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1

UA1 central detector  

CERN Multimedia

The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

2

Dust on UA1 central detector  

CERN Document Server

In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

1982-01-01

3

First operation of the CERN UA1 central detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Detector of the UA1 experiment at the CERN pp Collider underwent a first physics run at the end of 1981. The detector consists of a large drift chamber assembly (25 m/sup 3/, about 6000 sense wires). An electronics readout with multi-hit capability simultaneously digitizes the time and the analog information used for charge division and energy measurement. The initial performance of the readout and control system will also be presented. The detector was tested in two cosmic ray runs, and is now fully operational for the second physics run; this started at the beginning of October 1982.

Calvetti, M.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cittolin, S.; DiBitonto, D.; Dumps, L.; Haynes, W.; Jank, W.

1983-02-01

4

First operation of the CERN UA1 central detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Detector of the UA1 experiment at the CERN p anti p Collider underwent a first physics run at the end of 1981. The detector consists of a large drift chamber assembly (25 m/sup 3/, approx.6000 sense wires). An electronics readout with multi-hit capability simultaneously digitizes the time and the analog information used for charge division and energy measurement. The initial performance of the readout and control system will also be presented. The detector was tested in two cosmic-ray runs, and is now fully operational for the second physics run; this started at the beginning of October 1982. 4 refs., 12 figs.

Placci, A.

1982-11-12

5

UA1 prototype detector  

CERN Multimedia

Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

1980-01-01

6

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector  

CERN Document Server

Computer screen representations of some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons.Comments : silent well done

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

7

UA1 Megatek  

CERN Multimedia

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons. Comments : silent movie

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

8

UA1: Z particle decay  

CERN Multimedia

A colour treated picture of the computer reconstruction of the real particle tracks emerging from a high energy proton-antiproton collision recorded in the UA1 detector at the SPS (converted to act as a collider). This picture shows the production of a Z particle that has decayed into a high energy electron and positron flying off in opposite directions (in yellow). The UA1 detector ran on the SPS accelerator at CERN between 1981 and 1993.

1992-01-01

9

UA1: W particle decay  

CERN Multimedia

The discovery of the W particle in the UA1 detector from the October-December 1982 run of the proton-antiproton collider, producing a high transverse energy electron (arrowed). This particle is produced back-to-back with 'missing energy', indicative of the emission of an invisible neutrino. The UA1 detector ran on the SPS accelerator at CERN between 1981 and 1993.

10

UA1 calorimeter trigger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the design, construction and performance of the fast calorimeter trigger used in the UA1 experiment on the CERN panti p collider. Calorimeter energy signals are digitized rapidly and used to trigger on possible electrons, hadronic jets, total transverse energy and missing transverse energy, with many possible options. We also describe the minimum-bias pretrigger, based on scintillator hodoscopes. (orig.).

Astbury, A.; Cawthraw, M.; English, R.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; McPherson, G.; Nandi, A.K.; Wilson, D.N.; Batley, R.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.; Keeler, R.; Salvi, G.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; McMahon, T.

1985-08-01

11

Muons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/? and ? samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

1991-01-01

12

BATS, the readout control of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.)

1991-04-15

13

BATS, the readout control of UA1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

1991-04-15

14

The UA1 calorimeter trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the design, construction and performance of the fast calorimeter trigger used in the UA1 experiment on the CERN panti p collider. Calorimeter energy signals are digitized rapidly and used to trigger on possible electrons, hadronic jets, total transverse energy and missing transverse energy, with many possible options. We also describe the minimum-bias pretrigger, based on scintillator hodoscopes. (orig.)

1985-08-01

15

Early results from experiment UA1 at the CERN pp collider  

CERN Multimedia

The UA1 detector is a general purpose 4 pi apparatus for the measurement of hadron and lepton momenta at pp collider energies. The performance of the detector and first results from 1981 running are discussed. (13 refs).

Kernan, A

1982-01-01

16

Linearity and stability tests of photomultipliers with two-stage amplifiers for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the UA1-experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] For the central electron and photon detector of the UA1-experiment at the CERN proton-antiproton collider the behaviour of 850 photomultipliers together with high gain amplifiers had to be tested. For this purpose three CAMAC-controlled test boxes have been built: one to test the long term behaviour at constant and different illuminations, another one to test the amplifiers and a third one to check the linearity of the assembled system and the variation of gain after different illuminations. (orig.)

1982-12-01

17

The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 ?s, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

1990-01-01

18

The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 ?s, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

1990-07-01

19

Test of an uranium/TMP calorimeter as a part of the UA-1 improvement program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central em calorimeter of the UA-1 detector should be replaced by a novel combined em- and hadronic calorimeter. Uranium is used as absorber, and ionization chambers with 2-2-4-4 tetrametylpentane (TMP) liquid. Purity of the liquid is important for mainting the electron lifetime in the detector liquid and amplitude of the signal. The work of the author in the testing of a calorimeter prototype is described, with emphasis on test setup, cleaning of the liquid and the ionization chamber and the readout system (electronics and software). Measurements result in a value of 3 ?s for the electron lifetime, spatial uniformity of the signal of 5% and a spatial resolution of 2 mm for E ? 40 GeV. The em energy resolution was 0,12/?E at 10 GeV, rising to 0,14/?E at 70 GeV. As the prototype was not suitable for hadron showers, a Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the hadronic energy resolution to be 0,46/?E ± 0,04. Finally, the e/? ratio is expected to be ? 1,07. (qui).

1987-01-01

20

UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

1989-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Results from a full-scale UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter module  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 detector is being upgraded for the high-luminosity era with ACOL at the CERN collider. The major component of the upgrade is the construction of a new combined electromagnetic-hadronic calorimeter. The technique chosen for this fine-grained calorimeter is to use uranium plates interleaved with thin ionization chambers filled with tetramethylpentane (TMP) at room temperature. The performance of the first full-scale module at PS and SPS beams is presented. (orig.).

1989-01-01

22

Performance of a UA1 hadron calorimeter prototype  

CERN Document Server

The hadron calorimeter for the UA1 experiment at the CERN SPS proton- antiproton collider consists of a lead-scintillator sandwich plus an iron-scintillator sandwich with wavelength shifter readout. The authors have tested prototype modules in muon and hadron beams in the momentum range from 0.7 to 90 GeV/c. For several angles of incidence, they have studied the uniformity of the response to hadrons as a function of position. This has included regions where there is reduced sensitivity due to mechanical constraints and the presence of the wavelength shifter readout. The response, resolution and degree of shower containment were measured as a function of incident momentum.

Corden, M J; Astbury, A; Dowell, John D; Edwards, M; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Garvey, J; Gibson, W R; Grant, D; Grayer, G; Haynes, W J; Hill, D; Homer, R J; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kenyon, I R; McMahon, T; Nandi, A K; Roberts, C; Schanz, G; Shah, T P; Sumorok, K; Thompson, G; Watkins, P M; Wilson, J A

1982-01-01

23

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

1981-07-17

24

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

25

High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network  

CERN Multimedia

The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

1981-01-01

26

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine p{sub T} of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges.

Adcox, K.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Alexander, J.; Autrey, D.; Averbeck, R.; Azmoun, B.; Barish, K.N.; Baublis, V.V.; Belkin, R.; Bhaganatula, S.; Biggs, J.C.; Borland, D.; Botelho, S.; Bryan, W.L.; Burward-Hoy, J.; Butsyk, S.A.; Chang, W.C.; Christ, T.; Dietzsch, O.; Drees, A.; Rietz, R. du; El Chenawi, K.; Evseev, V.A.; Fellenstein, J.; Ferdousi, T.; Fraenkel, Z.; Franz, A.; Fung, S.Y.; Gannon, J.; Garpman, S.; Godoi, A.L.; Greene, S.V.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Harder, J.; Hemmick, T.K. E-mail: hemmick@skipper.physics.sunysb.edu; Heuser, J.M.; Holzmann, W.; Hutter, R.; Issah, M.; Ivanov, V.I.; Jacak, B.V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Johnson, S.C.; Kandasamy, A.; Kann, M.R.; Kelley, M.A.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Khomutnikov, A.; Komkov, B.G.; Kopytine, M.L.; Kotchenda, L.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, V.S.; Kravtsov, P.A.; Kudin, L.G.; Kuriatkov, V.V.; Lacey, R.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, V.D.; Li, X.H.; Libby, B.; Liccardi, W.; Machnowski, R.; Mahon, J.; Markushin, D.G.; Matathias, F.; Marx, M.D.; Messer, F.; Miftakhov, N.M.; Milan, J.; Miller, T.E.; Milov, A.; Minuzzo, K.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Nandi, B.K.; Negrin, J.; Nilsson, P.; Nystrand, J.; O' Brien, E.; O' Connor, P.; Oskarsson, A.; Oesterman, L.; Otterlund, I.; Pancake, C.E.; Pantuev, V.S.; Petersen, R.; Pinkenburg, C.H.; Pisani, R.P.; Purwar, A.K.; Rankowitz, S.; Ravinovich, I.; Riabov, V.G.; Riabov, Yu.G.; Rosati, M.; Rose, A.A.; Roschin, E.V.; Samsonov, V.M.; Sangster, T.C.; Seto, R.; Silvermyr, D.; Sivertz, M.; Smith, M.; Solodov, G.P.; Stenlund, E.; Takagui, E.M.; Tarakanov, V.I.; Tarasenkova, O.P.; Thomas, J.L.; Trofimov, V.A.; Tserruya, I.; Tydesjoe, H.; Velkovska, J.; Velkovsky, M.; Vishnevskii, V.I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Vznuzdaev, E.A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, H.Q.; Weimer, T.; Wolniewicz, K.; Wu, J.; Xie, W.; Young, G.R

2003-03-01

27

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine pT of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges.

2003-03-01

28

Observation of tau decay from W ? tau?sub(tau) in a UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of the W by the UA1 Collaboration in 1983, we have published the measurements of its decay in leptonic and muonic modes. We report here the first observation of the decay W ? tau?sub(tau), in 1983 data. (author)

1985-01-01

29

A central tracking detector for a B-factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General considerations regarding the building of a central tracking detector, together with some suggestions, are given for the case of an apparatus designed for a hypothetical Banti B factory. (orig.).

1989-01-01

30

Comparison of forward and central collider detectors for beauty physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of geometry, tracking, and muon triggering indicates that a central detector has a higher efficiency than a forward detector of equal psuedo rapidity coverage at both Tevatron and SSC energies. The difference at the Tevatron is considerable, about a factor of four. At the SSC, however, the difference is about a factor of two, so other considerations such as vertexing, particle ID, or cost may make a large forward detector an attractive option.

1993-07-02

31

OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)  

CERN Multimedia

OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

32

Assembling the central detector of UA2  

CERN Document Server

By the end of 1980 the 24 modules (photo 8005404, 8005402) of UA2 central calorimeter were complete and calibrated at the PS. The complete calorimeter was then provisionally assembled in the West Hall before being moved to LSS4. The photo shows it at an early stage. On the left, Georges Reiss.

1980-01-01

33

Effects of the UA(1) breaking interaction on the baryonic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the UA(1) breaking interaction on the baryon number one and two systems are estimated employing the six-quark flavour determinantal interaction as the effective interaction of quarks which reproduces the observed mass difference of ? and ?' mesons. This is done by calculating the matrix elements of the UA(1) breaking Hamiltonian with respect to unperturbed states of the MIT bag model and the nonrelativistic quark model. The determinantal interaction induces not only three-body but also two-body interactions of valence quarks. The two-body interaction is attractive, which gives rise to the N-? mass difference with the magnitude less than one tenth of the observed one and attraction of two octet baryons at short distances whose magnitude ranges 20?80 MeV depending on the flavour channels and the choice of parameters. The three-body interaction is repulsive, which gives about 10?20 MeV repulsion in the H-dibaryon channel and somewhat weaker repulsion in the flavour SU(3) octet and antidecuplet channels of two octet baryons at short distances. We also compare our results with those obtained by using the instanton induced interaction. (author)

1992-01-01

34

PHENIX central arm particle ID detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) and the Time-of-Flight (ToF) systems provide identification of charged particles for the PHENIX central arm. The RICH is located between the inner and outer tracking units and is one of the primary devices for identifying electrons among the very large number of charged pions. The ToF is used to identify hadrons and is located between the most outer pad chamber (PC3) and the electromagnetic calorimeter. A Time Zero (T0) counter that enhances charged particle measurements in p-p collisions is described. Details of the construction and performance of both the RICH, ToF and T0 are given along with typical results from the first PHENIX data taking run.

2003-03-01

35

Central tracking detector concepts for the CLIC $e^{+} e^{-}$ collider  

CERN Multimedia

Two possible concepts for a large central tracker for a future CLIC detector are discussed, including a large TPC and a full Silicon Tracker. The expected performance of a proposed Silicon Tracker is evaluated at square root s=3 TeV using a GEANT simulation. (9 refs).

Frey, Ariane

2000-01-01

36

Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

2008-01-01

37

Data acqusition for the Zeus central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the SSC environment. This paper describes the Transputer based data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector, and outlines some proposed development work on the use of parallel processing techniques in this field.

Quinton, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

1989-04-01

38

Analysis of the U$_A$(1) symmetry-breaking and restoration effects on scalar-pseudoscalar spectrum  

CERN Multimedia

We explore patterns of effective restoration of the chiral U$_A$(1) symmetry using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that incorporates explicitly the axial anomaly through the 't Hooft interaction. The special case of explicit breaking of chiral symmetry without U$_A$(1) anomaly is also considered, since we believe that this scenario can provide additional information allowing to understand the interplay between the U$_A$(1) anomaly and (spontaneous) chiral symmetry breaking effects. The behavior of the mass splitting between the singlet and the octet scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, well known manifestations of U$_A$(1) symmetry breaking, is investigated as function of temperature or density. The scalar sector is also analyzed bearing in mind the identification of chiral partners and the study of its convergence. We also concentrate on the behavior of the mixing angles that give us relevant information on the issue under discussion. As we work in a real scenario ($m_u=m_d<

Costa, P; De Sousa, C A; Kalinovskii, Yu L; Costa, Pedro; Kalinovsky, Yu. L.

2005-01-01

39

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

Bartsch, D.

2007-05-15

40

Measurement of the missing transverse energy in the UA1 experiment. Possible interpretations and futurs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of events with a large missing transverse energy (ETmiss) produced in the hadronic collisions, constitutes a very powerful method for testing the Standard Model and to search for new phenomena. We have analysed the events produced at the CERN pantip Collider (UA1 experiment) with a large missing transverse energy with one or several jets. Among this sample of events, we found a signal from the? lepton which is produced from the decay of the W, by observing the ?'s decay into hadrons. Using this analysis, we place an upper limit on the masses of gluinos and squarks in the absence of a signal of their production. We use a realistic simulation of a 4? very fine-grained calorimeter to study the direct production of the gluinos and squarks in pp collisions (ACOL, TEVATRON, LHC, SSC) in association with the background coming from the Standard Model which is dominated by QCD jets and the W and Z production. In this scheme, after a study of the signal and background behaviour as a function of the cuts applied, the limits with each of these Colliders for discovering the gluino and squark masses are given.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The central tracker of the P-bar ANDA detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the main components of the new international research facility called FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) [Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. (http://www.gsi.de/fair/index e.html)], to be constructed in Darmstadt, Germany, is a storage ring for phase-space-cooled antiprotons-High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). The P-bar ANDA (P-bar (antiproton) ANnihilation in DArmstadt) [Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons, Technical Progress Report for P-bar ANDA. (http://www-panda.gsi.de/archive/public/pandatpr.pdf)] experiment is a state-of-the-art detector at HESR covering almost the complete solid angle with an internal target. This experiment will investigate QCD in the charmonium mass region. The central tracker is the essential part of the P-bar ANDA detector, providing information about primary and secondary decay vertices, momenta of charged particles and particle identification.

2009-01-01

42

Light Scalar Mesons in the Improved Ladder Approximation of QCD with Strong $U_A(1)$ Breaking  

CERN Multimedia

The spectrum and the mixing angle of the light scalar nonet mesons are studied using the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model as well as the improved ladder approximation (ILA) of QCD with U_A(1) symmetry breaking interaction. The U_A(1) breaking is represented by the Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft (KMT) interaction. The strength of the KMT interaction in the NJL model is determined so as to reproduce the electromagnetic decays of the \\eta meson. That in the ILA approach is determined so as to reproduce the pseudoscalar meson spectrum. In the extended NJL model, we study the qualitative features of the scalar meson spectrum. In the scalar nonet spectrum, the KMT interaction is found to give the right ordering of \\sigma - a_0 masses and a few hundred MeV mass difference between the \\sigma and a_0 mesons. We also find that the strangeness content in the \\sigma meson is about 15%. In the ILA approach, we confirm the qualitative features of the results from the extended NJL. We obtain the mass spectra of the light...

Umekawa, T

2003-01-01

43

Central drift chamber for the Mark III detector at SPEAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large cylindrical drift chamber has been constructed for the MARK III detector at SPEAR. The inner layer has a high density of sense wires for the measurement of kinks, vees, and dE/dx. The outer layers have a cell design with three sense wires, giving uniform drift behavior and left/right ambiguity resolution within a cell. The chamber has both current division and stereo layers for longitudinal position measurement.

Roehrig, J.; Einsweiler, K.; Hutchinson, D.; McNerney, E.; Odian, A.; Skarpaas, K.; Unno, Y.; Villa, F. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)); Grancagnolo, F.; Rowe, W.

1984-10-01

44

UA1 Calorimeter Trigger.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the design, construction and performance of the fast calorimeter trigger used in the UAL experiment on the CERN p(p bar) collider. Calorimeter energy signals are digitized rapidly and used to trigger on possible electrons, hadronic j...

A. Astbury T. Bowcock M. Cawthraw E. Eisenhandler N. Ellis

1984-01-01

45

UA1 calorimeter trigger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the design, construction and performance of the fast calorimeter trigger used in the UAl experiment on the CERN p anti p collider. Calorimeter energy signals are digitized rapidly and used to trigger on possible electrons, hadronic jets and total transverse energy, with many possible options. We also describe the minimum-bias pretrigger, based on scintillator hodoscopes. 10 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Astbury, A.; Bowcock, T.; Cawthraw, M.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N.; English, R.; Garvey, J.; Gibson, W.R.; Grant, D.; Grayer, G.

1984-03-01

46

The detector system for measurement of multiple cosmic muons in the central detector of KASCADE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector system for directional and time correlation measurements of multiple cosmic muons has been set up within the extensive air shower experiment KASCADE. The system consists of two layers (129 m2 area each) of position-sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) triggered by a layer of segmented plastic scintillation counters placed upon an iron/concrete shielding above the MWPCs. Operation conditions and performance of the MWPCs have been studied by means of a prototype arrangement consisting of a stack of four detectors and two trigger layers. Results of the detailed prototype studies are presented and discussed. In particular, it has been found that for the present purposes an operation with a commonly used argon-methane gas mixture instead of previously used argon-isobutane leads to an excellent performance. The chambers are integrated into the KASCADE experiment as described and are in continuous operation since 1996. Some typical measurements with the full detector assembly are used to illustrate which features of extensive air showers can be studied.

2001-06-11

47

The detector system for measurement of multiple cosmic muons in the central detector of KASCADE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector system for directional and time correlation measurements of multiple cosmic muons has been set up within the extensive air shower experiment KASCADE. The system consists of two layers (129 m{sup 2} area each) of position-sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) triggered by a layer of segmented plastic scintillation counters placed upon an iron/concrete shielding above the MWPCs. Operation conditions and performance of the MWPCs have been studied by means of a prototype arrangement consisting of a stack of four detectors and two trigger layers. Results of the detailed prototype studies are presented and discussed. In particular, it has been found that for the present purposes an operation with a commonly used argon-methane gas mixture instead of previously used argon-isobutane leads to an excellent performance. The chambers are integrated into the KASCADE experiment as described and are in continuous operation since 1996. Some typical measurements with the full detector assembly are used to illustrate which features of extensive air showers can be studied.

Bozdog, H.; Elzer, M.; Gils, H.J. E-mail: gils@ik3.fzk.de; Haungs, A.; Herm, F.; Koepernik, H.; Koehler, K.U.; Kretschmer, M.; Leibrock, H.; Mathes, H.J.; Petcu, M.; Proehl, D.; Rebel, H.; Wentz, J.; Wolf, A.; Zagromski, S

2001-06-11

48

Test stands for the Central Drift Chamber front end hybrid in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD) uses 1280 front end electronic hybrid modules. Each of these modules contains over 450 components and performs numerous functions. This paper describes the four test stands for production and detailed circuit characterizations of these hybrids. Descriptions and performance of some of the important functions of the test systems will be presented here

1987-01-01

49

Detector for the UA2 experiment  

CERN Document Server

Detector for the UA2 experiment, for the study of proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS between 1981 and 1993. It was used, along with UA1 (another experiment on the SPS), to discover the W and Z bosons in 1983, which won Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer the Nobel Prize in 1984.

1987-01-01

50

Improvement in the CDF L2 electron trigger using the central shower max detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of a trigger upgrade for CDF run 1b, new electronics will bring the central shower max detector (CES) into the open-quote level-2 close-quote trigger algorithm. This upgrade will allow the trigger to select electrons within a finer segmentation in the r - ? view. This will be achieved by requiring a pulse height in the shower max detector be associated with a projected track from the central fast tracker to within 2 degrees. In CDF run la, the track was only required to point to the same 15 degree wedge as the electron electromagnetic cluster. This tighter matching will decrease the open-quote level-2 close-quote electron cross section by about a factor 2, while maintaining the electron purity.

1993-07-02

51

Central detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author gives a review about the drift chambers used at the PETRA storage ring. Especially he discusses the conditions which limit the spatial resolution of these chambers. Furthermore he describes the electronics of these chambers. Finally he comments the particle identification through measurement of the energy losses in the drift chamber as well as the calibration of this chamber. (HSI)

1980-06-20

52

The hybridized front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to accommodate the high packaging density requirements for the front end electronics of the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) in the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), the CDC front end electronics has been hybridized. The hybrid package contains eight channels of amplifiers together with all the associated circuits for calibration, event recognition and power economy switching functions. A total of 1280 such hybrids are used in the CDC

1987-01-01

53

Right and left support feet of the Central Barrel Yoke of the CMS Detector  

CERN Document Server

Fully loaded the Central Barrel will weigh 3000 tonnes. Those feet have tosupport this weight. Therefore they are made of 120 mm thick steel plates.To guarantee a maximum coverage for the muon detctor they will house a muon detector just benaeth the top plate. Weight of 1 foot is 35 tonnes.Its height is 3.5 m and it is 2.5 m large

Franz Leher, DWE

2000-01-01

54

Development of the central trigger system for the BELLE detector at the KEK B-factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we describe the design and development of the central trigger system (GDL) for the BELLE detector at the KEK B-factory. The GDL consists of four types of single width 6U VME modules (ITD, FTD, PSNM and TMD) which are designed using the programmable logic techniques of Xilinx FPGA and CPLD. Individual and combined performance tests of these modules are done and it is confirmed that the GDL functions as expected.

1999-12-11

55

An overview of pattern recognition in the central arms of the PHENIX detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is predicted that a Au+Au event in the PHENIX Detector at RHIC will produce up to 800 charged particles in the PHENIX central arms. Pattern recognition algorithms are being developed to handle this hostile tracking environment. To facilitate the development of these algorithms, a suite of evaluators and event displays have been developed to calculate efficiencies and identify weaknesses in the algorithms. An overview of these algorithms and procedures will be discussed.

Mitchell, J.T.

1997-02-17

56

Fast Pre-Trigger Electronics of T0/Centrality MCP-Based Start Detector for ALICE  

CERN Document Server

This work describes an alternative to the current ALICE baseline solution for a TO detector, still under development. The proposed system consists of two MCP-based T0/Centrality Start Detectors (backward-forward isochronous disks) equipped with programmable, TTC synchronized front-end electronic cards (FEECs) which would be positioned along the LHC colliding beam line on both sides of the ALICE interaction region. The purpose of this arrangement, providing both precise timing and fast multiplicity selection, is to give a pre-trigger signal at the earliest possible time after a central event. This pre-trigger can be produced within 25 ns. It can be delivered within 100 ns directly to the Transition Radiation Detector and would be the earliest L0 input coming to the ALICE Central Trigger Processor. A noise-free passive multichannel summator of 2ns signals is used to provide a determination of the collision time with a potential accuracy better than 10 ps in the case of Pb-Pb collisions, the limit coming from th...

Efimov, L G; Kondratev, V A; Lenti, V; Lyapin, V G; Stolyarov, O I; Trzaska, W H; Tsimbal, F A; Tulina, T A; Valiev, F F; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, L I

2001-01-01

57

A New scintillator tile/fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R and D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals

2004-01-01

58

A New scintillator tile / fiber preshower detector for the CDF central calorimeter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector designed to measure early particle showers has been installed in front of the central CDF calorimeter at the Tevatron. This new preshower detector is based on scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength-shifting fibers read out by multianode photomultipliers and has a total of 3,072 readout channels. The replacement of the old gas detector was required due to an expected increase in instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider in the next few years. Calorimeter coverage, jet energy resolution, and electron and photon identification are among the expected improvements. The final detector design, together with the R&D studies that led to the choice of scintillator and fiber, mechanical assembly, and quality control are presented. The detector was installed in the fall 2004 Tevatron shutdown and is expected to start collecting colliding beam data by the end of 2004. First measurements indicate a light yield of 12 photoelectrons/MIP, a more than two-fold increase over the design goals.

Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.; Artikov, A.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Byrum, K.; Chang, S.; Chlachidze, G.; Goulianos, K.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, M.; Kuhlmann,; Lami, S.; Lindgren, M.; Lytken, E.; Miller, R.; Nodulman, L.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Roser, R.; /Argonne /Dubna, JINR /Fermilab /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Michigan

2004-11-01

59

The dramatic descent of the central section of the CMS detector  

CERN Multimedia

Geneva, 28 February 2007. At 6:00 am this morning the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into the experiment's cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN1. Using a huge gantry crane, custom-built by the Vorspann System Losinger Group, the pre-assembled central piece, containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) is being gently lowered into place. The entire process is expected to take about ten hours to complete.

CERN

2007-01-01

60

The performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionization at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitization frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterization and compression. Test and operational performance results from the first electron-proton interactions are presented.

1993-11-06

 
 
 
 
61

The performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionization at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitization frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterization and compression. Test and operational performance results from the first electron-proton interactions are presented.

Morgado, C.J.S.; Cassidy, A.; Cussans, D.; Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, H.F.; Malos, J.; Tapper, R.J. (Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Baird, S.A.; Galagadera, S.B.; Hardy, P.; Jaroslawski, S.; Matson, R.; Quinton, S.P.H. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom))

1994-08-01

62

Cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The report is concerned with the cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector (CTD). The CTD is being designed for charged track reconstruction and particle momentum measurement in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA electron-proton collider. The contents of the report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the techniques employed in the study, and includes: design overview, voltage optimisation, strategy evolution, electrostatic screens, and optimisation over many superlayers. The second part contains a critical assessment of the results obtained, including optimised parameters, operational stability and alternative field values. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

63

The high-voltage and readout electronics of the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For experiments at the new BONN accelerator facility ELSA an experimental setup called SAPHIR (Spectrometer Arrangement for Photon Induced Reactions) is being built. The central detector of SAPHIR is a drift chamber matching the magnet gap of 1 m3. The subject of this paper is the high voltage supply including the control system and the readout of the chamber. The mechanical construction and the electronics are described. The time resolution of the readout chain has been studied and was found to be slightly better than 1 nsec in accordance to the specification for the TDCs. Furthermore first preliminary results from a check in the BONN electron test beam are presented. (orig.).

1987-01-01

64

Present and Future of Central Production with STAR Detector at RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present status and future of the physics program of Central Production using the STAR detector at RHIC are described. The program focuses on particle production resulting from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process. Forward protons from the DPE interaction are detected in the Roman Pot system installed at 55.5 m and 58.5 m on both sides of the STAR interaction point. The recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process is measured in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The first data were taken during the 2009 RHIC Run 9 using polarized proton-proton collisions at ?s = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity abs(?)

2010-01-01

65

Diogene: a 4? detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4? solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont-Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I shall first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, than recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams

1980-10-10

66

Investigation of relative arrival time distributions of EAS electron and muon component with the KASCADE central detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central detector of the KASCADE experiment is equipped with two layers of scintillation detectors with different area coverage. The scintillators of both detector systems have a good timing resolution of about 1.6 ns. With these two arrangements we performed extensive measurements of the arrival time differences at different energy thresholds of the electron and the muon component of EAS. The observed time structure of the shower profile is classified according to different EAS parameters. We furthermore present an analysis and comparism based on detailed MC simulations of the shower development. This comparism shows good agreement between experimental data and the expected behaviour of the different time distributions. (orig.)

Hafemann, W.; Haeusler, R.; Rebel, H.; Mathes, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Badea, F.; Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

2000-05-01

67

Investigation of relative arrival time distributions of EAS electron and muon component with the KASCADE central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central detector of the KASCADE experiment is equipped with two layers of scintillation detectors with different area coverage. The scintillators of both detector systems have a good timing resolution of about 1.6 ns. With these two arrangements we performed extensive measurements of the arrival time differences at different energy thresholds of the electron and the muon component of EAS. The observed time structure of the shower profile is classified according to different EAS parameters. We furthermore present an analysis and comparism based on detailed MC simulations of the shower development. This comparism shows good agreement between experimental data and the expected behaviour of the different time distributions. (orig.)

1999-06-03

68

The design, status and performance of the ZEUS central tracking detector electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The readout system developed for the ZEUS central tracking detector (CTD) is described. The CTD is required to provide an accurate measurement of the sagitta and energy loss of charged particles as well as provide fast trigger information. This must be carried out in the HERA environment in which beams cross every 96 ns. The first two aims are achieved by digitizing chamber pulses using a pipelined 104 MHz FADC system. The trigger uses a fast determination of the difference in the arrival times of a pulse at each end of the CTD. It processes this data and gives information to the ZEUS global first level trigger. The modules are housed in custom-built racks and crates and read out using a DAQ system based on Transputer readout controllers. These also monitor data quality and produce data for the ZEUS second level Trigger. (orig.).

1992-01-01

69

The Design and Performance of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector z-by-Timing System  

CERN Multimedia

The ZEUS Central Tracking Detector utilizes a time difference measurement to provide a fast determination of the z-coordinate of each hit. The z-by-timing measurement is achieved by using a Time-to-Amplitude Converter which has an intrinsic timing resolution of 36 ps, has pipelined readout, and has a multihit capability of 48 ns. In order to maintain the required sub-nanosecond timing accuracy, the technique incorporates an automated self-calibration system. The readout of the z-by-timing data utilizes a fully customized timing control system which runs synchronously with the HERA beam-crossing clock, and a data acquisition system implemented on a network of Transputers. Three dimensional space-points provided by the z-by-timing system are used as input to all three levels of the ZEUS trigger and for offline track reconstruction. The average z-resolution is determined to be 4.4 cm for multi-track events from positron-proton collisions in the ZEUS detector.

Bailey, D S; Foster, B; Harnew, N; Heath, G P; Jeffs, M D; Khatri, T; Lancaster, M; Lane, J B; McArthur, I C; McFall, J D; Milborrow, R S; Morgado, C J S; Morrissey, M; Nash, J; Nixon, G; Phillips, D A; Postranecky, M; Quinton, S P H; Shield, P D; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Westlake, G; White, D J; Wilson, F F

1997-01-01

70

A study of particle ratios and strangeness suppression p$\\overline{p}$ collisions at \\Sqrt s = 630 GeV with UA1  

CERN Document Server

From a sample of 2.36 million minimum bias events produced in p{\\overline{p}} collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment and from other published data at the CERN Sp\\bar{p}S collider we have estimated the relative production of \\pi^\\pm, \\pi^0, K^\\pm K^0_s, \\Lambda, \\bar{\\Lambda}, p and \\bar{p}. We obtain a meson over baryon ratio M/B = 6.4\\pm1.1. From the K^0_s/\\pi^\\pm ratio we measure the strangeness suppression factor \\lambda=0.29\\pm0.02\\pm0.01 which, combining with other available data provides a new world average of 0.29 \\pm 0.015. Both the K^0_s/\\pi^\\pm ratio and the strangeness suppression factor \\lambda as a function of \\sqrt{s} are investigated, and an extrapolation to the LHC energy is performed.

Bocquet, G; Wang, H Q; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, Ritva; Pimiä, M; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Albajar, C; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Sphicas, Paris; Sumorok, K; Tan, C H; Tether, S; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Dibon, Heinz; Lipa, P; Markytan, Manfred; Neumeister, N

1996-01-01

71

The magnetic field for the ZEUS central detector - analysis and correction of the field measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The magnetic field in the central tracking region of the ZEUS-detector - a facility to investigate highly energetic electron-proton-collisions at the HERA-collider at DESY Hamburg - is generated by a superconducting coil and reaches 18 kG (1.8 T). Some of the tracking devices particularly the drift chambers in the proton forward and rear direction (FTD1-3 and RTD) are not fully contained within the coil and therefore situated in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field: The radial component Br is up to 6.6 kG, maximum gradients are found to be 300 G/cm for ?Br/?r. Evaluating the space drifttime relation necessitates a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field. To reach this goal we analysed the field measurements and corrected them for systematic errors. The corrected data were compared with the field calculations (TOSCA-maps). Measurements and calculations are confirmed by studying consistency with Maxwell's equations. The accuracy reached is better than 100 G throughout the forward and central drift chambers (FTD1-3, CTD) and better than 150 G in the RTD. (orig.)[de] Die im Rahmen dieser Arbeit behandelt Aufgabe bestand darin, eine den Genauigkeitsanforderungen der Driftkammern genuegende Magnetfeldkarte des ZEUS-Innendetektors zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Zu diesem Zweck wurden die Messdaten ausgewertet und korrigiert. Die so erstellte Karte wurde mit den Feldberechnungen (TOSCA-Karten) verglichen. Messungen und Rechnungen wurden mit Hilfe der Maxwell-Gleichungen auf Konsistenz ueberprueft. Dieser Test ergab, dass durch die Korrektur der Grad der Uebereinstimmung von den Messdaten mit Vorhersagen der Maxwell-Gleichungen wesentlich erhoeht wurde. In der FTD1 werden die hoechsten Genauigkeitsanforderungen an die Kenntnis des Feldes gestellt. In diesem Bereich sind die Rechnungen bezueglich der angewendeten Kriterien nur geringfuegig schlechter als die korrigierten Messungen. Die erreichte Genauigkeit ist im Vorwaertsdetektor und der zentralen Driftkammer ?Bz ? 80 G und ?Br ? 100 G, in der rueckwaertigen Driftkammer ?Bz ? 150 G und ?Br ? 80 G. ?B? wird mit 10 G angegeben. Der auf der Grundlage von Loesungen der Laplace-Gleichung durchgefuehrte Test zeigt, dass man bloss aus Kenntnis der fuehrenden Komponente Bz unter Bezugnahme auf die Maxwell-Gleichungen die Komponente Br berechnen kann. Das so berechnete Br stimmte im Rahmen der Messgenauigkeit mit den Daten ueberein. Weiterhin laesst sich aus diesem Test die Vermutung gewinnen, dass das Magnetfeld fuer den ZEUS-Innendetektor durch eine zweistellige Anzahl von Fourierkoeffizienten zu beschreiben bzw. zu parametrisieren ist. Insgesamt ist der erreichte Grad an Uebereinstimmung sowohl von Rechnungen und Messungen untereinander als auch beider mit den Vorhersagen der Maxwell-Gleichungen so gut, dass man entweder die auf den Messungen basierende mit einer Kontrolle bezueglich der endgueltigen Eisenkonfiguration versehene Karte oder - fuer bestimmte Zwecke - die TOSCA-Karte verwenden kann. (orig.)

1992-01-01

72

The central drift chamber for the Mark III detector at SPEAR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large cylindrical drift chamber has been constructed for the MARK III detector at SPEAR. The inner layer has a high density of sense wires for the measurement of kinks, vees, and dE/dx. The outer layers have a cell design with three sense wires, giving uniform drift behavior and left/right ambiguity resolution within a cell. The chamber has both current division and stereo layers for longitudinal position measurement. (orig.).

1984-01-01

73

Silicon detector tests with the RAL Microplex readout chip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction and operation of a five-layer silicon microstrip detector is described. The detector consisted of silicon microstrip wafers bonded to the RAL Microplex MX2 readout chip. The readout chip provided amplification with double-correlated sampling for each microstrip channel and multiplexing of 128 signals. The circuitry controlling the chip, the readout electronics, the stage holding the microstrip wafers and their alignment, are also described. A single-layer resolution of 10±0.6 ?m was obtained in a test beam. This work is part of a program to design a microvertex detector for UA1 at the CERN panti p collider. (orig.)

1989-07-01

74

[Preliminary assessment of the use of portable hydrogen peroxide detectors in a centralized cytotoxic preparation unit].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: For 1 year, our unit has been equipped with portable H?O? Dräger detectors contributing to protect the staff from a possible exposure to this odourless and toxic gas. This work shows the current available data about H?O? toxicity, describes the organization of the implementation and the analysis of the values measured over 12 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data about H?O? toxicity have been obtained through a literature review. The measured values are presented in instantaneous value and occupational exposure limit (OEL) over 8 h. RESULTS: Over six technicians, the average percentage, of detected values superior to zero reached 1.06% in August. The detected maximum instantaneous value reached 2.2 ppm in May. These isolated exposures have little incidence when related to the 8-h exposure with an occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.072 ppm over 12 months. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The implementation of this tool has allowed to highlight a technical problem of the sterilization airlock that could be resolved. This measuring device of H?O? concentration in the air in real time allows to secure everyday working conditions and to alert the staff of a possible technical failure. However, literature data regarding chronic toxicity are limited and restrict the analysis of the measured values.

Pinturaud M; Vasseur M; Décaudin B; Odou P

2013-07-01

75

The central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector - implementation into the experiment and study of its properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA the large solid angle detector SAPHIR was built for the investigation of photon induced reactions. A main component of SAPHIR is the central drift chamber (CDC) matching the magneto gap of 1m3. The diameter of the in total 1828 hexagonal drift cells is about 18 mm. The subject of this paper is the implementation of the CDC in the experiment. After the description of the hardware follows the presentation of the software tools for filtering and monitoring the data, which have been developed and tested. An algorithm for extracting the space time relationship is presented. The properties of the chamber with an improved gas mixture (Helium/Neon/Isobutane8 21.25:63.75:15) have been investigated. A spatial resolution of about 200 ?m was achieved. The efficiency of the chamber is 97% at a tagged photon of 5x104 per second crossing the chamber. (orig.)[de] In dieser Arbeit wurde der Aufbau der zentralen Driftkammer und deren Einbau in das SAPHIR-Experiment beschrieben. Dazu gehoert auch die Kontrolle der Driftkammer waehrend einer Messung und das Testen und Kalibrieren der Auslese-Elektronik. Im Driftkammer-Online-Programm werden aus den Rohdaten eine Vielzahl an Informationen ueber die Datenqualitaet und eventuelle Fehler im Driftkammersystem extrahiert. Weiter wurde eine Gasmischung untersucht, die im Hinblick auf die Ratenfestigkeit der Kammer und Nachfolgesignale bessere Eigenschaften hat als die bisher verwendete Gasmischung. Das wurde noetig, da sich waehrend der ersten SAPHIR-Messungen Probleme mit der Effizienz und der Ratenfestigkeit der CDC zeigten. Mit der in dieser Arbeit untersuchten Mischung von Helium, Neon und Isobutan im Verhaeltnis 21.25:63.75:15 arbeitete die Kammer bei allen SAPHIR-Testmessungen stabil. Mit dem neuen Gas wird eine Ansprechwahrscheinlichkeit von ueber 95% im mittleren Bereich der Zelle erreicht. Die Ortsaufloesung liegt hier knapp unter 200 ?m. Es wurde die Orts-Driftzeit-Beziehung in einem Durchtrittswinkelbereich von -17.5deg bis +17.5deg bei einem Magnetfeld von 5.5 bis 6.5 kG bestimmt. Diese Grenzen wurden durch die Topologie der ausgewerteten Elektron-Positron-Paar-Ergebnisse vorgegeben. (orig./HSI)

1992-01-01

76

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!  

CERN Document Server

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!

2004-01-01

77

Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector; Etude complete du mouvement collectif de la matiere nucleaire dans les collisions centrales d'ions lourds avec le detecteur FOPI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

Bendarag, A

1999-07-09

78

Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/? yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/? mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ?b-1, J/? mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ?+?- pairs. The measured J/? yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ?+?- final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/? and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

2011-03-14

79

A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV  

CERN Document Server

In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

2002-01-01

80

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at ?s(NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstruc...

ACERBI, EMILIO; ALEPPO, MARIO ROSARIO ACI; ANDREAZZA, ATTILIO; BANFI, DANILO; BELLOMO, GIOVANNI; BESANA, MARIA ILARIA

 
 
 
 
81

The Upgraded D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

2005-01-01

82

The Upgraded D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

2005-07-01

83

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

CERN Document Server

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

84

Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e+e--collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of ?-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.)

1988-01-01

85

Neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

86

Results of in-beam tests of an MCP-based vacuum sector prototype of the T0/centrality detector for ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on results of efficiency tests for MIPs and timing resolution studies obtained with different layouts of micro-channel plate (MCP) detector prototypes at CERN PS test beams. The detector is composed of an MCP stack and multipad readout anodes integrated with a passive isochronal summator. Several types of setups were tested, including MCPs with different gain. Also, a very first test of the Micro Sphere Plates detector was performed. The performance of fast electronics including Double Threshold Discriminators and a fast multiplicity discriminator for short 2 ns signals was studied. Currently, the best experimental results for MCP detectors show 75 ps timing resolution obtained at 75% efficiency for the registration of a single muon. We expect further enhancements, mostly through improvements in the fast electronics

2002-02-01

87

Composite detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An incore neutron flux detector assembly is provided, having a plurality of juxtapositioned pairs of prompt responding detectors and delayed responding neutron detectors spaced axially along the active fuel height of a core. The more accurate delayed response detectors are utilized to provide a generally continuous calibration of the less accurate prompt responding detectors for the flux distribution at the axial position.

1984-01-01

88

Composite detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An incore neutron flux detector assembly is provided, having a plurality of juxtapositioned pairs of prompt responding detectors and delayed responding neutron detectors spaced axially along the active fuel height of a core. The more accurate delayed response detectors are utilized to provide a generally continuous calibration of the less accurate prompt responding detectors for the flux distribution at the axial position.

Bybee, R. T.; Paulson, A. E.; Warren, H. D.

1984-01-17

89

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

Hennekemper, Eva

2011-12-15

90

Combined detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combined detector intended for both experiments in search of anomalous nuclei and using as an integral differential monitor in the course of experiments with reactor antineutrinos is described. The combined detector consists of three independent detectors: neutron detector, liquid scintillation detector and semiconductor or gas scintillation detector, structurally united with each other. The neutron detector is made of wood and has dimensions of 800x800x1080 mm. Neutron detection is realized by 105 proportional counters each of which represents a steel cylinder filled with He3 and Ar mixture. To increase the neutron detector efficiency either a liquid scintillation detector or aluminium containers with 13 proportional counters are placed along the neutron detector axis. The neutron detector efficiency in experiments with 252Cf operating with a liquid scintillation detector constitutes 54 %, when operating with aluminium containers filled with D2O - 64%. The liquid scintillation detector of 10 l volume is filled with a scintillator on the hexafluoro-benzene (C6F6) base. Its energy solution at the 1 MeV level constitutes 20%. In the centre of the liquid scintillation detector a gas scintillation detector filled with Ar and N mixture at 500 kPa pressure is located. The efficiency of such detector to 252Cf fission is not less than 99.5 %. The results of the combined detector preliminary experiments are presented.

1980-01-01

91

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  

Science.gov (United States)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium. PMID:21231581

Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Ackers, M; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Aleppo, M; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, J; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Bella, L Aperio; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arms, K E; Armstrong, S R; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Silva, J; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Aubert, B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Pedrosa, F Baltasar Dos Santos; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Galtieri, A Barbaro; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, D; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Battistoni, G; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Harpaz, S Behar; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, G; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocci, A; Bock, R; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Booth, P; Booth, J R A; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Brambilla, E; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Brett, N D; Bright-Thomas, P G; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brubaker, E; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Buira-Clark, D; Buis, E J; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byatt, T; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caccia, M; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camard, A; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Cammin, J

2010-12-13

92

Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at sqrt[S(NN)] =2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad G; Abbott B; Abdallah J; Abdelalim AA; Abdesselam A; Abdinov O; Abi B; Abolins M; Abramowicz H; Abreu H; Acerbi E; Acharya BS; Ackers M; Adams DL; Addy TN; Adelman J; Aderholz M; Adomeit S; Adragna P; Adye T; Aefsky S; Aguilar-Saavedra JA; Aharrouche M; Ahlen SP; Ahles F; Ahmad A; Ahsan M; Aielli G; Akdogan T; Akesson TP; Akimoto G; Akimov AV; Alam MS; Alam MA; Albrand S; Aleksa M; Aleksandrov IN; Aleppo M; Alessandria F; Alexa C; Alexander G; Alexandre G; Alexopoulos T; Alhroob M; Aliev M; Alimonti G; Alison J; Aliyev M; Allport PP; Allwood-Spiers SE; Almond J; Aloisio A; Alon R; Alonso A; Alonso J; Alviggi MG; Amako K; Amaral P; Amelung C; Ammosov VV; Amorim A; Amorós G; Amram N; Anastopoulos C; Andeen T; Anders CF; Anderson KJ; Andreazza A; Andrei V; Andrieux ML; Anduaga XS; Angerami A; Anghinolfi F; Anjos N; Annovi A; Antonaki A; Antonelli M; Antonelli S; Antos J; Anulli F; Aoun S; Bella LA; Apolle R; Arabidze G; Aracena I; Arai Y; Arce AT; Archambault JP; Arfaoui S; Arguin JF; Arik E; Arik M; Armbruster AJ; Arms KE; Armstrong SR; Arnaez O; Arnault C; Artamonov A; Artoni G; Arutinov D; Asai S; Silva J; Asfandiyarov R; Ask S; Asman B; Asquith L; Assamagan K; Astbury A; Astvatsatourov A; Atoian G; Aubert B; Auerbach B; Auge E; Augsten K; Aurousseau M; Austin N; Avramidou R; Axen D; Ay C; Azuelos G; Azuma Y; Baak MA; Baccaglioni G; Bacci C; Bach AM; Bachacou H; Bachas K; Bachy G; Backes M; Badescu E; Bagnaia P; Bahinipati S; Bai Y; Bailey DC; Bain T; Baines JT; Baker OK; Baker S; Pedrosa FB; Banas E; Banerjee P; Banerjee S; Banfi D; Bangert A; Bansal V; Bansil HS; Barak L; Baranov SP; Barashkou A; Galtieri AB; Barber T; Barberio EL; Barberis D; Barbero M; Bardin DY; Barillari T; Barisonzi M; Barklow T; Barlow N; Barnett BM; Barnett RM; Baroncelli A; Barr AJ; Barreiro F; da Costa JB; Barrillon P; Bartoldus R; Barton AE; Bartsch D; Bates RL; Batkova L; Batley JR; Battaglia A; Battistin M; Battistoni G; Bauer F; Bawa HS; Beare B; Beau T; Beauchemin PH; Beccherle R; Bechtle P; Beck HP; Beckingham M; Becks KH; Beddall AJ; Beddall A; Bednyakov VA; Bee C; Begel M; Harpaz SB; Behera PK; Beimforde M; Belanger-Champagne C; Bell PJ; Bell WH; Bella G; Bellagamba L; Bellina F; Bellomo G; Bellomo M; Belloni A; Belotskiy K; Beltramello O; Ben Ami S; Benary O; Benchekroun D; Benchouk C; Bendel M; Benedict BH; Benekos N; Benhammou Y; Benjamin DP; Benoit M; Bensinger JR; Benslama K; Bentvelsen S; Berge D; Kuutmann EB; Berger N; Berghaus F; Berglund E; Beringer J; Bernardet K; Bernat P; Bernhard R; Bernius C; Berry T; Bertin A; Bertinelli F; Bertolucci F; Besana MI; Besson N; Bethke S; Bhimji W; Bianchi RM; Bianco M; Biebel O; Biesiada J; Biglietti M; Bilokon H; Bindi M; Bingul A; Bini C; Biscarat C; Bitenc U; Black KM; Blair RE; Blanchard JB; Blanchot G; Blocker C; Blocki J; Blondel A; Blum W; Blumenschein U; Bobbink GJ; Bobrovnikov VB; Bocci A; Bock R; Boddy CR; Boehler M; Boek J; Boelaert N; Böser S; Bogaerts JA; Bogdanchikov A; Bogouch A; Bohm C; Boisvert V; Bold T; Boldea V; Boonekamp M; Boorman G; Booth CN; Booth P; Booth JR; Bordoni S; Borer C; Borisov A; Borissov G; Borjanovic I; Borroni S; Bos K; Boscherini D; Bosman M; Boterenbrood H; Botterill D; Bouchami J; Boudreau J; Bouhova-Thacker EV; Boulahouache C; Bourdarios C; Bousson N; Boveia A; Boyd J; Boyko IR; Bozhko NI; Bozovic-Jelisavcic I; Bracinik J; Braem A; Brambilla E; Branchini P; Brandenburg GW; Brandt A; Brandt G; Brandt O; Bratzler U; Brau B; Brau JE; Braun HM; Brelier B; Bremer J; Brenner R; Bressler S; Breton D; Brett ND; Bright-Thomas PG; Britton D; Brochu FM; Brock I; Brock R; Brodbeck TJ; Brodet E; Broggi F; Bromberg C; Brooijmans G; Brooks WK; Brown G; Brubaker E; de Renstrom PA; Bruncko D; Bruneliere R; Brunet S; Bruni A; Bruni G; Bruschi M; Buanes T; Bucci F; Buchanan J; Buchanan NJ; Buchholz P; Buckingham RM; Buckley AG; Buda SI; Budagov IA; Budick B; Büscher V; Bugge L; Buira-Clark D; Buis EJ; Bulekov O; Bunse M; Buran T; Burckhart H; Burdin S; Burgess T; Burke S; Busato E; Bussey P; Buszello CP; Butin F; Butler B; Butler JM; Buttar CM; Butterworth JM; Buttinger W; Byatt T; Urbán SC; Caccia M; Caforio D; Cakir O; Calafiura P; Calderini G; Calfayan P; Calkins R; Caloba LP; Caloi R; Calvet D; Calvet S; Camard A; Camarri P; Cambiaghi M; Cameron D; Cammin J; Campana S; Campanelli M; Canale V; Canelli F; Canepa A; Cantero J; Capasso L; Garrido MD; Caprini I; Caprini M; Capriotti D; Capua M; Caputo R; Caramarcu C; Cardarelli R; Carli T; Carlino G; Carminati L; Caron B; Caron S; Carpentieri C; Montoya GD; Montero SC; Carter AA; Carter JR; Carvalho J; Casadei D; Casado MP; Cascella M; Caso C; Hernandez AM; Castaneda-Miranda E; Gimenez VC; Castro NF; Cataldi G; Cataneo F; Catinaccio A; Catmore JR; Cattai A; Cattani G; Caughron S; Cavallari A; Cavalleri P; Cavalli D; Cavalli-Sforza M; Cavasinni V; Cazzato A; Ceradini F; Cerna C; Cerqueira AS; Cerri A; Cerrito L; Cerutti F; Cetin SA; Cevenini F; Chafaq A; Chakraborty D; Chan K

2010-12-01

93

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

CERN Multimedia

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally-segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The underlying event is measured and subtracted event-by-event, giving estimates of jet transverse energy above the ambient background. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres is observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, and which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2010-01-01

94

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at sqrt(S(NN))= 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad...[], G.; Dam, Mogens

2010-01-01

95

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

2010-12-17

96

Study of a detector including an electromagnetic calorimeter, an hadronic calorimeter and multiwire proportional chambers for the study of proton-antiproton collisions at ?s=540GeV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UA1 experiment aims to observe antiproton-proton collisions at ?s = 540 GeV at CERN. The Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire du College de France contributes to this experiment and builds a part of the detector, the 'forward detectors' which are devoted to the detection of particles emitted with angles between 1.5 and 50, with respect to the beams. A prototype of the forward detectors, including an electromagnetic calorimeter, a hadron calorimeter and a multiwire proportional chamber used as shower position detector has been tested at CERN with high energy particles beams and has shown resolutions of 2.8% at 92 GeV for the electromagnetic calorimeter and 12% at 80 GeV for the hadron calorimeter and a precision of 5 mm for the shower position detector

1980-01-01

97

Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ? kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ? sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert

2012-01-01

98

Measurement of dijet production with a jet veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Multimedia

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is performed using pp collisions at 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the boundary jet. The data are compared to NLO parton shower prediction from POWHEG, all order resummation prediction from HEJ, and LO predictions from PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators

Bernat, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

99

The VENUS detector at TRISTAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author).

1983-01-01

100

Measurement of the centrality dependence of open heavy flavour production in lead-lead collisions at sqrts = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Multimedia

Measurements of heavy quark production and suppression in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions probe the interactions of heavy quarks with the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured heavy quark production in sqrts = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions via semi-leptonic decays of open heavy flavour hadrons to muons. Results obtained from an integrated luminosity of approximately 7/mub collected in 2010 are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, pT, over the range of 4 centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral'' ratio, Rcp. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of 2.5 in central collisions relative to...

The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Multimedia

A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is performed using pp collisions at 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010. The data are compared to LO predictions from PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The data are also compared to NLO parton shower prediction from POWHEG, when interfaced to PYTHIA or HERWIG parton shower, and all order resummation prediction from HEJ. In most of the phase-space regions presented, the experimental uncertainty is much smaller than the spread of LO Monte Carlo event generator predictions. In general, POWHEG+PYTHIA gave the best description of the data.

Bernat, P

2012-01-01

102

Particle detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

CERN. Geneva

1999-01-01

103

MUON DETECTOR  

CERN Multimedia

DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

F. Gasparini

104

The PHENIX ring imaging Cherenkov detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC is primarily a lepton and photon detector. Electron detection takes place in the two central arms of PHENIX, with the primary electron identifier in each arm being a ring imaging Cherenkov detector. This paper contains a description of the two identical RICH detectors and of their expected performance.

2000-10-11

105

The OPAL detector at LEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The OPAL detector at the e+e- storage ring LEP is designed to provide precise measurements of charged particles and of electromagnetic energy over nearly the full solid angle. Its main elements are a central tracking system, a solenoidal coil, an electromagnetic calorimeter made of lead glass, a hadron calorimeter made of iron and wire chambers, and a muon detector. A pair of forward detectors is used to measure the luminosity and to identify particles emitted at small angles with respect to be beam line. In this paper all detector elements are described and their performance is discussed. (orig.)

1991-07-20

106

Detectors for condensed matter studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Digital, electronic imaging systems for condensed matter studies (i.e. position sensitive detectors with either 1-dimensional or 2-dimensional sensitivity) have continued to make steady progress in the last few years in spite of their great cost and complexity relative to X-ray film. The motivations for these developments are examined in the context of the increasing availability of digital processing power and the establishment of central materials science facilities such as the synchrotron radiation sources and the pulsed neutron sources. This review passes briefly over the main imaging detector types currently in use and under development for applications in X-ray and neutron studies: gas detectors, scintillation detectors, TV-based detectors and solid state detectors.

Bateman, J.E.

1988-12-15

107

Metal Detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

Harrington-Lueker, Donna

1992-01-01

108

Position sensitive neutron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the last several years, the authors have been carrying out the design and manufacutre of the measuring systems for imported position sensitive neutron proportional counters. The detectors for which the authors have worked are one-dimensional 3He position sensitive proportional counters of central resistance wire type. This paper describes on the characteristics, processing circuits and problems of this type of counters. The signal processing circuit of the central resistance wire type detector is of electric charge split type, and the rise time method is also applicable to high resistance wire type detectors. In the charge split type circuit, the result of division which is realized with an analog IC divider shows the value proportional to the position of incidence of particles. Since, in the two-dimensional measurement of position and energy, a computer is used for data processing, the advantages of digital division become dominant. The measured results, anode resistance, the input impedance of a charge sensitive amplifier, and S/N ratio are considered. The positional resolution of 5.6 mm has been obtained for the 2 mm-slit input. The two-dimensional detector can be made by arranging multiple of resistance anode wires. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1979-12-21

109

Central Diffraction at ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

Lämsä, Jerry W

2010-01-01

110

Studies on the influence of pressure fluctuations of the chamber gas on the operation of the central track chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central jet chamber (CJC) of the H1-experiment at HERA is filled with Argon-Ethane (50/50). Due to the coupling of the gas system to the atmospheric pressure, the absolute pressure (and density) of the chamber gas fluctuates. The effects of this vibration were investigated with a full prototype of the CJC measuring cosmic muons within a magnetic field. It turns out that there is no influence on the drift velocity in the range of 1022 to 1779 hPa (drift field: 120 V/mm). The influence of the measured charge can be fitted by the function a P exp(-bP) (P: pressure). At a pressure of 1022 hPa the relative FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the energy loss spectrum is 96.9 ± 2.3%. With the truncated mean method on an energy resolution of the prototype of 11.0 ± 0.3% (1022 hPa) is obtained. The variation of pressure leads to no significant dependence on the relative FWHM and the energy resolution. (orig.)

1992-01-01

111

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Multimedia

A new vertex detector for the ZEUS experiment at HERA will be installed during the 1999-2000 shutdown, for the high-luminosity runs of HERA. It will allow to reconstruct secondary vertex tracks, coming from the decay of long-lived particles with a lifetime of about 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s, and improve the global momentum resolution of the tracking system. The interaction region will be surrounded with single-sided silicon strip detectors, with capacitive charge division: three double layers in the central region (600 detectors), and 4 'wheels' in the forward region (112 silicon planes). Due to the high number of readout channels, 512 readout strips per silicon plane in the barrel region and 480 in the forward part, and the large coverage of the vertex detector (almost 1 m long), the front-end electronics has to be placed on top of the detectors and has to be radiation tolerant since doses up to 2 kGy are expected near the interaction region. The HELIX chip has been chosen as analog chip with a low-noise, charg...

Garfagnini, A

1999-01-01

112

The SELEX phototube RICH detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10 m neon radiator. For the central region an N{sub 0} of 104 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a {beta}=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%. (author)

Engelfried, J.; Filimonov, I.; Kilmer, J.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Nemitkin, A.; Ramberg, E.; Rud, V.; Stutte, L

1999-07-11

113

The PHOBOS detector at RHIC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

Back, B.B. E-mail: back@phy.anl.gov; Baker, M.D.; Barton, D.S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R.R.; Bialas, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A.E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czyz, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M.P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Galuszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G.A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Holynski, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotula, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W.T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Muelmenstaedt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I.C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L.P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G.J. van; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Wyslouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; Zychowski, P

2003-03-01

114

MS Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

115

Particle detectors  

CERN Multimedia

This comprehensive book provides a detailed introduction to the principles of particle detectors used in physics, biology and medicine. Introductory chapters review the interactions of particles and radiation with matter, introduce the principles of and define different types of measurement and their units. The main body of the book encompasses all currently used detectors and counters. Each description covers basic principles, potential uses and limitations. The scope of the book includes detectors for ionization and track measurement, methods for time, energy and momentum measurement, and for particle identification. Two chapters are about electronics (readout methods, monitoring, data acquisitio A final chapter gives examples of detector systems. The book concludes with a detailed glossary of terms, tables of units and physical constants and a detailed reference list.

Grupen, Claus; Smolik, Ludek

1996-01-01

116

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.).

1979-01-01

117

Detector Simulation  

CERN Document Server

The interim status of the 1998/9 ECFA/DESY simulation programme is described. The fast simulation program, SIMDET, and the full GEANT simulation, BRAHMS, are shown to be working and being used in physics and detector studies for a future linear collider. An alternative fast simulation program, SGV, is also available. A selection of physics and detector study results are shown and an overview given of which tools to use for which purpose.

Blair, G A

1998-01-01

118

Particle detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The lecture series will present an overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After an introduction the following topics will be covered: Tracking (gas, solid state based) - Scintillation and light detection Calorimetry - Particle Identification - Electronics and Data Acquisition - Detector Systems

CERN. Geneva

2001-01-01

119

Detectors course  

CERN Multimedia

This lecture series on detectors, will give a general, although somewhat compressed, introduction to particle interaction with matter and magnetic fields. Tracking detectors and calorimeters will also be covered as well as particle identification systems. The lectures will start out with a short review of particle interaction with fields and then we will discuss particle detection. At the end some common composite detection systems will be described.

CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

2006-01-01

120

The Mark II detector for the SLC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring (?s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

1989-08-20

 
 
 
 
121

Photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

1995-01-01

122

CDF Central Outer Tracker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Outer Tracker is a large cylindrical drift chamber constructed to replace Collider Detector at Fermilab's original central drift chamber for the higher luminosity expected for Run 2 at the Fermilab Tevatron. The chamber's drift properties are described in the context of meeting the operating requirements for Run 2. The design and construction of the chamber, the front-end readout electronics, and the high-voltage system are described in detail. Wire aging considerations are also discussed.

2004-07-01

123

Nuclear detectors. Different classes of detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the characteristics of the different detector types available. They belong to three main families: the gas detectors, the semiconductor detectors and the scintillation detectors. The main technical characteristics and operation principle of each family is presented: 1 - gas detectors: introduction, ionization chamber (description, current mode, pulse mode), proportional counter (description, new generations), Geiger-Mueller counter (description); 2 - semiconductor detector: silicon detector (detectors made using the planar ion implantation technique, lithium-compensated Si(Li) detectors, other silicon detectors), germanium detectors (planar, coaxial detector, anticoincidence Compton rejection, cryostat), cadmium telluride detector (CdTe or CZT); 3 - scintillation detectors: introduction, scintillators (thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(TI)), thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(TI)), europium-doped lithium iodide (LiI(Eu)), bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12 or BGO), silver-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS(Ag)), plastic, encapsulation), photomultiplier. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

124

Pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

Passmore, M S

2001-01-01

125

CLIC Detector Main Solenoid Design & Status Report  

CERN Multimedia

The magnet system for the CLIC Detector concepts is composed of the central solenoid in combination with the two forward anti-solenoids and the ancillary systems necessary for their operation, including the so-called push-pull scenario, allowing the quick exchange of the two detectors on the beam line. An overview of the design parameters of the detector main solenoids is presented hereafter.

Curé, Benoit; Herve, Alain

2012-01-01

126

BES detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

1994-05-01

127

Microwave detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

Meldner, Heiner W. (Moss Beach, CA); Cusson, Ronald Y. (Chapel Hill, NC); Johnson, Ray M. (San Ramon, CA)

1986-01-01

128

Hydrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

1980-01-01

129

Infrared detectors  

CERN Document Server

This is an expertly written, broadly approachable treatment of the fundamental principles and latest developments in the science and technology of infrared detection. The author, an internationally recognized pioneer, presents each topic with a brief summary of historical background followed by clear explanation of key principles underlying performance, overview of properties, and analysis of the state-of-the-art. The four sections cover introductory aspects, infrared thermal detectors, infrared photon detectors, and focal plane arrays. It includes coverage of cutting edge developments such as

Rogalski, Antonio

2010-01-01

130

BES detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.

1994-05-01

131

The central tracking detectors for D O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D O experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

1988-01-01

132

Vertex detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10-13 s, among them the ? lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

1992-01-01

133

Semiconductor Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

2007-01-01

134

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved multi-cell detectors of X-ray and gamma radiation, particularly in computerized tomography are designed so that the electrode plates in the ionization cells are spaced closely and uniformly over the entire length of the array. Adhesives are used to achieve the required dimensional arrangement. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

135

Detector Description Framework in LHCb  

CERN Multimedia

The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

Ponce, Sébastien

2003-01-01

136

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment  

CERN Document Server

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A; Blocki, J; Brinson, J; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Dziewiecki, M; Ellison, B; Golyshkin, L; Gould, R; Hara, T; Hartfiel, B; Holeczek, J; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kisiel, J; Kozlovskii, T; Kudenko, Yu; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Liu, J; Marzec, J; Metcalf, W; Mijakowski, P; Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Naples, D; Nauman, M; Northacker, D; Nowak, J; Paolone, V; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Reid, J; Rondio, E; Shaykhiev, A; Sienkiewicz, M; Smith, D; Sobczyk, J; Stodulski, M; Straczek, A; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Wachala, T; Warner, D; Yershov, N; Yano, T; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M

2009-01-01

137

Particle detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The lecture series will present and overview of the basic techniques and underlying physical principles of particle detectors, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, mainly from the field of collider experiments, will demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. After and introduction we shall concentrate on particle tracking. Wire chambers, drift chambers, micro gaseous tracking devices and solid state trackers will be discussed. It follows and overview of scintillators, photon detection, fiber tracking and nuclear emulsions. One lecture will deal with the various techniques of calorimetry. Finally we shall focus on methods developed for particle identification. These comprise specific energy loss, time of flight Cherenkov and transition radiation detectors.

Joram, Christian

1998-01-01

138

Scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the scintillation detector assembly for computerized tomography several cell chambers filled with a liquid scintillating medium are used. The medium contains a soluble fluorescent substance, like e.g. p-terphenyl, a solvent, like e.g. toluol, a compound having got a high atomic number, like lead alkyl or tin alkyl, and a substance transforming the wavelength, like dimethyl-POPO (usual scintillator fluids). (DG).

1981-01-01

139

Scintillation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the scintillation detector assembly for computerized tomography several cell chambers filled with a liquid scintillating medium are used. The medium contains a soluble fluorescent substance, like e.g. p-terphenyl, a solvent, like e.g. toluol, a compound having got a high atomic number, like lead alkyl or tin alkyl, and a substance transforming the wavelength, like dimethyl-POPO (usual scintillator fluids).

Cusano, D.A.; Di Bianca, F.A.

1981-03-19

140

Status of the D0 fiber tracker and preshower detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we focus on the performance of the D0 central fiber tracker and preshower detectors during the high luminosity p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV delivered by the Tevatron collider at Fermilab (Run IIb). Both fiber tracker and preshower detectors utilize a similar readout system based on high quantum efficiency solid state photo-detectors capable of converting light into electrical signals. We also give a brief description of the D0 detector and the central track trigger, and conclude with a summary on the central tracker performance.

Smirnov, Dmitri; /Notre Dame U.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Document Server

The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

T. Camporesi

142

The central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector - implementation into the experiment and study of its properties; Die zentrale Driftkammer des SAPHIR-Detektors - Einbau in das Experiment und Untersuchung ihrer Eigenschaften  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Bonn accelerator facility ELSA the large solid angle detector SAPHIR was built for the investigation of photon induced reactions. A main component of SAPHIR is the central drift chamber (CDC) matching the magneto gap of 1m{sup 3}. The diameter of the in total 1828 hexagonal drift cells is about 18 mm. The subject of this paper is the implementation of the CDC in the experiment. After the description of the hardware follows the presentation of the software tools for filtering and monitoring the data, which have been developed and tested. An algorithm for extracting the space time relationship is presented. The properties of the chamber with an improved gas mixture (Helium/Neon/Isobutane8 21.25:63.75:15) have been investigated. A spatial resolution of about 200 {mu}m was achieved. The efficiency of the chamber is 97% at a tagged photon of 5x10{sup 4} per second crossing the chamber. (orig.). [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wurde der Aufbau der zentralen Driftkammer und deren Einbau in das SAPHIR-Experiment beschrieben. Dazu gehoert auch die Kontrolle der Driftkammer waehrend einer Messung und das Testen und Kalibrieren der Auslese-Elektronik. Im Driftkammer-Online-Programm werden aus den Rohdaten eine Vielzahl an Informationen ueber die Datenqualitaet und eventuelle Fehler im Driftkammersystem extrahiert. Weiter wurde eine Gasmischung untersucht, die im Hinblick auf die Ratenfestigkeit der Kammer und Nachfolgesignale bessere Eigenschaften hat als die bisher verwendete Gasmischung. Das wurde noetig, da sich waehrend der ersten SAPHIR-Messungen Probleme mit der Effizienz und der Ratenfestigkeit der CDC zeigten. Mit der in dieser Arbeit untersuchten Mischung von Helium, Neon und Isobutan im Verhaeltnis 21.25:63.75:15 arbeitete die Kammer bei allen SAPHIR-Testmessungen stabil. Mit dem neuen Gas wird eine Ansprechwahrscheinlichkeit von ueber 95% im mittleren Bereich der Zelle erreicht. Die Ortsaufloesung liegt hier knapp unter 200 {mu}m. Es wurde die Orts-Driftzeit-Beziehung in einem Durchtrittswinkelbereich von -17.5deg bis +17.5deg bei einem Magnetfeld von 5.5 bis 6.5 kG bestimmt. Diese Grenzen wurden durch die Topologie der ausgewerteten Elektron-Positron-Paar-Ergebnisse vorgegeben. (orig./HSI).

Haas, K.M.

1992-01-01

143

Performance of the Huygens detectors at intermediate energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment with the Huygens detectors has been performed at GANIL (France). These Huygens detectors comprise two detectors: a central detector, which consists of a time projection chamber (TPC) surrounded by a plastic scintillator barrel, and a CsI(Tl) wall in the backward region. In addition, in the forward hemisphere a plastic hodoscope ('MUR') is used in conjunction with the forward plastics of the Huygens plastic scintillator barrel. In this paper first results will be presented. ((orig.)).

1994-06-04

144

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a radiation detector which consists of an X-ray fluorescent material and a semiconductor assembly in order to improve the action of rays to be measured on the semiconductor assembly. The assembly acts as a photo electric converter. It is preferable to use a fluorescent material which is activated particularly well by the radiation to be measured and which gives off light which in turn well activates the converter. In this invention a scintillator based on the rare earths is foreseen; this converts with high efficiency X-rays into a light which has an exciting effect on an orange-fluorescing fluorescent dye layer. Next to this layer is a further layer containing a fluorescent material which fluoresces red upon excitation with the orange light. This latter layer is arranged parallel to the semiconductor assembly acting as a photo-electric converter and is well activated by the red light given off. Thus a good adaptation of the light acting upon the semiconductor is obtained. A radiation detector of the type described in this patent application is particularly suitable for detecting and measuring X-radiation. (orig.).

1981-01-01

145

Scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unique scintillation detector unit is disclosed which employs a special light transfer and reflector means that encases and protects the scintillator crystal against high g forces. The light transfer means comprises a flexible silicone rubber optical material bonded between the crystal and the optical window and having an axial thickness sufficient to allow the scintillator to move axially inside the container under high g forces without destroying the bonds. The reflector means comprises a soft elastic silicone rubber sleeve having a multiplicity of closely arranged generally conical or pyramidal protuberances radiating toward and engaging the periphery of the scintillator crystal to cushion shocks effectively and having a reflective material, such as aluminum oxide powder, in the space between the proturberances. The reflector means provides improved shock absorption because of the uniform support and cushioning action of the protuberances and also provides the detector with the necessary high efficiency. The silicone rubber composition is specially compounded to include a large amount of aluminum oxide which enables the rubber to function effectively as a light reflector where it contacts the crystal

1976-06-28

146

Aerosol detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aerosol detector of the ionization chamber type (fire or smoke detector) has got a testing device for simulation of an aerosol, which is necessary especially for battery-powered instruments. The instrument essentially consists of a chamber with two electrodes, a radioactive source, as well as analyzing electronics. Simulation can be performed by means of a damping device which, in the form of a flat spring, is manually brought into the radiation path from outside the chamber. By this means there is achieved an attenuation of the radiation resp. of the ionizing current between the electrodes. The attenuation may be increased until an alarm signal is given. (DG)[de] Der Aerosol-Detektor vom Ionisationskammertyp (Feuer- oder Rauchdetektor) besitzt eine Testeinrichtung zur Simulation eines Aerosols, was insbesondere bei batteriebetriebenen Geraeten notwendig ist. Das Geraet besteht im wesentlichen aus einer Kammer mit zwei Elektroden, einer radioaktiven Strahlenquelle sowie einer Auswerteelektronik. Die Simulation kann mittels einer Daempfungseinrichtung durchgefuehrt werden, die in Form einer Blattfeder manuell von ausserhalb der Kammer in den Strahlenweg gebracht wird. Hierdurch erfolgt eine Schwaechung der Strahlung bzw. des Ionisationsstromes zwischen den Elektroden. Die Schwaechung kann bis zur Ausloesung eines Alarmsignals verstaerkt werden. (DG)

1978-01-01

147

Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is given. It is a calorimetric detector, which covers almost the complete solid angle around the interaction region with segmented calorimeter ''towers''. A 1.5 Tesla superconducting solenoid, 3m in diameter and 5m long, provides a uniform magnetic field in the central region for magnetic analysis of charged particles. The magnetic field volume is filled with a large cylindrical drift chamber and a set of Time Projection Chambers. Muon detection is accomplished with drift chambers outside the calorimeters in the central region and with large magnetized steel toroids and associated drift chambers in the forward-backward regions. The electronics has a large dynamic range to allow measurement of both high energy clusters and small energy depositions made by penetrating muons. Interesting events are identified by a trigger system which, together with the rest of the data acquisition system, is FASTBUS based

1985-01-01

148

Oscillator detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an oscillatory electronic circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. The output wave form, eg., frequency of oscillation or wave shape, of the oscillatory circuit depends upon the temperaturedependent electrical characteristic of the monitoring element. A predetermined change in the output waveform allows water to be discriminated from another liquid, eg., oil. Features of the invention employing two thermistors in two oscillatory circuits include positioning one thermistor for contact with water and the other thermistor above the oil-water interface to detect a layer of oil if present. Unique oscillatory circuit arrangements are shown that achieve effective thermistor action with an economy of parts and energizing power. These include an operational amplifier employed in an astable multivibrator circuit, a discrete transistor-powered tank circuit, and use of an integrated circuit chip.

Potter, B.M.

1980-05-13

149

OPERA: Electronic Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPERA detector aims to see ?? appearance in the CNGS ?? beam as a result of neutrino oscillations. It is a hybrid detector consisting of both nuclear emulsions and electronic detectors that are discribed in this poster.

OPERA Collaboration; Cazes, A.; Dusini, S.; Gornushkin, Y.

2012-08-01

150

Diamond pixel detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Radiation hard diamond pixel detectors are an attractive alternative to silicon detectors for use at the LHC. Recent results on the pulse height and efficiency of a diamond pixel detector using CMS pixel readout electronics are presented.

Schnetzer, S

2001-01-01

151

Arterial blood oxygen saturation detector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A artery blood oxygen saturation detecting device comprises a light generator, a receiving detector, a carrier and a jointer connected with a cardioelectric patient monitor, and the carrier can adopts a wire or a nonconductor made of medical used high polymer materials. If the carrier is the wire, the light generator and the receiving detector are equipped on the position where the carrier goes to the human body gullet portion positioned on the same side with the carrier, the jointer is connected on one end which the carrier exposes out of the human body, and the receiving detector is electrically connected with the jointer through the carrier. If the carrier is made of the medical used high polymer materials, connection wires need increasing, the light generator and the receiving detector are equipped on the position where the carrier goes to the human body gullet portion positioned on the same side with the carrier, the connection wires are fixed on the carrier, the free ends are connected with the jointer, and the receiving detector is electrically connected with the jointer through connection wires. The detecting device can quickly and precisely detect the blood oxygen saturation on human body central parts, and timely reflects the oxygen supplement and oxygen saturation conditions on human important organs.

ZHU ZHAOQIONG; WEI WEI; LIU JIN

152

The Detector DCR  

CERN Multimedia

The Detector Concept Report (DCR) consists of two parts, one for the physics and the other for ILC detectors. It has been prepared as the accompany document of the ILC Accelerator Reference Design Report. The detector DCR describes ILC detector designs, R&Ds on detector technologies and expected performances. The overview of the Detector DCR and the plan for the final release are presented.

Miyamoto, Akiya

2007-01-01

153

MUON DETECTORS: CSC  

CERN Multimedia

The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

J. Hauser

2011-01-01

154

The Forward Detectors of CDF and DØ  

CERN Multimedia

The forward detectors of CDF II are presented with emphasis on design aspects that proved crucial for carrying out a successful program on diffraction at the Tevatron. Alignment, calibrations and backgrounds are discussed, pointing out their relevance to the diffractive and central exclusive production physics programs planned at the LHC. The DØ forward detectors, which with forward spectrometer on both the ¯p and p sides offer the opportunity for a program complementarity to that of CDF are briefly presented for completeness.

Goulianos, Konstantin

2010-01-01

155

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle spectra and RCP in lead-lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Multimedia

Lead-lead collisions at the LHC provide an opportunity to study the properties of strongly interacting matter at the highest temperatures and energy densities ever achieved in the lab- oratory. In particular, jets are expected to be strongly quenched in the presence of the hot, dense medium, as illustrated by the centrality dependence of the dijet asymmetry already measured by ATLAS. Evidence of jet quenching can also be obtained from a measurement of inclusive charged particles at large transverse momentum, and in particular comparisons of spectral shapes between central and peripheral collisions. This note presents charged particle spectra as a function of centrality and rapidity, corrected for efficiency, fake tracks, secondaries and resolution. Using these, the ratio of scaled central to peripheral charged particle yields, RCP, is measured as a function of pT, centrality and pseudorapidity.

The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

156

Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

Bonanos, Peter (East Brunswick, NJ)

1992-01-01

157

Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta  

Science.gov (United States)

A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector are described in this paper. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

Bonanos, P.

1990-11-30

158

Backscattered electron detector for Auger-microprobe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Backscattered electron detector on the basis of microchannel plate is intended for formation of topographic and composition contrasts on the sample surface image during JAMP-10S Auger-microprobe operation in screen electron microscope mode. The detector dimensions are 20 (diameter) x 5 mm, amplification coefficient - 104, power supply voltage - 800 V, charge solid angle - 0.76 sr. The detector is manufactured in form of a ring with central hole for primary beam transition. The outer cylinder of stainless steel determines the detector dimensions. The inner cylinder of tantalum foil 0.05 mm thick prevents origination of eddy currents and their perturbation influence on the primary beam. Meshes of stainless steel (transparency -0.85), limiting internal volume and preventing electric field penetration beyond the detector are welded onto the cylinder by pointwise method

1991-01-01

159

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers.

1987-01-01

160

Si pad detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Si pad detectors with 256 separate cells with routing of each pad to external bonding pads for connection with strip detector front-end chips have been developed. The principles of the detector layout and technology are described. These detectors are connected to low noise VA2 chips. The spatial and energy resolution are determined. Some possible applications are discussed. (orig.)

1996-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

1988-01-01

162

Measurement of muons in hadronic events with the MARK J detector at PETRA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the reaction e+e-??+hadrons is studied. The basing data were taken with the MARK J detector at the e+e--storage ring PETRA. Comprehensive studies were performed in order to test the different fragmentation models for the transmutation of the primarily produced quarks and gluons in observable particles. In the framwork of the precise study of hadronic events with muons an increased number of events with two equally charged muons in opposite jets was found. This result can be interpreted as effect of a particle-antiparticle mixing in the B0anti B0 system. From the measured number a lower limit for the parameter ? can be determined which indicates the relative contribution of all originary B mesons which decay as antiparticles anti B: ?>0.05 with 90% C.L.. By this regarding the relative frequency of the different B mesons a common lower limit for the mixing in the Bd0anti Bd0 and Bs0anti Bs0 can be determined. The found values represent an independent confirmation of results of UA1 and ARGUS which were measured at the panti p storage ring respectively on the ? resonance. (orig./HSI).

1988-01-01

163

Centrality dependence of Jet Yields and Jet Fragmentation in Lead-Lead Collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Measurements are presented for jet spectra and jet yield central-to-peripheral ratios (RCP) and jet charged particle fragmentation distributions in ?sNN = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data obtained from the Fall 2010 LHC Pb+Pb run. A total of 47 million events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 ?b?1 were analyzed. Jets are measured using the anti-kt algorithm for two jet sizes, R = 0.2 and R = 0.4. Results are presented for jet spectra with ET > 100 GeV (R = 0.4) and ET > 50 GeV (R = 0.2) over the pseudorapidity range |?| < 2.8. The Ncoll normalized yields and central to peripheral ratios (RCP) are presented as a function of jet ET and for 10% bins in Pb+Pb collision centrality over the centrality range 0-80%. Distributions of longitudinal and transverse momenta of charged particle fragments in R = 0.2 and R = 0.4 jets are also presented, with comparisons between central and peripheral collisions. Results of di-jet asymmetry measurements using nearly the full Fall 2...

The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

164

HELGA HPGe detectors. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improvement in the present HELGA project, could be obtained, if the remaining units purchased could be N-type detectors, since the dead layer on these units is negligible. Some improvement in sensitivity could be obtained with the N-type units, because of the virtual elimination of the dead layer, but it would require an additional power, supply and some addition to and modification of the existing electronics. During the course of the contract an experiment, was suggested to verify the analysis and to introduce the application variables one by one. In this manner, these variables could be better, understood and controlled. The experiment would use an N-type slab-like detector and the beam would be collimated toward its central portion. In this manner, the effect of the dead layer, detector, geometry and non-uniform electric field would be eliminated. Penetrating gamma rays should be used so that their, range is a substantial (about 3/4) fraction of the detector thickness arid the count rate should be low to minimize dead time corrections. This experiment would eliminate many of the corrections that need to be introduced into the calculations to bring the experiment into a seasonable agreement.

Reintiz, K. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Suitland, MD (United States)

1987-05-31

165

Central Meson Production in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. First analysis results of meson production in double gap events in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV are presented.

Schicker, Rainer

2011-01-01

166

Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

1989-07-01

167

Electrical engineering for the L* detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively involved in detector R and D activities for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) for the past 2 years. During that time, the number of collaborative efforts with other institutions and the variety of topics being investigated have increased steadily. One of the most crucial areas of investigation has been related to the development of electronic systems that will gather and process the data emerging from the various detectors. The requirements being placed on these electronic 'readout' systems are staggering and at times conflicting. The number of data channels projected for a typical SSC detector system is greater than 1 million. Data may be available from the detector every 16 ns; this means that the readout electronics must be capable of responding to this very fast data rate. To compound the issue, heat dissipation will be a severe problem because of the sheer density of electronics needed for readout of millions of channels. Yet another concern is the hostile radiation environment to which the electronics will be subjected. It has been estimated that the accumulated dose seen by the electronic readout systems will be from 10 to 100 Mrads over the lifetime of the detector, depending on the location within the detector. Obviously, there are serious tradeoff issues that must be resolved. One of the major electronics R and D activities at ORNL is related to the Hybrid Central Tracking subsystem. This central tracking subsystem is a candidate for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration. The Hybrid Central Tracker gets its name because it is a hybrid arrangement of concentric layers of strawtube drift chambers and scintillating fibers. The work at ORNL has been targeted primarily toward electronics development for strawtube readout

1991-01-01

168

The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent  

CERN Multimedia

The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji

2010-01-01

169

Scintillator based detector systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scintillator detectors have wide applications in High Energy and Nuclear Physics Experiments, in medical imaging, in X-ray security apparatus, industrial inspection and in gamma portal monitors. Applications of scintillation detectors is discussed. (author)

2005-01-01

170

Tevatron detector upgrades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

171

Gas filled detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

1993-01-01

172

Computed tomography detector apparatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention discloses a computed tomography detector apparatus, including a substrate (30) defining a recessed area (52). The computed tomography detector apparatus also includes a heat pipe (44) at least partially disposed within the recessed area (52). The computed tomography detector apparatus also includes an electronic component (36) attached to the substrate (30).

JAMES LACEY JOSEPH; ASHUTOSH JOSHI

173

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1995-09-01

174

Equalized near maximum likelihood detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performan...

AL-Rawi, Muhanned; Ibb University; AL-Rawi, Muaayed; Al-Mustansiriya University

175

Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

1992-04-01

176

Radiation detectors laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

1997-01-01

177

Phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The spectrometric characteristics of a scintillation phoswich detector for ?-spectroscopy are described. The phoswich detector is composed of two detectors, one of which is an inorganic scintillator (calcium chlor borate) and the other is a scintillating plastic. The background of this phoswich detector is a factor of 9.3 lower than that of a single detector based on a plastic scintillator. At the same time, the dependence of its pulse heights on the ?-particle energy is shown to be proportional[ru] ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ??????-????????? ??? ????????????? ?-?????????. ??????-???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????: ???? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????? - ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????. ????? ??????-???????? ???????? ????? ? 9.3 ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ?-???????

2007-01-01

178

MEG liquid xenon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We constructed a gamma-ray detector using 900 L of liquid xenon to identify a 52.8-MeV gamma ray from the lepton-flavor violating muon decay, ? ?e?. The detector uses only scintillation light originating from liquid xenon to reconstruct the gamma-ray energy, interaction position, and arrival time. A new photomultiplier that can be operated in liquid xenon has been newly developed for this detector. Details of the detector is described in this paper along with the present performance of the detector.

2011-07-25

179

Technology development of 3D detectors for medical imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fabrication routes to realising '3D' detectors in gallium arsenide have been investigated and their electrical characteristics measured. The geometry of the detector is hexagonal with a central anode surrounded by six cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform electric field with the maximum drift and depletion distance set by electrode spacings rather than detector thickness. The advantages of this structure include short collection distances, fast collection times and low depletion voltages depending on the electrode diameter and pitch chosen. These characteristics are fundamental for the application of 3D detectors in, for example, medical imaging and protein crystallography.

Pellegrini, Giulio E-mail: giuliop@a5.ph.gla.ac.uk; Roy, P.; Al-Ajili, A.; Bates, R.; Haddad, L.; Horn, M.; Mathieson, K.; Melone, J.; O' Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.; Thayne, I.; Rahman, M

2003-05-21

180

Technology development of 3D detectors for medical imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fabrication routes to realising '3D' detectors in gallium arsenide have been investigated and their electrical characteristics measured. The geometry of the detector is hexagonal with a central anode surrounded by six cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform electric field with the maximum drift and depletion distance set by electrode spacings rather than detector thickness. The advantages of this structure include short collection distances, fast collection times and low depletion voltages depending on the electrode diameter and pitch chosen. These characteristics are fundamental for the application of 3D detectors in, for example, medical imaging and protein crystallography.

2003-05-21

 
 
 
 
181

Radio-frequency induction for checking fire detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method of testing fire detectors in the glove-box lines has been developed. The method includes heating the fire detector by a strong electromagnetic field which induces eddy currents in the metal case of the fire detector. Developed as a radio-frequency induction heating system, a prototype was designed and built for use with fire detectors installed at the Rocky Flats Plant. The system has been tested and operates satisfactorily. It is concluded that the system could be installed in glove boxes and could easily be automated from a central point. Applications exist for glove-box lines on site or for facilities off site

1976-01-01

182

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

2012-01-01

183

Centrality dependence of charged particle spectra and RCP in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC measures the charged particle spectra and the nuclear modification factor in Pb+Pb collisions at the \\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76TeV in a transverse momentum range up to 30 GeV and a pseudorapidity range up to |\\eta| < 2.5. The measurement reveals the strong suppression of charged hadron production in the most central collisions at a p_T of about 7 GeV. A suppression of more than a factor of 2 is also measured at the upper edge of the analyzed p_T range. The suppression does not show any strong \\eta dependence.

Milov, Alexander

2011-01-01

184

Radiation detectors laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author).

1996-06-26

185

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Document Server

P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the ?rst ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

T. Camporesi

186

Shielding calculations for the SNO detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma-ray background into the central D2O vessel of the SNO detector due to Th and U in the rock, concrete, and photomultipliers is calculated. A cylindrical geometry and concrete thicknesses of 0.5 and 1 m are assumed. The effect of adding boron to the concrete is also considered. It is concluded that backgrounds from (?,n) reactions can be reduced to the required level. These calculations will assist in finalizing the detector design but additional calculations will be required as new design details become known

1987-01-01

187

Electron identification in the D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents the characteristics of the D0 detector together with the methods applied to identify electrons. The electron identification technique uses calorimeter information together with data from the central tracking detectors. The fine longitudinal and transverse segmentation of the D0 calorimeter enables the achievement of very good pion rejection for electrons above 20 GeV. The D0 calorimeter also provides excellent linearity of response for electrons above 110 GeV. Here the author presents recent results of studies of energy response for electrons with energy down to 2 GeV and discusses necessary extensions of electron identification algorithms for B-physics studies.

1993-07-02

188

STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade-HFT Pixel Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

2009-03-10

189

Simulation of the GEM silicon central tracker using GEANT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The silicon central tracker of the GEM detector has been simulated using the high energy physics simulations code GEANT. This paper will describe the level of detail of the geometry of the tracker that is in the code, including the silicon detectors themselves as well as all non-sensitive volumes such as support structures; the digitization, or detector response to particles, of the silicon detectors; the coordinate reconstruction from the digitizations, and some of the results of the simulations regarding the detector performance.

Brooks, M.L.; Kinnison, W.W.

1994-01-01

190

Nuclear radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector with a metal-dielectric-semiconductor (MDS) structure has been developed for accurate measurements of nuclear radiation characteristics. The detector proposed is made of an n-type silicon crystal having an impurity diffused on one side. A distinguishing feature of this detector is its semiconductor element being made with a carrier concentration gradient whose maximum is near the surface with the dielectric layer. If an external voltage is applied to such MDS-detector, a potential hollow is formed at a certain depth in the semiconductor plate, which hinders the contribution of the diffusion component to the output signal. The process of fabricating the MDS-detector is described, and its energy-band diagrams are given. The above MDS-detector of nuclear radiation features a low intrinsic noise level, is easy for manufacture, highly reliable and has time resolution.

1972-01-01

191

The atlas detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

2001-01-01

192

ATLAS inner detector performance  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three subsystems using different tracking detector technologies: silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes. The combination gives ATLAS a robust, hermetic and efficient tracking system, able to reconstruct tracks at the highest foreseen LHC luminosities. The inner detector provides vertex and momentum measurements, electron identification and some $K/\\pi$ separation. Since last year the beam pipe of ATLAS was changed, causing a redesign of the first tracking layer and a deterioration of the impact parameter resolutions.

Gadomski, S

2001-01-01

193

CCD beam size detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The characteristic of CCD Beam Size Detector is employing a Charge Coupling Device (CCD) as the transducer, and Synchrolight of beam as the signal source. The detector has both analogous output and digital output. Its measurement ratio is relatavely higher, and it does not interrupt beam lifetime. So this detector is an effective device for electron and positron storage ring operation and studies

1987-01-01

194

Detector support head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The support head of detectors for densitometric measurements of the regional function of lungs using gamma radiation consists of a group of detectors placed in a common rack. The detectors are placed on holders with adjustable height which allow side movement. The holders are slidably connected to the converging quide rail on the frame via arms. Between the holders and the rack is fitted the drive mechanism consisting of a screw. The design allows the stable adjustment of detectors on the lung field during examination and thereby allows the comparison of results of measurements carried out at different times. (J.B.). 2 figs.

1983-12-09

195

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is AC coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undesirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described. (Auth.).

1979-01-01

196

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The encapulation of germanium detectors has been a long sought after goal. We have begun to develop encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented in the paper.

Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Phel, R.H.; Cork, C.P.; Luke, P.N.; Landis, D.A.; Pollard, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States))

1991-08-01

197

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)  

CERN Multimedia

Pit commissioning activities The last 4 months have seen various major achievements in hardware commissioning, global data taking, readiness of the DPGs to deal with LHC data flows and alignment and calibration workflows. Since February, the global commissioning has been characterized on the one side by more and more of the final CMS detector becoming available for global readout and triggering and on the other side by consolidation of many of the central software infrastructure and of most of the services infrastructure. The reliability of services like cooling, power, gas has markedly improved with respect to what we observed in the second half of 2007.   Of particular note are the delivery of all low voltage power supplies, the commissioning of the final power distribution, the progressive commissioning ( still ongoing)  of the Detector Safety System and of the associated DCS early warning and alarm system. On the detector side, while already we are used to seeing all of HCAL being exe...

Tiziano Camporesi

198

A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

Acconcia, T V; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencedi, G; Bencze, G; Berenyi, D; Boldizsar, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Cindolo, F; Chinellato, D D; D'Ambrosio, S; Das, D; Das-Bose, L; Dash, A K; De Cataldo, G; De Pasquale, S; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futo, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Iannone, G; Jimenez, R T; Kim, D W; Kim, J S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Levai, P; Nappi, E; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Mayani, D; Molnar, L; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patimo, G; Patino, M E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Takahashi, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I K

2013-01-01

199

Report of the Central Tracking Group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Issues involved in building a realistic central tracking system for a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector for the SSC are addressed. Such a central tracking system must be capable of running at the full design luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Momentum measurement was required in a general-purpose 4..pi.. detector. Limitations on charged particle tracking detectors at the SSC imposed by rates and radiation damage are reviewed. Cell occupancy is the dominant constraint, which led us to the conclusion that only small cells, either wires or straw tubes, are suitable for a central tracking system at the SSC. Mechanical problems involved in building a central tracking system of either wires or straw tubes were studied, and our conclusion was that it is possible to build such a large central tracking system. Of course, a great deal of research and development is required. We also considered central tracking systems made of scintillating fibers or silicon microstrips, but our conclusion was that neither is a realistic candidate given the current state of technology. We began to work on computer simulation of a realistic central tracking system. Events from interesting physics processes at the SSC will be complex and will be further complicated by hits from out-of-time bunch crossings and multiple interactions within the same bunch crossing. Detailed computer simulations are needed to demonstrate that the pattern recognition and tracking problems can be solved.

Cassel, D.G.; Hanson, G.G.

1986-10-01

200

Tests of a prototype of an uranium scintillator calorimeter for the UA-1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An existing iron scintillation sandwich calorimeter at the CERN pp-bar collider should be replaced in future by a more precise uranium calorimeter. A prototype of the latter is investigated in the present work. A method has been developed for collecting scintillator photons and conducting them out from the magnetic field in thin light-guides. Several modules have been tested over 6 months in a SPS- and a PS test beam with different particles and momenta. Several calibration methods have been developed and applied in the evaluation of gathered data. Linearity and energy resolution are as expected for the given geometry. With regard to the read-out technique, there is considerable deterioration of energy resolution due to signal amplitude variations from different points in the calorimeter. The measured photon yield is sufficient for the application envisaged. 31 refs., 56 figs. (qui).

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Analysis of the production of W and Z bosons in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the discovery in 1983 of the intermediate vector bosons W and Z, the number of events has considerably increased so that the first time one can study their properties precisely. A selection procedure for W ? e? and Z ? e+e- events, taking into account several quality criteria in a common ?2, gives final samples of 294 W ? e? events and 31 Z ? e+e- events. With these two samples, it is then possible to study the production and decay properties of the intermediate vector bosons in terms of cross sections, and Standard Model parameters as well as angular W/Z decay distribution of charged leptons. Measuring the R = ?W/?Z ratio yields an upper limit to the number of light neutrino species. The W longitudinal and transverse momentum distribution have been analysed in detail and confirm QCD predictions. Moreover, the vector character of the gluon, necessary in QCD, can be shown directly in large momentum W events. In conclusion, the experimental distributions of the W ? e? and Z ? e+e- events confirm the Standard Model Predictions (electroweak and QCD) at Q2 = M2W[fr] Depuis la decouverte des bosons intermediaires W et Z en 1983, le nombre d'evenements observes s'est considerablement acccru, permettant ainsi pour la premiere fois une etude plus detaillee de leurs proprietes. Une methode de selection des evenements W ? e? et Z ? e+e- qui prend en compte plusieurs criteres de qualite dans un ?2 commun, conduit a la selection d'echantillons finals de 294 evenements W ? e? et 31 evenements Z ? e+e-. Ces deux echantillons servent alors pour l'etude des proprietes de production et de desintegration des bosons vecteurs intermediaires: notamment en ce qui concerne les sections efficaces, les masses et les parametres du Modele Standard ainsi que les distributions angulaires des leptons charges de la desintegration du W et du Z. La mesure du rapport R = ?W/?Z met une limite superieure au nombre d'especes de neutrinos legers. L'analyse des mouvements longitudinaux et transverse des W a confirme les predictions de QCD. En outre, le caractere vectoriel du gluon, necessaire dans QCD, peut etre directement mis en evidence dans les evenements W a grande impulsion transverse. En conclusion, les distributions experimentales des evenements W ? e? et Z ? e+e- confirment les predictions du Modele Standard (electro-faible et QCD) a Q2 = M2W

1987-01-01

202

Cross-sections and masses of the intermediate vector bosons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this analysis we study the cross-sections of W± ? ?±? and Z0 ? ?+?- and the masses of the intermediate vector bosons in panti p collisions. Related subjects, such as the total width of the W±, which test the Standard Model are discussed. (orig.)

1991-01-01

203

Restoration of U$_A$(1) symmetry and meson spectrum in hot or dense matter  

CERN Multimedia

We explore the effects of breaking and restoration of chiral and axial symmetries using an extended three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that incorporates explicitly the axial anomaly through the 't Hooft interaction. We implement a temperature (density) dependence of the anomaly coefficient motivated by lattice results for the topological susceptibility. The spectrum of scalar and pseudoscalar mesons is analyzed bearing in mind the identification of chiral partners and the study of its convergence. We also concentrate on the behavior of the mixing angles that give us relevant information on the issue under discussion. The results suggest that the axial part of the symmetry is restored before the possible restoration of the full U(3)$\\otimes$U(3) chiral symmetry might occur.

Costa, P; De Sousa, C A; Kalinovskii, Yu L; Costa, Pedro; Kalinovsky, Yu. L.

2005-01-01

204

Detectors technology. Technologies des capteurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These electronic days 93 are divided into 5 parts bearing on: Optic detectors (6 papers), micronic detectors (7 papers), image detectors (3 papers), radiation detectors (7 papers) and magnetic detectors (5 papers). Only 3 papers were in the scope and analyzed separately.

1993-01-01

205

Lithium metal detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved alkali metal ionization detector is described which operates with a filament electrode temperature of at least 11000C to detect lithium atoms or compounds present in a gas. Alarm monitors based on this type of detector can be used to detect leaks of lithium to air in fusion reactors and test systems. (U.K.)

1981-06-25

206

BESII Detector Simulation  

CERN Document Server

A Monte Carlo program based on Geant3 has been developed for BESII detector simulation. The organization of the program is outlined, and the digitization procedure for simulating the response of various sub-detectors is described. Comparisons with data show that the performance of the program is generally satisfactory.

Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, J J C; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X P; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, C G; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, Y L; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, L X; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Sun, H S; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z W; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Y; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

2005-01-01

207

Gaseous Dark Matter Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Dark Matter detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic Dark Matter halo models. In this article, we introduce the motivation for directional detectors, discuss the experimental techniques that make directional detection possible, and review the status of the experimental effort in this field.

Sciolla, Gabriella

2009-01-01

208

Alkali ionization detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A calibration filament containing a sodium-bearing compound is included in combination with the sensing filament and ion collector plate of a sodium ionization detector to permit periodic generation of sodium atoms for the in-situ calibration of the detector.

Hrizo, John (Monroeville, PA); Bauerle, James E. (Plum Borough, PA); Witkowski, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA)

1982-01-01

209

The ALEPH detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the design of ALEPH to study e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation phenomena at LEP is presented, with a description of some of the major detector components. Examples are given of how the detector capabilities may be exploited to study some specific physics processes.

1986-01-01

210

Pixel detector readout chip  

CERN Document Server

Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

1991-01-01

211

ALICE Silicon Strip Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

Nooren, G

2013-01-01

212

Arsenic activation neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector of bursts of neutrons from a deuterium-deuteron reaction includes a quantity of arsenic adjacent a gamma detector such as a scintillator and photomultiplier tube. The arsenic is activated by the 2.5 Mev neutrons to release gamma radiation which is detected to give a quantitative representation of detected neutrons.

Jacobs, Eddy L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1981-01-01

213

Detector Systems at CLIC  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

Simon, Frank

2011-01-01

214

Detector for thermoluminescence dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector for thermoluminescence dosimetry (Telde(Tm) ) based on an ionic compound is shaped as a pellet. The pellet is composed of a plurality of single-crystal particles bonded together by molecular forces. A method for manufacturing such a detector is carried out by melting a powdered ionic compound in vacuum and then slowly cooling it whereby a pellet is formed.

Gotlib, V.I.; Grant, Z.A.; Grube, M.M.

1981-08-25

215

The LHCb vertex detector  

CERN Document Server

LHCb is a dedicated LHC experiment for precision measurements of CP- violation and rare decays in the B meson sector. Achieving excellent resolution on the production and decay vertices of b-hadrons is vital to this programme. The design of the vertex detector is reviewed, the development programme outlined, and results from the first prototype detectors are provided. (3 refs).

Bowcock, T J V

1999-01-01

216

The LHCb vertex detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LHCb is a dedicated LHC experiment for precision measurements of CP-violation and rare decays in the B meson sector. Achieving excellent resolution on the production and decay vertices of b-hadrons is vital to this programme. The design of the vertex detector is reviewed, the development programme outlined, and results from the first prototype detectors are provided. (author)

Bowcock, T. E-mail: themis.bowcock@CERN.CH; Parkes, C. E-mail: chris.parkes@CERN.CH

1999-10-01

217

Calorimetric ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new mode of operation for ionization detectors is described. The amount of ionization produced in a detector is determined by measuring the amount of heat generated during the carrier collection process. Very high detection sensitivities, including single carrier detection, may be achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Results from an experimental device operated at T=0.3 K are presented. (orig.).

1990-01-01

218

Calorimetric Ionization Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new mode of operation for ionization detectors is described. The amount of ionization produced in a detector is determined by measuring the amount of heat generated during the carrier collection process. Very high detection sensitivities, including single carrier detection, may be achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Results from an experimental device operated at T = 0.3K is presented.

Luke, P.N.; Beeman, J.; Goulding, F.S.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

1989-07-01

219

The Aleph minivertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The performance of the Aleph vertex detector is described. It consists of two layers of double- sided silicon strip detectors installed around the beam pipe of LEP, inside the Aleph apparatus. The purpose of the Vertex Detector is to measure with high accuracy both coordinates of the impact point of charged particles produced in Z0 decays. The physics goal is to identify events with beauty particles. The paper describes the different components of the detector: supporting structure, silicon detectors, electronics. Results on efficiency for m.i.p., space resolution and charge correlation for the two sides are shown. In particular, a space resolution of 13 ?m in (r-?) and 25 ?m in (r-z) has been obtained with high momentum particles. The above values are in fairly good agreement with the expected performance for 100 and 200 ?m pitch readout. Track matching efficiency, double track resolution and S/N measurement are presented. Cooling and radiation problems are discussed.

1990-01-01

220

Advanced far infrared detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > ? > 50 ?m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...  

CERN Multimedia

ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

2006-01-01

222

TTC distribution for LHC detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At each of the CERN LHC experiments, timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals must be distributed to numerous electronic systems from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. A multichannel optical distribution system has been developed which can broadcast the signals to several thousand destinations from a few relatively high power laser sources over a passive optical fiber network with uncontrolled path lengths. The system delivers the LHC timing reference and first-level trigger decisions with the corresponding bunch and event numbers. It incorporates facilities to compensate for particle flight times and detector, electronics and propagation delays. In addition it provides for the simultaneous transmission of synchronized broadcast commands and individually-addressed controls and parameters, such as channel masks and calibration data.

1998-01-01

223

Reliability assessment of smoke detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary analysis of smoke detector test data is reported. The data correspond to the threshold limit test (i.e. minimum aerosol concentration for operating of the detector) carried out using the smoke detector tester developed by UKAEA, Harwell. The Harwell smoke detector MK1 provides a convenient means to measure the response level of smoke detectors. Differences in response levels of different detector types are discussed assuming that response levels follow normal and Weibull distributions. A pass fail criterion is proposed.

Kamath, A.R.R.

1981-10-01

224

The HERMES recoil detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

2013-02-15

225

Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

2012-02-01

226

Detectors of penetrating radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to detectors of penetrating radiation, in particular x-radiation. The detector comprises a photoconductive material to which two electrical signals are applied. An output signal is detected and in the presence of radiation incident on the detector this includes a component formed by mixing of the two input signals, an harmonic if they are of the same frequency. The amplitude of that component is proportional to the intensity of the incident radiation. There is also a background component which should either be reduced to insignificant proportions or removed. Advantageous electrode arrangements for such a device are also disclosed.

Blundell, S.J.; Turner, C.W.

1981-03-10

227

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AGILE is a ?-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10-4. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS.

2006-01-01

228

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AGILE is a {gamma}-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10{sup -4}. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS.

Perotti, F. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: franz@mi.iasf.cnr.it; Fiorini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Incorvaia, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Mattaini, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy); Sant' Ambrogio, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica-INAF, Sezione ' G.Occhialini' di Milano, Via Bassini, 15-20133 Milan (Italy)

2006-01-01

229

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

CERN Multimedia

AGILE is a ?-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV–50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15–45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10?4. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS.

Perotti, F; Incorvaia, S; Mattaini, E; Sant’Ambrogio, E

2005-01-01

230

FOXFET biassed microstrip detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed for biassing the strips of a silicon microstrip detector with a tunable dynamic resistance. This allows the strip potentials to be tied to a fixed voltage, virtually independent of the strip leakage currents, whilst requiring no processing steps additional to those needed for a standard capacitively coupled detector. Results are presented for full sized detectors (3.3 cmx6.0 cm) both measured on a probe station and equipped with VLSI readout (MX3) chips. Assemblies are currently undergoing beam tests at CERN with indications of very promising performance. (orig.)

1991-12-01

231

Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57Co and 60Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.).

1982-01-01

232

FOXFET biassed microstrip detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method has been developed for biassing the strips of a silicon microstrip detector with a tunable dynamic resistance. This allows the strip potentials to be tied to a fixed voltage, virtually independent of the strip leakage currents, whilst requiring no processing steps additional to those needed for a standard capacitively coupled detector. Results are presented for full sized detectors (3.3 cmx6.0 cm) both measured on a probe station and equipped with VLSI readout (MX3) chips. Assemblies are currently undergoing beam tests at CERN with indications of very promising performance. (orig.).

Allport, P.P.; Carter, J.R.; Gibson, V.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hill, J.C.; Katvars, S.G. (Cavendish Lab., Univ. Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Wilburn, C.D. (Micron Semiconductors Limited, Lancing (United Kingdom)); Carter, A.A.; Pritchard, T.W. (QMW, London Univ. (United Kingdom)); Nardini, L.; Seller, P.; Thomas, S.L. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))

1991-12-01

233

Lightweight neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A neutron detector is disclosed which uses the moderating material as the structural support for the neutron detector element. A thin metal liner is affixed to the inside of the plastic moderating material encasement for containing a neutron detecting gas. A high voltage supply is connected to an electrical conductor which extends between the ends of the encasement and serves to furnish output pulses to a pulse counter upon the occurrence of ionization of the counting gas in response to neutron flux through the volume of the detector.

Young, C.A.; Geelhood, B.D.; Silva, D.M.

1984-07-31

234

PIN Diode Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and ?-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector.

2008-07-02

235

LHC detector upgrades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LHC detectors are well into their construction phase. The LHC schedule shows first beam to ATLAS and CMS in 2007. Because the LHC accelerator has begun to plan for a ten fold increase in LHC design luminosity (the SLHC or super LHC) it is none too soon to begin to think about the upgrades which will be required of the present LHC detectors. In particular, the tracking systems of ATLAS and CMS will need to be completely rebuilt. Given the time needed to do the R & D, make prototypes, and construct the new detectors and given the accelerator schedule for the SLHC, work needs to begin rather soon.

Dan Green

2003-09-15

236

Lithium germanium detectors reactivation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author)

1981-01-01

237

A TPC for the near detector at T2K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokai to Kamiokande (T2K) experiment is the first of the next generation of long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Its aim is to measure ?13 and improve the measurements on ?23 and ?m223. A highly pure neutrino beam is directed from the new accelerator center JPARC in Japan to SuperKamiokande. In addition to this far detector a second detector, the near detector (ND280), is constructed 280 m away from the target. The purpose of this detector is to measure the neutrino flux prior to its oscillation and to measure the poorly known neutrino interaction properties around 1 GeV. A central component of ND280 are three TPCs with Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) readout. In this article the purpose of the T2K experiment is explained and the R and D efforts for the main components of the TPC are presented.

2007-01-01

238

A Photon Multiplicity Detector for the ALICE Experiment  

CERN Document Server

We describe the basic characteristics of a preshower photon multiplicity detector. The event-by-event fluctuation in the detected Ngamma/Nch is less than 3% for central events of VENUS event generator compared to 2.3% value for the raw event generator, suggesting excellent sensitivity of the detector to study isospin fluctuations. Detector performance can be optimised using both silicon and gas as the sensitive medium. The preshower signal shows good sensitivity to provide estimates of transverse e.m. energy.

Viyogi, Y P; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

239

Forward detector for the DO area at Fermilab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 90% of the energy from a ..sqrt.. s = 2000 GeV anti pp collision goes out at angles <2/sup 0/ in the laboratory. We propose a detector for the DO area which emphasizes tracking and calorimetry down to the smallest practical angles. A detector of this type is essential for studying the general features of collisions at Collider energies, particularly the energy flow, multiplicity and inelastic cross section. It will also play a very important role in selecting hard collisions which will reduce the background for new physics in a central detector.

Longo, M.J.

1982-01-01

240

PE Central  

Science.gov (United States)

The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Solid radiation detector and detector array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid x-ray detector with high sensitivity can be produced in compact multiple arrays for use e.g. in the computerized tomography. It is built in a multiple film structure, and for detection of the x-ray flow it uses a part of PbO, CdSe or Se. The electrodes may consist of parallel Ni-W-layers which are place together with a common bias voltage electrode on the photoconducting part. (DG)

1980-01-01

242

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (> 85%), high spatial resolution (novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, William W.; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Budinger, Thomas F.

1994-12-01

243

Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-08-01

244

Pendulum detector testing device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector testing device which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: 1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, 2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and 3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements.

Gonsalves, John M. (Modesto, CA)

1997-01-01

245

Liquid Scintillator Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper new developments and applications for the use of future liquid scintillator detectors like the proposed 50kt large LENA project are presented. New aspects of the scientific potential of LENA, including long baseline oscillation measurements, are discussed.

Oberauer, L.

2013-02-01

246

Subspace Detectors: Theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broadband subspace detectors are introduced for seismological applications that require the detection of repetitive sources that produce similar, yet significantly variable seismic signals. Like correlation detectors, of which they are a generalization, subspace detectors often permit remarkably sensitive detection of small events. The subspace detector derives its name from the fact that it projects a sliding window of data drawn from a continuous stream onto a vector signal subspace spanning the collection of signals expected to be generated by a particular source. Empirical procedures are presented for designing subspaces from clusters of events characterizing a source. Furthermore, a solution is presented for the problem of selecting the dimension of the subspace to maximize the probability of detecting repetitive events at a fixed false alarm rate. An example illustrates subspace design and detection using events in the 2002 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm.

Harris, D B

2006-07-11

247

Modular optical detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

248

Recent ATLAS Detector Improvements  

CERN Multimedia

During the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. For the calorimeters, repairs were carried out on front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that had been lost since the last maintenance period. The ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is currently being commissioned. Smaller scale repairs were needed on the Inner Detector. Maintenance on the muon system included repairs on the readout as well as updates and leak checks in the gas systems. Six TGC chambers were also replaced. This poster summarizes the repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of ATLAS for the upcoming LHC run.

de Nooij, L; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

249

The DELPHI microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector are presented. The performance in terms of impact parameter resolution, association efficiency, and ambiguity is evaluated after two years of data taking at LEP

1992-02-05

250

The LUX Prototype Detector  

CERN Document Server

The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

2012-01-01

251

ATLAS Inner Detector developments  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three layers of silicon pixels, four double layers of silicon microstrips and a Transition Radiation Tracker (straw tubes). The good performance of the track and vertex reconstruction algorithms is a direct consequence of the small radius (4.3, 10.1 and 13.2 cm), fine pitch ($50 \\times 300~\\mu$m) and low occupancy ($<3 \\times 10^{-4}$ at design luminosity) of the pixel detectors, and of the good tracking capabilities of the SCT and the TRT. The full detector simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the detector and of the reconstruction algorithms. Results are presented on track and vertex reconstruction efficiencies and resolutions, and on the separation between $b$-jets and jets produced by light quarks.

Barberis, D

2000-01-01

252

Gamma ray detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gamma-ray detector comprises a scintillation crystal (e.g. BaF[sub 2]), a gas for converting u.v. radiation generated by the crystal into electric charge carriers and a detector to detect the charge carriers, a gap being provided between the scintillation means and the detector which contains a gate electrode to inhibit the passage of charge carriers. There are also a pair of amplifying gaps to enhance the electron yield of the gas. A further reverse-biased gap may be positioned adjacent to the crystal to prevent charge build-up thereon. Shield electrodes prevent gate switching signals causing spurious responses in the detector circuit. (author).

Bateman, J.E.; Stephenson, R.

1993-05-05

253

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Document Server

The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

Christensen, C

2013-01-01

254

Europe plans megaton detector  

CERN Multimedia

A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

Cartlidge, Edwin

2004-01-01

255

Incore neutron detector assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: A new in-core neutron detector assembly has been developed, forming with zirconium alloy. Constitution: A protection pipe or guide pipe sheathed a neutron detector assembly is formed with zirconium alloy at least for one member situating in the reactor core region and with stainless steel for members situating in the other regions, and both of the members are integrated in an air tight manner by brazing. (Yoshihara, H.)

1979-01-01

256

Gaseous leak detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01

257

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

258

The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

CERN Multimedia

The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a "test beam" to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

Arqueros, F; Covault, C; D'Urso, D; Giulio, C D; Facal, P; Fick, B; Guarino, F; Malek, M; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J; Meyhandan, R; Monasor, M; Mostafa, M; Petrinca, P; Roberts, M; Sommers, P; Travnicek, P; Valore, L; Verzi, V; Wiencke, L

2005-01-01

259

Radiation detectors for reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

2005-01-01

260

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

Mathieson, K

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Protecting Detectors in ALICE  

CERN Multimedia

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related...

Mateusz Lechman, Mateusz; Chochula, Peter; Di Mauro, Antonio; Jirden, Lennart Stig; Schindler, Heinrich; Rosinsky, Peter; Moreno, Alberto; Kurepin, Alexander; Pinazza, Ombretta; De Cataldo, Giacinto

2011-01-01

262

ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)  

CERN Document Server

To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

ATLAS Outreach

2006-01-01

263

Gallium arsenide for vertex detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We give an overview of recent results in the development of GaAs detectors: they now have 100% charge collection efficiency with good reliability; they are bond-compatible with silicon detectors, with both strip and pixel geometry. New results on pixel detectors are reported as well as a short summary on the radiation hardness of SIU-GaAs detectors. (orig.).

D`Auria, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy)]|[Gruppo Collegato, Udine (Italy); Bates, R. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Da Via, C. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Del Papa, C. [Udine Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Gowdy, S. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; O`Shea, V. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Raine, C. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1997-02-11

264

Math Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Math Central is maintained by the math and education departments at the Canadian University of Regina. Possibly the most valuable section of the site is the Resource Room, which has an impressive database that is separated into materials for elementary, middle, and secondary schools. There are several specific categories for each education level, such as math history, algebra, geometry, problem solving, and many more. Users can email suggestions for additional topics. Another interesting section is the monthly problem, and submissions are accepted and posted online. Most of the site can be viewed in English, French, or Spanish.

2001-01-01

265

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

CERN Multimedia

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

2008-01-01

266

Neutron flux density measurement with self-powered neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The methodology and programme were drawn up for calculating the signal of delayed response SPN detectors for such cases when the emitter material is vanadium, rhodium or silver, in the form of I=f(phisub(c)) where I is the measured electrical current and phisub(c) is the neutron flux density in the place the detector is located. It is important that the detector electric signal be correctly measured as the detector output signal is relatively low (10-9 to 10-6 A) and is supplied through a spurious electromagnetic field to a distance of up to 50 m. In WWR-S reactor experiments 2 to 3 detectors and a SOLATRON measuring central are used and results are processed by a Hewlett-Packard computer using the DISA programme. Detector sensitivities determined theoretically and experimentally and the results of measurements using different types of detectors are compared. The results of measurements with SPN detectors with vanadium emitters 0.5 and 1 mm in diameters and 50 mm in length are shown graphically. (Z.M.)

1975-06-12

267

Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

2008-01-01

268

The central tracking detectors for D/O/  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D/O/ experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Clark, A.; Goozen, F.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kerth, L.T.; Loken, S.; Strovink, M.; Trippe, T.G.; Bantly, J.; Buchholz, D.; Claes, D.

1988-01-01

269

Myon Density Measurements with the KASCADE Central Detector  

CERN Document Server

Frequency distributions of local muon densities in high-energy extensive air-showers (EAS) are presented as signature of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum in the knee region. Together with the gross shower variables like shower core position, angle of incidence, and the shower sizes, the KASCADE experiment is able to measure local muon densities for two different muon energy thresholds. The spectra have been reconstructed for various core distances, as well as for particular subsamples, classified on the basis of the shower size ratio N_mu/N_e. The measured density spectra of the total sample exhibit clear kinks reflecting the knee of the primary energy spectrum. While relatively sharp changes of the slopes are observed in the spectrum of EAS with small values of the shower size ratio, no such feature is detected at EAS of large N_mu/N_e ratio in the energy range of 1--10 PeV. Comparing the spectra for various thresholds and core distances with detailed Monte Carlo simulations the validity of EAS simulat...

Antoni, T; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bernlöhr, K; Blümer, H; Bollmann, E; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Büttner, C; Chilingarian, A A; Daumiller, K; Doll, P; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haeusler, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Holst, T; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Kempa, J; Klages, H O; Knapp, J; Kohler, K U; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Milke, J; Müller, M; Oehlschläger, J; Petcu, M; Rebel, H; Risse, M; Roth, M; Schatz, G; Scholz, J; Sokhoyan, S H; Thouw, T J; Ulrich, H; Vulpescu, B; Weber, J H; Wentz, J; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S

2001-01-01

270

Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

Cristiano, R [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Ejrnaes, M [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Naples (Italy); Esposito, E [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Lisitskyi, M P [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Nappi, C [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Pagano, S [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Perez de Lara, D [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy)

2006-03-15

271

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R ampersand D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals

1991-01-01

272

Central collisions of heavy ions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991. During this period, our program focuses on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus central collisions. We participated in the preparation of letters of intent for two RHIC experiments -- the OASIS proposal and the Di-Muon proposal -- and worked on two RHIC R D efforts -- a silicon strip detector project and a muon-identifier project. A small fraction of time was also devoted to physics programs outside the realm of heavy ion reactions by several individuals.

Fung, Sun-yiu.

1991-10-01

273

New technologies in the DOe central tracker upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DOe collaboration has undertaken an aggressive upgrade of its central tracking system. The existing tracker will be completely removed and replaced by a 2 T superconducting solenoidal magnet, an 837000 channel silicon vertex system, an 80000 channel scintillating fiber tracker, followed by a 7680 channel central preshower detector and a 16000 channel forward preshower detector. In this paper we discuss all of the subsystems of the DOe central tracker upgrade, but emphasize those aspects which involve new technology: radiation hard scintillating fiber, VLPCs and extruded scintillating strips. (orig.).

1996-03-06

274

Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-?m (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

1993-01-01

275

Cryogenic Tracking Detectors  

CERN Document Server

The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

2002-01-01

276

The LHCb Detector Upgrade  

CERN Multimedia

The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

277

Failed fuel element detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the failed fuel element detector of this invention, a truck capable of moving on a bridge across a coolant water tank of a pool type reactor has a pipe extending downward to or near the coolant drain port of an arbitrarily selected fuel element. Coolant in the element is drawn by a pump through this pipe and collected in a reservoir located in the truck. The radioactivity of the coolant in the reservoir is measured to determine the content of any radioactive effluent elected from the fuel element, into the coolant. Thus, a failed fuel element can be located using this detector system without extracting fuel elements from the reactor core. Labor required in the locating of failed elements. This detector in the fuel assembly may thus be reduced system may be positioned so as to monitor the radioactivity of the coolant in the tank, sudden increases in radioactivity indicate fuel element failure. (JPN)

1968-01-01

278

X-ray detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector is based on the principle of the ionisation chamber, which can be used as a multicell detector with gas at high pressure for computer controlled tomography systems. The anodes form a series of parallel metal rods or strips, which are deposited on ceramic, mica or plastic resin; the cathodes are plates. The X-rays arrive in the pressure vessel through an aluminium or plastic resin window. The pressurized gas at a pressure of 10 - 50 atmospheres consists of argon, krypton or xenon. The electrical field gradient is between 10 and 1000 V/mm. The detector is insensitive to gas-fluorescent effects which could limit the resolution. (DG) 891 HP

279

Silicon radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN+ type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 1015 to 1017 atoms/cm3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P+ collector band at a width of 150 to 300 ?m with an acceptor concentration of 1020 to 1021 atoms/cm3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 ?m. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

1988-07-21

280

Reading and Fast Encoding the Information from Multi-Element Detector  

CERN Document Server

We propose a method for reading and encoding the information from the Central Tracker of the Heavy Ion Dedicated Detector at LHC. This method will also be suitable for other detectors such as CMS, ATLAS and the like. It enables one to reduce the (number of cables coming out of the detector) x (information reading, encoding and selection time) factor by 12 times compared to what one has with the FASTPLEX system.

Laptev, V D; CERN. Geneva

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Development of PMT high voltage control system for LASCAR detector array at RIBLL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is described in this paper that the multi-channel PMT high voltage power supply control system, which matches with the PMT high voltage module CC123 of the LASCAR detector array at RIBLL experiment terminal. The MCU AT89C51 is selected as the central control part and other suitable accessories are also adopted in our design. The PMT control system of the detector array works steadily and effectively in out performance test of LASCAR detector array. (authors)

2005-01-01

282

The D0 inter-cryostat detector, massless gaps and missing E{sub T} resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps are located in the intermediate rapidity regions between the central and end calorimeters of the D0 detector and are designed to improve energy measurements in those regions. Results are presented from test beam and collider data showing the improvement of single particle and jet energy resolutions with the inclusion of the inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps. The calorimeter missing E{sub T} resolution in collider data is presented.

Streets, K. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); D0 Collaboration

1992-12-01

283

The D0 inter-cryostat detector, massless gaps and missing E[sub T] resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps are located in the intermediate rapidity regions between the central and end calorimeters of the D0 detector and are designed to improve energy measurements in those regions. Results are presented from test beam and collider data showing the improvement of single particle and jet energy resolutions with the inclusion of the inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps. The calorimeter missing E[sub T] resolution in collider data is presented.

Streets, K. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States))

1992-12-01

284

Radiation damage of germanium detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of a continuing study of the proton damage of germanium detectors, a reverse electrode configuration coaxial detector that had been fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) five years ago and a 1 cm thick planar detector made from the same crystal were irradiated with 5.1 GeV protons in a recent experiment. These detectors were irradiated simultaneously--there were actually a total of five detectors in line. The coaxial detector was considerably less sensitive to the high-energy proton damage than was the planar detector. These data indicate a factor of approx. 3. This would imply a factor of approx. 60 when comparing coaxial detectors having the opposite electrode configuration. Although additional experiments must be done, the evidence is now quite strong that coaxial germanium detectors having the n+ contact on the coaxial periphery should not be used in any situation subject to significant radiation damage such as on an extended mission in space.

1978-04-29

285

Intelligent Detector Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

2007-02-13

286

Neutron detector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

1978-01-01

287

Compton current detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.)

1984-01-01

288

Edgeless silicon pad detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in 'edgeless' planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8stat..±6syst.) ?m.

2006-05-01

289

Gallium arsenide pixel detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

1998-06-01

290

Electret radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electret radiation detector consists of 30 to 35% of bee wax and of 65 to 70% of colophony. It is mainly the induction conductivity of charo.es between the dipoles in the electret which is used for detection. In the manufacture of the detector, the average atomic number of the electret can be altered by adding various compounds, such as ZnO, which also increases efficiency for gamma radiation. An alpha or beta emitter can also be built-in in the electret. (B.S.).

1981-01-01

291

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

292

Calibration of phoswich detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two important aspects for the calibration of phoswich detector arrays have been investigated. It is shown that common gate ADCs can be used: The loss in particle identification due to fluctuations in the gate timing in multi-hit events can be corrected for by a simple procedure using the measured time difference between gate and phoswich signal. The response of phoswich detectors to particles with given Z, A and E was studied using a magnetic spectrograph. In the absence of mass identification the energy calibration is limited by the width of the experimental mass distribution for a given element. (orig.).

1992-01-01

293

Calibration of phoswich detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two important aspects for the calibration of phoswich detector arrays have been investigated. It is shown that common gate ADCs can be used: The loss in particle identification due to fluctuations in the gate timing in multi-hit events can be corrected for by a simple procedure using the measured time difference between gate and phoswich signal. The response of phoswich detectors to particles with given Z, A and E was studied using a magnetic spectrograph. In the absence of mass identification the energy calibration is limited by the width of the experimental mass distribution for a given element. (orig.).

Leegte, H.K.W.; Koldenhof, E.E.; Boonstra, A.L.; Wilschut, H.W. (Kernfysisch Versneller Inst., Groningen (Netherlands))

1992-03-01

294

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of ? 30%/?E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

2007-01-01

295

Detectors for particle identification  

CERN Document Server

The paper reviews recent progress in particle identification methods. A survey of motivations and requirements for particle identification in various experimental environments is followed by the main emphasis, which is on the recent development of Cherenkov counters, from upgrades of existing devices to a novel focusing radiator concept and new photon detectors. The impact of including a precise measurement of the time of arrival of Cherenkov photons to increase the kinematical region over which particle identification can be performed is discussed. The progress in dedi. time-of-flight counters with recently developed very fast single photon detectors is also evaluated.

Krizan, P

2007-01-01

296

Gas ionization detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary of the operation principle of different kinds of gas ionization detectors including the up-to-date multiwire and gas scintillation proportional counters as well as corona counters and the traditional ionization chambers, proportional and Geiger-Mueller counters is given. The topics are devided into 4 parts: in the first one general theoretical questions are dealt with, in the second one the major types of detectors are discussed, in the third one analyzers for the evaluation of nuclear signals are reviewed. Finally, various fields of application to detect heavy charged particles, ?-particles, x-, ?-rays and neutrons are mentioned. A rich bibliography for interested experts is added. (V.N.).

1985-01-01

297

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28

298

High efficiency photoionization detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01

299

Calibration of semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of methods suitable for energy- and efficiency-calibration of semiconductor detectors used in ?-, ?- (electron-), ?- and X-ray-spectrometry is presented. The review is supplemented by some new methods which are experimentally proved. Data of radionuclides used for the calibration are summarized in tables, representing the most actual state of the art. Methods for the investigation of special detector properties (dead layers, escape, local efficiency changes) are added. Some of these methods were used to determine the efficiency and hence to calibrate 4 Ge(Li)'s and 1 Si(Li). The experimental results and the interpretation is given. (author)

1977-01-01

300

The MINOS calibration detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001-2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2-10GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

CMS silicon strip detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Robust tracking is an essential tool to address the full range of physics which can be accessed at LHC. The CMS Collaboration has chosen the detector technology for the Silicon Strip tracking system. Over the last few years considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the operation of silicon strip detectors in the harsh environment of the LHC. An overview of recent results is given with particular emphasis on resistivity and crystal orientation of the substrate, strip capacitance and breakdown voltage. (2 refs).

My, S

2001-01-01

302

Sudbury neutrino detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The proposed Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is based on a Cherenkov detector which has a total of 1000 tonne of heavy water and 1800 tonne of light water for its sensitive volume. The detector is optimized for the measurement of extra-terrestrial low energy electron neutrinos and electron antineutrinos spectra as well as the total neutrino flux independent of neutrino flavours. It will delineate the Standard Solar Model and neutrino propagation aspects of the solar neutrino problem, provide detailed information on the dynamics of stellar collapse and measure neutrino masses and oscillation parameters with high sensitivity

1988-01-01

303

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

1980-01-01

304

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

1980-04-01

305

Dosimetry with diamond detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

2010-01-01

306

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)  

CERN Multimedia

The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding (TAB), was used to fullfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

Arnold, L; Bonnet, D; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Coffin, J P; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Guilloux, G; Guedon, M; Hippolyte, B; Janik, M; Kisiel, A; Kuhn, C; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lefèvre, F; Le Moal, C; Leszczynski, P; Lutz, Jean Robert; Maliszewski, A; Martin, L; Milletto, T; Pawlak, T; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Przewlocki, M; Radomski, S; Ravel, O; Renard, C; Renault, G; Rigalleau, L M; Roy, C; Roy, D; Suire, C; Szarwas, P; Tarchini, A

2003-01-01

307

Report of the compact detector subgroup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

1988-01-01

308

SLAC Scanner Processor applications in the data acquisition system for the upgraded Mark II detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The SLAC Scanner Processor is a general purpose, programmable FASTBUS crate/cable master/slave module. This device plays a central role in the readout, buffering and pre-processing of data from the upgraded Mark II detector's new central drift chamber. In addition to data readout, the SSPs assist in a variety of other services, such as detector calibration, FASTBUS system management, FASTBUS system initialization and verification, and FASTBUS module testing. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

1985-01-01

309

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the work will focus on the modelling of highly pixellated solid-state devices. Results are presented on the performance of a pixellated spectroscopic silicon detector - the Dash-E detector. The electronic noise is measured to be 228 eV with the system observed to be close to the Fano limit at room temperature. The characteristic X-rays of Mn-55, Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba have been used to examine the spectroscopic performance of the detectors. Good linearity over the required energy range 1 keV to 25 keV has been observed. A higher than expected background is evident in all of the spectra taken - approximately a 1:1 correspondence in the peak counts to background counts. The modelled performance of a 3-D GaAs detector is analysed. The effect of the metallic column-like electrode structure on the particle interactions is simulated via the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The effective dead area due to these electrodes is reduced from 8 % to 4.5 % due to the secondary particle interactions. The modelled structure becomes depleted at 50 V with a slight over-depletion of 75 V necessary to minimise the inter-electrode low field regions. The principle benefit of these depletion voltages is that they remain constant for whatever detection thickness that fabrication allows. The charge transport in the devices are also examined, with the damage effects of dry-etching included - a technique used to form the electrode holes in the GaAs material. Full charge collection can be expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The case of X-ray, as well as higher energy ?-ray, interactions are considered. The charge lost is studied for these interactions over a range of pixel sizes (1?m to 10 mm). The aforementioned Dash-E detector has been used to obtain experimental data for comparison with the models developed, with close agreement being observed. The combination of MCNP and MEDICI is used to form a complete picture of photon interactions in semiconducting materials and also compares well with experiment. The models predict that the dominant term in the sharing of charge is due to diffusion and that the difference with photon energy is due to the energy given to the photoelectron. (author)

2001-01-01

310

DEPFET-detectors: New developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available

2007-03-01

311

DEPFET-detectors: New developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available.

Lutz, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Eckardt, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Haelker, O. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Hermann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Lechner, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Richter, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Soltau, H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Treis, J. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Woelfl, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Zhang, C. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)

2007-03-01

312

Method of neutron detector testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Each neutron detector is irradiated from opposite sides simultaneously using at least two point neutron sources placed on a straight line with the detector. The optimal detector response is found by gradually altering the detector - source distances. The sources and the detector are placed in the same moderating medium. The advantages include the use of the optimal moderator layer for testing detectors of different sensitivity, more accurate values of the sensitivity and improved working conditions due to reduced radiation dose rates. (J.B.). 2 figs., 3 tabs

1986-10-30

313

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic and TTC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic consists in the Central Trigger Processor and the interface to the detector-specific muon level-1 trigger electronics. It is responsible for forming a level-1 trigger in the ATLAS experiment. The distribution of the timing, trigger and control information from the central trigger processor to the readout electronics of the ATLAS subdetectors is done with the TTC system. Both systems are presented.

2008-01-01

314

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic and TTC system  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic consists in the Central Trigger Processor and the interface to the detector-specific muon level-1 trigger electronics. It is responsible for forming a level-1 trigger in the ATLAS experiment. The distribution of the timing, trigger and control information from the central trigger processor to the readout electronics of the ATLAS subdetectors is done with the TTC system. Both systems are presented.

Ask, S.; Berge, D.; Borrego-Amaral, P.; Caracinha, D.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Gãllnö, P.; Haas, S.; Haller, J.; Klofver, P.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Messina, A.; Ohm, C.; Pauly, T.; Perantoni, M.; Pessoa Lima Junior, H.; Schuler, G.; Sherman, D.; Spiwoks, R.; Wengler, T.; de Seixas, J. M.; Torga Teixeira, R.

2008-08-01

315

First ALICE detectors installed!  

CERN Multimedia

Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

2006-01-01

316

Gaseous wire detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations

1997-01-01

317

Neutron detectors at IPNS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three more instruments under development. Six of these instruments use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs) of various types. These PSDs include a 30 cm x 30 cm, ?3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with 6Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, ?0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with 6Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm x 20 cm, ?5 mm resolution, 3He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm x 40 cm, ?4 mm resolution, 3He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 25 cm long, ?1.6 mm resolution, 3He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical 3He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia and 60 cm long and has ?14 mm resolution. In addition to these PSDs, ?750 standard cylindrical 3He proportional counters of various sizes are utilized on IPNS instruments, and ?20 BF3 pulsed ion chambers are in use as beam monitors. This paper discusses these various detectors and associated electronics, with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of detectors. discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

1990-01-01

318

Machine and detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The main features and the performance of the LEP storage ring are overviewed. Its luminosity and its energy calibration are described, and the spin motion in a storage ring is studied. The detectors (especially ALEPH, and also DELPHI, OPAL and L3) are described, and details of the ALEPH experiment are presented. (K.A.) 20 figs., 4 tabs

1991-07-26

319

Physics with RICH detectors  

CERN Multimedia

A review of physics performed using RICH detectors was presented. The focus was done on flavour and neutrino physics. The RICH technique was found to be the clear choice when hadron identification was required at high momenta, important for flavour physics. (Edited abstract) 33 Refs.

Forty, Roger W

2003-01-01

320

Ionic smoke detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Big detectors of BGO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bismuth germanate has been considered as a candidate scintillator which could be used for big particle calorimeters. After a discussion of the production techniques for crystal growth and a brief outline of some physical and optical properties, the authors discuss various applications of BGO detectors, in particular, the L3 experiment at CERN LEP. (Auth.).

1985-01-01

322

Directional gamma detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01

323

Ionization chamber smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

1988-01-01

324

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Document Server

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

Manzari, V

2013-01-01

325

Diamond pixel detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

2001-01-01

326

Diamond Pixel Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

2001-06-01

327

Diamond Pixel Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

2001-06-01

328

Solid state detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.).

1980-01-01

329

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

P. Paolucci

2012-01-01

330

X-ray detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The x-ray detection element of an x-ray detector is composed of a fluorescent material having a short afterglow and a high sensitivity to the x-radiation to be detected. For the fluorescent material use is notably made of cerium-activated phosphors such as yttrium phosphors, lanthanum phosphors or lutetium phosphors.

Stevels, A.L.

1980-01-22

331

A new vertex detector made of glass capillaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have developed a new detector technique that allows high quality imaging of ionizing particle tracks with very high spatial and time resolution. Central to this technique are liquid-core fibres of about 20 ?m diameter read out by an optoelectronic system including a CCD. The fibres act simultaneously as target, detector and light guides. A large-volume prototype, consisting of 5 x 105 capillaries of 20 ?m diameter and 180 cm length, has been tested in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam. A sample of high-multiplicity neutrino interactions was recorded, demonstrating the imaging quality of this detector. First results from the reconstruction of these events are reported. A track residual of 28 ?m and a vertex resolution of 30 ?m has been achieved. Future applications of capillary detectors for neutrino and beauty physics are being investigated within the framework of the RD46 collaboration. (orig.)

1997-02-11

332

A new vertex detector made of glass capillaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have developed a new detector technique that allows high quality imaging of ionizing particle tracks with very high spatial and time resolution. Central to this technique are liquid-core fibres of about 20 {mu}m diameter read out by an optoelectronic system including a CCD. The fibres act simultaneously as target, detector and light guides. A large-volume prototype, consisting of 5 x 10{sup 5} capillaries of 20 {mu}m diameter and 180 cm length, has been tested in the CERN wide-band neutrino beam. A sample of high-multiplicity neutrino interactions was recorded, demonstrating the imaging quality of this detector. First results from the reconstruction of these events are reported. A track residual of 28 {mu}m and a vertex resolution of 30 {mu}m has been achieved. Future applications of capillary detectors for neutrino and beauty physics are being investigated within the framework of the RD46 collaboration. (orig.).

Annis, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). IIHE; Bay, A. [Lausanne Univ. (Switzerland); Bonekaemper, D. [Muenster Univ. (Germany); Buontempo, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Ereditato, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Fabre, J.D. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Fiorillo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Frekers, D. [Muenster Univ. (Germany); Frenkel, A. [Rome Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Galeazzi, F. [Rome Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Garufi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel); Golovkin, S. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Hoepfner, K. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Konijn, J. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kozarenko, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kreslo, I. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Liberti, B. [Rome Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Martellotti, G. [Rome Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Medvedkov, A. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Mommaert, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). IIHE; Panman, J. [European Lab. for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Penso, G. [Rome Univ. (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Petukhov, Y. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rondeshagen, D. [Muenster Univ. (Germany); Tyukov, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Vasilchenko, V. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Vilain, P.

1997-02-11

333

Neutron detectors at IPNS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heart of each time-of-flight neutron scattering instrument is its complement of detectors and the associated encoding and counting electronics. Currently there are ten fully-scheduled neutron scattering instruments in operation at IPNS, with three more instruments under development. Six of these instruments use position-sensitive neutron detectors (PSDs) of various types. These PSDs include a 30 cm {times} 30 cm, {approximately}3 mm resolution, neutron Anger camera area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 2.5 cm dia, {approximately}0.7 mm resolution, microchannel-plate area PSD with {sup 6}Li-glass scintillator; a 20 cm {times} 20 cm, {approximately}5 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a 40 cm {times} 40 cm, {approximately}4 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter area PSD; a flat 25 cm long, {approximately}1.6 mm resolution, {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSD; and 160 cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counter linear PSDs, each of which is 1.27 cm in dia and 60 cm long and has {approximately}14 mm resolution. In addition to these PSDs, {approximately}750 standard cylindrical {sup 3}He proportional counters of various sizes are utilized on IPNS instruments, and {approximately}20 BF{sub 3} pulsed ion chambers are in use as beam monitors. This paper discusses these various detectors and associated electronics, with emphasis on the instrumental specifications and the reasons for the selection of the different types of detectors. Observed performance of these detectors is also discussed. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Ostrowski, G.E.

1990-01-01

334

Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab DO detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is {+-}0.5 min, and {+-}2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey. (author)

Arics, Babatunde O.O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1999-07-01

335

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

Fernow, R.C.

1988-01-01

336

Fundamental principles of particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

1988-01-01

337

The ALEPH silicon vertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aleph silicon vertex detector at the LEP e+e- collider at CERN is described. A detailed information on the various components of the detector is given. Preliminary results obtained during 1990 LEP running are presented. (orig.).

1991-01-01

338

OPAL detector end-cap  

CERN Multimedia

An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

1988-01-01

339

Pin Pixel Detector: Neutron Imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A pro...

J. E. Bateman J. F. Connolly G. E. Derbyshire D. M. Duxbury A. S. Marsh N. J. Rhodes E. M. Schoneveld J. E. Simmons R. Stephenson

2001-01-01

340

Introduction to nuclear radiation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is an introduction to the more widely used types of detectors of nuclear radiation. The contents includes chapters on: ionising radiations, statistics of particle counting and dead-time, gas-filled detectors, the Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counter, semiconductor detectors, electronics for nuclear detectors, and radiation doses and their measurement. The book is intended for students in first degree University courses. (U.K.).

Cooper, P.N.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

1997-07-01

342

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

2005-01-01

343

The PANDA Detector at FAIR  

CERN Multimedia

The PANDA detector is under design to be installed at the HESR storage ring for antiproton of the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics interactions of antiprotons with nucleons and nuclei will be pursued using a multipurpose set-up which includes innovative detectors. Here, the FAIR facility and the PANDA detector are described.

Marcello, S

2008-01-01

344

Radiation detectors in nuclear medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-photon-emitting or positron-emitting radionuclides employed in nuclear medicine are detected by using sophisticated imaging devices, whereas simpler detection devices are used to quantify activity for the following applications: measuring doses of radiopharmaceuticals, performing radiotracer bioassays, and monitoring and controlling radiation risk in the clinical environment. Detectors are categorized in terms of function, the physical state of the transducer, or the mode of operation. The performance of a detector is described by the parameters efficiency, energy resolution and discrimination, and dead time. A detector may be used to detect single events (pulse mode) or to measure the rate of energy deposition (current mode). Some detectors are operated as simple counting systems by using a single-channel pulse height analyzer to discriminate against background or other extraneous events. Other detectors are operated as spectrometers and use a multichannel analyzer to form an energy spectrum. The types of detectors encountered in nuclear medicine are gas-filled detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. The ionization detector, Geiger-Müller detector, extremity and area monitor, dose calibrator, well counter, thyroid uptake probe, Anger scintillation camera, positron emission tomographic scanner, solid-state personnel dosimeter, and intraoperative probe are examples of detectors used in clinical nuclear medicine practice. PMID:10194791

Ranger, N T

345

Gas detectors for heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Review of gaseous detectors for heavy ions: scintillating streamers and ionization chambers, Bragg curve detector. Very low-pressure detectors: PPAC, MWPC and MSC[fr] Revue des detecteurs gazeux pour ions lourds: chambres scintillantes a streamers d'ionisation et detecteurs a courbe de Bragg. Detecteurs a tres faible pression: Plaques paralleles, chambres multifils, chambres multi-etages

1988-01-01

346

STRAW based precision tracking detectors  

CERN Document Server

The basic results on developing the thin-film drift tubes, which became the basis for creating the precision tracking detectors at the ATLAS and COMPASS (CERN) facilities, are discussed. The STRAW-chambers are characterized by the detector low radiation thickness, cylindrical geometry for each registration channel, simple chamber design and detector high performance reliability

Kekelidze, G D

2002-01-01

347

New electronically black neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two neutron detectors are described that can function in a continuous radiation background. Both detectors identify neutrons by recording a proton recoil pulse followed by a characteristic capture pulse. This peculiar signature indicates that the neutron has lost all its energy in the scintillator. Resolutions and efficiencies have been measured for both detectors

1986-01-01

348

Heavy Ion Physics with the ATLAS Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The heavy-ion program at the Large Hadron Collider has started up in November 2010 by three experiments including ATLAS, a multipurpose detector originally constructed to study high-energy proton-proton collisions, which now turns out to be an excellent tool for studying nuclear interactions. In this talk first results from the lead-lead run at sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV based on minimum bias data sample are reviewed. In particular an observation of the centrality-dependent di-jet asymmetry is reported. Also a centrality-dependent suppression in the yield of $J/Psi$ mesons decaying to $mu^+mu^-$ pairs is discussed along with an observation of the $Z$ boson production. These evidences may bring new insight to the primordial universe where a hot, dense medium of quarks and gluons may have prevailed.

Grabowska-Bold, I

2011-01-01

349

Study of a trigger in p-p events for the HMPID detector in the ALICE experiment at LHC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ALICE-HMPID detector extends the PID capabilities in the central rapidity region of the ALICE central detectors (ITS, TPC, TOF), by identifying charged pions and kaons with momentum 1Detector (SPD) combined with the signal from the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector will be presented.

Barile, F. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' M. Merlin' and INFN Sezione di Bari via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

2011-06-15

350

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

351

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

352

Pulsed neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

Robertson, deceased, J. Craig (late of Albuquerque, NM); Rowland, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

1989-03-21

353

How Metal Detectors Operate  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, provides an explanation of how a metal detector functions. Most people take for granted this common piece of equipment, but the science behind its function is actually quite remarkable. Bartelt uses flash animations and diagrams to examine how these machines work. These animations show everything from the different pieces of the machine to the sine waves and magnetic fields employed by the detector. Without such a detailed outline, these concepts would be much more difficult to grasp, and the author makes the presentation accessible for almost any grade level. Because of this, this would be a wonderful activity for a physics, or even mathematics, course.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-22

354

Controlling the Excalibur detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excalibur is an advanced photon counting detector being designed and built by a collaboration of Diamond and the STFC. It is based around 48 CERN Medipix3 chips arranged as an 8 x 6 array. The main problem addressed by the design of the hardware and software is the uninterrupted collection and safe storage of image data at rates up to one hundred 2048 x 1536 frames per second. This is achieved by splitting the image into 6 'stripes' and providing a parallel data path for each stripe all the way from the detector chips to the storage. This architecture requires the software to control the configuration of the stripes in a consistent manner and to keep track of the data so that the stripes can be subsequently stitched together into frames

355

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

Owens, Alan

2012-01-01

356

Underwater radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM); McKnight, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

357

Large barium fluoride detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are considered of investigation into large BaF2 crysstals of 1-2 l volume and up to 15 cm thick used as ?-quantum detectors. The main attention is given to the light transmission coefficient in the UV-region as well as to the energy- and time resolutions. It is noticed that the energy resolution approximately 12% (662 keV) and time resolution approximately 0.4 ns (60Co, 300 keV threshold) may be simultaneously obtained. These properties make BaF2 more preferable than NaI and BGO in cases when a high time resolution is necessary. The detector permits to clearly discriminate between the signals of ?-quanta and ?-particles, the signals of ?-particles containing no scintillation component.

1985-01-01

358

Memristive fuzzy edge detector  

CERN Document Server

Fuzzy inference systems always suffer from the lack of efficient structures or platforms for their hardware implementation. In this paper, we tried to overcome this problem by proposing new method for the implementation of those fuzzy inference systems which use fuzzy rule base to make inference. To achieve this goal, we have designed a multi-layer neuro-fuzzy computing system based on the memristor crossbar structure by introducing some new concepts like fuzzy minterms. Although many applications can be realized through the use of our proposed system, in this study we show how the fuzzy XOR function can be constructed and how it can be used to extract edges from grayscale images. Our memristive fuzzy edge detector (implemented in analog form) compared with other common edge detectors has this advantage that it can extract edges of any given image all at once in real-time.

Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood

2011-01-01

359

Liquid level detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09

360

Ionizing radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An ionizing radiation detector is presented which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr

1989-06-08

 
 
 
 
361

Future liquid Argon detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

Rubbia, A

2013-01-01

362

Ionizing radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01

363

Radiation damage in silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

2003-10-11

364

Proton tracks in bubble detector  

CERN Multimedia

Bubble detectors were irradiated with protons and demonstrated that a special type of bubble detector could directly record proton tracks. The track of a proton is composed of one or more bubbles at the Bragg peak in the end of the proton range. A proton can produce at least one bubble as its track. Successful recording of proton tracks shows that bubble detectors can be used as a new type of heavy ion track detector to register all nuclei with atomic numbers in the entire Periodic Table of Elements. The applications of bubble detectors based on proton registration have been desired in the study of nuclear interactions, space research and cancer therapy.

Guo, S L; Chen, B L; Doke, T; Kikuchi, J; Terasawa, K; Komiyama, M; Hara, K; Fuse, T

2002-01-01

365

Conditioning X-ray detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique for conditioning x-ray detectors which are introduced into electron microscopes and maintained at an operating temperature substantially below ambient, to remove ice and other contaminants. Localised heating is applied to the detector by, for example, electrical resistance heating, whereby the detector is conditioned for about an hour without the heat sink being removed. The detector is mounted on cold finger attached to heat sink filled with liquid nitrogen. The heating is applied to the detector after removal of its operating voltage. (author).

1987-08-05

366

Conditioning X-ray detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A technique for conditioning x-ray detectors which are introduced into electron microscopes and maintained at an operating temperature substantially below ambient, to remove ice and other contaminants. Localised heating is applied to the detector by, for example, electrical resistance heating, whereby the detector is conditioned for about an hour without the heat sink being removed. The detector is mounted on cold finger attached to heat sink filled with liquid nitrogen. The heating is applied to the detector after removal of its operating voltage. (author).

Lowe, B.G.; Tyrrell, S.G.

1989-03-30

367

Detector development for PFBR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development of high-temperature fission detectors and boron-counters is being carried out for neutron flux measurement at PFBR for reactor control instrumentation and delayed neutron monitoring. Thermal neutron flux levels (235U equivalent) from 0.1 to 1010nv are to be monitored from start up to full power. Fission detectors are designed with integral triaxial mineral insulated (MI) cable assembly to withstand operating temperatures up to 650 degC and gamma background up to 1 MR/h. The location and dimensional specifications require the use of enriched uranium for neutron sensing. The 0.8mm electrode spacing in the counters will be filled with argon+3% nitrogen at 8 bars for fast collection time and adequate pulse-height. Inconel 600 is used as construction material to minimise nitrogen absorption. The mechanical design provides for thermal expansion of the internals of the detectors. Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP) high-purity alumina insulators are to be used to ensure minimum of 106U between the electrodes at the highest temperature. To carry out preliminary tests, one counter (50mm dia x 220mm) has been developed with natural uranium coating on the electrodes. Tests at Apsara Thermal column in 105nv flux showed neutron sensitivity of 6x10-4 cps/nv..Tests in gamma fields in ambient gamma background of 2MR/h did not show any deterioration in the neutron sensitivity. The counter has charge collection time of 50ns and requires 400V DC polarising voltage. MI cables and ceramic components for the detectors have been tested at temperatures up to 650 degC. Insulation resistance reduced from 1012U to 109U and no breakdown noise pulses were observed at 400V. (author)

2005-01-01

368

Vertex Detector Cable Considerations  

CERN Document Server

Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, pulsed power is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

Cooper, W E

2009-01-01

369

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2013-02-26

370

Thin epitaxial silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported.

1989-01-01

371

Detector Level Jet Corrections  

CERN Document Server

The jet energy scale is proven to be an important issue for many different physics analyses. It is the largest systematic uncertainty for the top mass measurement at Tevatron, it is one of the largest uncertainties in the inclusive jet cross section measurement, whose understanding is the first step towards new physics searches. Finally, it is an important ingredient of many standard model analyses. This note discusses different strategies to correct the jet energy for detector level effects.

The ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01

372

Extruded plastic scintillation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

1999-04-16

373

ATLAS Detector Upgrade Plans  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS detector has had a very successful start with many results produced already in 2010. The LHC will continue increasing luminosity in a series of runs interspersed with long shut-downs for installation of injector, LHC and experiment upgrades. The higher integrated luminosity made available - the target is 3000 fb-1 - will open access to many new physics goals. This poster summarises these goals and ATLAS upgrade plans from now until the High-Luminosity LHC project around 2020.

Bousson, N; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

374

Position sensitive ?E detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for simultaneously measuring the interaction position and energy loss in a thin scintillator for energetic charged particles. Wave shifting optical fibers embedded in a scintillator combined with a Hamamatsu R2486 crossed wire anode, position sensitive photomultiplier tube are used. A prototype detector gave 2.4 mm FWHM position resolution for minimum ionizing cosmic rays. Studies to extract a single pulse linear in position from the phototube pulses using neural networks are described.

1994-11-05

375

Extruded Plastic Scintillation Detectors  

CERN Multimedia

As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

Pla-Dalmau, A; Mellott, K L; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.

1999-01-01

376

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared.

Takechi S; Onishi T; Minami S; Miyachi T; Fujii M; Hasebe N; Nogami K; Ohashi H; Sasaki S; Shibata H; Iwai T; Grün E; Srama R; Okada N

2008-04-01

377

Measurement of incident position of hypervelocity particles on piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cosmic dust detector for use onboard a satellite is currently being developed by using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The characteristics of the PZT detector have been studied by bombarding it with hypervelocity iron (Fe) particles supplied by a Van de Graaff accelerator. One central electrode and four peripheral electrodes were placed on the front surface of the PZT detector to measure the impact positions of the incident Fe particles. It was demonstrated that the point of impact on the PZT detector could be identified by using information on the time at which the first peak of the output signal obtained from each electrode appeared. PMID:18447524

Takechi, Seiji; Onishi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Shigeyuki; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Nogami, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho; Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Okada, Nagaya

2008-04-01

378

Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

1994-05-01

379

Optical ionization detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

380

Detector array and method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array.

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Sensor readout detector circuit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT)

1998-01-01

382

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Document Server

RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

383

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

CERN Document Server

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01

384

Progress in ATLAS central solenoid magnet  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS central solenoid magnet is being developed to provide a magnetic field of 2 Tesla in the central tracking volume of the ATLAS detector under construction at the CERN/LHC project. The solenoid coil design features high-strength aluminum stabilized superconductor to make the coil thinnest while maintaining its stability and the pure-aluminum strip technique for quench protection and safety. The solenoid coil is installed in a common cryostat with the LAr calorimeter in order to minimize the cryostat wall. A transparency of 0.66 radiation length is achieved with these integrated efforts. The progress in the solenoid coil fabrication is reported. (8 refs).

Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y; Tanaka, K; Haruyama, T; Yamaoka, H; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Mine, S; Wada, K; Meguro, S; Sotoki, T; Kikuchi, K; ten Kate, H H J

2000-01-01

385

The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. The custom-built electronics of the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger receives inputs from the ATLAS Level-1 Triggers and the LHC. The Level-1 calorimeter triggers are based on coarse detector information to identify high-ET jets, electrons/photons and hadrons, along with missing and total energy. In addition there are dedicated muon and forward detectors, providing triggers for different energy thresholds. The Level-1 Central Trigger combines these trigger inputs to form a Level-1 accept. This, along with trigger summary information, is then passed onto the higher levels of the trigger. From the LHC itself the Level-1 Central Trigger passes the bunch clock to all ATLAS sub-detectors. We present how the rigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are ...

Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01

386

Digital centroid-finding electronics for high-rate detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast centroid-finding electronics are being developed for a range of position-sensitive gas proportional detectors. Each cathode strip feeds a preamplifier, shaper and a free-running ADC. Increased total count rate is achieved by dividing the detector into several segments with parallel processing that introduces no common dead time. Each segment has central-channel finding logic and event listing realized in a FPGA, followed by a DSP that performs the centroid calculation and histogramming. Measured count-rate per segment exceeds 106 per second, with virtually no dead time

1999-01-01

387

Digital centroid-finding electronics for high-rate detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fast centroid-finding electronics are being developed for a range of position-sensitive gas proportional detectors. Each cathode strip feeds a preamplifier, shaper and a free-running ADC. Increased total count rate is achieved by dividing the detector into several segments with parallel processing that introduces no common dead time. Each segment has central-channel finding logic and event listing realized in a FPGA, followed by a DSP that performs the centroid calculation and histogramming. Measured count-rate per segment exceeds 10{sup 6} per second, with virtually no dead time.

Pietraski, P.J.; Zojceski, Z.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1999-08-01

388

Temporal instabilities associated with a planar high purity germanium detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments have been performed which show that a grooved planar high purity germanium semiconductor detector may give rise to time variant counting rates in energy regions below prominent spectral peaks. It is postulated that this effect is due to prolonged or incomplete charge collection in the vicinity of the bottom of the groove, and is caused by distortions in the applied electric field in this region. Such effects may lead to changes in the minimum detectable count rate in x-ray fluorescence measurements; these can be reduced by collimating incident photons on the central region of the detector but the resulting reduction in efficiency lowers the overall sensitivity. (author).

1990-01-01

389

The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)  

CERN Multimedia

% DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

2002-01-01

390

Department of Radiation Detectors - Overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work carried out in 1996 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. The Departamental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors, adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments. These objectives were accomplished in 1996 by: research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. a spherical set of particle detectors silicon ball), detectors for particle identification), development of technology of high-resistivity silicon detectors HRSi (grant proposal), development of thermoelectric cooling systems (grant proposal), research on p-i-n photodiode-based personal dosimeters, study of applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. The Department conducts research on the design and technology involved in producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. Various tube models and their power supplies were developed. Some work has also been devoted to the detection and dosimetry of X-rays. X-ray tube generators are applied to non-destructive testing and are components of analytical systems such as: X-ray fluorescence chemical composition analysis, gauges of layer thickness and composition stress measurements, on-line control of processes, others where an X-ray tube may replace a radio-isotope source. In 1996, the Department: reviewed the domestic demand for X-ray generators, developed an X-ray generator for diagnosis of ostheroporosis of human limbs, prepared a grant proposal for the development of a new instrument for radiotherapy, the so-called needle-like X-ray tube. (author).

Piekoszewski, J. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

1997-12-31

391

Gallium arsenide microstrip detectors and pixel detector developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent developments in improved charge collection efficiency of GaAs pad detectors are described together with their radiation hardness to irradiation by neutron, proton and pions. While the resistance to neutron irradiation is satisfactory more susceptibility is found to charge particle irradiation. Test beam results from microstrip detectors tested in a 70 GeV pion beam at CERN are also presented. Progress with GaAs pixel detectors is also reported.

Bates, R.; D`Auria, S.; Da Via, C.; Gowdy, S.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K.M.; Beaumont, S.P. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom)

1996-06-01

392

ATLAS's inner detector installed in the heart of the experiment  

CERN Multimedia

The ATLAS collaboration recently celebrated a major engineering milestone, namely the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Right: Engineers and technicians work to carefully align and install the inner detector in the centre of ATLAS.Left: The crane used in the carefully coordinated effort by the ATLAS collaboration to lower down the fragile inner detector 100 metres underground to its new home. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the two outer detectors (TRT and SCT) of the inner detector barrel (ID-barrel) were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from Building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Special measures were in place to minimize shock and vibration during transportati...

2006-01-01

393

Gas pixel detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 {mu}m CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm{sup 2} a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm{sup 2}) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 {mu}m pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 {mu}m) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed.

Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: ronaldo.bellazzini@pi.infn.it; Baldini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Brez, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cavalca, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Latronico, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Massai, M.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Minuti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Omodei, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Pesce-Rollins, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Sgro, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Costa, E. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via del Fosso del Cavalier, 100 I-00133 Rome (Italy); Soffitta, P. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via del Fosso del Cavalier, 100 I-00133 Rome (Italy)

2007-03-01

394

Gas pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 ?m CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm2) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 ?m pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 ?m) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

2007-03-01

395

New detector monsters in particle physics. Detectors to the LEP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project of building the new European intersecting colliding ring LEP is surveyed. Some of planned properties, sizes and energies of LEP are reviewed. Selection criteria of proposed detectors are described. The selected four detection programs and the planned detectors are analyzed in detail. It is pointed out that one or two groups of Hungarian particle physicists participate in the construction of two new giant detectors and in the experiments with detectors planned to use essentially new detection methods and sophisticated technical and electronic equipment.

Kiss, D. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

1983-06-01

396

2011 ATLAS Detector Performance - ID and Forward detectors  

CERN Multimedia

This poster describes the performance of 2 parts of ATLAS: - The Inner Detector which consists of 3 subdetectors: the Pixel detector, the SemiConductor Tracker (or SCT) and the Transition Radiation Tracker (or TRT). Here, we report on Pixel detector and SCT performance over 2011. - ALFA detector which will determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP), and the total proton-proton cross section, by tracking elastically scattered protons at very small angles in the limit of the Coulomb Nuclear interference region.

Davies?, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Abdel Khalek, S

2012-01-01

397

Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors  

CERN Document Server

Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E

2004-01-01

398

Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

2008-10-10

399

First experience and results from the HERA-B vertex detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERA-B collaboration is building a detector to realize the ambitious goal of observing CP violation in decays of neutral B-mesons. A central element of the apparatus is the silicon vertex detector used to selectively trigger on these decays in a high charged particle multiplicity background environment and to reconstruct secondary vertices from such decays with high precision. The vertex detector, the supporting infrastructure and first results using prototype detectors are described. Results include imaging of the proton interaction region on the HERA-B target, hit distributions in the detector planes, and alignment of the detectors with each other and the target. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-11-21

400

Target Mass Monitoring and Instrumentation in the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors  

CERN Multimedia

The Daya Bay experiment measures sin^2 2{\\theta}_13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time ant...

Band, Henry R; Greenler, Lee S; Heeger, Karsten M; Hinrichs, Paul; Kang, Li; Lewis, Christine; Li, Shanfeng; Lin, Shengxin; McFarlane, Michael C; Wang, Wei; Webber, David M; Wei, Yadong; Wise, Thomas; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhijian

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Microstrip Metal Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elements of the technology are presented for the production of Microstrip Metal Detectors (MSMD) designed for the charged particles beam as well as synchrotron radiation monitoring. Problems emerged for the photolithography as well as chemical etching applied to the supporting silicon wafer. Taking into account the acquired experience it was possible to produce stable MMSD plates with 32 strips (thickness 1 ?m, pitch 70 ?m) at the working area of (10 x 10) mm2, created by the plasma-chemistry etching of the silicon wafer. The MSMD prototypes produced under the developed technology were successfully tested in the scientific centre DESY (Hamburg).

2006-01-01

402

The WELL detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce the WELL detector, a new type of position-sensitive gas proportional counter produced using advanced Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology. The WELL is based on a thin kapton foil, copper-clad on both sides. Charge amplifying micro-wells are etched into the first metal and kapton layers. These end on a micro-strip pattern which is defined on the second metal plane. The array of micro-strips is used for read-out to obtain 1-D positional information. First results from our systematic assessment of this device are reported.

Bellazzini, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bozzo, M [INFN-Genova and University of Genova (Italy); Brez, A. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Gariano, G. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Latronico, L. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lumb, N. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Papanestis, A. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Massai, M.M. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Raffo, R. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spezziga, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

1999-02-21

403

The AMPHORA detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 4?-multidetector consisting of 140 CsI(Tl) detectors has been designed and built to be used for detecting and identifying either charged-particles (with a low energy threshold of about 0.4 MeV/nucleon) and neutrons or light heavy-ions ad light charged-particles, in the range of energies available at S.A.R.A. (from 10 to 40 MeV/nucleon). The choice of the scintillator material is discussed and a description of the mechanical and electronic design is given. First experimental results obtained with this device are presented

1988-01-01

404

PHENIX inner detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The timing, location and particle multiplicity of a PHENIX collision are determined by the Beam-Beam Counters (BBC), the Multiplicity/Vertex Detector (MVD) and the Zero-Degree Calorimeters (ZDC). The BBCs provide both the time of interaction and position of a collision from the flight time of prompt particles. The MVD provides a measure of event particle multiplicity, collision vertex position and fluctuations in charged particle distributions. The ZDCs provide information on the most grazing collisions. A Normalization Trigger Counter (NTC) is used to obtain absolute cross-section measurements for p-p collisions. The BBC, MVD and NTC are described below.

2003-03-01

405

The WELL Detector  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the WELL detector, a new type of position-sensitive gas proportional counter produced using advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The WELL is based on a thin kapton foil, copp erclad on both sides. Charge amplifying micro-wells are etched into the first metal and kapton layers. These end on a micro-strip pattern which is defined on the second metal plane. The array of micr o-strips is used for read-out to obtain 1-D positional information. First results from our systematic assessment of this device are reported.

Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Gariano, G; Latronico, L; Lumb, N; Papanestis, A; Spandre, G; Massai, M M; Raffo, R; Spezziga, M A

1999-01-01

406

Automatic human body detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method is devised for the automatic detection of a human body. The method utilizes the near-infrared reflection bands of the skin of the human body as the identifying signature. Illumination of the body is provided by a near-infrared light source and the detection of the reflection bands. When each of the three detectors simultaneously register a signal of the proper reflection values, a coincident trigger circuit enables an indicator device which signifies a human body is detected

1985-01-01

407

Particle localization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A proportional detector for the localization of particles comprises a leak-tight chamber filled with fluid and fitted with an electrode of a first type consisting of one or more conducting wires and with an electrode of a second type consisting of one or more conducting plates having the shape of a portion of cylindrical surface and a contour which provides a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point of the wires and the solid angle which subtends the plate at that point, means being provided for collecting the electrical signal which appears on the plates. 12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

1976-01-01

408

Flexible composite radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05

409

Ionizing Radiation Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-11-18

410

LCFI vertex detector design studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

2005-01-01

411

LCFI vertex detector design studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies CCD detectors for quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2005-12-01

412

Scalar top study: Detector optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vertex detector concept of the Linear Collider Flavor Identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavor identification, has been implemented in simulations for c-quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two c-quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the International Linear Collider (ILC).

Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

2006-09-01

413

The helium detector, ch. 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The helium detector (and also the argon detector) is the only ionization detector operating in the multiplication region of the volt-ampere characteristic. The detection mechanism and some characteristics of the HeD signal, such as background current and response are discussed. A survey of the effect of experimental conditions on the HeD signal is given and some applications are discussed, e.g. the gas chromatography of permanent gases

1976-01-01

414

First detectors at the ISR  

CERN Document Server

Some of the first detectors at the ISR. A CERN/Rome team was looking at proton scattering at very small angles to the beam direction. A detector known as a "Roman pot" is in the foreground on the left. An Aachen/CERN/Genoa/Harvard/Turin team was looking at wider angles with the detectors seen branching off from the rings on the right.

1971-01-01

415

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Document Server

The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

416

Advanced Radiation Detector Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

1998-01-01

417

Advanced Radiation Detector Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

The University of Michigan

1998-07-01

418

PAU camera: detectors characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

2012-07-01

419

MUON DETECTORS: CSC  

CERN Document Server

Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire ?rst half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

Richard Breedon

420

The DEMON detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DEMON neutron detector was first put into operation in the summer of 1994 and used in three experiments studying: the excitation energy partition between quasi-target and quasi-projectile, the existence limits of hot residues, and the study of the halo exotic nuclei like 19C. The first experiment was performed at Strasbourg, the other two were developed at Caen. In 1995, after stages by the VIVITRON and SARA experiments and after experiments concerning the fission (the neutrons from pre- and post-scission), the extra-push, fusion, etc, the DEMON was bound to Louvain. Afterwards, DEMON came back by the VIVITRON and then at GANIL for experiments of neutron-neutron interferometry and the continuation of the study of neutron halo nuclei (14B, 17C, 19B, 22C). From the spring of 1996 several DEMON detectors were used at Saclay for systematic measurements of angular distributions and energy of the neutrons produced in spallation reactions, conducted by IN2P3-CNRS to explore the possibility of processing the long-life nuclear wastes by neutron irradiation

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

A monolithic silicon detector telescope  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultrathin silicon detector (1 {mu}m) thick implanted on a standard 400 {mu}m Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.).

Cardella, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Cabibbo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Di Pietro, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Fallica, G. [CORIMME, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy); Franzo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy)]|[CNR-IMETEM, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy); Figuera, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud; Li, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud; Musumarra, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Papa, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Percolla, G. [CORIMME, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy); Priolo, F. [CNR-IMETEM, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy)]|[INFN-Sezione di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95100 Catania (Italy); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMETEM, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S.

1996-08-11

422

On stability of scintillation detectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes how a photomultiplier tube in a scintillation detector changes pulse height with time, when the detector is exposed to a gamma-emitting source and high dynode voltage. The change in pulse height causes a "drift" of the spectral peaks out of the preadjusted energy window, and errors in counting rate of about 20% are detected. The drift is dependent on the photon flux, the level of the high voltage, and the energy of the source. The effect was not present in all detectors studied. It is thus important to check the stability properties of a detector before use.

Abrahamson H; Brandt R; Gullquist R; Strandell T

1981-09-01

423

Technology development of 3D detectors for high energy physics and medical imaging  

CERN Document Server

This thesis is concerned with the fabrication, characterisation and simulation of 3D semiconductor detectors. Due to their geometry, these detectors have more efficient charge collection properties than current silicon and gallium arsenide planar detectors. The unit cell of these detectors is hexagonal with a central anode surrounded by six cathode contacts. This geometry gives a uniform electric field with the maximum drift and depletion distance set by electrode spacing, 85m in this project, rather than detector thickness, as in the case of planar detectors (typically 100-300m). This results in lower applied biases (35-40 V in the work of this project) compared to >200 V in typical planar detectors. The reduction in bias offers the possibility of improved detector operation in the presence of bulk radiation damage as lower voltage reduces leakage current which limits the signal to noise ratio and hence the overall detector efficiency. In this work, 3D detectors realised in Si, GaAs and SiC have ...

Pellegrini, G

2003-01-01

424

Correlations of forward energy flow and central track multiplicity in W and Z boson events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A study of the correlations of the energy flow in the forward detectors and the track multiplicity in the central detector using events with centrally produced W and Z bosons at 7 TeV pp collisions is presented. The contribution of multi parton interactions between proton remnants is studied in more detail, specially in relation with a diffractive component in the hard interaction and in the multi parton interaction. (author)

2011-01-01

425

Performance of the AFS vertex detector at the CERN ISR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central detector of the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS) is a cylindrical drift chamber using a bicycle-wheel geometry. Its design has been optimized for jet-like events with high track densities. This is accomplished through a high degree of azimuthal segmentation (40 sectors) with up to 42 space points per track, using measurements of drift time and charge division. Particle identification in the non-relativistic region is obtained by (dE/dx) sampling. The detector is operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field at event rates of typically 5 x 105 collisions per second. Preliminary results will be presented on the detector performance achieved after one year of operation at the ISR

1981-03-26

426

Performance of the AFS vertex detector at the CERN ISR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central detector of the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS) is a cylindrical drift chamber using a bicycle-wheel geometry. Its design has been optimized for jet-like events with high track densities. This is accomplished through a high degree of azimuthal segmentation (4/sup 0/ sectors) with up to 42 space points per track, using measurements of drift time and charge division. Particle identification in the non-relativistic region is obtained by (dE/dx) sampling. The detector is operated in an inhomogeneous magnetic field at event rates of typically 5 x 10/sup 5/ collisions per second. Preliminary results will be presented on the detector performance achieved after one year of operation at the ISR.

Botner, O.; Burkert, V.; Cockerill, D.

1981-04-28

427

Validation studies of the ATLAS pixel detector control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS pixel detector consists of 1744 identical silicon pixel modules arranged in three barrel layers providing coverage for the central region, and three disk layers on either side of the primary interaction point providing coverage of the forward regions. Once deployed into the experiment, the detector will employ optical data transfer, with the requisite powering being provided by a complex system of commercial and custom-made power supplies. However, during normal performance and production tests in the laboratory, only single modules are operated and electrical readout is used. In addition, standard laboratory power supplies are used. In contrast to these normal tests, the data discussed here were obtained from a multi-module assembly which was powered and read out using production items: the optical data path, the final design power supply system using close to final services, and the Detector Control System (DCS).

2006-09-01

428

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600/in.[sup 2]), low dead time (<4 [mu]s in.[sup 2]), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in order of decreasing importance. The high efficiency'' requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly. ((orig.))

Moses, W.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)); Derenzo, S.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)); Budinger, T.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States))

1994-12-30

429

PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in{sup 2}), low dead time (<4 {mu}s in{sup 2}), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in decreasing order of importance. The ``high efficiency`` requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

1994-05-01

430

A reaction plane detector for PHENIX at RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A plastic scintillator paddle detector with embedded fiber light guides and photomultiplier tube readout, referred to as the Reaction Plane Detector (RXNP), was designed and installed in the PHENIX experiment prior to the 2007 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RXNP's design is optimized to accurately measure the reaction plane (RP) angle of heavy-ion collisions, where, for mid-central ?(sNN)=200GeV Au+Au collisions, it achieved a 2nd harmonic RP resolution of ?0.75, which is a factor of ?2 greater than PHENIX's previous capabilities. This improvement was accomplished by locating the RXNP in the central region of the PHENIX experiment, where, due to its large coverage in pseudorapidity (1.0

2011-04-21

431

Lightning flash detector for second generation Meteosat satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of observing optical pulses produced by lightning from a geostationary spacecraft is demonstrated. It is believed that an instrument with two sensors covering Europe and Central Africa would be highly valuable for atmospheric and lightning research and would also offer many operational applications. This instrument, called the lightning flash detector (LFD), is a candidate to be flown on second-generation Meteosat satellites. The main characteristics of the LFD design are a lens diameter of 88 mm, a focal length of 80 mm, a filter bandwidth of 1.0 nm FWHM, a central wavelength of 777.4 nm, and a CCD detector which is a derivative of the Thomson CSF 7863.

Hoekstra, R.; Scuka, V.

432

Vertex particle detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A device for scanning the tracks in a vertex detector is described. The device comprises a pulse laser, a system for two convergent light beam formation, a photodetector, an electron control unit and an objective. The electron unit produces a starting signal which is supplied to the track chamber, a pulse laser and a photodetector. In the moment when bubbles have the required size, the chamber volume is illuminated simultaneously by two light pulses from one laser. To increase the efficiency of the system the objective is equipped with a diaphragm in the form of a non-transparent blind with a ring for light the centre of which is placed on the optical axis of the objective. The device suggested provides higher resolution and depth of focus as comoared with other analogous devices

1981-01-01

433

Ion beam detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The invention suggested concerns mass spectrometry during ion beam monitoring, particle analyzers and, in particular, it can be used when solving the problem on isotopic and chemical analysis of gas mixtures containing hydrogen and helium isotopes including radioactive tritium. The aim of the invention is to provide the possibility of ion current measurements, when ?-radio active gas component is in a device. The aim is reached by the fact that a ion beam detector for a mass spectrometer, which contains on ion-electron converter, an electron energy analyzer, a scintillator and a recording device all placed in a vacuum chamber, has a scintillator made as a monolithic screen of CaF2(Eu) with the vacuum-tight protective layer of a photoresistor. The FP-25 photoresistor 7-8 ?m in thick is used as the protective layer for the scintillator

1983-01-01

434

MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT  

CERN Multimedia

A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

G. Gomez

2011-01-01

435

Particle detector spatial resolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector.

Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01

436

Holographic vertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the invention is to increase the accuracy of determination of charged particle track coordinates and to decrease working hours for particle track scanning, search and selection in a bubble chamber. The main point of the invention is that in a holographic detector a hologram of a three-dimensional coordinate grid is simultaneously recorded with a particle track hologram by a photodetector. By the hologram a coordinate grid model is simultaneously reconstructed together with a charged particle track model. If one or another distortions are introduced into the particle track model when recoustring it by the hologram, then the same distortions are introduced into the coordinate grid model. Measurements of distortions in the coordinate grid model give the possibility to apply proper corrections for measurement of coordinates of particle tracks and thus, applying a correction, to increase the accuracy of measurement of particle track coordinates

1983-01-01

437

Imaging with coincidence detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a dual-detector, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system that could be modified to perform coincidence imaging of positron-emitting radiotracers has resulted in a renaissance in the nuclear medicine community. In 1996, ADAC Laboratories introduced their Molecula Coincidence Detection (MCD) system at the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual General Meeting in Denver. This ushered in a new era in nuclear medicine imaging. The ability of these coincidence systems to image 18FDG promises to make this type of imaging 'just another nuclear medicine procedure', possible within the next decade. This advancement is arguably the biggest news in nuclear medicine since the development of SPECT. In August 1997, Lion's Gate Hospital in North Vancouver acquired the MCD upgrade to their ADAC Vertex camera - the first and only to date in Canada. This article introduces coincidence imaging and describes the experiences of those pioneering the use of this new modality in Canada.

1998-01-01

438

Large barium fluoride detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Big BaF2 crystals of 1-2 l volume and up to 15 cm thickness were investigated with respect to their application as gamma-ray detectors. In particular, we were interested in the light transmission in the UV region, and the energy and time resolution. We found that an energy resolution of proportional 12% (662 keV) and a time resolution of proportional 0.4 ns (WCo, 300 keV threshold) can be obtained simultaneously. For these features, BaF2 is superior to NaI or BGO in cases where good timing is essential. Gamma-rays and alpha particles can be clearly discriminated; as for the latter the fast component does not show up in the scintillation light. (orig.).

Wisshak, K.; Kaeppeler, F.

1984-11-01

439

PERSONAL OBJECT DETECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A personal object or obstacle detector apparatus comprises a continuous transmission frequency modulation (CTFM) ranging system (12) and an audio output device (14). The CTFM ranging system transmits a frequency-swept pressure wave, receives a reflected frequency-swept pressure wave from at least one object (34), and forms an audio signal based upon a frequency difference between the frequency-swept pressure wave and the reflected frequency-swept pressure wave. The audio output device (14) produces an acoustic pressure wave in dependence upon the audio signal. In a preferred embodiment, the acoustic pressure wave contains separate tones (30, 32) for each of the objects detected, wherein each tone has a pitch dependent upon the distance from the CTFM ranging system (12) to the corresponding object. Another embodiment utilizes a pair of CTFM ranging systems to produce a stereo auditory map of objects and obstacles.

BURGESS David; FELSENSTEIN Lee; SAUNDERS Steven E.

440

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT collaboration is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance – after three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics – and upgrade. The most critical maintenance interventions are chambers and Minicrate repairs, which have not begun yet, because they need proper access to each wheel of the CMS barrel, meaning space for handling the big chambers in the few cases where they have to be extracted, and, more in general, free access from cables and thermal shields in the front and back side of the chambers. These interventions are planned for between the coming Autumn until next spring. Meanwhile, many other activities are happening, like the “pigtail” intervention on the CAEN AC/DC converters which has just taken place. The upgrade activities continue to evolve in good accordance with the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from the UXC to the US...

M. Dallavalle

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Detector with ionisation chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The smoke detector consists of a beaker-shaped ionization chamber with two electrodes, one measuring electrode and one radiation source, e.g., a foil with radium or americium. One electrode is designed as a grid and permeable to smoke; it extends over the side wall and the bottom carries the second, rod-type electrode which faces the lid of the chamber. Its free end is opposed to the flat measuring electrode secured in the lid. It surrounds the radiation source, which also has a flat shape. All electrodes are electrically insulated relative to each other and relative to an external housing. The presence of smoke is indicated by an alarm system. The smoke enters the housing through slots. (DG).

1978-01-01

442

Improved organic scintillation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Equations have been derived for the practical scintillation efficiency (photo-electrons/MeV) of organic crystals and solutions in terms of molecular parameters and these have been applied to the more important scintillator systems, for photomultipliers with S11 (glass window) and S13 (quartz window) responses. The results suggest several improvements in current organic scintillation detector practice: the use of binary rather than ternary solutions; the use of quartz rather than glass windows; and the reconsideration of mixed crystal scintillators based on naphthalene. Improvements by factors of 2 or more in the figure of merit (practical efficiency/decay time) for fast-scintillation counting can be obtained. (author)[fr] L'auteur a etabli des equations pour determiner le rendement de scintillation (photoelectrons/MeV) de cristaux et solutions organiques, en faisant intervenir des parametres moleculaires. Il a applique ces equations a des appareils a scintillations plus importantes pour determiner la reponse des photomultiplicateurs a fenetre en verre (S11) et a fenetre en quartz (S13). Les resultats obtenus ont fait apparaitre la possibilite d'ameliorer, a plusieurs egards, les detecteurs organiques a scintillations du type courant, par exemple en remplacant les solutions ternaires par des solutions binaires, les fenetres en verre par des fenetres en quartz, ou en reexaminant les possibilites offertes par les scintillateurs a cristaux mixtes a base de naphtalene. L'introduction de ces perfectionnements conduirait a une amelioration, du simple au double ou plus, du facteur de qualite (efficacite/temps de decroissance) des dispositifs de comptage a scintillations. (author)[es] Se han establecido ecuaciones que permiten calcular el rendimiento practico de centelleo (fotoelectrones/MeV) de los cristales y soluciones organicos en funcion de parametros moleculares; estas ecuaciones han sido aplicadas a los sistemas de centelleo mas importantes, para fotomultiplicadores con respuestas S11 (ventana de vidrio) y S13 (ventana de cuarzo). Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de perfeccionar de varias maneras los actuales metodos de utilizacion de detectores organicos: empleo de soluciones binarias con preferencia a las ternarias; empleo de ventanas de cuarzo con preferencia a las de vidrio; nueva evaluacion de los detectores de cristales mixtos basados en el naftaleno. El indice de calidad (rendimiento practico/periodo de caida de la luminiscencia) puede llegar a aumentar al doble para el contaje rapido con detectores de centelleo. (author)[ru] Byli vyvedeny uravneniya dlya opredeleniya dejstvitel'noj ehffektivnosti stsintillyatsii-(chislo foto- ehlektronov na 1 mehv) organicheskikh kristallov i rastvorov s tochki zreniya molekulyarnykh parametrov; ehti uravneniya byli primeneny k bolee slozhnym sistemam stsintillyatorov dlya fotoumnozhitelej s kharakteristikami S11 (steklyannoe okno) i S13 (kvartsevoe okno). Rezul'taty ukazyvayut na vozmozhnost' vneseniya ryada usovershenstvovanij v sushchestvuyushchuyu konstruktsiyu organicheskikh stsintillyatsionnykh detektorov, a imenno: ispol'zovanie binarnykh rastvorov vmesto trojnykh; ispol'zovanie kvartsevogo okna vmesto steklyannogo; peresmotr stsintillyatorov so smeshannymi kristallami na osnove naftalina. Takim obrazom mozhno uvelichit' vdvoe ili dazhe eshche bol'she chuvstvitel'nost' (dejstvitel'naya ehffektivnost', otnesennaya ko vremeni raspada) bystro stsintillyatsionnogo scheta. (author)

1962-01-01

443

Void/particulate detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Claytor, Thomas N. (Woodridge, IL); Karplus, Henry B. (Hinsdale, IL)

1985-01-01

444

Porous material neutron detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.

Diawara, Yacouba (Oak Ridge, TN); Kocsis, Menyhert (Venon, FR)

2012-04-10

445

Detector of particle motion direction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A solid-state directed Cherenkov detector for narrow-aperture detecting systems is described. In case of one photomultiplier and more the detection efficiency of relativistic particle moving of forward and backward is ?500, in case of two photomultipliers - 15000. The detector characteristics are calculated by Monte Carlo method and are verified in experiment on 300 MeV position beam.

1989-01-01

446

Microgap x-ray detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need in the field of photon detectors, for a detector capable of exhibiting photon, sensitivity over a wide range of energies, has fast time response thus allowing operation up to the GigaHertz level, provides adjustment gain, exhibits low nois...

C. R. Wuest R. M. Bionta E. Ables

1993-01-01

447

Study of bulk micromegas detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present a study of a micromegas detector prototype built with bulk technology. Following a short discussion of the micromegas detector's structure and working mechanism, the bulk fabrication process is described, and some testing results of the prototype are presented. (authors)

2010-01-01

448

Advances in germanium detector technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes some of the recent advances in high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector technologies and their applications. These important advances were driven by the necessity to support the recent increase in applications, uses and requirements for germanium detectors. Performances of single and multi-element closely packed HPGe detector arrays are discussed for various applications. Some of the developmental work to further improve the packing density of both large and small germanium detectors by using monolithic segmentation technology is presented along with the results. Monolithically segmented large germanium detectors are described which have high efficiency and high-energy resolution. Such detectors supply both interaction position and energy information of incident high-energy photons thereby providing powerful tools for gamma-ray tracking, polarimetry studies, low-energy filtration, and low-energy background rejection, etc. Monolithically segmented small germanium detectors provide improved solid angle ratio in X-ray detection systems without sacrificing energy resolution or throughput. Advancements in this detector technology are required for the fourth-generation Synchrotron Light Sources that are at the planning stage. This paper also reports on a revolutionary monolithic structure that is believed to be the first ever fabricated on large HPGe crystal.

2003-06-01

449

Detector for the Linear Collider  

CERN Document Server

A detector for e+e- experiments up to the highest linear collider energies is presented. It results from one set of choices among many possibilities considered during the ECFA/DESY Study on Physics and Detectors for the Linear Collider 1996/7.

Blair, G A

1997-01-01

450

Micromegas detector developments for MIMAC  

CERN Document Server

The aim of the MIMAC project is to detect non-baryonic Dark Matter with a directional TPC. The recent Micromegas efforts towards building a large size detector will be des