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1

Dust on UA1 central detector  

CERN Document Server

In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

1982-01-01

2

The central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the construction, calibration and performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of the UA1 experiment at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The calorimeter is of the lead-scintillator sandwich type. It is 26.4 radiation lengths thick and covers a surface of about 50 m2. We estimate the resolution of the calorimeter for electrons of energy greater than 1 GeV to be the sum in quadrature of 15%/?E (E in GeV) and a constant 3%. The first term comes from the inherent resolution of the calorimeter due to sampling fluctuations and photostatistics. The second term comes from uncertainties in the calibration procedure and dominates the resolution for electrons from W and Z0 decay. The uncertainty in the overall energy scale also reflects the uncertainties in the calibration procedure and is estimated to be 3%. (orig.)

1986-02-01

3

UA1: Z particle decay  

CERN Multimedia

A colour treated picture of the computer reconstruction of the real particle tracks emerging from a high energy proton-antiproton collision recorded in the UA1 detector at the SPS (converted to act as a collider). This picture shows the production of a Z particle that has decayed into a high energy electron and positron flying off in opposite directions (in yellow). The UA1 detector ran on the SPS accelerator at CERN between 1981 and 1993.

1992-01-01

4

At UA1  

CERN Multimedia

Fabrication of the UA1 coils in the Hall 168. The coil under work is posed over the vacuum tank in turn temporary posed over the pile of coils already finished. The UA1 magnet consisted of 16 'C' shaped elements and 12 'I' shaped elements each of about 52 tons. (Annual Report 1979 pp. 55 and 79).

1980-01-01

5

Muons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/? and ? samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

1991-01-01

6

The UA1 Data-Acqusition System  

CERN Document Server

The data-acquisition system of the UA1 experiment running at the CERN pp collider is described. The front-end electronics generates 1.6 Mbytes of raw data for each event. Parallel data-stream processors reduce the typical event data to 60,000 bytes in a time of less than 10 ms. Data are read out by Remus CAMAC branches, formated data streams being read in parallel by buffer units with multi-event storage capability. For test and monitoring, the data flow can be accessed by local processors associated with each detector subsystem. Alternatively, the over-all system can be partitioned off in a set of independent subsystems running their own data acquisition with or without a synchronous trigger. On-line functions are assured by a number of multi-task and dedicated-task 16-bit and 32-bit computers. A variety of microprocessor-based systems with autonomous capabilities control the experimental apparatus.

Cittolin, S

1982-01-01

7

UA1 data-acquisition system  

CERN Document Server

The data-acquisition system of the UA1 experiment running at the CERN pp collider is described. The front-end electronics generates 1.6 Mbytes of raw data for each event. Parallel data-stream processors reduce the typical event data to 60000 bytes in a time of less than 10 ms. Data are read out by Remus CAMAC branches, formated data streams being read in parallel by buffer units with multi-event storage capability. For test and monitoring, the data flow can be accessed by local processors associated with each detector subsystem. Alternatively, the overall system can be partitioned off in a set of independent subsystems running their own data acquisition with or without a synchronous trigger. Online functions are assured by a number of multi-task and dedicated-task 16-bit and 32-bit computers. A variety of microprocessor-based systems with autonomous capabilities control the experimental apparatus.

Cittolin, Sergio

1982-01-01

8

Strong UA(1) breaking in radiative ? decays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the ? ? ??, ? ? ??-?+ and ? ? ?0?? decays using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that includes the 't Hooft instanton induced UA(1) breaking interaction. We find that the ?-meson mass, the ? ? ??, ? ? ??-?+ and ? ? ?0?? decay widths are in good agreement with the experimental values when the UA(1) breaking is strong and the flavor SU(3) singlet-octet mixing angle ? is about zero. (orig.)

1998-02-02

9

A Centrality Detector Concept  

CERN Multimedia

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This article describes the concept of the centrality detector for heavy ion experim...

Tarafdar, Sourav; Milov, Alexander

2014-01-01

10

Upgrading UA1 a new calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is mandatory to build a new calorimeter for UA1 if one has to perform a good physics program with the high luminosity delivered by ACOL in 1987. The author designed a Uranium scintillator solution which gives many interesting figures. But still technical difficulties exist concerning the polystyrene fibers which need to be solved. Also such calorimeter need good calibration. Due to technical difficulties and to the long range character of the project it makes very good sense to search for new techniques like TMP or silicium

1985-03-01

11

The UA1 monitor read out  

CERN Multimedia

The trigger electronics for the UA1 proton-antiproton experiment at CERN are large and complex. A trigger monitor, containing 640 registers, is used to take a 'snapshot' of the total state of the trigger as it processes an event. The monitor's dead time is reduced by quickly reading the content of its registers into buffer memory located in both CAMAC and Remus systems. The CAMAC-computer system emulates the trigger's calculations and is used to sample and check if the trigger is working correctly. The Remus system is used for the recording of good-event data and to this end reads in the state of the trigger as a small part of this data. The readout of the 640 registers into memory, followed by the readout of memory into CAMAC and REMUS systems, is largely organised by a MC6800 microprocessor. The task is simple but achieving sufficient speed is not. Speed is achieved by minimising the number of microprocessor instructions, e.g. data does not pass through the CPU of its memory and program counting loops are r...

Cawthraw, M

1981-01-01

12

Results from beam tests of UA1 U/TMP calorimeter modules  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results from three types of Uranium/TMP calorimeter modules constructed by the UA1 Collaboration. Electromagnetic and hadronic energy resolutions have been measured using electron and pion beams in the momentum range 7 GeV/c to 70 GeV/c. Results on energy linearity and spatial uniformity of response are also reported. The electromagnetic shower position resolution in the fine sampling modules has been measured using a position detector placed at a depth of 3.4 X 0. The ratio of the electron to pion response has been measured both as a function of the energy and of the electric field. The high lateral and longitudinal granularity of one of the modules which includes a position detector has been used to determine the electron-pion separation as a function of energy.

Virdee, Tejinder S.; UA1 Collaboration

1991-07-01

13

Production and muonic decay of the Z0 intermediate vector boson in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1982 to 1985 the intermediate bosons W+- and Z0 were detected in all the leptonic decay channels. In the present work we examined experimentally the production of the Z0 in proton-antiproton collisions, followed by decay of the Z0 into two muons. At present this is possible only in the UA1 experiment. Within the framework of this work I was initially responsible for the correct data readout from the muon detector. For this purpose it was necessary to build a monitoring system based on microprocessors, which could be used to monitor and test our apparatus. This monitoring system contains numerous programs for the diagnosis of the equipment. In the analysis I first selected the Z0 events in the runs of 1984 and 1985, and then determined the efficiency of this selection. I also participated in setting up the p/sub t//sup ?/ > 15 GeV/c selection. Then the Z0 sample was tested for completeness, and the background calculated anew. The methods of energy balance and mass fitting were refined and systematized. Thus the production properties and the mass of the Z0 could be determined for the first time for the entire measurement period of the UA1. The determination of the parameters of the standard model was done by also including the results of analyses from other decay channels of the W and Z bosons. 149 refs., 60 figs., 14 tabs

1988-01-01

14

Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. (orig.)

1989-11-10

15

Development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high crossing-rate, high magnetic field environment. (author)

1989-02-13

16

CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.

2007-01-01

17

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R and D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed

2007-01-01

18

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

1981-07-17

19

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine p{sub T} of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges.

Adcox, K.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Alexander, J.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Azmoun, B.; Barish, K.N.; Baublis, V.V.; Belkin, R.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J.C.; Borland, D.; Botelho, S.; Bryan, W.L.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S.A.; Chang, W.C.; Christ, T.; Dietzsch, O.; Drees, A.; Rietz, R. du; El Chenawi, K.; Evseev, V.A.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Fraenkel, Z.; Franz, A.; Fung, S.Y.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Godoi, A.L.; Greene, S.V.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Harder, J.; Hemmick, T.K. E-mail: hemmick@skipper.physics.sunysb.edu; Heuser, J.M.; Holzmann, W.; Hutter, R.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V.I.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Johnson, S.C.; Kandasamy, A.; Kann, M.R.; Kelley, M.A.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Komkov, B.G.; Kopytine, M.L.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, V.S.; Kravtsov, P.A.; Kudin, L.G.; Kuriatkov, V.V.; Lacey, R.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V.D.; Li, X.H.; Libby, B.; Liccardi, W.; Machnowski, R.; Mahon, J.; Markushin, D.G.; Matathias, F.; Marx, M.D.; Messer, F.; Miftakhov, N.M.; Milan, J.; Miller, T.E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Nandi, B.K.; Negrin, J.; Nilsson, P.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Oskarsson, A.; Oesterman, L.; Otterlund, I.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petersen, R.; Pinkenburg, C.H.; Pisani, R.P.; Purwar, A.K.; Rankowitz, S.; Ravinovich, I.; Riabov, V.G.; Riabov, Yu.G.; Rosati, M.; Rose, A.A.; Roschin, E.V.; Samsonov, V.M.; Sangster, T.C.; Seto, R.; Silvermyr, D.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, M.; Solodov, G.P.; Stenlund, E.; Takagui, E.M.; Tarakanov, V.I.; Tarasenkova, O.P.; Thomas, J.L.; Trofimov, V.A.; Tserruya, I.; Tydesjoe, H.; Velkovska, J.; Velkovsky, M.; Vishnevskii, V.I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Vznuzdaev, E.A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, H.Q.; Weimer, T.; Wolniewicz, K.; Wu, J.; Xie, W.; Young, G.R

2003-03-01

20

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine pT of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges

2003-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

/sub CH/ dependence on event multiplicity in ''minimum bias'' events at the SPS collider UA1 collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a UA1 ''minimum bias'' trigger data from the 1981 runs has shown a non negligible dependence of the average rho/sub T/ of the charged particles (/sub CH/) from the event charged multiplicity. In this paper the author presents new results on this effect based on a sample of ''minimum bias'' (MB) events collected with the UA1 detector during the 1983 run. After a short description of the data sample, he presents the results on the rho/sub T/ distributions showing that the 1981 observation is confirmed. He correlates this effect with the presence, in the MB sample, of a sizeable fraction of low E/sub T/ jet events. The author compares these low E/sub T/ jet events with the ''underlying'' event from high E/sub T/ jet events, in order to show that both type of events exhibit very similar behaviour in terms of /sub CH/ and multiplicity, supporting therefore the ''jet'' interpretation of the events found in the MB sample

1985-03-01

22

Central Tracking Detector Based on Scintillating Fibres  

CERN Multimedia

Scintillating fibres form a reasonable compromise for central tracking detectors in terms of price, resolution, response time, occupancy and heat production. \\\\ \\\\ New fluorescents with large Stokes shifts have been produced, capable of working without wavelength shifters. Coherent multibundles have been developed to achieve high packing fractions. Small segments of tracker shell have been assembled and beam tests have confirmed expectations on spatial resolution. An opto-electronic delay line has been designed to delay the track patterns and enable coincidences with a first level trigger. Replacement of the conventional phosphor screen anode with a Si pixel chip is achieved. This tube is called ISPA-tube and has already been operated in beam tests with a scintillating fibres tracker. \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the proposal is to improve hit densities for small diameter fibres by increasing the fraction of trapped light, by reducing absorption and reflection losses, by reflecting light at the free fibre end, and by inc...

2002-01-01

23

Chiral and U_A(1) symmetry in correlation functions in medium  

CERN Document Server

In this review, we will discuss how the chiral symmetry and U_A(1) breaking effects are reflected in the correlation functions. Using the Banks-Casher formula, one can identify the density of zero eigenvalues to be the common ingredient that governs the chiral symmetry breaking in correlation functions between currents composed of light quarks with or without a heavy quark. Similarly the presence of the U_A(1) breaking effect is determined through the contribution of the topologically non trivial configurations that depends on the number of flavors. We also discuss how the symmetry breaking effects are reflected in the gluon correlation functions. Finally, we review the Witten Veneziano formula for the eta' mass in medium.

Lee, Su Houng

2013-01-01

24

Effects of the U_A(1) breaking interaction on the baryonic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the U_A(1) breaking interaction on the baryon number one and two systems are estimated employing the six-quark flavour determinantal interaction as the effective interaction of quarks which reproduces the observed mass difference of ? and ?' mesons. This is done by calculating the matrix elements of the U_A(1) breaking Hamiltonian with respect to unperturbed states of the MIT bag model and the nonrelativistic quark model. The determinantal interaction induces not only three-body but also two-body interactions of valence quarks. The two-body interaction is attractive, which gives rise to the N-? mass difference with the magnitude less than one tenth of the observed one and attraction of two octet baryons at short distances whose magnitude ranges 20?80 MeV depending on the flavour channels and the choice of parameters. The three-body interaction is repulsive, which gives about 10?20 MeV repulsion in the H-dibaryon channel and somewhat weaker repulsion in the flavour SU(3) octet and antidecuplet channels of two octet baryons at short distances. We also compare our results with those obtained by using the instanton induced interaction. (author)

1992-01-01

25

The data acquisition system for the OBELIX central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the data acquisition system developed for the central detector of the OBELIX experiment at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The system is based on a VME multiprocessor that formats, collects and make a rough online analysis of the events digitized by high speed (100 MHz) Flash-ADCs. Full on-line event reconstruction is also provided

1991-01-01

26

U_A(1) breaking at finite temperature from the Dirac spectrum with the dynamical HISQ action  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate $U_A(1)$ breaking above $T_c$ in terms of the Dirac spectrum on configurations with (2+1)-flavors, using the HISQ action. The strange quark mass is at its physical value. We use several light quark masses corresponding to the Goldstone pion masses in the range of about 115 -- 230 MeV on lattices of size 32$^3 \\times$8 and 48$^3 \\times$8. We calculate the 100 lowest-lying Dirac eigenvalues at temperatures below and above $T_c$. We investigate the volume dependence of the Dirac eigenvalue density to determine whether there is a gap around zero, which can appear if $U_A(1)$ symmetry is restored in the chiral symmetric phase. We also investigate the quark mass dependence of the Dirac eigenvalue density at zero and check whether there is a linear behavior that would signal the $U_A(1)$ breaking above $T_c$.

Ohno, H; Karsch, F; Mukherjee, S

2012-01-01

27

Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

Sommer, Wolfgang

2008-03-26

28

Data acqusition for the Zeus central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the SSC environment. This paper describes the Transputer based data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector, and outlines some proposed development work on the use of parallel processing techniques in this field.

Quinton, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

1989-04-01

29

Analysis of the U$_A$(1) symmetry-breaking and restoration effects on scalar-pseudoscalar spectrum  

CERN Multimedia

We explore patterns of effective restoration of the chiral U$_A$(1) symmetry using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that incorporates explicitly the axial anomaly through the 't Hooft interaction. The special case of explicit breaking of chiral symmetry without U$_A$(1) anomaly is also considered, since we believe that this scenario can provide additional information allowing to understand the interplay between the U$_A$(1) anomaly and (spontaneous) chiral symmetry breaking effects. The behavior of the mass splitting between the singlet and the octet scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, well known manifestations of U$_A$(1) symmetry breaking, is investigated as function of temperature or density. The scalar sector is also analyzed bearing in mind the identification of chiral partners and the study of its convergence. We also concentrate on the behavior of the mixing angles that give us relevant information on the issue under discussion. As we work in a real scenario ($m_u=m_d<

Costa, P; De Sousa, C A; Kalinovskii, Yu L; Costa, Pedro; Kalinovsky, Yu. L.

2005-01-01

30

Measurement of the missing transverse energy in the UA1 experiment. Possible interpretations and futurs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of events with a large missing transverse energy (ETmiss) produced in the hadronic collisions, constitutes a very powerful method for testing the Standard Model and to search for new phenomena. We have analysed the events produced at the CERN pantip Collider (UA1 experiment) with a large missing transverse energy with one or several jets. Among this sample of events, we found a signal from the? lepton which is produced from the decay of the W, by observing the ?'s decay into hadrons. Using this analysis, we place an upper limit on the masses of gluinos and squarks in the absence of a signal of their production. We use a realistic simulation of a 4? very fine-grained calorimeter to study the direct production of the gluinos and squarks in pp collisions (ACOL, TEVATRON, LHC, SSC) in association with the background coming from the Standard Model which is dominated by QCD jets and the W and Z production. In this scheme, after a study of the signal and background behaviour as a function of the cuts applied, the limits with each of these Colliders for discovering the gluino and squark masses are given

1988-01-01

31

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

2007-01-01

32

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

Bartsch, D.

2007-05-15

33

The central tracker of the P¯ANDA detector  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main components of the new international research facility called FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) [Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. http://www.gsi.de/fair/index e.html], to be constructed in Darmstadt, Germany, is a storage ring for phase-space-cooled antiprotons—High Energy Storage Ring ( HESR). The P¯ANDA ( P¯ (antiproton) ANnihilation in DArmstadt) [Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons, Technical Progress Report for P¯ANDA. http://www-panda.gsi.de/archive/public/panda_tpr.pdf] experiment is a state-of-the-art detector at HESR covering almost the complete solid angle with an internal target. This experiment will investigate QCD in the charmonium mass region. The central tracker is the essential part of the P¯ANDA detector, providing information about primary and secondary decay vertices, momenta of charged particles and particle identification.

Sokolov, Andrey; Ritman, James; Stockmanns, Tobias; Wintz, Peter; P¯ANDA Collaboration

2009-01-01

34

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs_1_-_xSe_x system studied by neutron diffraction from single crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs_1_-_xSe_x system (temperature versus composition) has been determined from neutron diffraction measurements in zero applied magnetic field on single crystals with x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50, as well as from measurements in finite applied magnetic fields on single crystals with x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30. For x ? 0.40 and incommensurate magnetic ordering (k=[0,0,k]; m_kparallelk) develops below T_N down to T_I_C. The k-value at T_N decreases with the increase of x; in decreasing temperatures the k-value approaches the commensurate value below T_I_C. At T_I_C an incommensurate-commensurate transition leads to the type-I phase (k=1) for x ? 0.05 (with a subsequent transition to type-IA at T_0), to the type-IA phase (k=1/2) for 0.05 ? x ? 0.30, and to the squaring-up of the (5+,4-) phase (k ? 0.244) for x=0.40 below T ? 90 K. For x ? 0.50 the ordering is ferromagnetic. The nature of the multi-k structure is determined from measurements in finite fields. With the previously established single-k structure of type-I (in UAs), the UAs_1_-_xSe_x system exhibits single-k, double-k and triple-k structures. A double-k-triple-k transition occurs for x ? 0.15 in the type-IA phase and for x ? 0.22 in the incommensurate phase. The ordered magnetic moment at T=4.2 K is practically independent of the ordering (m ? 2?_B). (orig.)

1987-01-01

35

Alignment of the Central D-Zero Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The alignment procedure of the Silicon Microstrip Tracker, SMT, and the Central Fiber Tracker, CFT, is described. Alignment uncertainties and resulting systematic errors in physics analyses are addressed.

Sopczak, A

2006-01-01

36

A $U_A(1)$ symmetry restoration scenario supported by the generalized Witten-Veneziano relation and its analytic solution  

CERN Document Server

The Witten-Veneziano relation, or, alternatively, its generalization proposed by Shore, facilitates understanding and describing the complex of eta and eta' mesons. We present an analytic, closed-form solution to Shore's equations which gives results on the eta-eta' complex in full agreement with results previously obtained numerically. Although the Witten-Veneziano relation and Shore's equations are related, the ways they were previously used in the context of dynamical models to calculate eta and eta' properties, were rather different. However, with the analytic solution, the calculation can be formulated similarly to the approach through the Witten-Veneziano relation, and with some conceptual improvements. In the process, one strengthens the arguments in favor of a possible relation between the U_A(1) and SU_A(3) chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. To test this scenario, the experiments such as those at RHIC, NICA and FAIR, which extend the RHIC (and LHC) high-temperature scans also to the finite-den...

Benic, S; Kekez, D; Klabucar, D

2014-01-01

37

At UA1  

CERN Multimedia

David Myers and Jean-Pierre Vialle preparing for MERLIN. The MERLIN project provided a facility to interact with a three-dimensional moving image of the very complex events expected. MERLIN was based on a VAX-11/780 computer and two Megatek Graphics Stations (Annual Report 1980 p. 81).

1980-01-01

38

The detector system for measurement of multiple cosmic muons in the central detector of KASCADE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector system for directional and time correlation measurements of multiple cosmic muons has been set up within the extensive air shower experiment KASCADE. The system consists of two layers (129 m{sup 2} area each) of position-sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) triggered by a layer of segmented plastic scintillation counters placed upon an iron/concrete shielding above the MWPCs. Operation conditions and performance of the MWPCs have been studied by means of a prototype arrangement consisting of a stack of four detectors and two trigger layers. Results of the detailed prototype studies are presented and discussed. In particular, it has been found that for the present purposes an operation with a commonly used argon-methane gas mixture instead of previously used argon-isobutane leads to an excellent performance. The chambers are integrated into the KASCADE experiment as described and are in continuous operation since 1996. Some typical measurements with the full detector assembly are used to illustrate which features of extensive air showers can be studied.

Bozdog, H.; Elzer, M.; Gils, H.J. E-mail: gils@ik3.fzk.de; Haungs, A.; Herm, F.; Koepernik, H.; Koehler, K.U.; Kretschmer, M.; Leibrock, H.; Mathes, H.J.; Petcu, M.; Proehl, D.; Rebel, H.; Wentz, J.; Wolf, A.; Zagromski, S

2001-06-11

39

Development and construction of a monitoring system for the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monitoring system built to control the central drift chamber of the detector SAPHIR at the Electron Stretcher Ring ELSA in Bonn is presented. A method to monitor the drift velocity using bremsstrahlung photons from a moderate discharge in a tube is described. This system can detect relative variations of the drift velocity smaller than 0.5% without using a radioactive source. (orig.)

1989-01-01

40

One half of the central detector for the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS)experiment R807  

CERN Multimedia

This experiment was setup at the ISR intersection I-8 by the Brookhaven-CERN-Copenhagen-Lund-Rutherford Lab.-Tel Aviv Collaboration to study large transverse momentum phenomena (see Annual Report 1979 p. 69). The central detector (here shown for a part) was a cylindrical drift chamber with fine azimuthal segmentation.

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

An overview of pattern recognition in the central arms of the PHENIX detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is predicted that a Au+Au event in the PHENIX Detector at RHIC will produce up to 800 charged particles in the PHENIX central arms. Pattern recognition algorithms are being developed to handle this hostile tracking environment. To facilitate the development of these algorithms, a suite of evaluators and event displays have been developed to calculate efficiencies and identify weaknesses in the algorithms. An overview of these algorithms and procedures will be discussed

1997-04-07

42

Detector for the UA2 experiment  

CERN Multimedia

Detector for the UA2 experiment, for the study of proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS between 1981 and 1993. It was used, along with UA1 (another experiment on the SPS), to discover the W and Z bosons in 1983, which won Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer the Nobel Prize in 1984.

1987-01-01

43

A New scintillator tile/fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R and D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals

2004-10-16

44

A New scintillator tile / fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R&D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals.

Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.; Artikov, A.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Byrum, K.; Chang, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Goulianos, K.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, M.; Kuhlmann,; Lami, S.; Lindgren, M.; Lytken, E.; Miller, R.; Nodulman, L.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Roser, R.; /Argonne /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Michigan

2004-11-01

45

Construction of a cylindrical MWPC for the central tracking detector of H1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of two cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers, 2.2 meter long and 1 meter in diameter, are being built as part of the central tracking detector of the H1 experiment, at HERA. The chamber bodies are of sandwich type; the cathodes are segmented in pads. The transmission line, which is part of the sandwich, has an impedance matched to the preamplifiers. The electronic readout has been tested on a flat prototype chamber; the time resolution is well below the 96 ns bunch crossing time at HERA. (orig.)

1990-08-01

46

Construction of a cylindrical MWPC for the central tracking detector of H1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of two cylindrical multiwire proportional chambers, 2.2 meter long and 1 meter in diameter, are being built as part of the central tracking detector of the H1 experiment, at HERA. The chamber bodies are of sandwich type; the cathodes are segmented in pads. The transmission line, which is part of the sandwich, has an impedance matched to the preamplifiers. The electronic readout has been tested on a flat prototype chamber; the time resolution is well below the 96 ns bunch crossing time at HERA. (orig.).

Marage, P.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Dewulf, J.P.; Evrard, E.; Johnson, D.; Moreels, J.; Roosen, R.; Beek, G. van (Interuniversity Inst. for High Energies, Brussels (Belgium)); Roeck, A. de (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Wilrijk (Belgium)); Huet, P. (Vrije Univ., Brussels (Belgium). FNRS Stress Analysis Dept.)

1990-08-01

47

CDF central detector installation. An efficient merge of digital photogrammetry and laser tracker metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metrology for Run II at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) required a very complex geodetic survey. The Collision Hall network, surveyed with a Laser Tracker and digital level, provides a constraining network for the positioning of the Central Detector (CD). A part-based Laser Tracker network, which surrounded the 2,000-ton CD, was used as control for assembly. Subassembly surveys of the Detector's major components were measured as independent networks using Laser Tracker, V-STARS/S (Video-Simultaneous Triangulation And Resection System/Single camera) digital photogrammetry system, and BETS (Brunson Electronic Theodolite System) theodolite triangulation system. Each subassembly survey was transformed into and constrained by the part-based network. For roll-in, the CD part-based network was transformed into the Collision Hall network coordinate system. The CD was positioned in the Collision Hall using two Laser Trackers in 'stakeout mode.' This paper discusses the survey, adjustment, transformation, and precision of the various networks. (author)

2002-11-11

48

U_A(1) Symmetry Restoration from an In-Medium eta' Mass Reduction in sqrt(s(NN)) = 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions  

CERN Document Server

A reduction of the mass of the eta'(958) meson may signal restoration of the U_A(1) symmetry in a hot and dense hadronic matter, corresponding to the return of the 9th, "prodigal" Goldstone boson. We report on an analysis of a combined PHENIX and STAR data set on the intercept parameter of the two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation functions, as measuremed in sqrt(s(NN)) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC. To describe this combined PHENIX and STAR dataset, an in-medium eta' mass reduction of at least 200 MeV is needed, at the 99.9 % confidence level in a broad model class of resonance abundances.

Csorgo, T; Sziklai, J

2010-01-01

49

Investigation of relative arrival time distributions of EAS electron and muon component with the KASCADE central detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central detector of the KASCADE experiment is equipped with two layers of scintillation detectors with different area coverage. The scintillators of both detector systems have a good timing resolution of about 1.6 ns. With these two arrangements we performed extensive measurements of the arrival time differences at different energy thresholds of the electron and the muon component of EAS. The observed time structure of the shower profile is classified according to different EAS parameters. We furthermore present an analysis and comparism based on detailed MC simulations of the shower development. This comparism shows good agreement between experimental data and the expected behaviour of the different time distributions. (orig.)

Hafemann, W.; Haeusler, R.; Rebel, H.; Mathes, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Badea, F.; Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

2000-05-01

50

Optimization of the pulse arrival time determination in the ZEUS central tracking detector FADC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constant fraction discriminator algorithm for finding the arrival time of pulses from a drift chamber is outlined. Using a Monte Carlo simulation the effect of noise and pulse rise time on the timing resolution is studied. A simple correction to this algorithm, which reduces the effect of non-linearities in the pulse rising edge is described. The effect of the correction on the ZEUS central tracking detector, instrumented with an eight-bit flash analogue to digital converter system is studied. Using calibration pulses the timing resolution of the system is measured to be 0.021 ±0.003 digitizing periods, which is in agreement with 0.024 ±0.001 predicted by the Monte Carlo simulation. Without the correction the resolution is 0.17 ±0.02 digitizing periods. The optimum risetime for the ZEUS system is estimated from this model. The model is applicable to other systems which require accurate timing of pulses and have a relatively constant pulse shape. (orig.)

1995-08-15

51

Detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gravitationally coupled scalar fields, originally introduced by Jordan, Brans and Dicke to account for a non-constant gravitational coupling, are a prediction of many non-Einsteinian theories of gravity not excluding perturbative formulations of string theory. In this paper, we compute the cross sections for scattering and absorption of scalar and tensor gravitational waves by a resonant-mass detector in the framework of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The results are then specialized to the c...

1998-01-01

52

Design and tests of the z-coordinate drift chamber system for the OPAL central detector at LEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system of drift chambers has been designed to make high resolution measurements of the z-coordinates of charged tracks at the outer radius of the OPAL central detector at LEP. The unit module of this detector is a 25 cm drift length bidirectional cell with six sense wires in a thin 50 cm wide by 29 mm high drift slot. Tests indicate that the chamber has a wide and stable electric field operating range and its performance is unaffected by small misalignments between the drift electric field and an external magnetic field. The drift cell was found to have uniform acceptance up to its geometrical boundaries, and the z-resolution for beam tracks normal to the chamber was measured to be in the range of 40-175 ?m. (orig.)

1988-03-15

53

Design and tests of the z-coordinate drift chamber system for the OPAL central detector at LEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system of drift chambers has been designed to make high resolution measurements of the z-coordinates of charged tracks at the outer radius of the OPAL central detector at LEP. The unit module of this detector is a 25 cm drift length bidirectional cell with six sense wires in a thin 50 cm wide by 29 mm high drift slot. Tests indicate that the chamber has a wide and stable electric field operating range and its performance is unaffected by small misalignments between the drift electric field and an external magnetic field. The drift cell was found to have uniform acceptance up to its geometrical boundaries, and the z-resolution for beam tracks normal to the chamber was measured to be in the range of 40-175 ..mu..m.

Mes, H.; Dixit, M.S.; Godfrey, L.; Hanna, D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Losty, M.J.; Oakham, F.G.; Carnegie, R.K.; Dumont, J.J.; Hemingway, R.J.

1988-03-15

54

Improvement of the performance of a Compton-suppression spectrometer by minimizing the dead layer of the central Ge detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The performance of a Compton-suppression spectrometer is investigated for two different Ge crystals as central detector; a 126 cm3 Ge(Li) with a dead layer of 1.0 mm and a 90 cm3 HPGe with a dead layer of 0.22 mm. The thin dead layer HPGe gives a 32% improvement in the overall Compton suppression. Predictions of the influence of the dead-layer thickness by means of Monte Carlo calculations are in good agreement. The spectrometer is further tested with radioactive sources of 88Y and 152Eu and ...

1980-01-01

55

Silicon detector tests with the RAL Microplex readout chip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and operation of a five-layer silicon microstrip detector is described. The detector consisted of silicon microstrip wafers bonded to the RAL Microplex MX2 readout chip. The readout chip provided amplification with double-correlated sampling for each microstrip channel and multiplexing of 128 signals. The circuitry controlling the chip, the readout electronics, the stage holding the microstrip wafers and their alignment, are also described. A single-layer resolution of 10±0.6 ?m was obtained in a test beam. This work is part of a program to design a microvertex detector for UA1 at the CERN panti p collider. (orig.)

1989-07-01

56

Search for a Light Higgs Boson in Central Exclusive Diffraction: Method and Detectors  

CERN Document Server

By detecting leading protons produced in the Central Exclusive Diffractive process, p+p ? p+X+p, one can measure the missing mass, and scan for possible new particle states such as the Higgs boson. This process augments - in a model independent way - the standard methods for new particle searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will allow detailed analyses of the produced central system, such as the spin-parity properties of the Higgs boson. The exclusive central diffractive process makes possible precision studies of gluons at the LHC and complements the physics scenarios foreseen at the next e+e? linear collider. This thesis first presents the conclusions of the first systematic analysis of the expected precision measurement of the leading proton momentum and the accuracy of the reconstructed missing mass. In this initial analysis, the scattered protons are tracked along the LHC beam line and the uncertainties expected in beam transport and detection of the scattered leading protons are accounte...

Kalliopuska, Juha

57

Z-calibration and dE/dx-calibration of the central track chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work describes the calibration of the z- and the dE/dx-measurement of the Central Jet Chamber CJC of the H1-Detector at the Electron-Proton-Storage-Ring HERA. The z coordinates of particle tracks are determined via charge division. The mean relative z resolution of ?z/L=5.2% achieved with testpulse calibration has been reduced to ?z/L=0.9% corresponding to 2 cm with a single-wire calibration based on cosmics and data from ep-collisions. The mean ionisation loss of a charged particle is obtained from the charges deposited on the signal wires. The resolution of ?dE/dx=10% obtained after calibration allows an efficient particle identification. (orig.)

1992-01-01

58

The spiral projection chamber (SPC): A central detector with high resolution and granularity suitable for experiments a LEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new type of projection chamber with cylindrical structure and radial electric drift field is proposed. This detector should improve by one order of magnitude the spatial accuracy and double-track resolution obtainable with other types of wire-chamber configurations in the region close to the beam pipe in colliding beam machines. (orig.)

1981-09-15

59

Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2011-01-01

60

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/{psi} yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/{psi} mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy {radical}(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 {mu}b{sup -1}, J/{psi} mesons are reconstructed via their decays to {mu}{sup +{mu}-} pairs. The measured J/{psi} yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the {mu}{sup +{mu}-} final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/{psi} and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

Aad, G. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Hermann-Herder Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany); Abbott, B. [University of Oklahoma, Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, 440 West Brooks, Room 100, Norman, OK 73019-0225 (United States); Abdallah, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, IFAE, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, ES-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Abdelalim, A.A. [Universite de Geneve, Section de Physique, 24 rue Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Abdesselam, A. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Abdinov, O. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, H. Javid Avenue 33, AZ 143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Abi, B. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Physics, 145 Physical Sciences Building, Stillwater, OK 74078-3072 (United States); Abolins, M. [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics Group, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Ramat Aviv, IL, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Abreu, H. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Acerbi, E. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Acharya, B.S. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine (Italy); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, IT-34014 Trieste (Italy); Ackers, M. [University of Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Adams, D.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Addy, T.N. [Hampton University, Department of Physics, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Adelman, J. [Yale University, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT, 06520-8121 (United States)

2011-03-14

 
 
 
 
61

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/? yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/? mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ?b-1, J/? mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ?+?- pairs. The measured J/? yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ?+?- final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/? and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

2011-03-14

62

Measurement of t(bar t) production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of the jet activity in t(bar t) events produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The t(bar t) events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC(at)NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

2012-06-01

63

Measurement of t anti t production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at ?(s)=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement of the jet activity in t anti t events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The t anti t events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC rate at NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space. (orig.)

2012-06-01

64

Measurement of tbar{t} production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at ?{s}=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A measurement of the jet activity in tbar{t} events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The tbar{t} events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.

2012-06-01

65

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions in the high-density nuclear environment. In the forward direction and at small pT jets may even explore the transition from a dilute to saturated partonic system. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 31/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of p+Pb events is determined by applying the Glauber model to the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. The jet yields in central and peripheral p+Pb collisions are found to be suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometr...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

66

A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV  

CERN Multimedia

In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

2002-01-01

67

Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e+e--collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of ?-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.)

1988-01-01

68

The Upgraded D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

2005-07-01

69

The Upgraded D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0

2005-01-01

70

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

CERN Document Server

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

71

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |?|NN)=2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point “tracklets” and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2ch/d?, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |?|NN) results. The shape of the dNch/d? distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

2012-04-12

72

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |?| NN = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point 'tracklets' and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 ch/d?, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |?| NN results. The shape of the dNch/d? distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

2012-04-12

73

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D*± meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D* mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D* mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D* ? K??s with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D* mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb-1. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q2?p* mesons with transverse momenta above 1.8 GeV and in the central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke ?(D*) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

2011-01-01

74

Ion detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved ion detector device of the ionization detection device chamber ype comprises an ionization chamber having a central electrode therein surrounded by a cylindrical electrode member within the chamber with a collar frictionally fitted around at least one of the electrodes. The collar has electrical contact means carried in an annular groove in an inner bore of the collar to contact the outer surface of the electrode to provide electrical contact between an external terminal and the electrode without the need to solder leads to the electrode.

Tullis, Andrew M. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

75

Radiation detectors; Detectores de radiacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements.

NONE

2013-11-15

76

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

2007-01-01

77

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

Hennekemper, Eva

2011-12-15

78

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at $\\sqrt(s_{NN})$= 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Multiplicity distributions of charged particles as function of pseudorapidity dNch/d? have been measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in p+Pb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC. The multiplicity of charged particles was measured in |?| < 2.7 using correlation of space points into tracklets in the Pixel detector. These measurements are presented as function of the centrality of the collision defined using forward energy deposited at 3.1 < ? < 4.9 and three Glauber type Monte-Carlo simulations of the collisions. The measured multiplicity distributions have similar shapes as the ones measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions.

Debbe, R R; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

79

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unba...

2010-01-01

80

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally-segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The underlying event is measured and subtracted event-by-event, giving estimates of jet transverse energy above the ambient background. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres is observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, and which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

2010-12-17

82

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at sqrt(S(NN))= 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad...[], G.; Dam, Mogens

2010-01-01

83

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

1986-02-27

84

Ionization detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors.

Steele, D.S.

1987-09-03

85

A streamer chamber detector for PEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A streamer chamber in an axial magnetic field is discussed as a possible central track detector around which additional detectors, such as shower counters, Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight counters, etc., can be assembled

1988-01-01

86

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions, $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$, in $p$+Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$~TeV. Charged particles were reconstructed over $|\\eta|<2.7$ using the ATLAS pixel detector. The proton-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 <\\eta<4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. The $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$ distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different calculations of the number of participants, $N_{part}$, have been carried out using a standard Glauber model as well as two Glauber-Gribov extensions. Charged particle multiplicities per participant pair, $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$/$(\\langle N_{part}\\rangle/2)$, are found to vary differently with $N_{part}$ for these...

The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

87

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |eta| < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < |eta| < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dN_ch/deta, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |eta|<0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle y...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas

2012-01-01

88

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.  

CERN Document Server

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert

2014-01-01

89

Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ? kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ? sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert

2012-01-01

90

Measurement of t anti t production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A measurement of the jet activity in t anti t events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The t anti t events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC rate at NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space. (orig.)

Aad, G. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik; Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Abdallah, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Fisica d' Altes Energies e Dept. de Fisica; ICREA, Barcelona (ES)] (and others)

2012-06-15

91

Measurement of t(t)over-bar production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A measurement of the jet activity in t{bar t} events produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The t{bar t} events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC{at}NLO, Powheg, Alpgen and Sherpa. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the spread of theoretical predictions, allowing deviations between data and theory to be observed in some regions of phase space.

Aad G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Khalek, S. Abdel; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; et al.

2012-06-01

92

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter covers basic principal of radiation detectors, which employed detection system based on the ionisation, excitation, molecular dissociation, Cherenkov effects, neutron detection. The following subjects are briefly discussed: gas-filled detector, ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, semiconductor detector, scintillation method, scintillators, scintillation detectors i.e. NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tubes, neutron detectors, boron trifluoride detectors, neutron detectors, photographic film, chemical dosimeter, TLD, pocket dosimeter. Auxiliary equipment, refers to electronic gears specially designed in support of radiation detectors, is also discussed in this chapter

2005-01-01

93

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton--lead collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Collaboration has measured the centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV proton-lead ($p$+Pb) collisions and the jet cross-section in $\\sqrt{s} = 2.76$ TeV proton-proton collisions in datasets corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $27.8$ nb$^{-1}$ and $4.0$ pb$^{-1}$, respectively, recorded at the Large Hadron Collider in 2013. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterised using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 <\\eta <4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. Jets were reconstructed using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with $R=0.4$ from energy deposits measured in the ATLAS calorimeter. Results are presented for the double differential per-collision yields as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum for both minimum bias and centrality-selected $p$+Pb collisions. The central-to-peripheral ratio $R_\\mathrm{CP}$ and the nuclear modification factor $R_\\mathrm{pPb}$ are evaluated to probe...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

94

Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at ?s = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is performed using pp collisions at 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010. The data are compared to LO predictions from pythia, herwig++ and alpgen event generators. The data are also compared to NLO parton shower prediction from POWHEG, when interfaced to pythia or herwig parton shower, and all order resummation prediction from HEJ. In most of the phase-space regions presented, the experimental uncertaint...

Bernat Pauline

2012-01-01

95

The VENUS detector at TRISTAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

1983-05-01

96

Tomographic reconstruction of plasma electron temperature profiles using semiconductor detector arrays in the elliptic transition region and the circular central cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror  

CERN Document Server

Elliptically shaped transition-region plasmas located between circularly shaped central cell and fish-tail shaped anchor-cell plasmas have been observed using X-ray tomography techniques for the first time in the world largest tandem mirror device, GAMMA 10. These three regions are connected through the lines of magnetic forces. Electrons are, therefore, anticipated to move easily through these regions along the magnetic field lines when neither appreciable electron losses into the transverse direction across the magnetic field lines nor the formation of electron transport barrier potentials in the parallel direction are expected. From this viewpoint, comparisons of electron temperature (T sub e) profiles in these regions, thus, give information on one of the most critical issues in tandem mirror plasma confinement. The first data on good agreement in T sub e profiles of the central cell and the transition region have supported this basic and essential concept of tandem mirror confinement. Development of posi...

Hirata, M; Kohagura, J; Kanke, S; Kondoh, T; Minami, R; Numakura, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, M; Sasuga, T; Nishizawa, Y; Tamano, T; Yatsu, K; Miyoshi, S

2002-01-01

97

Measurement of the centrality-dependence of inclusive jet production in $p$+Pb data at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-lead collisions over a wide rapidity and $p_\\mathrm{T}$ range can shed light on the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions and, in the forward direction and at small transverse momenta, can provide constraints on the saturation of low Bjorken-x partons in the high-density Pb nucleus. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in $p$+Pb collisions requires that the strong suppression seen in central Pb+Pb collisions be understood in the light of these nuclear effects. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in $p$+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV measured in the new high statistics 2013 data with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

Perepelitsa, D; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

98

Central Diffraction at ALICE  

CERN Multimedia

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lämsä, Jerry W

2010-01-01

99

Central diffraction at ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

2011-02-01

100

Detector Directory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The publication presents a collection of information gathered on fire detectors during the study, 'Evaluation of Fire Detection Technology.' The work is organized into a summary table of fire detector devices, a listing of manufacturers and suppliers and ...

K. R. Mniszewski T. E. Waterman S. W. Harpe

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The PHENIX ring imaging Cherenkov detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC is primarily a lepton and photon detector. Electron detection takes place in the two central arms of PHENIX, with the primary electron identifier in each arm being a ring imaging Cherenkov detector. This paper contains a description of the two identical RICH detectors and of their expected performance

2000-10-11

102

MUON DETECTOR  

CERN Multimedia

DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

F. Gasparini

103

Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < pT(avg) < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the POWHEG-BOX, an all-order resummation using the HEJ calculation and the PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges

2011-01-01

104

Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems  

CERN Document Server

Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

Hilke, H J

2011-01-01

105

ALICE Transition Radiation Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high P? tracks in one single TRD stack.

Pachmayer, Y

2013-01-01

106

Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 ± 3 to 2330 ± 48 Bq·m-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 ± 84 Bq·m-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

Bourai, Abhay Anand; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra Prasad; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2013-08-01

107

Neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified design of scintillation neutron detector, consisting of a scintillator, around which a moderator and a resonance absorber are located, has been suggested. For widening the energy range of recorded neutrons by means of its sensitivity levelling to slow neutrons the detector is additionally surrounded by perforated absorber of slow neutrons, made of cadmium foil. The area of perforation is selected on the basis of the ratio: epsilon sub(slow)/epsilon sub(fast)=Ssub(irrad)/Ssub(perf), where epsilon sub(slow)-sensitivity to slow neutrons; epsilon sub(fast)-sensitivity to fast neutrons; Ssub(perf)-perforation area; Ssub(irrad)-detector surface irradiated area having identical sensitivity to slow neutrons. The detector described can be used as a sensitive element in industrial radiometers. Therefore, in ''Kran'' type radiometers the detector considered can be substituted for a set of three detectors presently used. It permits to simplify considerably the measuring procedure

1980-01-01

108

Cerenkov detectors  

CERN Document Server

A status report on Cerenkov detectors for use in high-energy physics is presented, together with design formulae. Comparisons can be made between the different types of detectors. Mention is made of the special problems associated with the multihundred GeV range of energy of the accelerators, which require an improvement in Cerenkov detectors by at least an order of magnitude. (23 refs).

Meunier, R

1973-01-01

109

??????: Anaplasma centrale  

Full Text Available Bacteria Anaplasma taceae Anaplasma centrale Anaplasma centrale (sp. nov. (VL), nom. rev.) DSMZ 7 83376 Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale Theiler 1911 (synonym) N CBI 769 Anaplasma central (misspelling) NCBI 769 Anaplasma centrale

110

?-compensated self-powered detectors for reactor instrumentation and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental studies on ?-compensated self-powered detectors showed that it is possible to reduce appreciably the ? component of the detector current by shielding the central emitter. (author)

1990-01-01

111

Self-powered radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-powered radiation detector comprises a relatively ductile centrally disposed conductive emitter wire support in electrical contact with a generally tubular emitter electrode. The detector is fabricated by swaging and the ductile center wire ensures that electrical discontinuities of the emitter are minimized. An outer collector electrode is insulated from the emitter electrode by an insulator. The emitter electrode is made of rhodium or cobalt and the wire of high nickel content stainless steel. (UK)

1980-01-01

112

Central Diffraction in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

Schicker, R

2012-01-01

113

Detectors - Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X ? e"- converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the "3He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

1998-04-01

114

The ALICE detector at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated detector designed to exploit the unique physics opportunities which will be offered by nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. ALICE has been conceived as a general-purpose detector, in which hadrons, electrons and photons produced in the interaction can be measured and identified. The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle densities anticipated in Pb-Pb interactions at the LHC (8000 per unit of rapidity). An acceptance of about two units of rapidity has been chosen, which has been calculated to be sufficient to define most of the variables sensitive to the onset of a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The baseline design of ALICE consists of a central (??0.9) detector covering the full azimuth, complemented by a multiplicity detector covering the forward rapidity region (up to ?=4.8) and a zero degree calorimeter. The central detector will be embedded in large magnet with a weak field of 0.2 T, and will consist of a high-resolution inner tracking system, a cylindrical TPC, a particle identification array (time of flight or ring imaging Cherenkov detectors) and a single-arm electromagnetic calorimeter. Possible upgrades to this baseline design are currently under study, including a muon identification system and a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter. (orig.)

1994-04-21

115

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During this period, our AGS E802/E859/E866 experiments focused on strange particle production, and the fluctuation phenomenon associated with correlation studies in nucleus nucleus central collisions. We have designed and are implementing a new detector to replace the Target Multiplicity Array (TMA) for the E866 runs. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, we contributed to the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and worked on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project, the central core of the multiplicity-vertex detector (MVD). In the coming year, we planned to complete the New Multiplicity Array (NMA) detector for the gold projectile E866 experiment, and analyzed the data associated with this new system. We are continuing our efforts in the preparation of the PHENIX detector system

1993-01-01

116

MS Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

117

Neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable measurement for power distribution in all of the axial directions, upon failure in any one of neutron detector drives, by using other drives. Constitution: A plurality of instrument tubes are disposed within a core. A drawing mechanism having outlets in the same number as that of the instrument tubes and one inlet is provided for drawing neutron detectors to each of the designated instrument tubes, and a combiner having one outlet communicating the inlet of the drawing mechanism and several inlets is also provided. Several drives for the neutron detectors are provided in communication with the combiner. In the above constitution, the drive mechanisms are driven to feed the neutron detectors by way of the combiner to the drawing mechanism and then further insert them into optional in core instrument tubes by the drawing mechanism. (Furukawa, Y.)

1979-01-01

118

The central tracking detectors for D O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D O experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

1988-06-12

119

Detectors course  

CERN Document Server

This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

2006-01-01

120

Track detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Track detector intended for charged particle trace recording is described. The invention is aimed at extending measurement range by increasing maximum admissible loads. This is achieved by inserting dielectric plates between nuclear photoemulsion and electrodes. It is experimentally ascertained that for nuclear photoemulsion with 200 ?m thickness insertion of 20 ?m thickness lavsan dielectric plates increases electric field operating intensity up to 1.35 MV/cm. In this case the detector operates steadily and endures multiple electric field application. 1 fig

1985-09-17

 
 
 
 
121

Characterization of a planar Ge strip detector and its coupling with a segmented HPGe clover detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in high purity Ge (HPGe) detector technology play the central role in improving our knowledge of the nucleus. Recently, the focus of the HPGe detector research is to explore the segmentation of electrical contacts. The increased segmentation gives better information about the interaction position of the gamma rays in the detector. Many types of segmented coaxial and planar detectors have been used for different experiments in basic and applied nuclear physics. A relatively new configuration is the double sided strip planar detector. This type of detectors will provide better position resolution for the interaction point of ?-rays. In the present work, the characterization of a planar 10X -10Y double sided Ge detector (fabricated by Canberra) is reported. This detector was also coupled with a Clover detector and the add-back of the energies deposited in the planar and clover was studied

2011-12-01

122

Photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

1995-06-12

123

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

D. Acosta

124

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD) of the T2K experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine-shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A.; Aoki, S.; Blocki, J.; Brinson, J.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Dziewiecki, M.; Ellison, B.; Golyshkin, L.; Gould, R.; Hara, T.; Hartfiel, B.; Holeczek, J.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Kudenko, Yu.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Liu, J.; Marzec, J.; Metcalf, W.; Mijakowski, P.; Mineev, O.; Musienko, Yu.; Naples, D.; Nauman, M.; Northacker, D.; Nowak, J.; Paolone, V.; Posiadala, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Reid, J.; Rondio, E.; Shaykhiev, A.; Sienkiewicz, M.; Smith, D.; Sobczyk, J.; Stodulski, M.; Straczek, A.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, A.; Swierblewski, J.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Wachala, T.; Warner, D.; Yershov, N.; Yano, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.

2010-11-01

125

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment  

CERN Document Server

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A; Blocki, J; Brinson, J; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Dziewiecki, M; Ellison, B; Golyshkin, L; Gould, R; Hara, T; Hartfiel, B; Holeczek, J; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kisiel, J; Kozlovskii, T; Kudenko, Yu; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Liu, J; Marzec, J; Metcalf, W; Mijakowski, P; Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Naples, D; Nauman, M; Northacker, D; Nowak, J; Paolone, V; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Reid, J; Rondio, E; Shaykhiev, A; Sienkiewicz, M; Smith, D; Sobczyk, J; Stodulski, M; Straczek, A; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Wachala, T; Warner, D; Yershov, N; Yano, T; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M

2009-01-01

126

Calorimeter detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

127

Pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the characterisation of three different pixel detectors are presented. The first is an energy resolving detector (ERDI) which has been characterised using laboratory sources and the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) at Daresbury. The ERDI is a 16 by 16 array of 300 ?m by 300 ?m square pixels, the detector is 300 ?m thick Si and is bump-bonded using gold studs to the RAL PAC5 read out. Energy spectra and diffraction lines acquired at the SRS are presented and show the imaging and simultaneous spectroscopic capabilities of the ERDI. The energy resolution was investigated using X-rays of energies between 6 and 60 keV from laboratory sources. The achieved full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the photo peaks is in the range of 300 eV to 500 eV with an electronic noise of 227 ± 43 eV. Charge sharing was investigated for different energy X-rays and is shown to be significant with up to around 10 % of events sharing some charge. The second detector is a large area detector (LAD1). It is based on single photon counting and is designed for imaging in synchrotron radiation applications. Results of tests performed with a single chip module at the Daresbury SRS are presented. The detector is 300 ?m thick Si with 150 ?m by 150 ?m pixels bump-bonded to an (RAL ALADIN) array of 64 by 64 read out channels. The spatial resolution was determined using the modulation transfer function (MTF) with a result of (5.1 ± 0.1) lp/mm at an MTF value of 0.3. Theoretical studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge sharing due to the limited mean free drift lengths of the charge carriers, the improvement of the CCE in unipolar detectors with decreasing pixel size and the 'small pixel effect' which shows the improved CCE of the photo peak with smaller pixels. The third detector is a graphite pixel detector for ion beam profiling. The system was tested in the ion implanters at the University of Salford and Surrey. Results are presented showing real time profiling of the ion beam and the measurement of the beam current. The secondary electron emission was qualitatively measured for different beam energies and different positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. (author)

2001-01-01

128

Pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

Passmore, M S

2001-01-01

129

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objects of the invention are, first, to provide an ionization detector having a three chamber structure characterised by a built-in feedback path that regeneratively stabilizes the operating point of the detector. Secondly, to provide a specially designed chamber construction including electrodes shaped so as to enhance the efficiency of the chamber and reduce ion recombination. The ionization chamber described has a chamber structure with a first closed chamber and a second chamber able to receive gases from outside. These two chambers have a common boundary including a common electrode. One electrode associated with the second chamber, and one within the first chamber, define a third chamber within the first chamber allowing an ionization path between. A radioactive source provides ionizing radiation for all three chambers and establishes an ionization current. There is a detector coupled to the common electrode for detecting changes in this current. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

130

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is "2"4"1Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

1979-01-01

131

Infrared detectors  

CERN Multimedia

This is an expertly written, broadly approachable treatment of the fundamental principles and latest developments in the science and technology of infrared detection. The author, an internationally recognized pioneer, presents each topic with a brief summary of historical background followed by clear explanation of key principles underlying performance, overview of properties, and analysis of the state-of-the-art. The four sections cover introductory aspects, infrared thermal detectors, infrared photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It includes coverage of cutting edge developments such as

Rogalski, Antonio

2010-01-01

132

BES detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

1994-05-01

133

BES detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.

1994-05-01

134

Detector Description Framework in LHCb  

CERN Document Server

The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

Ponce, Sébastien

2003-01-01

135

XMASS detector  

CERN Document Server

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

2013-01-01

136

XMASS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

2013-07-11

137

Vertex Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the discovery of the J/psi in November 1974, there has been a strong interest in the physics of particles containing higher-flavor quarks; charm, bottom ... High precision vertex detectors can be used to identify the decay products of parent particl...

C. J. S. Damerell

1986-01-01

138

ATLAS Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS detector is one of the largest and most elaborate particle physics experiments ever designed. It is the product of a worldwide effort by 150 laboratories and institutions in 34 countries working in close collaboration with industry to find solutions to the extraordinary technical challenges.

2002-01-01

139

Vertex detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10-13 s, among them the ? lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

1992-07-13

140

Examples of radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theory, operation, efficiency and energy resolution of ionisation chambers, proportional and Geiger-Mueller counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors and neutron detectors are discussed

1982-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Nuclear radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to nuclear radiation detectors of the type of gas-filled proportional counters. It is characterized by a discharge confinement enclosure the inner face of which is coated with a neutron absorbing material, a conducting central member mounted with said enclosure, at least one end of said central member passing through said enclosure, a filling gas inside said enclosure, a portion of said filling gas being a gas capable of being dissociated when exposed to the radiations emitted by the neutron absorbing material, and a filling gas tank connected to said enclosure but protected from the latter so as to prevent the tank gas from being submitted to the radiations emitted by said neutron absorbing material. This can be applied to nuclear power stations

1973-06-27

142

Ring Imaging CHerenkov detectors and their application in LHCb  

CERN Document Server

Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors play a central role in particle identification throughtout experimental particle physics. We will in this article, by using the LHCb experiment as an example, discuss some of the requirements of the detector and how to realize them. The main emphasis will be on the interplay between complementary radiator materials, photon detectors and optical systems.

Ullaland, Olav

2005-01-01

143

Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

2009-01-01

144

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

T. Camporesi

145

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode

1975-07-07

146

Nuclear detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This addendum refers to miniature nuclear detectors which can work on low voltages and can record with great efficiency and simultaneously alpha, beta and gamma rays as well as slow or fast thermal neutrons. The invention concerns a process for treating cadmium telluride crystals (CdTe) used in such detectors in order to suppress polarisation phenomena. The surface of the material is first heated mechanically by fine grinding or polishing, after which the surface is treated chemically and finally a thin insulating coat topped with at least one coat of a good conducting material is applied. This produces a final structure of the good conducting-insulating-semi-conducting metal or material type

1975-01-01

147

The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle ?13 by observing ?e appearance via the sub-dominant ?? ? ?e oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described

2013-10-01

148

Central Neurocytoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Central neurocytomas are rare benign tumors of central nervous system, typically located in the supratentorial ventricles in young adults. Three main differential diagnosis are oligodendroglioma, nöroblastoma and ependymoma. Immunohistochemical studies are very important for the diagnosis of central neurocytoma. In this report a case of 67 year old male with central neurocytoma whom diagnosed incidentally is described. In this report we present a case of central neurocytoma who was operated via a transcallosal approach.

Cem D?NÇ

2005-09-01

149

New science with new detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility), with the help of the user community, is in the process of developing its long term strategy, covering the next 10 to 20 years. A central role in this strategy will be given to detector developments, since it is clear that the biggest possible improvement in performance is by increasing the overall detection capabilities. These improvements can be both quantitative, meaning more and larger detectors, and qualitative, meaning new detection concepts. This document gathers the abstracts and transparencies of most presentations of this workshop

2005-02-09

150

Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector Trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The timing, Trigger and control (TTC) system of the pixel detector receives Level 1 accept Trigger and control signals from the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and distributes them to the 1744 detector modules. It is organised in 3 independent TTC partitions to allow for implementation of different triggering schemes for the pixel detector. Back to the CTP a BUSY signal from the data processing electronic is propagated to throttle the triggers. Since readout data are solely defined by a trigger propagation time, an adjustment of a trigger delay of individual modules is needed to compensate for differences in propagation. Functionality tests of the TTC system are ongoing with simulated data instead of the real modules. Further dedicated runs with the CTP or combined runs with other ATLAS sub-detectors accompanying connection of the pixel detector are foreseen. I present an overview of the pixel detector TTC system and trigger timing adjustment mechanisms and report on the current status of the commissioning process

2008-03-03

151

Thermocouple detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparatus for determining the direction of orientation of pulsed sources includes a detector having two rectangular arrays of thermocouple strips fixed to opposite surfaces of a substrate. Radiation from the source is restricted to be incident on only one of the rectangular arrays. The incident radiation is thermalized quickly by the first array, and a voltage differential between the two rectangular arrays is sensed. The orientation of the source with respect to the optical axis of the apparatus can be calculated from an indentification of that portion of the array wherein local thermalization takes place

1985-01-01

152

Dust Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss a recent sounding rocket experiment which found charged dust in the Earth's tropical mesosphere. The dust detector was designed to measure small (5000 - 10000 amu.) charged dust particles, most likely of meteoric origin. A 5 km thick layer of positively charged dust was found at an altitude of 90 km, in the vicinity of an observed sporadic sodium layer and sporadic E layer. The observed dust was positively charged in the bulk of the dust layer, but was negatively charged near the bottom.

Kelley, M. C.

2001-01-01

153

Measurement of the centrality-dependence of inclusive jet production in $p$+Pb data at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

ATLAS has measured the centrality dependence of jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV $p$+Pb collisions at the LHC. The $p$+Pb collision centrality was characterized using the total transverse energy measured in the pseudorapidity interval $3.2 < \\eta < 4.9$ in the direction of the lead beam. Jets were reconstructed from energy deposits measured in the ATLAS calorimeter using the anti-$k_t$ algorithm with R = 0.4. The per-event jet yields were measured in different centrality bins as a function of jet rapidity and transverse momentum ($p_\\mathrm{T}$). The ratios of jet spectra between different centrality bins corrected for the centrality dependent partonic luminosities show a strong suppression of jet production at forward rapidities over a wide range of $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and near mid-rapidity at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$.

The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

154

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent concerns an ionization detector specially designed for use in fire-detection systems. It comprises structures limiting a first chamber containing a first electrode, and a second chamber into which gases can be introduced from the surroundings, and which contains a second electrode. The chambers are separated from each other by a common electrode, in addition to which at least the second chamber contains a radioactive ?-source for establishing an ionization current between the electrodes, the common electrode being connected to an alarm-activated circuit that reacts to changes in the ionization current. The first electrode in the first chamber limits a third chamber, and it is at least partly open to achieve an ionization track between the first and the third chamber. This detector, which comprises a variable electrode that reaches at least partly into the chamber structure to regulate the ionization current, is characterized by the fact that the first electrode has an aperture, through which the variable electrode can be introduced into the third chamber. (author)

1976-11-08

155

Ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

1980-01-01

156

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

1999-07-01

157

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

CERN Multimedia

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

1999-01-01

158

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Guenther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Huemmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schoenfelder, S.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymanski, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.Q.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S. E-mail: siegfried.wenig@cern.ch; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R

1999-07-01

159

Laser pulse detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

160

Resonant detector of ?-quanta with thin converter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A resonant detector with a converter made from an enriched stainless-steel foil about 3000 angstrom thick is more efficient in detecting spectra of Rayleigh-scattered ?-quanta than conventional detectors. If the scatterer contains resonant nuclei (iron), both Zeeman lines and lines due to Rayleigh scattering by electrons are detected in the same spectrum. Zeeman lines are due to ?-radiation absorption in the converter, while the central line is due to resonant absorption in the converter

1994-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Schottky barrier photovoltaic detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A platinum-cadmium sulfide schottky barrier photovoltaic detector which is capable of sensing near ultraviolet and short wavelength visible radiation with extremely small response to wavelengths longer than about 5200 angstroms. The detector is fabricated with both the ohmic and barrier contacts located on the same side of the cadmium sulfide substrate to facilitate wire attachment by high-speed bonding techniques. A titanium-goldtitanium infrared shield structure is deposited directly on the substrate and is utilized to provide a connection between the ohmic contact and the substrate. An insulating layer of silicon dioxide covers the shield structure. A thin layer of platinum is deposited directly on the substrate in a small central optically active area surrounded by the insulated shield structure. A metal boundary layer overlies the periphery of the platinum layer and prevents the barrier contact metalization from affecting the properties of the schottky barrier. Both the ohmic and barrier contacts may be formed of a titanium adhesive layer and a layer of gold. The gold portions of these contacts touch the shield structure and the boundary layer through separate windows etched in the silicon dioxide insulating layer

1982-01-01

162

MUON DETECTORS: CSC  

CERN Multimedia

The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

J. Hauser

2011-01-01

163

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

Marco Dallavalle

2013-01-01

164

The Detector DCR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Detector Concept Report (DCR) consists of two parts, one for the physics and the other for ILC detectors. It has been prepared as the accompany document of the ILC Accelerator Reference Design Report. The detector DCR describes ILC detector designs, R&Ds on detector technologies and expected performances. The overview of the Detector DCR and the plan for the final release are presented.

Miyamoto, Akiya

2007-01-01

165

CLIC Detector Power Requirements  

CERN Document Server

An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

Gaddi, A

2013-01-01

166

Spurerkennung in der zentralen Driftkammer des SAPHIR-Detektors an ELSA und erste Rekonstruktion realer Spuren. (Track recognition in the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector at ELSA and first reconstruction of real tracks).  

Science.gov (United States)

The FORTRAN program for pattern recognition in the central drift chamber of SAPHIR has been modified in order to find tracks with more than one missing wire signal and has been optimized in resolving the left/right ambiguities. The second part of this rep...

P. Korn

1991-01-01

167

Detector light response modeling for a thick continuous slab detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate a method to improve the position decoding for thick crystal versions (i.e., ?8mm) of the continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) PET detector by more accurately modeling the detector light response function (LRF). The LRF for continuous detectors varies with the depth of interaction (DOI) of the detected photon. This variation in LRF can result in a positioning error for two-dimensional positioning algorithms. We explore a method to improve positioning performance by deriving two lookup tables, corresponding to the front and back regions of the crystal. The DETECT2000 simulation package was used to investigate the light response characteristics for a 48.8 mm by 48.8 mm by 10 (8) mm slab of LSO coupled to a 64-channel, flat-panel PMT. The data are then combined to produce the two-dimensional light collection histograms. Light collection histograms that have markedly non-Gaussian distributions are characterized as a combination of two Gaussian functions, where each Gaussian function corresponds to a DOI region of the crystal. The results indicate that modest gains in positioning accuracy are achieved near the central region of the crystal. However, significant improvements in spatial resolution and positioning bias are achieved for the corner section of the detector. (author)

2008-07-01

168

Spiral Silicon Drift Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift...

P. Rehak E. Gatti A. Longoni M. Sampietro P. Holl

1988-01-01

169

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and X-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacitance of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtal, U.; Ziemann, T.

1989-02-01

170

Gas detectors for neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles involved in gas detectors for neutrons and the techniques for position encoding in such detectors are reviewed. This forms the basis for a discussion of the limitations on gas detector position resolution and maximum data rates, and of the aging effects in such detectors. Current capabilities and possible areas for improvement are noted

1995-06-06

171

Superconducting quantum detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) spawned many potential applications, including optical detectors. Realizing viable superconducting detectors requires achieving performance superior to competing and more mature semiconductor detector technologies, and quantum detector technologies in particular. The authors review why quantum detectors are inherently more sensitive than thermal or bolometric detectors. This sensitivity advantage suggest that for operation at cryogenic temperatures they should be developing only quantum superconducting detectors. Accordingly, they introduce and describe the structure and the operation of a superconducting quantum detector with a SQUID read-out circuit. The superconducting quantum detector, consisting of a superconducting loop, produces a photosignal in response to photoinduced changes in the condensate's kinetic inductance. The superconducting quantum detector is designed to operate only in the superconducting state and not in the resistive or transition states

1993-07-11

172

The High Momentum Particle Identification Detector in ALICE at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALICE High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) is a proximity focusing ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) for the hadron discrimination at high transverse momenta (1ttch/d?=6000, simulated in central Pb-Pb ALICE events

2008-03-01

173

Vertex detector R and D for the D0 upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe some aspects of the research and development performed for the 850 00 channel D0 upgrade silicon tracking system. The system includes seven disk/barrel modules in the central detector and four stations of large area disk detectors. Results are reported for the SVX II chip, radiation damage, and studies of ''black holes'' caused by faulty detector channels. Production and testing status is briefly described. (orig.)

1997-02-11

174

Vertex detector R and D for the D0 upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe some aspects of the research and development performed for the 850 00 channel D0 upgrade silicon tracking system. The system includes seven disk/barrel modules in the central detector and four stations of large area disk detectors. Results are reported for the SVX II chip, radiation damage, and studies of ``black holes`` caused by faulty detector channels. Production and testing status is briefly described. (orig.).

Lipton, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center; D0 Collaboration

1997-02-11

175

Centrality, rapidity and ${p_{\\mathrm{T}}}$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN} }=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Prompt photons are a powerful tool in heavy ion collisions. Their production rates provide access to the initial state PDFs, which are expected to be modified by nuclear effects. They also provide a means to calibrate the expected energy of jets that are produced in the medium, and thus are a tool to probe the physics of jet quenching more precisely both through jet spectra and fragmentation properties. The ATLAS detector measures photons with its hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. This gives significant rejection against the expected background from neutral pions in jets. Rejection against jet fragmentation products is further enhanced by isolation criteria, which can be based on calorimeter energy or the presence of high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ tracks. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are measured in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$...

The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

176

The CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is one of the Large Hadron Collider multi-purpose experiments. Its large subsystems size sum up to around 6 million Detector Control System (DCS) channels to be supervised. A cluster of ~100 servers is needed to provide the required processing resources. To cope with such a size a scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made a clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing for plugging in functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ease the component development task, a framework based on PVSSII [1] has been developed by the CERN Joint Controls Project [2] (JCOP). This paper describes the current status of CMS Detector Control System, giving an overview of the DCS computing infrastructure, the integration of DCS subsystem functional components an...

Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

2009-01-01

177

Central Diffraction at the LHCb  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb experiment is shown to be ideal for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, molecules, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its distinct design features, the LHCb can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the FSC system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lamsa, Jerry W

2009-01-01

178

Self-powered neutron flux detector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-powered neutron flux detector has both the central emitter electrode and its surrounding collector electrode made of inconel 600. The lead cables may also be made of inconel. Other nickel alloys, or iron, nickel, titamium, chromium, zirconium or their alloys may also be used for the electrodes

1980-01-01

179

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERMES Collaboration installed a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the existing spectrometer to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) and hence to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. The HERMES Recoil Detector mainly consists of three components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector with three layers of tungsten and scintillator bars in three different orientations. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnet which provides a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector was installed in January 2006 and data taking will last until July of 2007. (orig.)

2007-03-01

180

The CDF central electromagnetic calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central electromagnetic calorimeter for the Collider Detector at Fermilab uses a hybrid design with scintillator and wavelength shifter for energy measurement and an embedded strip chamber for position determination and longitudinal shower development. Complementary calibration systems are incorporated in the design. Calorimeter characteristics and performance are summarized. An average energy resolution, ?(E)/E, of 13.5%?(E sin ?) (with E in GeV), and a position resolution of ±2 mm at 50 GeV are measured. (orig.)

1988-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Central line infections - hospitals  

Science.gov (United States)

Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection

182

Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

1992-04-01

183

Isolation fluid pressure detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An isolation fluid pressure detector includes a housing which bounds an internal bore and a recess situated at the axially central region of the bore and extending radially outwardly of the bore over the entire circumference of the same. A flexible sleeve-shaped element is received in the bore and includes a flexible intermediate portion which spans the recess, and two end portions which extend to a considerable distance from the flexible portion along the surface bounding the bore. The sleeve-shaped element has external arms which axially bound a confining space in the recess and are confined between end portions and an intermediate portion of the housing to seal such interfaces. A pressure gauge detects the pressure prevailing in the confining space through a measuring port of the housing. When fluid to be measured is admitted into an internal passage of the sleeve-shaped element, its pressure deflects the flexible portion, thus changing the pressure of a pressure-transmitting fluid confined in the confining space, the pressure-transmitting fluid in turn exerting its pressure on a pressure-detecting mechanism of the gauge, which thus gives accurate indication of the pressure of the fluid in the passage. The integral end portions of the sleeve-shaped element prevent the fluid being measured from penetrating into the interfaces between thearms and the surfaces axially delimiting the recess, thus avoiding interference with the flexing of the flexible portion

1985-01-01

184

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

G. Iaselli

2010-01-01

185

Single interaction PET detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When spatial resolution is derived from sites of single interaction events in a detector, millimeter level spatial resolution PET in small objects may be achieved for a low energy positron emitter such as 18F. Single Interaction Site (SIS) detectors using plastic have been proposed since essentially all annihilation photons result in Compton interactions. Further studies of SIS detectors included materials with higher atomic numbers and various detector geometries. The calculated performance of some SIS imaging systems are presented in this paper

1990-10-22

186

Gas filled detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

1993-01-01

187

Optical detectors for spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The modes of operation of photoconductive and photoemissive array detectors are described, and their performance characteristics compared and contrasted, with emphasis on their suitability for use as detectors for optical spectroscopy. The prospects for future developments of the array detectors are discussed.

Timothy, J. G.

1983-01-01

188

Gamma ray detector shield  

Science.gov (United States)

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

189

X-ray detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray detectors are described which contain a scintillation element followed by a photocathode and an electron optical system. The output electron beam intensity is measured by a semiconductor detector with internal amplification. These detectors can be arranged in groups. (T.S.E.T.)

1977-01-01

190

Tevatron detector upgrades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results

2005-01-01

191

Tevatron detector upgrades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

192

Tevatron Detector Upgrades  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. We discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results

2005-03-22

193

The JADE muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

1985-08-01

194

CBA special detectors: diffraction dissociation and heavy-quark production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two different but related experiments that would benefit from specialized detectors are measurements of diffraction dissociation and search for heavy quark production in the forward direction. At the CBA masses up to M/sub x/ approx. = 0.3 ?s approx. = 240 GeV can be produced coherently. The production of these states is of interest in itself and as a possible mechanism for copious production of new heavy flavors. In both cases, the required detectors are different from and more modest than the large central detectors. The required detectors are discussed

1983-01-01

195

UA2 central calorimeter  

CERN Document Server

The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

196

The collider detector at Fermilab-CDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current situation of CDF, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, is presented in this report. The primary physics goal for CDF is to study the general features of proton-antiproton collisions at 2 TeV center-of-mass energy. On general grounds, it is expected that parton subenergies in the range 50 - 500 GeV will provide the most interesting physics at this energy. The detector is divided into three main parts, the central detector and two forward/backward detectors. All three parts, when running, are centered on the Tevatron beamline at the B0 collision area. In particular, the structure of the central detector is described in detail in this report. The multilevel trigger and the B0 experimental area which are planned for CDF are also described. The current Fermilab schedule has CDF scheduled for three runs with antiprotons in the near future. The first run, which will mainly serve as a systems test, is expected to be performed in August or September 1985. After that, Fermilab will go into a long construction shutdown. A second run is scheduled for the summer of 1986. At that time CDF is expected to be approximately 95 % complete. And in the fall of 1986 the first physics run is scheduled for three months duration. (Nogami, K.)

1985-08-01

197

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Document Server

P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the ?rst ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

T. Camporesi

198

The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status

1995-06-11

199

Centrality, rapidity and $p_T$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\energy$ Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from 50% at low $p_T$ to greater than 90% at high $p_T$. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < $p_T$ < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (perturbative QCD calculations at next to leading order), as are...

Steinberg, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

200

Convergence of thermoluminescence detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype of a semiautomatic instrument for measuring the convergence of thermoluminescence detectors is described. The results of convergence studies of 17 domestic and foreign tableted thermoluminescence detectors are presented. The convergences of almost all of the detectors depended in the same way on the number of irradiation-measurement cycles -- a relatively rapid change in detector sensitivity in the first 20-50 cycles followed by a relatively slow change. The studies showed that the results of polycyclic convergence tests are decisive when one or another detector is used in a specific radioluminescence dosimeter

1985-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Central shower counter prototype for the Fermilab collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of a full scale prototype shower counter for the FNAL Collider Detector Facility central calorimetry is described in detail. Beam tests provide results on performance parameters. (orig.)

1983-01-01

202

Restoration of U$_A$(1) symmetry and meson spectrum in hot or dense matter  

CERN Multimedia

We explore the effects of breaking and restoration of chiral and axial symmetries using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that incorporates explicitly the axial anomaly through the 't Hooft interaction. We implement a temperature (density) dependence of the anomaly coefficient motivated by lattice results for the topological susceptibility. The spectrum of scalar and pseudoscalar mesons is analyzed bearing in mind the identification of chiral partners and the study of its convergence. We also concentrate on the behavior of the mixing angles that give us relevant information on the issue under discussion. The results suggest that the axial part of the symmetry is restored before the possible restoration of the full U(3)$\\otimes$U(3) chiral symmetry might occur.

Costa, P; De Sousa, C A; Kalinovskii, Yu L; Costa, Pedro; Kalinovsky, Yu. L.

2005-01-01

203

Cross-sections and masses of the intermediate vector bosons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this analysis we study the cross-sections of W± ? ?±? and Z0 ? ?+?- and the masses of the intermediate vector bosons in panti p collisions. Related subjects, such as the total width of the W±, which test the Standard Model are discussed. (orig.)

1991-01-01

204

The UA(1) problem on the lattice with Ginsparg-Wilson fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how it is possible to give a precise and unambiguous implementation of the Witten-Veneziano formula for the ?' mass on the lattice, which looks like the formal continuum one, if the expression of the topological charge density operator, suggested by fermions obeying the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, is employed. By using recent numerical results from simulations with overlap fermions in 2 (abelian Schwinger model) and 4 (QCD) dimensions, one obtains values for the mass of the lightest pseudo-scalar flavour-singlet state that agree within errors with theoretical expectations and experimental data, respectively

2002-04-29

205

Study of Muon Triggers and Momentum Reconstruction in a Strong Magnetic Field for a Muon Detector at LHC  

CERN Multimedia

% RD-5 \\\\ \\\\ A small fraction of a muon detector for possible use in an LHC experiment is installed in the SPS H2 beam. It consists of a 3T superconducting solenoid enclosing a 10$\\lambda$ deep calorimeter made of stainless steel plates interleaved with Honeycomb strip chambers. Behind this magnet are located 3 muon stations for triggering and momentum measurement. These stations, consisting of UA1 muon chambers backed up with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), are inserted in a 1.5~T absorber magnet of 20$\\lambda$ total thickness, station 2 being located after 10$\\lambda$. \\\\ \\\\During the data taking period (1991-1994) 10$^{7}$ muon and hadron events were recorded. Beams of negative muons and pions and of positive muons and hadrons $ (\\pi^+, K ^+ $ and protons) were used with a momentum ranging from 10~to~300~GeV/c. \\\\ \\\\The RD-5 program has covered several topics related to muon detection at LHC: \\\\ \\\\\\begin{description} \\item[(i)]~~study of the behaviour of muons from hadron punchthrough and decays, and also ...

2002-01-01

206

Garlic Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

207

Gas optical neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental luminescent neutron detector and the results of its test in the reactor are described. The detector comprises a radiator of charged particles, light guide, junction of the light guide connection with the photodetector monovacuum gauge and a valve for the detector connection to the pumping and gas leak-in systems. 95% Ne and 5% He mixture was used for the detector filling. Determined is the detector sensitivity to thermal neutrons equalling 4.6x10"-"5 pulse/neutronxcm"-"2 at filling with different gases. The stability of the detector operation is shown to be determined by the stability of the photoreceiver operation. It is concluded that optical detectors can be used for the control of intense neutron fluxes and for detection of ionizing radiations under the conditions of intense electromagnetic background

1981-01-01

208

Disc detector assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A miniature, nonevacuated, detector refrigerator assembly for use in infrared imaging systems is described. The assembly incorporates a miniature Joule-Thomson laminar refrigerator which serves as the substrate for the detector subassembly, electrical leads, as well as the primary structural element of the assembly. The detector subassembly is positioned on the cold region of the refrigerator, surrounded by insulating material and capped by an optical window or filter as required. As a result, the detector is cooled while the contact pads used for connection to external devices are at the ambient temperature. A piece of high thermally conductive material may be placed in the vicinity of the detector subassembly so that during operation gases in the chamber surrounding the detector assembly will preferentially condense thereon rather than on the detector subassembly.

Jungkman, D.L.; Coda, R.C.; Nicholson, P.N.

1984-12-18

209

High-energy detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

210

Central Solenoid  

CERN Document Server

The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

2002-01-01

211

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10(6)/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for...

Busso, Luigi; Chiosso, Michela; Ferrero, Andrea

2008-01-01

212

NO?A Detector Research and Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NuMI Off-axis ?e Appearance (NO?A) experiment is a second generation long-baseline, accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment that will search for the as-yet unobserved ????e transition. Two functionally identical detectors will be placed 14.6 mrad off-axis of the central NuMI beam, one located near the NuMI beam source at FNAL, and one located 810 km away in northern Minnesota. We describe the basic design and status of the research and development of the NO?A detectors

2008-02-21

213

Shielding calculations for the SNO detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-ray background into the central D2O vessel of the SNO detector due to Th and U in the rock, concrete, and photomultipliers is calculated. A cylindrical geometry and concrete thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 m are assumed. The effect of adding boron to the concrete is also considered. It is concluded that backgrounds from (?,n) reactions can be reduced to the required level. These calculations will assist in finalizing the detector design but additional calculations will be required as new design details become known

1987-01-01

214

New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm2, 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

2009-12-01

215

New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm{sup 2}, 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

Neyret, D; Anfreville, M; Bedfer, Y; Burtin, E; D' Hose, N; Giganon, A; Kunne, F; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Paul, B; Platchkov, S; Vandenbroucke, M [CEA Saclay DSM IRFU, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ketzer, B; Konorov, I, E-mail: damien.neyret@cea.f [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, E18 group, D 85748 Garching (Germany)

2009-12-15

216

New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment  

CERN Document Server

New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^2, 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

Neyret, Damien; Bedfer, Yann; Burtin, Etienne; d'Hose, Nicole; Giganon, Arnaud; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, Alain; Marchand, Claude; Paul, Bernard; Platchkov, Stéphane; Vandenbroucke, Maxence

2009-01-01

217

STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade-HFT Pixel Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

2009-03-10

218

Central and forward tracking collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this subsystem R ampersand D project is to carry out a detailed study and design of a complete wire chamber tracking system covering pseudorapidity |?| ? 2.5 in a solenoidal detector for the SSC. Most of our group are now part of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), so the work has evolved into developing a tracking system conceptual design for the SDC detector. The design discussed in this report uses straw tube drift chambers for the central tracking region. Because of the high rates in the SSC environment, a small cell design is needed for wire chambers in the central region. Straw tubes as small cells offer many advantages because the sense wire is enclosed in a continuous cathode, and the wire tension due to the sense wire only can be supported without a massive structure. The straw tubes are grouped together to form superlayers in order to provide local track segments. The superlayers are composed of modules consisting of about two hundred straw tubes enclosed in a carbon fiber composite shell. Straw tubes have been used in previous experiments for small vertex drift chambers. However, they have never before been used for a large tracking system

1991-01-01

219

Central neurocytoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six cases of central neurocytoma arising in the lateral ventricles were treated in authors' department. The diagnoses were confirmed by means of ultrastructural analyses. Three cases were irradiated only locally, with 2 Gy/d for up to 50 Gy. The other three cases were treated with a combination of whole-brain irradiation (32-40 Gy), local irradiation (20-32 Gy), and chemotherapy. The radiosensitivity of these tumors is considered not to be very poor. The treatment results were quite favorable. All six patients are alive and well with no evidence of recurrence many months after the completion of radiation therapy

1988-12-02

220

Math Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Math Central is maintained by the math and education departments at the Canadian University of Regina. Possibly the most valuable section of the site is the Resource Room, which has an impressive database that is separated into materials for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. There are several specific categories for each education level, such as math history, algebra, geometry, problem solving, and many more. Users can email suggestions for additional topics. Another interesting section is the monthly problem, and submissions are accepted and posted online. Most of the site can be viewed in English, French, or Spanish.

2007-06-08

 
 
 
 
221

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

2010-07-11

222

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERMES Collaboration is installing a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the spectrometer for measurements of hard exclusive electron/positron scattering reactions, in particular deeply virtual Compton scattering. These measurements will provide access to generalised parton distributions and hence to the localisation of quarks inside hadrons and to their orbital angular momentum. The HERMES Recoil Detector consists of three active components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector consisting of three layers of tungsten/scintillator. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnetic field of 1 Tesla. The Recoil Detector was extensively tested with cosmic muons over the summer of 2005 and is being installed in the winter of 2005/6 for data taking until summer 2007

2006-07-11

223

Intelligent detector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the complexity and resolution of imaging detectors increases, the need for detailed simulation of the experimental setup also becomes more important. Designing the detectors requires efficient tools to simulate the detector response and reconstruct the events. We have developed efficient and flexible tools for detailed physics and detector response simulation as well as event reconstruction and analysis. The primary goal has been to develop a software toolkit and computing infrastructure to allow physicists from universities and labs to quickly and easily conduct physics analyses and contribute to detector research and development. The application harnesses the full power of the Geant4 toolkit without requiring the end user to have any experience with either Geant4 or C++, thereby allowing the user to concentrate on the physics of the detector system.

2011-01-01

224

Non-LTE analysis of central stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors use the quantitative analysis of the photospheric line spectrum to learn more about the central stars of planetary nebulae. This model atmosphere approach has recently become possible after extensive computations of non-LTE model atmospheres and after the development of efficient detectors attached at big telescopes. (Auth.)

1984-01-01

225

Central scar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the diagnostic specificity of scar tissue associated with primary liver tumors (PLT), the authors compared MR tissue characteristics and morphologic features with gross and microscopic pathologic findings in 38 patients with PLT. Central scars were detected in three of 14 hemangiomas, three of 18 hepatocellular carcinomas, one of four hepatic adenomas, and one of two focal nodular hyperplasias. The scar shape on MR images correlated well with the morphologic scar formation on the cut pathologic specimen. Histopathologic analysis shows that scars composed of dense collagenous tissue (n = 4) appeared hypointense on T1-weighted (spin-echo repetition time = 260 msec, echo time = 14 msec) [SE 260/14] and T2-weighted (SE 2,350/60, 120, 180) images. However, scars composed of loose fibrous tissue with greater cellular content, vascular structures, edema, hemorrhage and/or necrosis appeared isointense (n = 3) or hyperintense (n = 1) to tumor on T2-weighted images. This study shows no significant tissue specificity for PLT based on the MR appearance of central scars

1988-12-02

226

Study on Silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm"2), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

1990-01-01

227

Semiconductor detector operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic types of interaction are discussed underlying gamma detection with a germanium semiconductor detector, such as the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect and the electron pair formation. The mechanism of detection is described in which electrons to whom part of the energy of the photon being detected were transmitted gradually release their energy in ionization during the passage through the detector material. A relation for the detector energy resolution is given. (J.B.)

1982-05-01

228

Compact imaging photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of compact imaging photon detectors is of great importance to several scientific disciplines, in particular observational astronomy. Here the authors show how recent advances can be used to design a detector with superior specifications to existing devices. Of particular importance are the recent improvements in Wedge and Strip Anode readouts which offer significant advantages in terms of position resolution, detector lifetime and simplicity of design

1986-02-01

229

Noble Gas Detectors  

CERN Document Server

This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

2006-01-01

230

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-08-01

231

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22

232

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The encapulation of germanium detectors has been a long sought after goal. We have begun to develop encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented in the paper

1991-08-01

233

500 MHz neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A "1"0B-loaded scintillation detector was built for neutron transmission measurements at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center. The efficiency of the detector is nearly 100% for neutron energies from 0 to 1 keV. The neutron moderation time in the scintillator is about 250 ns and is energy independent. The detector and data processing system are designed to handle an instantaneous rate as high as 500 MHz. The active area of the detector is 40 cm in diameter

1993-05-04

234

Cylindrical pet detector design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cylindrically shaped high resolution PET detector that uses cross-plane coincidence events is being developed. A 2-D analog coded position sensitive detector is employed. It consists of a hexagonal array of PM Tubes and a rectangular array of crystals, 8 elements per PM Tube. The optics has been designed to maximize the light collection and to provide uniform spatial resolution. The detector will be 60 cm D X 11.5 cm W, the crystals are 3 X 5.7 X 30 mm. The design, associated electronics and results of measurements on a sector of the detector are presented

1988-02-01

235

The LHC detector challenge  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

Virdee, Tejinder S

2004-01-01

236

Passivation of HPGe detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of research of the oxide protective covering for p-n junction of HPGe detectors are presented. In particular, this covering makes it possible to use detectors in the environment of liquid nitrogen without capsulation. The simple technological method of formation of protective layer due to processing detectors in the methanol is described. This protective layer reliably protects p-n junction of detectors from influence of an environment. The characteristics of protective oxide film are investigated by means of Raman effect of dispersion of light

2008-01-01

237

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is AC coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undesirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

238

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

1978-01-01

239

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)  

CERN Document Server

Pit commissioning activities The last 4 months have seen various major achievements in hardware commissioning, global data taking, readiness of the DPGs to deal with LHC data flows and alignment and calibration workflows. Since February, the global commissioning has been characterized on the one side by more and more of the final CMS detector becoming available for global readout and triggering and on the other side by consolidation of many of the central software infrastructure and of most of the services infrastructure. The reliability of services like cooling, power, gas has markedly improved with respect to what we observed in the second half of 2007.   Of particular note are the delivery of all low voltage power supplies, the commissioning of the final power distribution, the progressive commissioning ( still ongoing)  of the Detector Safety System and of the associated DCS early warning and alarm system. On the detector side, while already we are used to seeing all of HCAL being exe...

Tiziano Camporesi

240

... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A silicon vertex detector for CDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major reason for building a vertex detector for CDF is the tagging of decay vertices of particles with lifetime in the 10"-"1"3/10"-"1"2 sec. range. This is a complementary approach to heavy flavour physics with respect to missing E/sub T/ and large p/sub T/ leptons. The method can be best applied to tag hadronic decays of heavy flavours, which have the largest branching ratios, but have eluded any specific tagging until now. It also works, although with somewhat reduced efficiency, in events with a semileptonic decay. All in all it promises to be a powerful tool in the search of rather elusive processes like Higgs, top, or fourth generation quark production. The additional information provided by the vertex detector will also improve significantly the resolution of the CDF central tracking system. Arrays of microstrip silicon detectors were used

1986-02-01

242

The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

CERN Multimedia

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a "test beam" to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

Arqueros, F; Covault, C; D'Urso, D; Giulio, C D; Facal, P; Fick, B; Guarino, F; Malek, M; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J; Meyhandan, R; Monasor, M; Mostafa, M; Petrinca, P; Roberts, M; Sommers, P; Travnicek, P; Valore, L; Verzi, V; Wiencke, L

2005-01-01

243

The Central laser facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a ''test beam'' to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

Arqueros, F.; Bellido, J.; Covault, C.; D' Urso, D.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal, P.; Fick, B.; Guarino, F.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthews, J.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor,; Mostafa, M.; Petrinca, P.; Roberts, M.; Sommers, P.; Travnicek, P.; Valore, L.; Verzi, V.; Wiencke, Lawrence; /Utah U.

2005-07-01

244

Neutron detector of large area. Grossflaechiger Neutronendetektor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A self-powered neutron detector of large area includes a pinshaped connecting part fixed to the emitter with a transverse hole, through which the inner conductor wound around the end of the pin and fixed to the pin is taken; the central piece of the connecting part has a mechanically stabilising widened diameter immediately above the connection to the emitter, over a length which is sufficient for mounting an adaptor piece between the sensor and the cable.

Serpekian, T.; Hofer, H.

1983-01-27

245

The 'Diogene' detector, 4? drift chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Diogene' is a detector with a solid angle near the steradian 4?, mainly comprising a drift chamber and capable of detecting in coincidence several tens of charged particles. Built by several laboratories (Dph-N/Saclay, CRN/Strasbourg and LPC/Clermont-Ferrand) it should be ready round about June 1980 to use the heavy ion beams of Saturne II for studying the multiple production of pions and protons in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

1979-06-01

246

Electron identification in the D OE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the techniques used to identify electrons in the D0 detector. The D0 electron identification algorithm is based on the full covariance matrix of energy deposits in the calorimeter cells occupied by an electromagnetic shower and information from the central tracking system. The method exploits the fine longitudinal and transverse segmentation of the D0 calorimeter to achieve excellent pion rejection. Performance criteria are derived from test beam electron and pion data and from collider data

1992-11-10

247

Arrangement of in-core neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To optimize the arrangement of neutron detectors in an intermediate power regions, to thereby improve the responsivity to the worst operation disable state and provide sensitive function as the safety protection system. Constitution: Intermediate power region monitors (IRM) are arranged as below (wherein R is the distance from the control rod at the center to the farthest control rod). (1) In the case where IRM number is less than 6, detectors are concentrated near the center of the reactor core and the adjacent IRM belong to trap systems different from each other. (2) In the case where IRM number is 8, two IRM belonging to trap systems different from each other are arranged near the center of the reactor core and the remaining detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about (3/2)sup(1/2) around the central control rod as the center in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (3) In the case where IRM number is greater than 10, detectors are arranged at an equal pitch on a same circle with a radius of about R cos 4 ?/M (where M is the number of IRM) around the central control rod as the center and in which trip systems A and B are alternate. (Kawakami, Y.)

1981-01-01

248

Lithium metal detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved alkali metal ionization detector is described which operates with a filament electrode temperature of at least 11000C to detect lithium atoms or compounds present in a gas. Alarm monitors based on this type of detector can be used to detect leaks of lithium to air in fusion reactors and test systems. (U.K.)

1981-06-25

249

Drift Chambers detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

1989-01-01

250

Radiometric detector for isotachophoresis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of operation, the design and connection of a radiometric detector for capillary isotachophoresis are described. This is an on-line detector with a plastic scintillator designed for the detection of high and low-level beta sources with a cell volume of 210?l and a detection limit of 37 Bq for 14C. (author). 6 figs., 2 refs

1987-01-01

251

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ZEUS silicon microstrip vertex detector was installed in 2001, during the shutdown for the HERA upgrade. In this report, we briefly summarize the structure of the MVD, and then present the first results on noise, efficiency and alignment. The detector has already integrated a non-negligible radiation dose; the effects and the prospect are discussed

2003-09-21

252

ALICE Silicon Strip Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

Nooren, G

2013-01-01

253

Gaseous dark matter detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dark matter (DM) detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic DM halo models. In this paper, we introduce the motivation for directional detectors, discuss the experimental techniques that make directional detection possible, and review the status of the experimental effort in this field.

2009-01-01

254

Solid state track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

1976-01-01

255

Advanced far infrared detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > ? > 50 ?m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

1993-06-21

256

Modelling alpha particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have built up a computer simulation of detection mechanism in diamond detectors. The diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid; at this stage the grid is two dimensional. Different electrode configurations for the detector are considered, including a single electrode, parallel plates, and a strip-pad geometry. The charge distribution on the electrodes has been calculated and hence the electric potential and electric field vector at each grid point within the diamond detector. Alpha particles produce a large number of electron-hole pairs and their path to the electrodes can be calculated. By applying the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. We compare the response of diamond detector as a function of time in the different electrode configurations and with different trapping-de-trapping properties of the diamond films. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

2002-10-16

257

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

258

Superconducting detectors in astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

Rahman, F.

2006-08-01

259

Advanced far infrared detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01

260

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation.

Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

1992-03-04

262

The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation.

Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.; Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

1992-05-01

263

The design of the L3 silicon microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upgrade of the L3 central tracking system, a silicon microvertex detector (SMD), is described. The detector consists of two layers of silicon, each equipped for r? and z readout with resolution ?6 ?m and ?20 ?m respectively. The SMD will provide full azimuthal coverage over the polar angular range 22deg???158deg. The total thickness is ?0.9% of one radiation length. (orig.)

1992-05-01

264

The design of the L3 silicon microvertex detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An upgrade of the L3 central tracking system, a silicon microvertex detector (SMD), is described. The detector consists of two layers of silicon, each equipped for r{phi} and z readout with resolution {approx equal}6 {mu}m and {approx equal}20 {mu}m respectively. The SMD will provide full azimuthal coverage over the polar angular range 22deg{<=}{theta}{<=}158deg. The total thickness is {approx equal}0.9% of one radiation length. (orig.).

Caria, M.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Babucci, E.; Battiston, R.; Bertucci, B.; Bilei, G.M.; Brooks, M.; Checcucci, B.; Fiandrini, E.; Mantovani, G.; Pauluzzi, M.; Santocchia, A. (INFN-Sezione Perugia (Italy) Univ. Perugia (Italy)); Barbagli, G.; Castellini, G.; Lee, D. (INFN/IROE, Sezione Firenze (Italy) INFN, Sezione Firenze (Italy)); Burger, W.J. (Univ. Geneva (Switzerland)); Coan, T.E.; Mills, G.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Commichau, V. (Physikalisches Inst. 3, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Donat, A.; Heller, R.; Nowak, H.; Nowak, W.D.; Tonish, F. (Inst. of High Energy Physics, Berlin-Zeuthen (Germany)); Herve, A.; Lecoq, P. (PPE Div., CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Hofer, H.; Pohl, M.; Viertel, G.; Waldmeier, S. (Inst. of High Energy Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)); Landi, G. (INFN-Sezione Firenze (Italy) Univ. Firenze (Italy)); Servoli, L. (INFN-Sezione Perugia (Italy) Univ. Perugia (Italy) INFN-Sezione Firenze (Italy) Univ. Firenze (Italy)); Yeh, S.C. (N

1992-05-01

265

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code

2013-05-01

266

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?{sub av}, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?{sub 0}. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?{sub av}/?{sub 0} was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the {sup 64}Zn+{sup 112}Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Rodrigues, M.R.D. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wada, R., E-mail: wada@comp.tamu.edu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Keutgen, T. [FNRS and IPN, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-Neuve (Belgium); Kowalski, S. [Institute of Physics, Silesia University, Katowice (Poland); Hagel, K.; Barbui, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Bonasera, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J.B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Schmidt, K.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); and others

2013-05-01

267

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

2013-05-01

268

A very high momentum particle identification detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A new detector concept has been investigated to extend the capabilities of heavy-ion collider experiments, represented here through the ALICE detector, in the high transverse momentum ( p T region. The resulting Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/ c heavy-ion experiments with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at RHIC and LHC energies, where the creation of deconfined quark-gluon matter has been established. The detector is based on novel advances to the pressurized gaseous ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) concept, which yield a very compact, high resolution addition to existing heavy-ion experiments. We conclude that in order for the device to yield statistically significant results not only for single particle measurements, but also for di-hadron and jet-tagged correlation studies, it has to cover contiguously up to 30% of a central barrel detector in radial direction. This will allow, for the first time, identified charged hadron measurements in jets. In this paper we summarize the physics motivations for such a device, as well as its conceptual design, layout, and integration into ALICE.

Acconcia, T. V.; Agócs, A. G.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencédi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Cossyleon, K.; Chinellato, D. D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A. K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futó, E.; García-Solis, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jayarathna, S. P.; Jimenez, R. T.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. S.; Knospe, A.; Kovács, L.; Lévai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnár, L.; Oláh, L.; Pai?, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M. E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Pochybová, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J. B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.-K.

2014-05-01

269

Central neurocytoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central neurocytomas (CN) are rare intraventricular tumors with prominent neuronal differentiation. CN commonly arise in the lateral ventricles of young adults who predominantly present with raised intracranial pressure. Few studies have described the clinical, pathological, and radiological features of these tumors, and those that have are typically single case reports. Herein, we report ten patients with CN with variable clinical and pathological features and discuss the management of these tumors. Nine tumors occupied the lateral ventricle and only one was located in the sellar region. On MRI, all 10 tumors showed heterogeneous hypo-or iso-intensity on T1-weighted and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI. Contrast enhancement varied greatly from very slight to intense. All patients were surgically treated by macroscopic total or subtotal removal. Postoperative radiotherapy was given to six patients (four of whom had undergone subtotal resection and two of whom had undergone total resection). The surgical and histopathological data of these patients were reviewed and analyzed. No recurrences were noted although we were unable to contact two patients for follow-up. A brief review of the literature concerning differential diagnosis and therapeutic aspects of these tumors is also presented. PMID:22537657

Chen, Haihui; Zhou, Rongrong; Liu, Jiayi; Tang, Jintian

2012-06-01

270

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a self-powered radiation detector used, for example, for controlling radiation in the core of a nuclear reactor. With this in view, this invention relates to a detector that generates an electric signal corresponding to the radiation flux, between a first electrode or emitting electrode and a second or collecting electrode, at a distance from the first, this signal resulting from the different sensitivity to the incident radiation flux of the first and second electrodes. The emitting electrode is made of a conducting tubular material and the second or collecting electrode is formed of a central conductor coaxially housed in the first emitting electrode, with an insulation separating the two electrodes. An external tubular part coaxially surrounds the first emitting electrode and is separated by an insulation. The central conductor and the external tubular part are joined electrically to form the second or collecting electrode. According to this first claim, the first tubular emitting electrode is made of a conducting material with a high neutron cross section and the second or collecting electrode of a material with a low neutron cross section. The emitter is then in rhodium, vanadium or cobalt. For the application of gamma radiations to the detection of the flux, the first emitting tubular electrode is made of a conducting material with a high atomic number, sensitive to the gamma flux and the second collecting electrode in a conducting material with a lower atomic number having a weaker interaction to the gamma flux. The emitting electrode is then in platinum. According to any of the claims, the collecting electrode is in high nickel steel or in nickel-chromium stainless steel

1978-06-27

271

International Large Detector. Letter of intent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their own goals of detector technology development. Members of the detector concept groups participate in the R and D collaborations and make sure that the detector technologies are successfully applied to the detector concept designs. By the creation of the ILD concept group, the application efforts became more focused. Currently, the ILD management includes subdetector contacts who are also key members of the detector R and D collaborations. This scheme is working efficiently such that we can finish basic R and D in time for the Technical Design Report which is envisaged around 2012. Overall, the ILD group structure is efficient while keeping exibility and openness. Even though we are still short on person power and funding at this time, we believe that we are well positioned to successfully complete a technical design for a detector at the International Linear Collider. The ILD group is firmly committed to the ILD project. (orig.)

Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

2010-07-01

272

Radial position sensitive semiconductor detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technology of production and performances of a radial position sensitive surface-barrier silicon detector are given and described. Linearity and position resolution of detectors were measured by means of ?-particles. Non-linearity of the detector response is <= 1%

1985-01-01

273

Advanced superconducting optical detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated advanced superconducting optical and infrared detectors for their integration with superconductive active circuits. The detectors are based on ultra-thin NbN striplines. NbN is the material of choice for single photon optical and infrared detectors, as already demonstrated in the literature. The detectors so far proposed are based on conceptually simple, although difficult to realize, sub-micrometric meander type structures. Most applications of such detectors require some treatment of the signal generated, either as pulse shaping or signal amplification, to fully exploit the detection capabilities, such as sub-ns response time and proportional response. We have developed a room temperature process that, while preserving reasonable superconducting properties of NbN, allows a simple integration of the detectors in Nb-based circuits. Moreover we have developed a passivation technique, by using a protective AlN layer on top of the NbN one. The developed technology allows complex detector configurations, such as integrated RSFQ circuits or SQUID readout, to be relatively easily realized. The response of our NbN strip to photon irradiation will be presented.

Perez Lara, D de [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy); Ejrnaes, M [INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Pagano, S [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy); Esposito, E [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy); Nappi, C [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy); Cristiano, R [C.N.R. Istituto di Cibernetica E.R. Caianiello, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Naples (Italy)

2006-06-01

274

Advanced superconducting optical detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated advanced superconducting optical and infrared detectors for their integration with superconductive active circuits. The detectors are based on ultra-thin NbN striplines. NbN is the material of choice for single photon optical and infrared detectors, as already demonstrated in the literature. The detectors so far proposed are based on conceptually simple, although difficult to realize, sub-micrometric meander type structures. Most applications of such detectors require some treatment of the signal generated, either as pulse shaping or signal amplification, to fully exploit the detection capabilities, such as sub-ns response time and proportional response. We have developed a room temperature process that, while preserving reasonable superconducting properties of NbN, allows a simple integration of the detectors in Nb-based circuits. Moreover we have developed a passivation technique, by using a protective AlN layer on top of the NbN one. The developed technology allows complex detector configurations, such as integrated RSFQ circuits or SQUID readout, to be relatively easily realized. The response of our NbN strip to photon irradiation will be presented

2006-06-01

275

The HERMES recoil detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

2013-02-15

276

Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

2012-02-01

277

The HERMES recoil detector  

Science.gov (United States)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

2013-05-01

278

The HERMES recoil detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

2013-01-01

279

Barrier infrared detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1959, Lawson and co-workers publication triggered development of variable band gap Hg1-xCdxTe (HgCdTe) alloys providing an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Over the five decades, this material system has successfully fought off major challenges from different material systems, but despite that it has more competitors today than ever before. It is interesting however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. They may promise to be more manufacturable, but never to provide higher performance or, with the exception of thermal detectors, to operate at higher temperatures. In the last two decades a several new concepts of photodetectors to improve their performance have been proposed including trapping detectors, barrier detectors, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage detectors. This paper describes the present status of infrared barrier detectors. It is especially addressed to the group of III-V compounds including type-II superlattice materials, although HgCdTe barrier detectors are also included. It seems to be clear that certain of these solutions have merged as a real competitions of HgCdTe photodetectors.

Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

2014-06-01

280

The muon system of the Run II DØ detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the design, construction, and performance of the upgraded DØ muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the DØ muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

Abazov, V. M.; Acharya, B. S.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V. A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J. F.; Baturitsky, M. A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J. M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S. R.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fortner, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Gómez, B.; Goodwin, R.; Gornushkin, Yu. A.; Green, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Haggerty, H.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hazen, E.; Hedin, D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Ito, A. S.; Jayanti, R.; Johns, K.; Jouravlev, N.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirsch, N.; Komissarov, E. V.; Korablev, V. M.; Kostritsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kravchuk, N. P.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kuchinsky, N. A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kupco, A.; Larwill, M.; Leitner, R.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lubatti, H. J.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Marcus, M.; Marshall, T.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCroskey, R.; Merekov, Y. P.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nozdrin, A. A.; Oshinowo, B.; Parashar, N.; Parua, N.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Porokhovoi, S. Y.; Prokhorov, I. K.; Rao, M. V. S.; Raskowski, J.; Reddy, L. V.; Regan, T.; Rotolo, C.; Russakovich, N. A.; Sabirov, B. M.; Satyanarayana, B.; Scheglov, Y.; Schukin, A. A.; Shankar, H. C.; Shishkin, A. A.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, G.; Smolek, K.; Soustruznik, K.; Stefanik, A.; Steinberg, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Stutte, L.; Temple, J.; Terentyev, N.; Teterin, V. V.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tompkins, D.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Vorobyov, A.; Vysotsky, V. B.; Willutzki, H.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Yoffe, F.; Zanabria, M.; Zhao, T.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zvyagintsev, S. A.

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Liquid ionizing radiaion detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

1979-01-01

282

ATLAS Inner Detector Alignment  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to achieve its physics goals, the ATLAS tracking requires that the positions of the silicon detector elements have to be known to a precision better than 10 ?m. Several track-based alignment algorithms have been developed for the Inner Detector. An extensive validation has been performed with simulated events and real data coming from the ATLAS. Results from such validation are reported in this paper.

Bocci, A

2008-01-01

283

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

284

The Clover detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4?-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs

1992-08-01

285

FOXFET biassed microstrip detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed for biassing the strips of a silicon microstrip detector with a tunable dynamic resistance. This allows the strip potentials to be tied to a fixed voltage, virtually independent of the strip leakage currents, whilst requiring no processing steps additional to those needed for a standard capacitively coupled detector. Results are presented for full sized detectors (3.3 cmx6.0 cm) both measured on a probe station and equipped with VLSI readout (MX3) chips. Assemblies are currently undergoing beam tests at CERN with indications of very promising performance. (orig.)

1991-12-01

286

Angular coverage of detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decay products from large p/sub T/ scatters and heavy particles will show up at large angles (more than a few degrees) and emphasis should be placed on this region when designing a general purpose 4? detector. In addition to optimizing the system for a fixed cost, this means that less space is required along the beam than might be first estimated by looking at the nominal rapidity range. Smaller angles can be covered with a crude detector to tag any events with significant p/sub T/ at angles less than that covered by the high-quality detector

1983-04-01

287

Quantum cascade detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A photovoltaic intersubband detector based on electron transfer on a cascade of quantum levels is presented which we called a Quantum Cascade Detector (QCD). The highest photoresponse of intersubband transition based photovoltaic detectors is demonstrated: 44 mA/W at zero applied bias. Further improvements permit to suppress the leakage current and to increase the resistivity R0A. Useless cross-transitions have been eliminated finally leading to a high resistance narrow band photodetector with a Johnson noise limited detectivity at 50 K comparable to QWIPs. Because they work with no dark current, QCDs are very promising for small pixel and large focal plane array applications.

Gendron, L.; Koeniguer, C.; Marcadet, X.; Berger, V.

2005-10-01

288

Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-08-01

289

Studies of the performance of OPAL single-sided FOXFET detectors in a test beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of an analysis of test beam data taken with the silicon detectors identical to those used in the back-to-back OPAL microvertex detector which was installed in March 1993. The detector configuration consisted of two outer reference detectors and a central detector. The test beam analysis procedure and systematic studies are described briefly. Results for runs with different incident angles are compared. The efficiency of the back-to-back detector in both r-? and r-z are measured to be better than 99%. Assuming all detectors have the same resolution at zero degree incidence angle, the r-? and r-z preliminary resolutions obtained for the back-to-back detectors are 4.8 ?m and 11.5 ?m, respectively. ((orig.))

1994-09-01

290

First double-sided 3-D detectors fabricated at CNM-IMB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first results on double-sided three-dimensional (3-D) silicon radiation detectors are reported in this paper. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of electrodes that penetrate into the detector bulk with the anode and cathode electrodes etched from opposite sides of the substrate. The geometry of the detector is such that a central anode is surrounded by four cathode contacts. The maximum drift and depletion distances are equal to the electrode spacing rather than detector thickness. This structure is similar to a conventional 3-D detector, but has a simpler fabrication process. The technological and the electrical simulations together with the fabrication steps of this new detector configuration are reported in this paper. The first detectors fabricated at CNM are reported here and have been characterized by electrical measurements.

Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Micro and Nanotechnologies CNM-IMB (CSIC), Bellaterra, Barcelona 08193 (Spain)], E-mail: Giulio.Pellegrini@cnm.es; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Micro and Nanotechnologies CNM-IMB (CSIC), Bellaterra, Barcelona 08193 (Spain); Bates, R.; Fleta, C.; Pennicard, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2008-07-11

291

The DELPHI microvertex detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main characteristics of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector are presented. The performance in terms of impact parameter resolution, association efficiency, and ambiguity is evaluated after two years of data taking at LEP.

Caccia, M.; Borner, H.; Chabaud, V.; Dijkstra, H.; Eerola, P.; Gross, E.; Hyams, B.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Karlsson, M.; Maehlum, G.; Roditi, I.; Straver, J.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P. (CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Dufour, Y. (College de France, Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Paris (France)); Brueckman, P.; Jalocha, P.; Kapusta, P.; Turala, M.; Zalewska, A. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)); Lindgren, J.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Ronnqvist, C.; Saarikko, H.; Saarikko, J.P.; Tuuva, T. (Research Inst. for High Energy Physics, Helsinki (Finland)); d' Almagne, B.; Bambade, P.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F. (Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France)); Amery, A.; Booth, P.S.L.; Campion, A.R.; McNulty, R.; Smith, N.A. (Univ. of Liverpool, Dept. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Andreazza, A.; Battaglia, M.; Biffi, P.; Bonvicini, V.; Kucewicz, W.; Meroni, C.; Redaelli, N.; Stocchi, A.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G. (Univ. di Milano, Dipt. di

1992-02-05

292

The pixelated detector  

CERN Multimedia

"Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

Sutton, C

1990-01-01

293

Europe plans megaton detector  

CERN Multimedia

A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

Cartlidge, Edwin

2004-01-01

294

Pocked surface neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-04-08

295

The DELPHI microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector are presented. The performance in terms of impact parameter resolution, association efficiency, and ambiguity is evaluated after two years of data taking at LEP

1992-02-05

296

The LUX Prototype Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

2012-01-01

297

Far Ultraviolet Detector Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is given of the NBS program in which special photodiodes for the far ultraviolet spectral region (5-254 nm) are made available as transfer standards. These detectors are calibrated in terms of quantum efficiency (photoelectrons per incident ...

L. R. Canfield N. Swanson

1986-01-01

298

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Document Server

The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

Christensen, C

2013-01-01

299

The Double Chooz detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double Chooz is a neutrino oscillations experiment using neutrinos from the Chooz reactors, located in France, intending to measure, or limit, the unmeasured leptonic mixing angle ?13. The experimental technique relies on the use of two detectors of novel design to reduce the so far dominating neutrino flux and detector systematic uncertainties, backgrounds and achieving long term stability. This document synthesises the talk delivered, on behalf of the collaboration, in the 11th Pisa Meeting 2009 at Elba (Italy).

2010-05-11

300

Radiation detector device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UV detector device for fire monitoring (flame detector) is operated from a remote position by means of low direct voltage. For this purpose a dc converter circuit is arranged in the immediate proximity of the gas-discharge tube within a common casing, together with the tube. An output circuit responding to the conductive state of the gas-discharge tube forms part of the transistorized monitoring circuit with alarm generation. (DG)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

12-module neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 12-module neutron detector is developed on the basis of plastic scintillation counters with radiators sizes 23.2x23.2x30 cm3. Both neutron detection efficiency and time resolution of the detector are measured. It is concluded that at low values of the threshold detection energy about 4 MeV methods of compensation of pulse time fluctuations are essential for neutron energy less than 100 MeV

1980-01-01

302

A suggested detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conceptual detector to measure e/sup +/e/sup /minus// ..-->.. (..mu../sup +/..mu../sup /minus//, e/sup +/e/sup /minus//, ..gamma.. ..gamma.. and hadrons) is described. Drift chambers are used for high spatial resolution. An inner lead-scintillator sandwich provides an e/minus/..gamma.. detector. A toroidally magnetized iron-scintillator sandwich adsorbs and measures hadrons calorimetrically and deflects muons for detection in an outer system of chambers.

Yellin, S.

1988-01-01

303

ALICE detector layout  

CERN Multimedia

This computer-simulation of the ALICE detector layout shows the collision point inside the tracking systems and barrel detector. To the right, the specially constructed dipole magnet can be seen along with the outer dimuon spectrometer. The ALICE experiment at the LHC at CERN will sit inside the huge solenoid that once housed the L3 experiment until the LEP accelerator was closed in 2000.

ALICE

2003-01-01

304

Ruggedized alpha radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to develop an alpha radiation scintillation detector with an entrance window more rugged than conventional types. A new technique for micromachining thin silicon windows has been implemented. Optically clear epoxy is used to couple the scintillator material to a glass light pipe and to give support to the thin portions of the silicon window. Tests indicate overall efficiency is comparable with conventional Mylar window detectors

1989-02-01

305

High resolution radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under this invention the high resolution detector comprises a scintillation crystal located along the propagation path of the incident X rays so as to react of these X rays to produce a corresponding luminous radiation. The visible light passes through a lateral part of the crystal and comes out by a lateral upper and lower facet of the crystal. Networks of detectors with several solid state detector components are placed along the side emission facets of the crystals, so as to receive the visible light emitted and to produce corresponding electric signals. An optical coupling grease is provided between the solid state detectors and the lateral emission facets of the crystals. The succesive networks of solid state detectors are alternated in positions located between the lateral emission facets and overlap so as to form a continuous radiation receiving area along the crystal. The detector components of the network start at the front of the scintillation crystal, in the propagation direction of the incident X rays

1979-07-30

306

GANIL beam profile detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

1997-07-01

307

GANIL beam profile detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author). 9 refs.

Tribouillard, C. [Laboratoire commun CEA/DSM - CNRS / IN2P3, GANIL, B.P. No. 5027, 14076 Caen Cedex-5 (France)

1997-07-01

308

Detectors for CBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

1983-01-01

309

Two detector management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the considerations of the Two Detector Management Subgroup of the SLC Workshop. The work, carried out from May through November of 1981, concerned the overall design of the interaction hall, or halls, and of the associated detector staging areas. The goal, as indicated by the Subgroup name, was to explore designs in which two detectors could operate most efficiently at the SLC. One requirement of the SLC experimental areas, which was not previously encountered at colliding beams facilities, is that maximum use must be made of the available beam time since data are collected by only one detector at a time. Therefore, a variety of different concepts have been reviewed with the goal of achieving the best use of the colliding beams at minimum cost within the framework of the technical requirements of the SLC. As a guide to the interaction region and staging area sizes, and to the support and service facilities required for detector operation, studies were made of colliding beam detectors both existing and planned. An overview is given of the designs which have been examined, and their technical constraints

1982-03-01

310

Protecting Detectors in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related...

Mateusz Lechman, Mateusz; Chochula, Peter; Di Mauro, Antonio; Jirden, Lennart Stig; Schindler, Heinrich; Rosinsky, Peter; Moreno, Alberto; Kurepin, Alexander; Pinazza, Ombretta; De Cataldo, Giacinto

2011-01-01

311

ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)  

CERN Multimedia

To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

ATLAS Outreach

2006-01-01

312

Frontier detectors for frontier physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

1983-06-03

313

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements. (orig.)

1986-08-01

314

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

1985-01-01

315

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

1986-08-01

316

Detectors on the drawing board  

CERN Multimedia

Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

317

Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors, the Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and the Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). It covers the central pseudo-rapidity region ? < 1.0 for all vertices located within the length of the interaction diamond 1 ?. The outer layers of the ITS consist of double sided Silicon Strip Detectors mounted on carbon-fiber support structures. The SSD is crucial for the connection of tracks from the main tracking device of ALICE, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), to the ITS and also provides dE/dx information to assist particle identification for low-momentum particles. The detector consists of 1698 modules each one having 1536 p and n-side strips, resulting in total to more than 2.6 million channels. The SSD has been actively participating in all the testing, commissioning and run activities as well as in all the data taking periods of the ALICE experiment, making it the largest working double sided detector in the world. It has registered large statistics of cosmic data in 2008 and is included in the initial detector configuration of ALICE for the first LHC collisions. In this talk, the latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics will be presented. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring will be shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to address the alignment with the rest of the ITS sub-detectors along with both on-line and off-line calibration strategies will be described. Finally, results from simulations as well as from the reconstruction of cosmic data demonstrating the performance of the detector will be presented, proving that the SSD is ready for the forthcoming proton-proton data taking. (author)

2009-07-16

318

Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

2010-05-11

319

Development of PMT high voltage control system for LASCAR detector array at RIBLL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is described in this paper that the multi-channel PMT high voltage power supply control system, which matches with the PMT high voltage module CC123 of the LASCAR detector array at RIBLL experiment terminal. The MCU AT89C51 is selected as the central control part and other suitable accessories are also adopted in our design. The PMT control system of the detector array works steadily and effectively in out performance test of LASCAR detector array. (authors)

2005-09-01

320

Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded MARK II detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and preprocessing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing

1986-02-01

322

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Barklow, T.; Glanzman, T.; Lankford, A.J.; Riles, K.

1985-09-01

323

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

1985-10-23

324

Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

2000-01-01

325

Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (4/4)  

CERN Document Server

Tracking Detectors - Part II. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

CERN. Geneva

2010-01-01

326

Detector Developments for the High Luminosity LHC Era (3/4)  

CERN Multimedia

Tracking Detectors - Part I. Calorimetry, muon detection, vertexing, and tracking will play a central role in determining the physics reach for the High Luminosity LHC Era. In these lectures we will cover the requirements, options, and the R&D efforts necessary to upgrade the current LHC detectors and enabling discoveries.

CERN. Geneva

2010-01-01

327

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

CERN Document Server

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1 Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end...

Airapetian, A; Belostotski, S; Borissov, A; Borisenko, A; Bowles, J; Brodski, I; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capitani, G P; Carassiti, V; Ciullo, G; Clarkson, A; Contalbrigo, M; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Guler, H; Gregor, I M; Hartig, M; Hill, G; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Jo, H S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kisselev, A; Krause, B; Krauss, B; Lagamba, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Lu, S; Lu, X -G; Lumsden, S; Mahon, D; de la Ossa, A Martinez; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nowak, W -D; Naryshkin, Y; Osborne, A; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Petrov, A; Pickert, N; Prahl, V; Protopopescu, D; Reinecke, M; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Schnell, G; Seitz, B; Shearer, C; Shutov, V; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vilardi, I; Vikhrov, V; Vogel, C; Yaschenko, S; Ye, Z; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B

2013-01-01

328

Recuperation of semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convenient methods to recuperate damaged semiconductor detectors used by various Brazilian atomic and nuclear physics research groups have been applied in our laboratory, and are described in this paper. The recuperated detectors are of Ge(Li), Ge(HP), and Si(Li) types, and in all cases they are mounted in cryostates. Generally these instruments present vacuum leakages in the cryostate, which require the recuperation of vacuum conditions. Subsequently the crystals are warmed up between 100C and 300C above room temperature, in order to clean the crystal surface. Some clean-up drifting is then performed in the Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detectors, before cooling down the cryostate to liquid nitrogen temperature. When the beryllium window of one of the detectors is damaged, it is replaced by a mylar window. Damaged FET is also replaced. This paper summarizes the results obtained with 3 Ge(Li), 5 Ge(HP), and 4 Si(Li) detectors, from which some general and valuable conclusions have been found. (author)

1989-09-04

329

The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features an ultraviolet laser and optical components that direct a beam of calibrated, pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors, which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility acts as a 'test beam' that is used to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the air fluorescence detectors. Additionally, the laser can send a light pulse via optical fiber to the nearest surface detector tank. This signal, which occurs simultaneously with light beamed into the sky, is used for the hybrid timing analysis of the surface and fluorescence detectors at the Observatory.

Fick, B [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Malek, M [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Matthews, J A J [New Mexico Center for Particle Physics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Matthews, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Meyhandan, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mostafa, M [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Roberts, M [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sommers, P [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wiencke, L [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2006-11-15

330

The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features an ultraviolet laser and optical components that direct a beam of calibrated, pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors, which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility acts as a 'test beam' that is used to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the air fluorescence detectors. Additionally, the laser can send a light pulse via optical fiber to the nearest surface detector tank. This signal, which occurs simultaneously with light beamed into the sky, is used for the hybrid timing analysis of the surface and fluorescence detectors at the Observatory

2006-11-01

331

The central part of CMS is lowered  

CERN Multimedia

On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

Maximilien Brice

2007-01-01

332

Integrated Single Atom Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Detecting ingle atoms is a key ingredient in developing cold atom based quantum technologies. Here we present a detector for trapped atoms, fully integrated on an atom chip (M. Wilzbach, et al. Optics Letters 34, 259 (2009) ). The detector consists of a tapered lensed single-mode fiber for precise delivery of excitation light and a multimode fiber to collect the fluorescence. Both are mounted in lithographically defined SU-8 holding structures on an atom chip. Single Rb atoms propagating freely in a magnetic guide are detected with an efficiency of 66% with a signal to noise ratio in excess of 100. In the talk we will give examples of how this detector can be used to probe atom-atom correlations in ultra cold degenerate quantum many body systems.

Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Trupke, M.; Schmiedmayer, J.

2010-03-01

333

Transition Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

Andronic, A

2012-01-01

334

Cryogenic Tracking Detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

2002-01-01

335

Dosimetry with diamond detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

2010-05-11

336

Dosimetry with diamond detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

Gervino, G.; Marino, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sperimentale di Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Silvestri, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sperimentale di Torino (Italy); Lavagno, A., E-mail: andrea.lavagno@polito.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Truc, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sperimentale di Torino (Italy)

2010-05-21

337

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of ?30%/?E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design

2006-10-27

338

Semiconductor neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB) [Cambridge, GB; Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA) [Arlington, VA; Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM

2011-03-08

339

High efficiency scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

1976-01-01

340

Intelligent Detector Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

2007-02-13

 
 
 
 
341

The LHCb RICH detectors  

CERN Document Server

LHCb, one of the experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, has been designed for high-precision measurements of the parameters of the CKM quark-mixing matrix, and for studies of rare $B$-hadron decays, An essential part of the experiment is an efficient system of particle identification, effective over a momentum range of 1-100 GEV/$c$. For this we use two ring imaging Cherenkov detectors with three Cherenkov radiators. Photons in the wavelength range 200-600 nm are detected by 484 pixel hybrid photon detectors.

Skottowe, Hugh

2007-01-01

342

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

1980-01-01

343

Report of the compact detector subgroup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

1988-01-01

344

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the work will focus on the modelling of highly pixellated solid-state devices. Results are presented on the performance of a pixellated spectroscopic silicon detector - the Dash-E detector. The electronic noise is measured to be 228 eV with the system observed to be close to the Fano limit at room temperature. The characteristic X-rays of Mn-55, Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba have been used to examine the spectroscopic performance of the detectors. Good linearity over the required energy range 1 keV to 25 keV has been observed. A higher than expected background is evident in all of the spectra taken - approximately a 1:1 correspondence in the peak counts to background counts. The modelled performance of a 3-D GaAs detector is analysed. The effect of the metallic column-like electrode structure on the particle interactions is simulated via the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The effective dead area due to these electrodes is reduced from 8 % to 4.5 % due to the secondary particle interactions. The modelled structure becomes depleted at 50 V with a slight over-depletion of 75 V necessary to minimise the inter-electrode low field regions. The principle benefit of these depletion voltages is that they remain constant for whatever detection thickness that fabrication allows. The charge transport in the devices are also examined, with the damage effects of dry-etching included - a technique used to form the electrode holes in the GaAs material. Full charge collection can be expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The case of X-ray, as well as higher energy ?-ray, interactions are considered. The charge lost is studied for these interactions over a range of pixel sizes (1?m to 10 mm). The aforementioned Dash-E detector has been used to obtain experimental data for comparison with the models developed, with close agreement being observed. The combination of MCNP and MEDICI is used to form a complete picture of photon interactions in semiconducting materials and also compares well with experiment. The models predict that the dominant term in the sharing of charge is due to diffusion and that the difference with photon energy is due to the energy given to the photoelectron. (author)

2001-01-01

345

New pixelized Micromegas detector with low discharge rate for the COMPASS experiment  

CERN Document Server

New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm^{2}, 10 times larger than for the present Micromegas detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Two solutions of reduction of discharge impact have been studied, with Micromegas detectors using resistive layers and using an additional GEM foil. Performance of such detectors has also been measured. A large size prototypes with nominal active area and pixelized read-out has been produced and installed at COMPASS in 2010. In 2011 prototypes featuring an additional GEM foil, as well as an resistive prototype, are installed at COMPASS and preliminary results from those detectors presented very go...

Neyret, Damien; Anfreville, Marc; Bedfer, Yann; Burtin, Etienne; Coquelet, Christophe; d'Hose, Nicole; Desforge, Daniel; Giganon, Arnaud; Jourde, Didier; Kunne, Fabienne; Magnon, Alain; Makke, Nour; Marchand, Claude; Paul, Bernard; Platchkov, Stéphane; Thibaud, Florian; Usseglio, Michel; Vandenbroucke, Maxence

2011-01-01

346

Target mass monitoring and instrumentation in the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Daya Bay experiment measures sin 22?13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time antineutrino detector monitoring sensors and readout electronics.

2013-04-01

347

A practical block detector for a depth encoding PET camera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The depth-of-interaction effect in block detectors degrades the image resolution in commercial PET cameras and impedes the natural evolution of smaller, less expensive cameras. A method for correcting the measured position of each detected gamma ray by measuring its depth-of-interaction was tested and found to recover 38% of the lost resolution in a table-top 50 cm diameter camera. To obtain the desired depth sensitivity, standard commercial detectors were modified by a simple and practical process, which is suitable for mass production of the detectors. The impact of the detectors modifications on central image resolution and on the ability of the camera to correct for object scatter were also measured. (authors)

1995-10-26

348

A new vertex detector made of glass capillaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a new detector technique that allows high quality imaging of ionizing particle tracks with very high spatial and time resolution. Central to this technique are liquid-core fibres of about 20 ?m diameter read out by an optoelectronic system including a CCD. The fibres act simultaneously as target, detector and light guides. A large-volume prototype, consisting of 5 x 105 capillaries of 20 ?m diameter and 180 cm length, has been tested in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam. A sample of high-multiplicity neutrino interactions was recorded, demonstrating the imaging quality of this detector. First results from the reconstruction of these events are reported. A track residual of 28 ?m and a vertex resolution of 30 ?m has been achieved. Future applications of capillary detectors for neutrino and beauty physics are being investigated within the framework of the RD46 collaboration. (orig.)

1997-02-11

349

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip detector modules for LHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3·1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers...

Perea Solano, Blanca

2004-01-01

350

The compensating magnet for the Zeus detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports a bath cooled superconducting solenoid with a 280 mm in diameter warm bore, a coil length of 1200 mm and a central field of 5 T at the rated current of 950 A, built at Ansaldo ABB Componenti. It will operate as compensating coil inside the Zeus Detector at HERA, Desy. The coil is shielded by a 3.5 ton low carbon steel cold yoke and the cold helium chamber was designed to withstand a max pressure of 20 bar. The main results obtained during the cool down and energization are reported

1991-03-01

351

The compensating magnet for the Zeus detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports a bath cooled superconducting solenoid with a 280 mm in diameter warm bore, a coil length of 1200 mm and a central field of 5 T at the rated current of 950 A, built at Ansaldo ABB Componenti. It will operate as compensating coil inside the Zeus Detector at HERA, Desy. The coil is shielded by a 3.5 ton low carbon steel cold yoke and the cold helium chamber was designed to withstand a max pressure of 20 bar. The main results obtained during the cool down and energization are reported.

Dormicchi, O.; Penco, R.; Parodi, S.; Valente, P.; Oliva, A.B.; Gaggero, G.; Losasso, M.; Masullo, G. (Ansaldo ABB Componeti, Via N. Lorenzi 8, I-16152 Genova (IT)); Lin, Q. (World-Lab., CH-1211 Geneve, 23 (CH))

1991-03-01

352

To centralize or not to centralize?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The CEO’s dilemma—were the gains of centralization worth the pain it could cause?—is a perennial one. Business leaders dating back at least to Alfred Sloan, who laid out GM’s influential philosophy of decentralization in a series of memos during the 1920s, have recognized that badly judged centralization can stifle initiative, constrain the ability to tailor products and services locally, and burden business divisions with high costs and poor service.1 Insufficient centralization can ...

Andrew Campbell; Sven Kunisch; Günter Müller-Stewens

2011-01-01

353

Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab DO detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is ±0.5 min, and ±2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey. (author)

1999-10-18

354

Central tracking with micro strip gas chambers in CMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A central tracking detector based on micro strip gas chambers (MSGC) for the compact muon solenoid (CMS) at LHC is part of a hybrid inner tracking system to be operated in a 4 Tesla magnetic field. Expected performance in terms of momentum resolution, rate capability and long term survivability will be discussed. Considerable efforts in simulation studies have been made, to optimize the tracking system for pattern recognition and track finding efficiencies. A preliminary engineering study on mechanical stability and heat load shows that the detector structures can be made sufficiently stiff to maintain systematic alignment precision within the intrinsic spatial measurement accuracy of the detector. (orig.)

1993-05-01

355

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

P. Paolucci

2012-01-01

356

Scintillation detector construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to the structure of collimated scintillation detector arrays which are useful in tomography and other related industrial applications. The system enhances the channeling of the optical output of a scintillator body, excited by x-ray radiation, to photoelectrically responsive devices. (UK)

1978-01-01

357

Photovoltaic radiation detector element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

1980-01-01

358

Time Planar HPGe Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time resolution of the planar HPGe detectors was investigated with small value of the dead layer of (p, n) transition. The time resolution is 2tau/sub 0/=0.95 ns for Esub( gamma )1332 keV in coincidence with beta /sup -/-particles of /sup 60/Co. 4 ref...

V. N. Abrosimov V. A. Morozov B. P. Osipenko F. Prazhak V. I. Stegajlov

1986-01-01

359

First ALICE detectors installed!  

CERN Multimedia

Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

2006-01-01

360

Ionic smoke detectors  

CERN Document Server

Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Refrigerant leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative leak detector visually demonstrates refrigerant loss from precision volume of large refrigeration system over established period of time from single test point. Mechanical unit is less costly than electronic "sniffers" and is more reliable due to absence of electronic circuits that are susceptible to drift.

Byrne, E. J.

1979-01-01

362

The LHCb detector  

CERN Multimedia

The LHCb spectrometer is designed with special emphasis on the discovery potential of b and c-physics studies. The main characteristics of the setup are discussed shortly. Since the completion of the LHCb detector, it has extensively been commissioned with cosmic rays, simulated data, beam and beam-induced events. Some commissioning results and an outlook to early physics are presented.

Jans, Eddy

2009-01-01

363

MPD Detector at NICA  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this article is to give information about the new accelerator complex NICA at JINR, Dubna and especially, to provide overview of the MultiPurpose Detector (MPD) and its subdetectors. The current results of the MPD performance for dileptons, hyperons, hypernuclei and phi-meson are presented.

Yordanova, L.; Vasendina, V.

2014-04-01

364

X-ray detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The x-ray detection element of an x-ray detector is composed of a fluorescent material having a short afterglow and a high sensitivity to the x-radiation to be detected. For the fluorescent material use is notably made of cerium-activated phosphors such as yttrium phosphors, lanthanum phosphors or lutetium phosphors.

Stevels, A.L.

1980-01-22

365

AIRWATCH: the fast detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EERC) with energy greater than 10(superscript 20) eV has opened a new research branch of astrophysics on both observational and interpretative point of views. Together with the EECR one has also to consider the neutrino component which, independently on its primary or secondary origin, can reach comparable energies. These particles can be detected through the giant showers (EAS) produced in the Earth atmosphere and the induced fluorescent molecular nitrogen emission. Observing the EECR 'signals' is very difficult; we need forefront technology or new developments. The main reason is that their flux is very weak, typically of the order of a few events/year/1000 km(superscript 2) per EECR of E approximately equals 10(superscript 20) eV. The proposed Airwatch mission, base don a single orbiting telescope which can measure both intensity and direction of the EAS, impose new concepts for the detectors; single photon sensitivity, fast response of the order of few microseconds with sampling times of tenths of nanoseconds, low noise and good S/N ratio, large area, adaptability to a curved surface. Fortunately the spatial resolution requirements are somehow relaxed. The peculiar characteristics of this application are such that no available detectors satisfies completely the requirements. Therefore the final detector has to be the result of a R and D program dedicated to the specific problem. In this paper we survey a number of possible detectors and identify their characteristics versus the Airwatch mission requirements.

Gregorio, Anna; Stalio, Roberto; Alippi, Ezio; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bosisio, Luciano; Bruno, Pietro; Cosentino, Rosario; di Benedetto, Rosario; Fontanelli, Flavio; Giannini, Gianrossano; Gracco, Valerio; Lenti, Anna; Petrolini, Alessandro; Sannino, Mario; Scarsi, Livio; Scuderi, Salvatore; Trampus, Paolo; Vacchi, Andrea

1998-11-01

366

RF - Phase detector modules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete new low level RF system for a cyclotron is being designed (Frequency range from 20 MHz to 40 MHz). New phase detector devices have been tested. One ECL type is developed for dee phase regulation loop, another more simple for RF cavity tunning

1984-05-03

367

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

Manzari, V

2013-01-01

368

Ionisation detector chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent claim, on behalf of Chloride Group Ltd., London, relates to a small, simply constructed detector, including an ionisation chamber for detecting the presence of smoke, so as to be capable of giving an alarm that a fire is imminent in a building. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

369

The synchrotron radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Synchrotron Radiation Detector is proposed for the International Space Station to identify cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the TeV energy range. The new technique uses the synchrotron radiation from these particles in the geomagnetic field to differentiate charge sign and to measure the energy

2004-09-01

370

Solid state detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

371

Ionization chamber smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

1988-01-01

372

Development of new radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The works on the development of radiation detectors performed at Waseda University are described. As the fundamental studies on radiation detectors, measurement was made for the Z3 dependence of the power of metal targets to stop alpha particles or C-ions, the Fano factor in rare gas, the peak value of the energy given by fast charged particles to materials and its fluctuation, the W-value and the Fano factor of liquid rare gas, and the LET dependence of the luminescence efficiency of liquid rare gas by radiation. The development of liquid rare gas detectors has been made. The considered detector types were a pulse ionization chamber with grid (liquid Xe), a proportional luminescent counter (liquid Xe), an electromagnetic calorimeter (liquid Ar, liquid Xe), and a photo-ionization detector. The development of silicon detectors is also in progress. The silicon detectors under development are a silicon detector telescope for satellite experiment, a silicon shower detector for balloon experiment, and a micron strip silicon detector for synchrotron radiation or elementary particle experiment. The use of plastic track detectors for cosmic ray observation has been examined. The discrimination of isotopes by using a new plastic CR-39 was able to be done. The detectors for low level alpha and gamma spectroscopy have been investigated. For alpha particles, a pulse ionization chamber with a cylindrical grid has been used. For gamma-ray, a Compton-suppressed Ge(Li) detector has been used. (Kato, T.)

1982-01-01

373

Superstar Central Bankers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The personalities of central bankers moved center stage during the recent financial crisis. Some central bankers even gained superstar status. In this paper, we evaluate the pivotal role of superstar central bankers by assessing the difference an outstanding governor makes to economic performance. We employ school grades given to central bankers by the financial press. A superstar central banker is one receiving the top grade. In a probit estimation we first relate the grades to measures of e...

2013-01-01

374

Study of a trigger in p-p events for the HMPID detector in the ALICE experiment at LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALICE-HMPID detector extends the PID capabilities in the central rapidity region of the ALICE central detectors (ITS, TPC, TOF), by identifying charged pions and kaons with momentum 1< p<3GeV/c and protons 1.5< p<5GeV/c. Because of the small geometrical acceptance of HMPID, an efficient trigger system could enrich the sample of good events for physics. In this work, a simulation study to select events by using the Fast-OR signal of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) combined with the signal from the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector will be presented.

2011-06-01

375

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

1988-07-24

376

Semiconductor position-sensitive detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic concepts for position sensing in particle and photon semiconductor detectors are summarized. Signal and noise criteria are discussed, particularly in view of the trends toward monolithic integration of charge sensing and position readout circuits with the detector. (orig.)

1984-09-15

377

Progress in Semiconductor Drift Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It...

P. Rehak J. Walton E. Gatti A. Longoni M. Sanpietro

1985-01-01

378

OPAL detector end-cap  

CERN Multimedia

An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

1988-01-01

379

Large Underground Water Cherenkov Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Next generation nucleon decay and neutrino detectors using ring imaging water Cherenkov technique are discussed. Focus is on the basic performance of the detectors, rich physics topics to be covered, and ongoing feasibility studies.

Shiozawa, Masato

2012-08-01

380

Position sensitive solid state detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described. (orig.)

1986-05-15

 
 
 
 
381

Detector characterization in GEO 600  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The GEO 600 interferometric gravitational wave detector conducted its first science run (S1) from 23 August 2002 to 9 September 2002. The GEO 600 data acquisition system is described together with some software tools developed for doing detector characterization and data analysis. Detector characterization results are also being presented.

Sintes, A. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Barr, B. W.; Berukoff, S.; Borger, S.; Cagnoli, G.; Cantley, C. A.; Casey, M. M.; Chelkowski, S.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C. N.; Crooks, D. R. M.

2003-01-01

382

Underground spherical gravitational wave detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently significant advancements have been made towards the realization of a large spherical gravitational wave detector. Research and development activities have already begun in several countries. We present here the main features and capabilities of a spherical gravitational wave detector. In particular, we discuss the interaction between a spherical antenna and cosmic rays that may require a large detector to be placed underground.

Astone, P.; Bassan, M.; Bonifazi, P.; Carelli, P.; Coccia, E.; Fafone, V.; Marini, A.; Mazzitelli, G.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Modestino, G.; Moleti, A.; Pallottino, G.V.; Papa, M. A.; Pizzella, G.; Ronga, F.; Spinetti, M.; Terenzi, R.; Visco, M.; Votano, L

1999-01-01

383

Underground spherical gravitational wave detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently significant advancements have been made towards the realization of a large spherical gravitational wave detector. Research and development activities have already begun in several countries. We present here the main features and capabilities of a spherical gravitational wave detector. In particular, we discuss the interaction between a spherical antenna and cosmic rays that may require a large detector to be placed underground

1999-01-01

384

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K

2005-07-01

385

Radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-photon-emitting or positron-emitting radionuclides employed in nuclear medicine are detected by using sophisticated imaging devices, whereas simpler detection devices are used to quantify activity for the following applications: measuring doses of radiopharmaceuticals, performing radiotracer bioassays, and monitoring and controlling radiation risk in the clinical environment. Detectors are categorized in terms of function, the physical state of the transducer, or the mode of operation. The performance of a detector is described by the parameters efficiency, energy resolution and discrimination, and dead time. A detector may be used to detect single events (pulse mode) or to measure the rate of energy deposition (current mode). Some detectors are operated as simple counting systems by using a single-channel pulse height analyzer to discriminate against background or other extraneous events. Other detectors are operated as spectrometers and use a multichannel analyzer to form an energy spectrum. The types of detectors encountered in nuclear medicine are gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. The ionization detector, Geiger-Müller detector, extremity and area monitor, dose calibrator, well counter, thyroid uptake probe, Anger scintillation camera, positron emission tomographic scanner, solid-state personnel dosimeter, and intraoperative probe are examples of detectors used in clinical nuclear medicine practice. PMID:10194791

Ranger, N T

1999-01-01

386

The Cleo III Rich Detector  

CERN Multimedia

CLEO III upgrade was completed with the integration of Ring Imaging CHerenkov(RICH) detector for charged particle identification. The design of this cylindrical detector consists of LiF crystal radiators and multi-wire proportional chamber photon detectors coupled through a N2 filled expansion gap. Early performance on K/pion separation is presented.

Majumder, G

2000-01-01

387

Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified version of the THALES double heterostructure (DH) p-i-n device, but with even wider bandgap barriers inserted at the contact layer/absorber layer interfaces. It is designed to work with either bulk semiconductors or superlattices as the absorber material. The superlattice bandgap can be adjusted to match the desired absorption cutoff wavelength. This infrared detector has the potential of high-sensitivity operation at higher operating temperatures. This would reduce cooling requirements, thereby reducing the power, mass, and volume of the equipment and allowing an increased mission science return.

Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

2009-01-01

388

CASTOR: A dedicated detector for the detection of centauros and strangelets at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a specialized detector system, CASTOR, which, as an integral part of the ALICE experiment, will search for centauros and strangelets in central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. CASTOR will cover the very forward, baryon-rich pseudorapidity region 4.5???6.2 and will consist of a charged particle multiplicity detector, a photon multiplicity detector and a calorimeter with electromagnetic and hadronic sections. The physics motivation is presented, along with simulation results and the detector design. The influence of the background on the identification of centauro-type events is discussed. (author)

1997-12-01

389

A detector for the TESLA project  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of the detectors foreseen for the European e+e- Linear Collider (TESLA) is presented. The requirements from the Physics program imply high precision detectors. The detector concepts and the expected detector performance are illustrated.

Checchia, P.

2002-06-01

390

A detector for the TESLA project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the detectors foreseen for the European e+e- Linear Collider (TESLA) is presented. The requirements from the physics program imply high precision detectors. The detector concepts and the expected detector performance are illustrated

2002-06-01

391

[Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun

1992-01-01

392

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

393

MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT  

CERN Multimedia

Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

G.Gomez

394

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

G. Iaselli.

395

Detector KEDR tagger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KEDR Tagging System is designed to enhance the detector ability to study the two-photon processes e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}X. The collider magnetic elements (dipoles and lenses) form a magnetic spectrometer for the scattered electrons and positrons. Its energies are measured with 8 blocks of the drift tube hodoscope which are placed beside of the vacuum chamber. This allows to determine an invariant mass of the system X with resolution 3-15 Mev for W{sub inv}=300 Division-Sign 3000MeV at the beam energies E{sub b}=1.5-5.0 GeV. Recently the TS was upgraded with triple-GEM 2-dimensional detectors and a laser Compton scattering calibration system. The energy resolution for the scattered e{sup {+-}} at the level 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -4} was demonstrated.

Zhilich, V.N., E-mail: zhilich@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2012-04-15

396

Detector KEDR tagger  

Science.gov (United States)

The KEDR Tagging System is designed to enhance the detector ability to study the two-photon processes e+e-?e+e-X. The collider magnetic elements (dipoles and lenses) form a magnetic spectrometer for the scattered electrons and positrons. Its energies are measured with 8 blocks of the drift tube hodoscope which are placed beside of the vacuum chamber. This allows to determine an invariant mass of the system X with resolution 3-15 Mev for W=300÷3000 MeV at the beam energies Eb=1.5-5.0 GeV. Recently the TS was upgraded with triple-GEM 2-dimensional detectors and a laser Compton scattering calibration system. The energy resolution for the scattered e± at the level 3?10-4 was demonstrated.

Zhilich, V. N.; KEDR Collaboration

2012-04-01

397

First infrared radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first in the world noncooled photon detector designed for the detection of infrared radiation of wave length 8-12 micrometers (optimized wave length 10.6 micrometers) has been manufactured in the Plasma Physics and Laser Microsynthesis Institute, in close cooperation with the Technical Military Academy. The father of the technology is Professor Piotrowski from the Technical Military Academy while the construction and idea of utilization of the new instrument stem from the Plasma Physics and Laser Microsynthesis Institute in Warsaw. The elaboration of a new and really sensational technology was the logical outcome of research work carried out in Poland on cadmium-mercury telluride. And it was just on the basis of that new semiconductor that the noncooled infrared radiation detector has been constructed.

1984-03-01

398

Memristive fuzzy edge detector  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

2011-01-01

399

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

Owens, Alan

2012-01-01

400

CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tracking points, and the development of a fast digital readout architecture, which ensures readout efficiency even at high rate. The expected performances for tracking and vertexing of the new pixel detector are also addressed.

Parashar, N

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Precision synchrotron radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1989-03-20

402

Ultrafast photoconductor radiation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are developing and investigating homogeneous, photoconductive semiconductors as very fast radiation detectors. We irradiated GaAs, Cr-doped GaAs, and Fe-doped InP crystals with 14-MeV neutrons to produce lattice defects that act as fast-recombination centers for electrons and holes. Using short-pulse lasers and 17-MeV linear-accelerator electrons and bremsstrahlung x rays and ..gamma.. rays, we have measured the temporal response and sensitivity of these photoconductors as functions of fluence ranging from 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 16/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/. The carrier lifetime and mobility decrease monotonically as the neutron fluence increases, resulting in faster detector response at the expense of sensitivity. A resolving time of less than 30 ps (FWHM) was measured for the above photoconductors irradiated with approx. 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Wang, C.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Morse, J.D.; Singh, M.S.; Davis, B.A.

1987-08-01

403

Ultrafast photoconductor radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors are developing and investigating homogeneous, photoconductive semiconductors as very fast radiation detectors. They irradiated GaAs, Cr-doped GaAs, and Fe-doped InP crystals with 14-MeV neutrons to produce lattice defects that act as fast-recombination centers for electrons and holes. Using short-pulse lasers and 17-MeV linear-accelerator electrons and bremsstrahlung x rays and ? rays, they have measured the temporal response and sensitivity of these photoconductors as functions of fluence ranging from 1012 to 1016 neutrons/cm2. The carrier lifetime and mobility decrease monotonically as the neutron fluence increases, resulting in faster detector response at the expense of sensitivity. A resolving time of less than 30 ps (FWHM) was measured for the above photoconductors irradiated with ?1015 neutrons/cm2

1987-08-19

404

Exotic Dijet Searches in the ATLAS Detector  

CERN Document Server

"Two Early Exotic Searches With Dijet Events In The ATLAS Detector" In the first search, narrow resonances of the dijet invariant mass from the decay of new heavy particles have been investigated. A time-integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb-1 from 7 TeV collision data in LHC has been used. No significant evidence of new particles is found, and upper limits have been set on the product of the cross-section and detector acceptance. The theoretical model considered is the composite excited quark production, decaying to dijets. A 95% confidence-level mass exclusion region of the composite excited quark q* has been determined (0.50 &amp;lt; m &amp;lt; 1.53 TeV). In the second search, dijet centrality ratio distributions have been measured in the ATLAS detector, with an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb-1. A search for quark compositeness using the model of quark 4-fermion contact interactions has been performed, and such interactions have been excluded at 95% CL for a compositeness scale factor be...

Rezvani, R; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

405

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

CERN Multimedia

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01

406

The ALEPH detector  

CERN Multimedia

For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

1988-01-01

407

Ionization particle detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

1982-01-01

408

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

409

A fossils detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

1998-12-01

410

The scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how detector systems used in nuclear medicine serve to intercept, measure the energy of, and count the ?-ray and x-ray photons that are emitted from a volume, the boundaries of which are defined by a collimator or well. They provide information about the concentration of a radionuclide within the volume, since the rate of photon emission is proportional to this concentration

1988-01-01

411

The Antares detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The Antares Neutrino Telescope is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. It has been completed in May 2008 and is meant to perform neutrino astronomy via a large three-dimensional array of photo-multiplier tubes. This note describes the design, the construction and the functioning of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France, as well as the performances of the detector.

For the Antares Collaboration1; Creusot, A.

2013-08-01

412

LHCb velo detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

Patrice Loïez

2001-01-01

413

The LHCb detector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

414

Future liquid Argon detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after ...

Rubbia, A.

2013-01-01

415

Vacuum ultraviolet detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new vacuum ultraviolet detector has been fabricated. A sample was made using a crystalline quartz plate on the surface of which a metal electrode was deposited. It has been experimentally established that the sample is sensitive to vacuum ultra violet (VUV) radiation, and the external quantum efficiency is estimated to be higher than several percent. The new photodetector also has very good stability and should be a practicable new VUV photodetector. (author)

1985-01-01

416

Infrared detector cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cell is built on the basis of CdHgTe or PbSnTe semiconductors whose surface is partly or entirely covered with a getter layer. The getter layer is produced in a plasma reactor, consists of SiO_2, SiN or a poly-Si and contains impurities of P, As and B. The infrared detector cell can be used at temperatures around 77 K. (RW)

1979-01-01

417

The CLEO RICH Detector  

CERN Multimedia

We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel ``sawtooth''-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135--165 nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent pion/kaon separation is demonstrated.

Artuso, M; Bukin, K; Efimov, A; Boulahouache, C; Dambasuren, E; Kopp, S; Li, J; Majumder, G; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Volobuev, I P; Ye, J; Anderson, S; Kubota, Y; Smith, A; Li, Ji

2005-01-01

418

Proton tracks in bubble detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bubble detectors were irradiated with protons and demonstrated that a special type of bubble detector could directly record proton tracks. The track of a proton is composed of one or more bubbles at the Bragg peak in the end of the proton range. A proton can produce at least one bubble as its track. Successful recording of proton tracks shows that bubble detectors can be used as a new type of heavy ion track detector to register all nuclei with atomic numbers in the entire Periodic Table of Elements. The applications of bubble detectors based on proton registration have been desired in the study of nuclear interactions, space research and cancer therapy

2002-12-01

419

Development of Gas Flow Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gas flow detector has been developed for use in nuclear physics research. The detector consists of a ?20 mmx100 mm long aluminium tube filled with Argon-Methane (P-10) at a flow rate of 1 L/min, a detector cathode and anode. This detector is being used more and more to provide the measurement systems for X-ray and gamma ray detection. We can conclude that by performing plateau scan, the operating voltage for this detector is approximately 2725 volts

2003-10-20

420

Report of the large solenoid detector group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over +-3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to +-5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying tau leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

1987-07-07

 
 
 
 
421

The DELPHI Microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DELPHI Microvertex detector, which has been in operation since the start of the 1990 LEP run, consists of three layers of silicon microstrip detectors at average radii of 6.3, 9.0 and 11.0 cm. The 73 728 readout strips, oriented along the beam, have a total active area of 0.42 m2. The strip pitch is 25 ?m and every other strip is read out by low power charge amplifiers, giving a signal to noise ratio of 15:1 for minimum ionizing particles. On-line zero suppression results in an average data size of 4 kbyte for Z0 events. After a mechanical survey and an alignment with tracks, the impact parameter uncertainty as determined from hadronic Z0 decays is well described by ?(69/pt)2+242 ?m, with pt in GeV/c. For the 45 GeV/c tracks from Z0??+?- decays we find an uncertainty of 21 ?m for the impact parameter, which corresponds to a precision of 8 ?m per point. The stability during the run is monitored using light spots and capacitive probes. An analysis of tracks through sector overlaps provides an additional check of the stability. The same analysis also results in a value of 6 ?m for the intrinsic precision of the detector. (orig.)

1993-05-01

422

Optical ionization detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

423

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

424

Nanowire-based detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

2014-06-24

425

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Document Server

During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

426

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

M. Dallavalle.

427

ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

428

Axioms for Centrality  

CERN Multimedia

Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we try to provide a mathematically sound survey of the most important classic centrality measures known from the literature and propose an axiomatic approach to establish whether they are actually doing what they have been designed for. Our axioms suggest some simple, basic properties that a centrality measure should exhibit. Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas's classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way. As a sanity check, we examine in turn each measure under the lens of information retrieval, leveraging sta...

Boldi, Paolo

2013-01-01

429

State of the art in semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

1989-05-21

430

Optical Scattering Lengths in Large Liquid-Scintillator Neutrino Detectors  

CERN Document Server

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents PXE, LAB, and Dodecane which are under discussion for next-generation experiments like SNO+, Hanohano, or LENA. Results comprise the wavelength range from 415 to 440nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

Wurm, Michael; Goeger-Neff, Marianne; Hofmann, Martin; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Lewke, Timo; Undagoitita, Teresa Marrodan; Meindl, Quirin; Moellenberg, Randoplh; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Tippmann, Marc; Todor, Sebastian; Traunsteiner, Christoph; Winter, Juergen

2010-01-01

431

The Superconducting Magnet System for the ATLAS Detector at CERN  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS superconducting magnet system for the ATLAS detector in the LHC at CERN comprises a Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid, with overall dimensions of 20 m diameter by 26 m length. Though this magnet system is used for a particle detector, its size, geometrical arrangement and coil technology is comparable to what is usual for fusion machines. The manufacturing has started in the industry and integration of the magnets will start in the year 2001. Assembly in the cavern is planned in the year 2003, starting with BT installation. In this paper the Magnet System is presented as well as the common infrastructure and services.

Miele, P

2001-01-01

432

Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

433

Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

Wurm, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Göger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lewke, T.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Meindl, Q.; Möllenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Traunsteiner, C.; Winter, J.

2010-05-01

434

Digital image counting system for nuclear track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computerized counting system for Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors using the Digital Image Method is proposed: The detector is directly digitalized by a microdensitometer. Information about the number and the diameter of the tracks is obtained systematically. Tracks from 1.5 ?m diameter can be observed and a very low density can be registered. This method presents the advantage that it requires only a microdensitometer in the initial stage as a reading instrument and data collector. Later on, the processing of the full information can be carried out in a common central system. (author)

1986-01-01

435

Tomographic scanning apparatus having detector signal digitizing means mounted to rotate with detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scanning apparatus is disclosed for use in computerized axial tomography systems. The apparatus includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Signal processing and conditioning means mounted on the assembly and movable therewith, receive the output signals from the detector means and amplify and convert same to digital form. Slip ring interconnection means rotatable with the assembly, receive the outputs from the signal processors and conditioners and interfeed these signals to a computerized image reconstruction station. Slip rings rotatable with the assembly also provide interconnection enabling power and control inputs to the radiation source and to other portions of the apparatus. The assembly is continuously rotatable through successive 360 degree rotations and the examination sequence may be initiated at any point in the rotation of the assembly. The detector comprises an array of elements and means are provided for adjusting the gains of each channel associated with the individual detector elements as an incident of the examination process, thereby enabling compensation for drift in the channels

1980-01-01

436

High temperature incore tests of self-powered neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation and temperature behaviour of self-powered neutron detectors was investigated with an incore irradiation furnace constructed at the Atominstitut which allows to test several detectors simultaneously in the temperature range from 100 deg. C to 800 deg. F. The furnace was installed in the central thimble and consists of a Niobium cylinder, a vacuum temperature insulation gap and a second capsule containing the detectors and the resistance furnace. The temperature control is performed by four thermocouples and the temperature is kept constant over the whole temperature range to ±1,3 deg. C. The temperature gradient along the incore detectors does not exceed 2,5 deg. C. With the equipment three different self-powered neutron detectors have been tested incore up to 800 deg. C and the signal deviations caused from temperature and radiation effects have been investigated. The results were compared to other experiments with the same detectors which have been performed in an out core furnace. (author)

1976-09-28

437

ATLAS's inner detector installed in the heart of the experiment  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS collaboration recently celebrated a major engineering milestone, namely the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Right: Engineers and technicians work to carefully align and install the inner detector in the centre of ATLAS.Left: The crane used in the carefully coordinated effort by the ATLAS collaboration to lower down the fragile inner detector 100 metres underground to its new home. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the two outer detectors (TRT and SCT) of the inner detector barrel (ID-barrel) were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from Building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Special measures were in place to minimize shock and vibration during transportati...

2006-01-01

438

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

2008-10-10

439

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed

2008-01-01

440

Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors  

CERN Document Server

Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to