor detecting modules is shown. In preparing the semiconductor detectors, the authors paid much attention to thru put dE/dx detectors. The electrophysical and spectrometric characteristics of semiconductor detectors are presented. The energy resolution for the better specimens was 16 keV for E detectors with respect to the 976-keV line of /sup 207/Bi beta-radiation and 18-keV for dE/dx detectors.

Muminov, R.A.; Bogomolova, T.A.; Leiderman, E.A.; Mullagalieva, F.G.; Rykova, N.P.; Yafasov, A.Ya.

1987-01-01

386

Status of the KEDR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e+e--collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/? meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed

387

Diamond pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

2001-01-01

388

Calibration of germanium detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG)

389

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

P. Paolucci

2012-01-01

390

Ionic smoke detectors  

CERN Document Server

Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

2002-01-01

391

Bismuth germanate detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Luminescence properties of Bi4Ge3O13 (BGO) bismuth germanate crystals are investigated. Comparison of BGO and NaI(Tl) scintillator characteristics is conducted. Data on BGO-detector energy resolution under ?-radiation, proton, ?-particle, ?-meson and electron detection at 0.1-1000 MeV energy are presented. BGO scintillators are characterised by high conversion and bremsstrahlung-produced capabilities due to a high bismuth atomic number (Z=83) and a high BGO density (7.13 g/cm3). Relation of NaI(Tl) and BGO radiation lengths is equal to 2.3; BGO crystals are chemically stable and are characterised by mechanical strength and can be processed by any device. They are nonhydroscopic and therefore do not require hermetic packing. A conclusion is drawn, that in the region of low and medium energy physics BGO-detectors appear to be quite perspective in those cases, when, in the first place, a high efficiency is required, as for example in anti-compton spectrometers, multi-detector units for studying the reaction mechanism under heavy ion effect. Application of BGO crystals instead of NaI(Tl) allows to considerably reduce in such cases dimensions and cost of experimental plants. BGO crystal advantages are more clearly manifested in high energy physics. Several projects concerning BGO-detector application in electromagnetic calorimeters are developed, the expected total volume of BGO crystals being 1600 lbeing 1600 l

392

The Friendship Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

393

Solid state detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

394

Silicon vertex detector  

CERN Multimedia

A physicist examines one-third of the Aleph silicon vertex which has 74 000 readout channels. This detector's two layers surround an interaction point and measure charged tracks from Z boson decay with position resolution of 12 microns in two orthogonal directions. ALEPH was part of the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider, which collided electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

1991-01-01

395

The BABAR Detector  

CERN Document Server

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the upsilon 4S resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

CERN. Geneva

2002-01-01

396

First ALICE detectors installed!  

CERN Multimedia

Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

2006-01-01

397

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

Manzari, V

2013-01-01

398

B-factory detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B0?J/?KS decays and related modes

399

Smoke Detector Technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

400

Ionisation detector chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent claim, on behalf of Chloride Group Ltd., London, relates to a small, simply constructed detector, including an ionisation chamber for detecting the presence of smoke, so as to be capable of giving an alarm that a fire is imminent in a building. (U.K.)

401

The BABAR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the ?(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented

402

The BABAR detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and by a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Boucham, A. [and others

2002-02-21

403

MPD Detector at NICA  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this article is to give information about the new accelerator complex NICA at JINR, Dubna and especially, to provide overview of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD) and its subdetectors. The current results of the MPD performance for dileptons, hyperons, hypernuclei and phi-meson are presented.

Yordanova, L.; Vasendina, V.

2014-04-01

404

Big detectors of BGO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bismuth germanate has been considered as a candidate scintillator which could be used for big particle calorimeters. After a discussion of the production techniques for crystal growth and a brief outline of some physical and optical properties, the authors discuss various applications of BGO detectors, in particular, the L3 experiment at CERN LEP. (Auth.)

405

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

406

OPAL detector end-cap  

CERN Multimedia

An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

1988-01-01

407

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

408

Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

1994-05-01

409

Future (underground) Water Cherenkov Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water Cherenkov detectors have been, and will continue, providing fascinating results in the fields of neutrino physics and astrophysics. Because its strong potential for a wide range of scientific subjects is well recognized, development of a large water Cherenkov detector has been carried out all over the world. The detector is well matured and basic technology to build the next generation, megaton-class detector is readily available. The physics potential and the status of technical development are reviewed

410

The first level muon trigger in the central toroid of the ATLAS experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present the design of the first level muon trigger in the central toroid of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A trigger is foreseen based on fast, finely segmented gaseous detectors, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), to unambiguously identify the interaction bunch crossing. We describe the detectors and the logic scheme of the trigger. (orig.).

Bacci, C. [Terza Univ. di Roma and INFN (Italy); Camarri, P. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy); Ceradini, F. [Terza Univ. di Roma and INFN (Italy); Ciapetti, G. [Rome Univ. (Italy); DiCiaccio, A. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy); Falciano, S. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Lacava, F. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Nisati, A. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Petrolo, E. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Pontecorvo, L. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Santonico, R. [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy); Veneziano, S. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Verzocchi, M. [Rome Univ. (Italy); Zanello, L. [Rome Univ. (Italy)

1995-12-11

411

The first level muon trigger in the central toroid of the ATLAS experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the design of the first level muon trigger in the central toroid of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A trigger is foreseen based on fast, finely segmented gaseous detectors, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), to unambiguously identify the interaction bunch crossing. We describe the detectors and the logic scheme of the trigger. (orig.)

412

The PANDA Detector at FAIR  

OpenAIRE

The PANDA detector is under design to be installed at the HESR storage ring for antiproton of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei will be pursued using a multipurpose set-up which includes innovative detectors. Here, the FAIR facility and the PANDA detector are described.

Marcello, Simonetta

2008-01-01

413

New electronically black neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors

414

New electronically black neutron detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Two neutron detectors that can function in a continuous radiation background are described. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors.

Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Hurlbut, C.

1986-07-01

415

Detector characterization in GEO 600  

OpenAIRE

The GEO 600 interferometric gravitational wave detector conducted its first science run (S1) from 23 August 2002 to 9 September 2002. The GEO 600 data acquisition system is described together with some software tools developed for doing detector characterization and data analysis. Detector characterization results are also being presented.

Sintes, A. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Barr, B. W.; Berukoff, S.; Borger, S.; Cagnoli, G.; Cantley, C. A.; Casey, M. M.; Chelkowski, S.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C. N.; Crooks, D. R. M.

2003-01-01

416

STRAW based precision tracking detectors  

CERN Document Server

The basic results on developing the thin-film drift tubes, which became the basis for creating the precision tracking detectors at the ATLAS and COMPASS (CERN) facilities, are discussed. The STRAW-chambers are characterized by the detector low radiation thickness, cylindrical geometry for each registration channel, simple chamber design and detector high performance reliability

Kekelidze, G D

2002-01-01

417

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

418

[Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders]. [Progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun.

1992-08-04

419

[Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun

420

Two-Sided Coded Aperture Imaging Without a Detector Plane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We introduce a novel design for a two-sided, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager suitable for use in stand off detection of orphan radioactive sources. The design is an extension of an active-mask imager that would have three active planes of detector material, a central plane acting as the detector for two (active) coded-aperture mask planes, one on either side of the detector plane. In the new design the central plane is removed and the mask on the left (right) serves as the detector plane for the mask on the right (left). This design reduces the size, mass, complexity, and cost of the overall instrument. In addition, if one has fully position-sensitive detectors, then one can use the two planes as a classic Compton camera. This enhances the instrument's sensitivity at higher energies where the coded-aperture efficiency is decreased by mask penetration. A plausible design for the system is found and explored with Monte Carlo simulations

421

Central Tendency and Variability  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter presents two important interrelated topics in statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency show how similar the data points in a set of data are, while measures of variability show how much the

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

422

Central venous catheters - ports  

Science.gov (United States)

Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

423

Central Cord Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... the prognosis? What research is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Cord Syndrome? Central cord syndrome is the most common form of incomplete spinal cord injury characterized by impairment in the arms ...

424

Axioms for Centrality  

CERN Document Server

Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we try to provide a mathematically sound survey of the most important classic centrality measures known from the literature and propose an axiomatic approach to establish whether they are actually doing what they have been designed for. Our axioms suggest some simple, basic properties that a centrality measure should exhibit. Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas's classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way. As a sanity check, we examine in turn each measure under the lens of information retrieval, leveraging sta...

Boldi, Paolo

2013-01-01

425

Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified version of the THALES double heterostructure (DH) p-i-n device, but with even wider bandgap barriers inserted at the contact layer/absorber layer interfaces. It is designed to work with either bulk semiconductors or superlattices as the absorber material. The superlattice bandgap can be adjusted to match the desired absorption cutoff wavelength. This infrared detector has the potential of high-sensitivity operation at higher operating temperatures. This would reduce cooling requirements, thereby reducing the power, mass, and volume of the equipment and allowing an increased mission science return.

Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-01-01

426

Optimal Central Bank Lending  

OpenAIRE

We analyze optimal monetary policy in a sticky pricemodel where the central bank supplies money outrightvia asset purchases and lends money temporarily againstcollateral. The terms of central bank lending affect ra-tioning of money and impact on macroeconomic aggre-gates. The central bank can set the policy rate and itsinflation target in a way that implements the first bestlong-run allocation, which is impossible if money weresupplied in a lump-sum way (as commonly assumed).Efficient central...

Schabert, Andreas

2010-01-01

427

Report of the large solenoid detector group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

428

Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

429

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

CERN Document Server

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01

430

European Central Bank  

Science.gov (United States)

Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

431

Solid xenon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid xenon detector intended for nuclear medicine has been tested using a 57Co ? source at 150K inside a cryostat. The charge collection is shown to be less satisfactory in two-phase, liquid-gas or solid-gas operation than in liquid xenon (the charge loss is only 1% per millimeter while under the same thickness, there is no peak left in liquid-gas), the improvement in solid xenon being probably due to the electron drift velocity twice as high in the solid as in the liquid. As for the operating principle, the detector is a photon proportional counter, with improved resolution and irradiation behavior when krypton gas is added to the xenon gas, the resolution being better for higher voltages (25% at 4kV)

432

Future detectors II  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies for thermal noise reduction in future gravitational wave detectors. Interferometric gravitational wave detectors utilize kilometer-scale Michelson interferometers as a means of measuring minute length changes caused by gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. Thermal noise refers to the thermal vibrations of the mirror surface, substrate, and suspension system which tend to mask the desired gravitational wave signal. These effects are expected to be the limiting source of noise in much of the sensitive frequency range of the Advanced gravitational wave interferometers that are currently under construction. Development of new technologies will be required to further reduce thermal noise in the future. This talk will explore several possible avenues currently being investigated. These include the use of novel optical coatings based on crystalline materials, new materials for the mirror substrate and suspension system, and the use of cryogenics.

Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas

2013-04-01

433

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

Owens, Alan

2012-01-01

434

MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT  

CERN Multimedia

Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

G.Gomez

435

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

436

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

437

Future liquid Argon detectors  

CERN Document Server

The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

Rubbia, A

2013-01-01

438

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

439

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

G. Iaselli.

440

Memristive fuzzy edge detector  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

2011-01-01

441

Controlling the Excalibur detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excalibur is an advanced photon counting detector being designed and built by a collaboration of Diamond and the STFC. It is based around 48 CERN Medipix3 chips arranged as an 8 x 6 array. The main problem addressed by the design of the hardware and software is the uninterrupted collection and safe storage of image data at rates up to one hundred 2048 x 1536 frames per second. This is achieved by splitting the image into 6 'stripes' and providing a parallel data path for each stripe all the way from the detector chips to the storage. This architecture requires the software to control the configuration of the stripes in a consistent manner and to keep track of the data so that the stripes can be subsequently stitched together into frames

442

Liquid level detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

443

Aerogel for FARICH detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2-3-4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30-45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Barnyakov, M. Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Gulevich, V. V.; Danilyuk, A. F.; Kononov, S. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Lopatin, S. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Ovtin, I. V.; Podgornov, N. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Predein, A. Yu.; Protsenko, R. S.

2014-12-01

444

Detector systems for PERC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The b-decay of neutrons gives access to the structure and nature of the weak interaction. Main emphasis lies on tests of the validity of the Standard Model (unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix) and searches for possible extensions (e.g., right-handed currents, SUSY). Therefore, we study angular correlations involving the neutron spin and the momenta of the b-decay products (electrons and protons) with the new facility PERC. Different methods for electron energy spectroscopy, simultaneous electron and proton momentum spectroscopy, and proton spectroscopy are under development. So far, the efficiency of a scintillation detector with photomultiplier readout is investigated. The advantage of scintillation detectors is a short readout time with time resolution of 1 ns, which is needed for high count rate spectroscopy with PERC. The principles of PERC, different detection systems as well as first results of our efficiency studies, with calibration sources, are presented in this poster. (author)

445

How Metal Detectors Operate  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, provides an explanation of how a metal detector functions. Most people take for granted this common piece of equipment, but the science behind its function is actually quite remarkable. Bartelt uses flash animations and diagrams to examine how these machines work. These animations show everything from the different pieces of the machine to the sine waves and magnetic fields employed by the detector. Without such a detailed outline, these concepts would be much more difficult to grasp, and the author makes the presentation accessible for almost any grade level. Because of this, this would be a wonderful activity for a physics, or even mathematics, course.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

446

Digital image counting system for nuclear track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computerized counting system for Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors using the Digital Image Method is proposed: The detector is directly digitalized by a microdensitometer. Information about the number and the diameter of the tracks is obtained systematically. Tracks from 1.5 ?m diameter can be observed and a very low density can be registered. This method presents the advantage that it requires only a microdensitometer in the initial stage as a reading instrument and data collector. Later on, the processing of the full information can be carried out in a common central system. (author)

447

Digital centroid-finding electronics for high-rate detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast centroid-finding electronics are being developed for a range of position-sensitive gas proportional detectors. Each cathode strip feeds a preamplifier, shaper and a free-running ADC. Increased total count rate is achieved by dividing the detector into several segments with parallel processing that introduces no common dead time. Each segment has central-channel finding logic and event listing realized in a FPGA, followed by a DSP that performs the centroid calculation and histogramming. Measured count-rate per segment exceeds 106 per second, with virtually no dead time

448

CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade  

OpenAIRE

The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tra...

Parashar, N.

2011-01-01

449

Thin epitaxial silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

450

The CLEO RICH detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent ?/K separation is demonstrated

451

The CMS pixel detector  

CERN Document Server

Pixel detectors will be the innermost tracking layers of the CMS experiment. A large Lorentz angle will help to achieve good spatial resolution by interpolation. The first measurement of the Lorentz angle in irradiated silicon sensors is presented. A small pixel assembly using a radiation hard prototype readout chip has been tested with X-rays. The developments for the full readout chip are reviewed and results from SEU measurements with DMILL structures are shown. (6 refs).

Erdmann, W

2000-01-01

452

Detectors for particle identification  

OpenAIRE

The paper reviews recent progress in particle identification methods. A survey of motivations and requirements for particle identification in various experimental environments is followed by the main emphasis, which is on the recent development of Cherenkov counters, from upgrades of existing devices to a novel focusing radiator concept and new photon detectors. The impact of including a precise measurement of the time of arrival of Cherenkov photons to increase the kinemati...

Krizan, Peter

2007-01-01

453

The scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how detector systems used in nuclear medicine serve to intercept, measure the energy of, and count the ?-ray and x-ray photons that are emitted from a volume, the boundaries of which are defined by a collimator or well. They provide information about the concentration of a radionuclide within the volume, since the rate of photon emission is proportional to this concentration

454

LHCb velo detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

Patrice Loďez

2001-01-01

455

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2013-02-26

456

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

457

The ALEPH detector  

CERN Document Server

For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

1988-01-01

458

Semiconductor detectors. Recent evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recent evolution as well as the problems appearing in the use of semiconductor counters in both X and ?-ray as well as heavy ions spectroscopy are reviewed. For the photon counters the discussion is limited to cadmium telluride and mercuric iodide room temperature diodes, whereas for heavy ions, identification by means of thin ?E/?x counters and some problems related to the pulse amplitude in E detectors are considered

459

The Antares detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Antares Neutrino Telescope is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. It has been completed in May 2008 and is meant to perform neutrino astronomy via a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. This note describes the design, the construction and the functioning of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France, as well as the performances of the detector.

Creusot, A., E-mail: creusot@in2p3.fr [Laboratoire APC, Paris (France)

2013-08-01

460

Automatic human body detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is devised for the automatic detection of a human body. The method utilizes the near-infrared reflection bands of the skin of the human body as the identifying signature. Illumination of the body is provided by a near-infrared light source and the detection of the reflection bands. When each of the three detectors simultaneously register a signal of the proper reflection values, a coincident trigger circuit enables an indicator device which signifies a human body is detected

461

A fossils detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

462

The STAR Vertex Position Detector  

OpenAIRE

The 2x3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2x19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision ve...

Llope, W. J.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Asselta, K.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Butterworth, J.; Camarda, T.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Dong, X.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Hammond, J

2014-01-01

463

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

464

Sensitivities of directional detectors  

CERN Document Server

Three prototypes of directional detectors, which positively increase directional sensitivity for incident gamma rays, have been developed to measure directions of incident gamma rays. In the detector, a cylindrical NaI (Tl), the same sized bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator and a photomultiplier tube are combined optically in this order. Sizes of scintillators are 5.0 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm in length (A type), 5.0 cm in diameter and 5.0 cm in length (B type), 2.5 cm in diameter and 5.0 cm in length (C type). Since gamma ray pass length of crossing each scintillator is changed related to the incident direction theta, the probabilities of photoelectric absorptions in both scintillators are also changed. As a result, photoelectric absorption peak counts in a spectrum also have a relation to theta. This relation is expressed by the ratio R of BGO counts/NaI (Tl) counts with respect to theta. Using this function, the sensitivity of each detector to theta is estimated. Experiments were carried out for purposes...

Shirakawa, Y

2003-01-01

465

Analog pixel array detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray pixel array detectors (PADs) are generally thought of as either digital photon counters (DPADs) or X-ray analog-integrating pixel array detectors (APADs). Experiences with APADs, which are especially well suited for X-ray imaging experiments where transient or high instantaneous flux events must be recorded, are reported. The design, characterization and experimental applications of several APAD designs developed at Cornell University are discussed. The simplest design is a ;flash' architecture, wherein successive integrated X-ray images, as short as several hundred nanoseconds in duration, are stored in the detector chips for later off-chip digitization. Radiography experiments using a prototype flash APAD are summarized. Another design has been implemented that combines flash capability with the ability to continuously stream X-ray images at slower (e.g. milliseconds) rates. Progress is described towards radiation-hardened APADs that can be tiled to cover a large area. A mixed-mode PAD, design by combining many of the attractive features of both APADs and DPADs, is also described. PMID:16495611