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1

Dust on UA1 central detector  

CERN Multimedia

In March 1982 the central derector of UA1 was contaminated by dirt in the compressed air used for cooling during the bakeout of the beam pipe. The lengthy cleaning imposed a change of the collider schedule (Annual Report 1982 p. 114).

1982-01-01

2

First operation of the CERN UA1 central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Detector of the UA1 experiment at the CERN pp Collider underwent a first physics run at the end of 1981. The detector consists of a large drift chamber assembly (25 m3, about 6000 sense wires). An electronics readout with multi-hit capability simultaneously digitizes the time and the analog information used for charge division and energy measurement. The initial performance of the readout and control system will also be presented. The detector was tested in two cosmic ray runs, and is now fully operational for the second physics run; this started at the beginning of October 1982

3

First operation of the CERN UA1 central detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Detector of the UA1 experiment at the CERN pp Collider underwent a first physics run at the end of 1981. The detector consists of a large drift chamber assembly (25 m/sup 3/, about 6000 sense wires). An electronics readout with multi-hit capability simultaneously digitizes the time and the analog information used for charge division and energy measurement. The initial performance of the readout and control system will also be presented. The detector was tested in two cosmic ray runs, and is now fully operational for the second physics run; this started at the beginning of October 1982.

Calvetti, M.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cittolin, S.; DiBitonto, D.; Dumps, L.; Haynes, W.; Jank, W.

1983-02-01

4

The central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the construction, calibration and performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of the UA1 experiment at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The calorimeter is of the lead-scintillator sandwich type. It is 26.4 radiation lengths thick and covers a surface of about 50 m2. We estimate the resolution of the calorimeter for electrons of energy greater than 1 GeV to be the sum in quadrature of 15%/?E (E in GeV) and a constant 3%. The first term comes from the inherent resolution of the calorimeter due to sampling fluctuations and photostatistics. The second term comes from uncertainties in the calibration procedure and dominates the resolution for electrons from W and Z0 decay. The uncertainty in the overall energy scale also reflects the uncertainties in the calibration procedure and is estimated to be 3%. (orig.)

5

Central hadron calorimeter of UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (author)

6

Detector for the UA1 experiment during assembly  

CERN Multimedia

The UA1 detector, shown here in its 'garage' position, was a multi-purpose detector. It covered as large a solid angle as possible and could detect hadron jets, electrons and muons. This was used between 1981 and 1993 on the SPS collider at CERN to observe the proton-antiproton collisions. UA1 was used along with UA2 to discover the W and Z bosons in 1983, which lead to Nobel Prizes for Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer in 1984.

1981-01-01

7

The electronics and parallel readout system for the UA1 limited-streamer tubes muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A muon position detector based on limited streamer tubes has been built for the UA1 experiment at the CERN panti p collider. The tubes are arranged in chambers equipped with electronics to allow for analog readout of the induced signals on strips. The electronics module for charge amplification and conversion (STAR), the data acquisition system based on the VME standard and the performance of the detector will be described. (orig.)

8

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector  

CERN Multimedia

Computer screen representations of some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons.Comments : silent well done

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

9

The calibration of the central electromagnetic calorimeter of UA1 proton-antiproton experiment at CERN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important result of the UA1 experiment at CERN has been the discovery of the weak intermediate vector bosons W+, W- and Z0. We describe the calibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter, which gives the signature of the electronic mode of desintegration of the intermediate bosons and measures their masses. We shall discuss this process and give some experimental results

10

UA1 Megatek  

CERN Multimedia

Some examples of proton-antiproton collisions in the UA1 detector. Creation of matter in a soft collision. A two jets event: a typical quark antiquark hard scattering. Production of the w-boson decaying into electron-neutrino. Production of the z-boson and its decay into electron-positron. Production of the z-boson and its decay into two muons. Comments : silent movie

Sideral Films

1983-01-01

11

At UA1  

CERN Multimedia

Fabrication of the UA1 coils in the Hall 168. The coil under work is posed over the vacuum tank in turn temporary posed over the pile of coils already finished. The UA1 magnet consisted of 16 'C' shaped elements and 12 'I' shaped elements each of about 52 tons. (Annual Report 1979 pp. 55 and 79).

1980-01-01

12

Muons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1987-1989 the experiment ('UA1'), which is described in this thesis, has focused on measurements with muons. These particles can be considered as a part of the 'fingerprint' of interesting reactions. In the practice of 'UA1', recognizing this 'fingerprint' represents a puzzle because many (often more than hundred particles are produced in a collision between a proton and an anti-proton. In the experiment the properties (charge, energy, direction) of these particles are measured and subsequently the events are reconstructed. This results in several event samples corresponding to specific production mechanisms. The first part (ch. 1-5) of this thesis deals with the muon trigger of the UA1 experiment. This is a computer system that, directly after a measurement, reconstructs an event and checks for the presence of muons. If no muon is found the event is not considered anymore. In the other cases, the event is kept and written to magnetic tape. These tapes are for further analysis. The necessity of a trigger follows from the fact that per second more than 250.000 interactions occur and only about 10 can be saved on tape. For this reason a trigger system is of critical importance: all events not written to tape are lost. In ch. 2 the experiment and in ch. 4 the ideas and constraints of the trigger are explained. Ch. 4 discusses the construction and functioning of the muon trigger and ch. 5 presents the performance. The second part of this thesis (ch.'s 6 and 7) contain the physics analysis results from data collected with muon trigger. These results are explicitly obtained from events containing two muons. The theory is briefly reviewed and a discussion is given of the data and the way the selections are done. Finally the J/? and ? samples and the cross sections of b-quark production are given. (author). 57 refs.; 60 figs.; 8 tabs

13

A centrality detector concept  

Science.gov (United States)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision “centrality”. In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

14

Proposal to the Department of Energy for participation in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This proposal is to the Department of Energy for 501.6K dollars (349.6K operations and 152K equipment) for continued participation in the UA1 experiment on proton-antiproton collisions. The UA1 experiment is the study of high-energy proton-antiproton collisions in the Super-Proton-synchrotron (SPS) Collider at CERN. A major upgrade of the UA1 detector is in progress for operation with the upgraded antiproton source (ACOL). The US groups have played an increasingly prominent role in UA1 during the past few years. This paper discusses the data analysis that has been done by the group of the position detector and it's hardware

15

Triggers in UA2 and UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x1030. The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

16

The UA1 VME based data readout and multiprocessor system  

CERN Document Server

The UA1 experiment is a large multi-purpose particle physics detector system. It was designed to produce full solid-angle coverage around the LSS5 intersection region of the CERN proton-antiproton collider operating at a centre of mass of 540 Gev. The experiment has been operational since November 1981 and the next data-taking period is scheduled for September 1984. At present an upgrade program involving the installation of new detectors and the improvements of the data acquisition system is in progress. This paper describes the current upgrade of the data readout and online data handling facilities by means of a multicrate and multiprocessor system based on the industrial standard VME/VMX bus and the M68000 microprocessor family.

Cittolin, S; Haynes, WJ; Jank, W; Pietarinen, E; Rossi, P

1984-01-01

17

The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 ?s, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

18

Jet cross-sections in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the results are presented on the inclusive jet, two-jet, and three-jet cross-sections in the UA1 experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) pp-bar Collider. The inclusive cross-section is consistent with previous results and with QCD predictions. Explanation of the two-jet angular distribution requires the inclusion of non-scaling effects, the ?/sub s/ variation with Q/sup 2/, assuming a value for the QCD scale parameter of ? = 0.2 GeV. From the three-jet cross-section there is evidence for initial- and final-state bremsstrahlung processes in agreement with leading-order QCD predictions. The relative rate of three-jet and two-jet events at the highest subprocess c.m.s. energy (?s0 > 180 GeV) gives ?/sub S/(L.O.) = ?/sub S/(K/sub 3J//K/sub 2J/) = 0.19 +- (0.04 stat.) +- (0.03 syst.) for ? 4000 GeV/sup 2/

19

Heavy-flavour production in experiment UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primarily top-quark production at the CERN anti-pp Collider is reviewed with particular emphasis on heavy-flavour decay topology. A discussion of the ''electron + jet'' events recently observed by experiment UA1 follows, with the conclusion that these events can most likely be interpreted as b anti-b quark production. Finally, top-quark trigger philosophies in UA1 for the upcoming run are presented

20

Development of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. (orig.).

Brooks, C.B.; Cashmore, R.J.; Gingrich, D.; Harnew, N.; Heath, G.P.; Holmes, A.R.; Martin, N.C.; McArthur, I.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.; Shield, P.D.; Silvester, I.; Smith, S.; Wastie, R.; Wells, J. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Physics); Bullock, F.W.; Devenish, R.C.; Fraser, T.J.; Jones, T.W.; Lush, G.J.; Nixon, G.; Shaw, D.; Strachan, D.E. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Foster, B.; Gilmore, R.S.; Llewellyn, T.J.; Malos, J.; Morgado, C.; Sephton, A.J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wilson, F.F. (Bristol Univ. (UK). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Gibson, M.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hiddleston, J.; Long, K.R.; McCubbin, N.A.; Parham, A.G.; Payne, B.T.; Roberts, J.H.C.; Saxon, D.H.; Shaw, T.B.; Tkaczyk, S.M.; Wallis, E.W.; White, D.J.; Yeo, K.L. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (UK)); Jamdagni, A.K.; McQuillan, D.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Shulman, J.; Toudup, L.W. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Dept. of Physics); ZEUS-UK Collaboration

1989-11-10

 
 
 
 
21

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ZEUS CENTRAL TRACKING DETECTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The design concept and development of the ZEUS central tracking detector is described. This is a cylindrical drift chamber designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and event triggering in a high-crossing-rate, high-magnetic-field environment. © 1989.

Brooks, C.; Bullock, F.; Cashmore, R.; Devenish, R.; Foster, B.; Fraser, T.; Gibson, M.; Gilmore, R.; Gingrich, D.; Harnew, N.; Hart, J.; Heath, G.; Hiddleston, J.; Holmes, A.; Jamdagni, A.

1989-01-01

22

CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller

2007-02-01

23

Upgraded muon detection system for UA1 based on limited streamer tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the construction and performance of the improved muon detection system of the UA1 experiment. The new position detectors, that complement the original muon detection system based on large planar drift chambers, are limited-streamer chambers for a total surface of 800 m2. The coordinate parallel to the wires is readout through the especially developed STAR electronics that integrates and digitizes the signal from the strips. The intrinsic spatial resolution, determined in a test beam, is 400?m, that achieved so far in the real system is 1.2mm. The efficiency is evaluated to be (94.9±0.6)%. (orig.)

24

PHENIX central arm tracking detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PHENIX tracking system consists of Drift Chambers (DC), Pad Chambers (PC) and the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC). PC1/DC and PC2/TEC/PC3 form the inner and outer tracking units, respectively. These units link the track segments that transverse the RICH and extend to the EMCal. The DC measures charged particle trajectories in the r-phi direction to determine pT of the particles and the invariant mass of particle pairs. The PCs perform 3D spatial point measurements for pattern recognition and longitudinal momentum reconstruction and provide spatial resolution of a few mm in both r-phi and z. The TEC tracks particles passing through the region between the RICH and the EMCal. The design and operational parameters of the detectors are presented and running experience during the first year of data taking with PHENIX is discussed. The observed spatial and momentum resolution is given which imposes a limitation on the identification and characterization of charged particles in various momentum ranges

25

Chiral and UA(1) symmetry in correlation functions in medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, we will discuss how the chiral symmetry and UA(1) breaking effects are reflected in the correlation functions. Using the Banks–Cas her formula, one can identify the density of zero eigenvalues to be the common ingredient that governs the chiral symmetry breaking in correlation functions between currents composed of light quarks with or without a heavy quark. Similarly, the presence of the UA(1) breaking effect is determined through the contribution of the topologically nontrivial configurations that depends on the number of flavors. We also discuss how the symmetry breaking effects are reflected in the gluon correlation functions. Finally, we review the Witten–Veneziano (Wv) formula for the ?' mass in medium. (author)

26

Performance of a UA 1 uranium-TMP calorimeter module  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first of the 160 gondola modules was tested in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) test beams between July and December 1988. After a brief summary of the main features of the UA1 upgraded calorimeter, the author will describe the measurements of the TMP performance, and then the results obtained with this module using muon, electron, and pion beams

27

Production and muonic decay of the Z0 intermediate vector boson in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years 1982 to 1985 the intermediate bosons W+- and Z0 were detected in all the leptonic decay channels. In the present work we examined experimentally the production of the Z0 in proton-antiproton collisions, followed by decay of the Z0 into two muons. At present this is possible only in the UA1 experiment. Within the framework of this work I was initially responsible for the correct data readout from the muon detector. For this purpose it was necessary to build a monitoring system based on microprocessors, which could be used to monitor and test our apparatus. This monitoring system contains numerous programs for the diagnosis of the equipment. In the analysis I first selected the Z0 events in the runs of 1984 and 1985, and then determined the efficiency of this selection. I also participated in setting up the p/sub t//sup ?/ > 15 GeV/c selection. Then the Z0 sample was tested for completeness, and the background calculated anew. The methods of energy balance and mass fitting were refined and systematized. Thus the production properties and the mass of the Z0 could be determined for the first time for the entire measurement period of the UA1. The determination of the parameters of the standard model was done by also including the results of analyses from other decay channels of the W and Z bosons. 149 refs., 60 figs., 14 tabs

28

Performance of a UA1 hadron calorimeter prototype  

CERN Document Server

The hadron calorimeter for the UA1 experiment at the CERN SPS proton- antiproton collider consists of a lead-scintillator sandwich plus an iron-scintillator sandwich with wavelength shifter readout. The authors have tested prototype modules in muon and hadron beams in the momentum range from 0.7 to 90 GeV/c. For several angles of incidence, they have studied the uniformity of the response to hadrons as a function of position. This has included regions where there is reduced sensitivity due to mechanical constraints and the presence of the wavelength shifter readout. The response, resolution and degree of shower containment were measured as a function of incident momentum.

Corden, M J; Astbury, A; Dowell, John D; Edwards, M; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Garvey, J; Gibson, W R; Grant, D; Grayer, G; Haynes, W J; Hill, D; Homer, R J; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kenyon, I R; McMahon, T; Nandi, A K; Roberts, C; Schanz, G; Shah, T P; Sumorok, K; Thompson, G; Watkins, P M; Wilson, J A

1982-01-01

29

Central Tracking Detector Based on Scintillating Fibres  

CERN Multimedia

Scintillating fibres form a reasonable compromise for central tracking detectors in terms of price, resolution, response time, occupancy and heat production. \\\\ \\\\ New fluorescents with large Stokes shifts have been produced, capable of working without wavelength shifters. Coherent multibundles have been developed to achieve high packing fractions. Small segments of tracker shell have been assembled and beam tests have confirmed expectations on spatial resolution. An opto-electronic delay line has been designed to delay the track patterns and enable coincidences with a first level trigger. Replacement of the conventional phosphor screen anode with a Si pixel chip is achieved. This tube is called ISPA-tube and has already been operated in beam tests with a scintillating fibres tracker. \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the proposal is to improve hit densities for small diameter fibres by increasing the fraction of trapped light, by reducing absorption and reflection losses, by reflecting light at the free fibre end, and by inc...

2002-01-01

30

Comparison of forward and central collider detectors for beauty physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of geometry, tracking, and muon triggering indicates that a central detector has a higher efficiency than a forward detector of equal psuedo rapidity coverage at both Tevatron and SSC energies. The difference at the Tevatron is considerable, about a factor of four. At the SSC, however, the difference is about a factor of two, so other considerations such as vertexing, particle ID, or cost may make a large forward detector an attractive option

31

/sub CH/ dependence on event multiplicity in ''minimum bias'' events at the SPS collider UA1 collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a UA1 ''minimum bias'' trigger data from the 1981 runs has shown a non negligible dependence of the average rho/sub T/ of the charged particles (/sub CH/) from the event charged multiplicity. In this paper the author presents new results on this effect based on a sample of ''minimum bias'' (MB) events collected with the UA1 detector during the 1983 run. After a short description of the data sample, he presents the results on the rho/sub T/ distributions showing that the 1981 observation is confirmed. He correlates this effect with the presence, in the MB sample, of a sizeable fraction of low E/sub T/ jet events. The author compares these low E/sub T/ jet events with the ''underlying'' event from high E/sub T/ jet events, in order to show that both type of events exhibit very similar behaviour in terms of /sub CH/ and multiplicity, supporting therefore the ''jet'' interpretation of the events found in the MB sample

32

The data acquisition system for the OBELIX central detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the data acquisition system developed for the central detector of the OBELIX experiment at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. The system is based on a VME multiprocessor that formats, collects and make a rough online analysis of the events digitized by high speed (100 MHz) Flash-ADCs. Full on-line event reconstruction is also provided

33

The design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanical, electrical and electronic design and construction of the ZEUS central tracking detector are described, together with the chamber monitoring and environmental control. This cylindrical drift chamber is designed for track reconstruction, electron identification and fast event triggering in a high beam-crossing rate, high magnetic field application. (orig.)

34

Construction and performance of the L3 central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The L3 central tracking detector has been in operation since the start-up of LEP (Large Electron Positron collider) in 1989. This detector consists of a Time Expansion Chamber (TEC), a layer of Plastic Scintillating Fibers and a Z-chamber. The TEC gives a high spatial resolution and an excellent multi-track reconstruction capability. The fibers are designed to calibrate the drift velocity with high precision. The Z-Chamber provides TEC with accurate information about the z-coordinates of the tracks. A description of the design and the infrastructure of these three detectors, including the readout and data acquisition system, is given. The performance of the detectors during the 1990 and 1991 LEP running periods is presented. (orig.)

35

Electrical resistivity of the UAs1-xSex solid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical resistivity ? of UAs1-xSex solid solutions has been measured between 13 K and room temperature. The magnetic phase diagram has been deduced. Effects of uniaxial stress on ? allow, to understand some results and to reveal anisotropy of ?. (orig.)

36

Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

Sommer, Wolfgang

2008-03-26

37

The ZEUS central tracking detector second level trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the Second Level trigger for the Central Tracking Detector (CTD-SLT) of the ZEUS experiment. The CTD-SLT consists of a network of microprocessors running a track-finding algorithm. Operational experience gained during the 1995 HERA data taking period shows that the maximum processing rate approaches 800 Hz, with almost 100% track finding efficiency and adequate pT and vertex resolution. (author)

38

Data acqusition for the Zeus central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zeus experiment is being installed on the Hera electron-proton collider being built at the Desy laboratory in Hamburg. The high beam crossover rate of the Hera machine will provide experience in data acquisition and triggering relevant to the SSC environment. This paper describes the Transputer based data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector, and outlines some proposed development work on the use of parallel processing techniques in this field.

Quinton, S. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)

1989-04-01

39

Vanishing Str M$^{2}$ in the presence of anomalous U$_{A}$(1)  

CERN Document Server

We show that the presence of an anomalous \\rm U_A(1) factor in the gauge group of string-derived models may have the new and important phenomenological consequence of allowing the vanishing of {\\rm Str}\\,{\\cal M}^2 in the ``shifted" vacuum, that results in the process of cancelling the anomalous \\rm U_A(1). The feasibility of this effect seems to be enhanced by a vanishing vacuum energy, and by a ``small" value of {\\rm Str}\\,{\\cal M}^2 in the original vacuum. In the class of free-fermionic models with vanishing vacuum energy that we focus on, a necessary condition for this mechanism to be effective is that {\\rm Str}\\,{\\cal M}^2>0 in the original vacuum. A vanishing {\\rm Str}\\,{\\cal M}^2 ameliorates the cosmological constant problem and is a necessary element in the stability of the no-scale mechanism.

López, J

1995-01-01

40

Chiral and U_A(1) symmetry in correlation functions in medium  

CERN Document Server

In this review, we will discuss how the chiral symmetry and U_A(1) breaking effects are reflected in the correlation functions. Using the Banks-Casher formula, one can identify the density of zero eigenvalues to be the common ingredient that governs the chiral symmetry breaking in correlation functions between currents composed of light quarks with or without a heavy quark. Similarly the presence of the U_A(1) breaking effect is determined through the contribution of the topologically non trivial configurations that depends on the number of flavors. We also discuss how the symmetry breaking effects are reflected in the gluon correlation functions. Finally, we review the Witten Veneziano formula for the eta' mass in medium.

Lee, Su Houng

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Fast online track finding for the muon trigger in the UA1 experiment  

CERN Document Server

A microprocessor system will be used to trigger on high energetic muons in the UA1 experiment. The system consists of MC 68000 microprocessors. Six of them work in parallel for a first online track finding and one as supervisor to take the final trigger decision. To reduce the input rate for the microprocessors, very fast prefiltering is done by a specially constructed hardware trigger. (0 refs).

Eggert, K; Engster, Claude; Erhard, P; Faissner, Helmut; Giboni, K L; Haidan, R; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hertzberger, L O; Hoffmann, D; Holthuizen, D J; Lehmann, H; Leuchs, R; Muraki, Y; Radermacher, E; Reithler, H; Tscheslog, E; Van Koningsveld, L; Verweij, H

1981-01-01

42

Results from experiment UA1 at the CERN p anti p collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 540 GeV are currently being investigated by experiment UA1 at the CERN Collider. Topics presented in this talk include the latest results on multiplicity distributions, inclusive transverse momentum spectra for charged and neutral particles, correlations betwen high-p/sub T/ charged particles, jet studies with preliminary information on yield and the fragmentation function, transverse energy distributions, a search for Centauro-like events, and elastic p anti p scattering

43

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

44

Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

Bartsch, D.

2007-05-15

45

Central Particle Tracking Detectors in the PEN Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The PEN Collaboration is conducting a new measurement of the &+circ;->e^+?(?) (?e2 decay) branching ratio at the Paul Scherrer Institute, with the goal uncertainty of ?B/B ˜5x10-4 or lower. At present, the combined accuracy of all published ?e2 decay measurements lags behind the theoretical calculation by a factor of 40. In this contribution we describe the redesigned central region tracking detectors of the PEN detector. The design and performance of a pair of two-piece wedge degraders for simultaneous horizontal and vertical tracking of the &+circ; beam particles are presented in detail. After passing through the tracking degrader, the &+circ; beam is stopped in the center of an active target scintillator. The positrons from &+circ; and &+circ; decays are tracked in a pair of cylindrical MWPC's, and detected in a thin plastic scintillator hodoscope and a pure CsI electromagnetic calorimeter.

Frlez, Emil

2008-10-01

46

Experience with the UA1 micro vertex detector in the SPS collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design and operation of a small pressurized drift chamber in the SPS Collider is described. The cylinder chamber with inner radius of 3 cm is concentric with the beam axis. The chamber received radiation corresponding to 6 x 10-4 C/cm on the sense wires

47

Bulk transitions of twelve flavor QCD and $U_A(1)$ symmetry  

CERN Document Server

We present an update on our ongoing study on the nature of the bulk transition observed at strong coupling in the SU(3) gauge theory with N_f = 12 flavors in the fundamental representation. We show evidence that there is a first order chiral symmetry breaking bulk transition separating a region at weak coupling where chiral symmetry is restored from a region at strong coupling where chiral symmetry is broken. We also discuss hints of a separate partial restoration of U_A(1) at weaker coupling. The results are in agreement with restoration of conformality in non abelian gauge theories as the number of flavors is increased.

Deuzeman, Albert; da Silva, Tiago Nunes; Pallante, Elisabetta

2011-01-01

48

Specific heat of UAs1-xSbx and USb1-xTex single crystals at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report specific-heat experiments on UAs1-xSbx (x=0, 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) and USb1-xTex (x=0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) in the temperature range between 1.5 and 11 K. For UAs1-xSbx the parameter ? of the electronic specific heat changes by a factor of ?20 within a concentration range of ?x=0.3. In the USb1-xTex series the variation of ? is much smaller in magnitude. (orig.)

49

On $U_V(1)\\times U_A(1)$ gauge invariance in a Lorentz-violating QED  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a Lorentz-symmetry violating master quantum electrodynamics which preserves the $U_V(1)\\times U_A(1)$ gauge symmetry. The master fermionic sector can radiatively induce a master effective action which simultaneously displays the same electromagnetic terms present in the Carroll-Field-Jackiw, Myers-Pospelov and Aether actions.

Anacleto, M A; Passos, E

2014-01-01

50

Description of Protocol between ALICE Central Trigger and ALICE Sub-Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Abstract This document describes the protocol between the ALICE central trigger and each ALICE sub-detector. The protocol is the same for all sub-detectors and consists of a series of signals indicating trigger levels, sent by the central trigger, to which the sub-detector responds by sending a BUSY, which indicates that it is not ready to accept further new triggers. A generic block diagram of the sub-detector front-end electronics shows all the necessary stages of event buffering. The sub-detector groups are urged to study carefully the implications of the transfer rates and the chosen capacity of the multi-event buffers on the sub-detector dead time.

Villalobos Baillie, O; CERN. Geneva; Jokanovic, P

2000-01-01

51

A Database for Silicon Microstrip Detectors in the SCT Central Cluster Working Group  

CERN Document Server

Before the construction of the ATLAS Silicon Central Tracker (SCT), several types of silicon microstip detectors are tested across the working groups. A Web Oracle Database concept has been setup to be able to have access to relevant information from anywhere on a web server in the Central Cluster working group. This note decribes the concept of this database.

Demièrre, P

1998-01-01

52

Heavy flavor production and the evidence of B-bar B mixing in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the heavy flavor production at the CERN proton-antiproton collider (?s = 630 GeV). The heavy quarks were tagged in UA1 via their semileptonic decays into muons. The production cross section for beauty particles and the topology of the events were in good agreement with QCD calculations, once higher processes, like flavor excitation and gluon splitting, were taken into account. The large amount of like-sign dimuons was interpreted as evidence for beauty oscillations. These data are discussed and compared with similar measurements at e+e- colliders

53

The detector system for measurement of multiple cosmic muons in the central detector of KASCADE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector system for directional and time correlation measurements of multiple cosmic muons has been set up within the extensive air shower experiment KASCADE. The system consists of two layers (129 m2 area each) of position-sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) triggered by a layer of segmented plastic scintillation counters placed upon an iron/concrete shielding above the MWPCs. Operation conditions and performance of the MWPCs have been studied by means of a prototype arrangement consisting of a stack of four detectors and two trigger layers. Results of the detailed prototype studies are presented and discussed. In particular, it has been found that for the present purposes an operation with a commonly used argon-methane gas mixture instead of previously used argon-isobutane leads to an excellent performance. The chambers are integrated into the KASCADE experiment as described and are in continuous operation since 1996. Some typical measurements with the full detector assembly are used to illustrate which features of extensive air showers can be studied

54

The detector system for measurement of multiple cosmic muons in the central detector of KASCADE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detector system for directional and time correlation measurements of multiple cosmic muons has been set up within the extensive air shower experiment KASCADE. The system consists of two layers (129 m{sup 2} area each) of position-sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) triggered by a layer of segmented plastic scintillation counters placed upon an iron/concrete shielding above the MWPCs. Operation conditions and performance of the MWPCs have been studied by means of a prototype arrangement consisting of a stack of four detectors and two trigger layers. Results of the detailed prototype studies are presented and discussed. In particular, it has been found that for the present purposes an operation with a commonly used argon-methane gas mixture instead of previously used argon-isobutane leads to an excellent performance. The chambers are integrated into the KASCADE experiment as described and are in continuous operation since 1996. Some typical measurements with the full detector assembly are used to illustrate which features of extensive air showers can be studied.

Bozdog, H.; Elzer, M.; Gils, H.J. E-mail: gils@ik3.fzk.de; Haungs, A.; Herm, F.; Koepernik, H.; Koehler, K.U.; Kretschmer, M.; Leibrock, H.; Mathes, H.J.; Petcu, M.; Proehl, D.; Rebel, H.; Wentz, J.; Wolf, A.; Zagromski, S

2001-06-11

55

VERTEX TRIGGERING USING TIME DIFFERENCE MEASUREMENTS IN THE ZEUS CENTRAL TRACKING DETECTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method of vertex triggering which uses a time difference measurement to determine the z coordinate of a track is under development for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. This incorporates a pipelined readout system. We describe the system and report on its performance. © 1989.

Harnew, N.; Heath, G.; Jeffs, M.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.; Shield, P.; White, D.; Wilson, F.

1989-01-01

56

Vertex triggering using time difference measurements in the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of vertex triggering which uses a time difference measurement to determine the z coordinate of a track is under development for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. This incorporates a pipelined readout system. We describe the system and report on its performance. (orig.).

Harnew, N.; Heath, G.P.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.L.; Shield, P.D.; Jeffs, M.D.; White, D.J.; Wilson, F.F.

1989-07-01

57

Results and Future Plans on Central Exclusive Production with the LHCb Detector  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb detector and LHC running conditions are ideally suited to measuring central exclusive production. Several recent measurements of exclusive dimuon, single and double charmonia are reviewed. The potential for future measurements across a broad range of physics channels is discussed.

McNulty, Ronan

2014-01-01

58

One half of the central detector for the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS)experiment R807  

CERN Multimedia

This experiment was setup at the ISR intersection I-8 by the Brookhaven-CERN-Copenhagen-Lund-Rutherford Lab.-Tel Aviv Collaboration to study large transverse momentum phenomena (see Annual Report 1979 p. 69). The central detector (here shown for a part) was a cylindrical drift chamber with fine azimuthal segmentation.

1979-01-01

59

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system studied by neutron diffraction from single crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system (temperature versus composition) has been determined from neutron diffraction measurements in zero applied magnetic field on single crystals with x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50, as well as from measurements in finite applied magnetic fields on single crystals with x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30. For x ? 0.40 and incommensurate magnetic ordering (k=[0,0,k]; mkparallelk) develops below TN down to TIC. The k-value at TN decreases with the increase of x; in decreasing temperatures the k-value approaches the commensurate value below TIC. At TIC an incommensurate-commensurate transition leads to the type-I phase (k=1) for x ? 0.05 (with a subsequent transition to type-IA at T0), to the type-IA phase (k=1/2) for 0.05 ? x ? 0.30, and to the squaring-up of the (5+,4-) phase (k ? 0.244) for x=0.40 below T ? 90 K. For x ? 0.50 the ordering is ferromagnetic. The nature of the multi-k structure is determined from measurements in finite fields. With the previously established single-k structure of type-I (in UAs), the UAs1-xSex system exhibits single-k, double-k and triple-k structures. A double-k-triple-k transition occurs for x ? 0.15 in the type-IA phase and for x ? 0.22 in the incommensurate phase. The ordered magnetic moment at T=4.2 K is practically independent of thecally independent of the ordering (m ? 2?B). (orig.)

60

Detector for the UA2 experiment  

CERN Multimedia

Detector for the UA2 experiment, for the study of proton-antiproton collisions in the SPS between 1981 and 1993. It was used, along with UA1 (another experiment on the SPS), to discover the W and Z bosons in 1983, which won Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer the Nobel Prize in 1984.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Production and muonic decay of the intermediate vector boson Z0 in the UA1-experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the production of the z0 in proton-antiproton collisions and the subsequent decay of the Z-0 into two muons is experimentally studied. I was first responsible for the faultless readout of the muon detector. In the analysis I have first selected the Z0 data of the runs of 1984 and 1985, as well as determined the efficiency of this selection. Furthermore I have collaborated in the establishment of the pt ? > 15 GeV/c selection. In the following the Z0 sample was examined on completeness and the background calculated again. At c.m. energies of ?S = 546 GeV and ?S = 630 GeV in the whole 21 Z0 events were identified by their muonic decay. The analysis of the data yielded the following essential results: MZ = 90.7-4.8+5.2 (stat.)±3.2(syst.) GeV/c2. From the asymmetry of the muon angular distribution we calculate the electroweak mixing angle to sin 2?W = 0.24-0.04+0.05. The mixing can be better determined from the ratio of the W± and Z0 masses. In the muon channel we obtain sin2?W = 0.187±0.148(stat.)±0.033(syst.). If the weak mixing angle is given from the mass ratio the ? parameter can be calculated. In the muon channel we obtain ? = 1.05±0.16(stat.)±0.05(syst.). The measured cross sections of (?.B)?546GeV = 98.4±49.8(stat.)±19.9(syst) and (?.B)?630Gev = 65.9±17.2(stat.)±10.9(syst) are compatible with the prediction of the Drell-Yan production mechanism. From the ratio of the cross sections the number of the light neutrino generations N? can be limited to above. With 90% confidence N? 0 further heavy vector bosons below a mass of 173 GeV/c2 are excluded. (orig./HSI)

62

Some results of simulation of central drift chamber characteristics for the UCD detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The result of the mathematical simulation for the Central Drift Chamber of the Universal Calorimetric Detector (UCD)designed for the use in pp-bar colliding beam experiments at the UNK complex (Serpukhov, USSR) are presented. The method of calculation of the main physical processes in the detector (ionization, electron drift, charge division on the resistive wire, influence of the read-out electronics on the signal shape) are described. Various methods of coordinate reconstruction and adjacent track separation are analyzed. It is shown that in the drift chamber of the proposed construction working in the chosen conditions 50 ?m coordinate and 500 ?m two-track resolutions can be achieved. 10 refs.; 20 figs

63

The performance of the FADC system for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Tracking Detector (CTD) of the ZEUS experiment uses a Flash Analogue to Digital Converter (FADC) readout system to measure the arrival time of ionization at sense wires as well as the charge deposited. A digitization frequency of 104 MHz is used and the data is written to pipelined data stores. A Digital Signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the main functions on the card as well as perform data parameterization and compression. Test and operational performance results from the first electron-proton interactions are presented

64

Cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is concerned with the cell design and electrostatic optimisation for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector (CTD). The CTD is being designed for charged track reconstruction and particle momentum measurement in the ZEUS experiment at the HERA electron-proton collider. The contents of the report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the techniques employed in the study, and includes: design overview, voltage optimisation, strategy evolution, electrostatic screens, and optimisation over many superlayers. The second part contains a critical assessment of the results obtained, including optimised parameters, operational stability and alternative field values. (U.K.)

65

The high-voltage and readout electronics of the central drift chamber of the SAPHIR detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For experiments at the new BONN accelerator facility ELSA an experimental setup called SAPHIR (Spectrometer Arrangement for Photon Induced Reactions) is being built. The central detector of SAPHIR is a drift chamber matching the magnet gap of 1 m3. The subject of this paper is the high voltage supply including the control system and the readout of the chamber. The mechanical construction and the electronics are described. The time resolution of the readout chain has been studied and was found to be slightly better than 1 nsec in accordance to the specification for the TDCs. Furthermore first preliminary results from a check in the BONN electron test beam are presented. (orig.)

66

A $U_A(1)$ symmetry restoration scenario supported by the generalized Witten-Veneziano relation and its analytic solution  

CERN Document Server

The Witten-Veneziano relation, or, alternatively, its generalization proposed by Shore, facilitates understanding and describing the complex of eta and eta' mesons. We present an analytic, closed-form solution to Shore's equations which gives results on the eta-eta' complex in full agreement with results previously obtained numerically. Although the Witten-Veneziano relation and Shore's equations are related, the ways they were previously used in the context of dynamical models to calculate eta and eta' properties, were rather different. However, with the analytic solution, the calculation can be formulated similarly to the approach through the Witten-Veneziano relation, and with some conceptual improvements. In the process, one strengthens the arguments in favor of a possible relation between the U_A(1) and SU_A(3) chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. To test this scenario, the experiments such as those at RHIC, NICA and FAIR, which extend the RHIC (and LHC) high-temperature scans also to the finite-den...

Benic, S; Kekez, D; Klabucar, D

2014-01-01

67

Functional Integral Approaches to the Bosonization of Effective Multi-Quark Interactions with U_A(1 Breaking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low energy hadron phenomenology involving the (u,d,s quarks is often approached through effective multi-quark Lagrangians with the symmetries of QCD. A very successful approach consists in taking the four-quark Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Lagrangianwith the chiral $U_L(3imes U_R(3$ symmetry in the massless limit, combined with the $U_A(1$ breaking six-quark flavourdeterminant interaction of 't Hooft. We review the present status and some very recent developments related to the functionalintegration over the cubic term in auxiliary mesonic variables that one introduces to bosonize the system. Various approaches forhandling this functional, which cannot be integrated exactly, are discussed: the stationary phase approximation, the perturbative expansion, the loop expansion, their interrelation and importance for the evaluation of the effective action. The intricate group structure rules out the method of Airy's integral. The problem ofthe instability of the vacuum is stated and a solution given by including eight-quark interactions.

Brigitte Hiller

2006-02-01

68

W/sup +./ and Z/sup 0/ production in the UA1 experiment at the CERN proton- antiproton collider  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation the author summarizes new physics results concerning the production and decay of the W/sup +-/ and Z/sup 0/ intermediate bosons obtained during the last year by the UA1 experiment at CERN. The data recorded in the spring of 1983 are from proton-antiproton collisions at a total center-of-mass energy of 540 GeV, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 136 nb/sup -1/. Preliminary results presented in this paper are extracted from the data obtained during the autumn of 1984 at a center-of-mass energy of 630 GeV for a total recorded integrated luminosity of 270 nb/sup -1/. This paper deals with three main subjects. The first is the search for the decay of the Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs) into two hadronic jets. The second concerns the possible anomalies in the production of the decay of the IVBs. Such anomalies could uncover possible physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions. They are: (a) the production of hard hadronic jets in association with the IVB and (b) the presence of the radiative Z/sup 0/'s. The third subject is the observation of a new leptonic decay channel of the W/sup +-/ in the tau heavy lepton

69

CDF central detector installation. An efficient merge of digital photogrammetry and laser tracker metrology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metrology for Run II at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) required a very complex geodetic survey. The Collision Hall network, surveyed with a Laser Tracker and digital level, provides a constraining network for the positioning of the Central Detector (CD). A part-based Laser Tracker network, which surrounded the 2,000-ton CD, was used as control for assembly. Subassembly surveys of the Detector's major components were measured as independent networks using Laser Tracker, V-STARS/S (Video-Simultaneous Triangulation And Resection System/Single camera) digital photogrammetry system, and BETS (Brunson Electronic Theodolite System) theodolite triangulation system. Each subassembly survey was transformed into and constrained by the part-based network. For roll-in, the CD part-based network was transformed into the Collision Hall network coordinate system. The CD was positioned in the Collision Hall using two Laser Trackers in 'stakeout mode.' This paper discusses the survey, adjustment, transformation, and precision of the various networks. (author)

70

Dynamic magnetic shield for the CLAS12 central TOF detector photomultiplier tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Time-of-Flight detector for the Jefferson Laboratory 12-GeV upgrade is being designed with linear-focused photomultiplier tubes that require a robust magnetic shield against the CLAS12 main 5-T solenoid fringe fields of 100 mT (1 kG). Theoretical consideration of a ferromagnetic cylinder in an axial field has demonstrated that its shielding capability decreases with increasing length. This observation has been confirmed with finite element analysis using POISSON model software. Several shields composed of coaxial ferromagnetic cylinders have been studied. All difficulties caused by saturation effects were overcome with a novel dynamical shield, which utilizes a demagnetizing solenoid between the shielding cylinders. Basic dynamical shields for ordinary linear-focused 2-in. photomultiplier tubes were designed and tested both with models and experimental prototypes at different external field and demagnetizing current values. Our shield design reduces the 1 kG external axial field by a factor of 5000.

71

Dynamic magnetic shield for the CLAS12 central TOF detector photomultiplier tubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Time-of-Flight detector for the Jefferson Laboratory 12-GeV upgrade is being designed with linear-focused photomultiplier tubes that require a robust magnetic shield against the CLAS12 main 5-T solenoid fringe fields of 100 mT (1 kG). Theoretical consideration of a ferromagnetic cylinder in an axial field has demonstrated that its shielding capability decreases with increasing length. This observation has been confirmed with finite element analysis using POISSON model software. Several shields composed of coaxial ferromagnetic cylinders have been studied. All difficulties caused by saturation effects were overcome with a novel dynamical shield, which utilizes a demagnetizing solenoid between the shielding cylinders. Basic dynamical shields for ordinary linear-focused 2-in. photomultiplier tubes were designed and tested both with models and experimental prototypes at different external field and demagnetizing current values. Our shield design reduces the 1 kG external axial field by a factor of 5000.

Baturin, V., E-mail: baturin@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Burkert, V.; Carman, D.S.; Elouadrhyri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Grilli, D. [Magnetic Shield Corporation, 740 N. Thomas Drive, Bensenville, IL 60106 (United States); Kashy, D.; Pasyuk, E.; Quettier, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Wieland, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Old Dominion University, 5115 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

2012-02-01

72

The magnetic field for the ZEUS central detector - analysis and correction of the field measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic field in the central tracking region of the ZEUS-detector - a facility to investigate highly energetic electron-proton-collisions at the HERA-collider at DESY Hamburg - is generated by a superconducting coil and reaches 18 kG (1.8 T). Some of the tracking devices particularly the drift chambers in the proton forward and rear direction (FTD1-3 and RTD) are not fully contained within the coil and therefore situated in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field: The radial component Br is up to 6.6 kG, maximum gradients are found to be 300 G/cm for ?Br/?r. Evaluating the space drifttime relation necessitates a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field. To reach this goal we analysed the field measurements and corrected them for systematic errors. The corrected data were compared with the field calculations (TOSCA-maps). Measurements and calculations are confirmed by studying consistency with Maxwell's equations. The accuracy reached is better than 100 G throughout the forward and central drift chambers (FTD1-3, CTD) and better than 150 G in the RTD. (orig.)

73

Present and Future of Central Production with STAR Detector at RHIC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present status and future of the physics program of Central Production using the STAR detector at RHIC are described. The program focuses on particle production resulting from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process. Forward protons from the DPE interaction are detected in the Roman Pot system installed at 55.5 m and 58.5 m on both sides of the STAR interaction point. The recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process is measured in the STAR Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The first data were taken during the 2009 RHIC Run 9 using polarized proton-proton collisions at ?s = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity abs(?) < 1, are presented. Plans to take data with the current system at ?s = 500 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system, so that it can reach higher masses and obtain large data samples in searching for glueballs that could be produced in the DPE process, are discussed. (author)

74

Optimization of the pulse arrival time determination in the ZEUS central tracking detector FADC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The constant fraction discriminator algorithm for finding the arrival time of pulses from a drift chamber is outlined. Using a Monte Carlo simulation the effect of noise and pulse rise time on the timing resolution is studied. A simple correction to this algorithm, which reduces the effect of non-linearities in the pulse rising edge is described. The effect of the correction on the ZEUS central tracking detector, instrumented with an eight-bit flash analogue to digital converter system is studied. Using calibration pulses the timing resolution of the system is measured to be 0.021 ±0.003 digitizing periods, which is in agreement with 0.024 ±0.001 predicted by the Monte Carlo simulation. Without the correction the resolution is 0.17 ±0.02 digitizing periods. The optimum risetime for the ZEUS system is estimated from this model. The model is applicable to other systems which require accurate timing of pulses and have a relatively constant pulse shape. (orig.)

75

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system in zero magnetic field studied by neutron diffraction from single crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic phase diagram of the UAs1-xSex system in zero applied magnetic field has been established by neutron diffraction from single crystals with x=0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50. For x?0.40 incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering develops below TN down to TIC. At TIC an incommensurate-commensurate transition leads to type-IA phase for 0.05?x?0.30, to type-I phase for x?0.05 (with subsequent transition to type-IA), and to squaring up of the (5+, 4-) structure for x=0.40. For x> or approx.0.50 the ordering is ferromagnetic. The multi-k structure of the type-IA phase is obtained from measurements in finite fields and, together with previous results for UAs, show the UAs1-xSex system to contain single-k, double-k and triple-k structures. (orig.)

76

Study of QCD heavy flavour production in the UA1 Muon + One Jet and Muon + Two Jet data using the Eurojet Monte Carlo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UA1 lepton samples are studied in terms of QCD heavy flavor pro-duction. Using the full O(?3s)QCD calculations the bottom cross section is derived: ?(bb-bar) = 10.2 +- 3.3?b. Considering the large errors this is in good agreement with the theoretical value: ?(bb-bar) = 12+7-4?b. The isolated muon and isolated electron samples are used for the top quark search. The two samples together yield a top mass limit: mt > 44GeV/c2 at 95% C.L.. Also a limit is derived on the mass of the b', a fourth generation down-like quark: mb' > 32 GeV/c2 at 95% C.L.. The possibilities of top searches at the Spp-barS collider with ACOL and the tevatron collider are also discussed. 136 refs.; 134 figs.; 26 tabs

77

THE TECHNIQUE OF ZETA-COORDINATE DETERMINATION USING A TIME-DIFFERENCE MEASUREMENT FOR THE ZEUS CENTRAL TRACKING DETECTOR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A method to determine the z-coordinate of a track using a time-difference measurement has been developed for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. It has been demonstrated that a spatial resolution of 50 mm can be obtained under normal chamber operating conditions. This corresponds to a time-difference resolution of 330 ps. A method of minimizing nonlinearities in the time-to-distance response is described. This uses an inductor to form a matching network to achieve resistive termination of the...

Harnew, N.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.; Shield, P.; Jeffs, M.; Parham, A.; White, D.

1989-01-01

78

Certification, Installation and Commissioning of Muon Drift Tube Chambers for the Cms Central Muon Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The Drift Tube chambers for the muon tracking in the CMS barrel are assembled in four different European institutes (Aachen, Madrid, Padova and Turin), and sent to the ISR area (CERN) for storage, dressing and final certification prior to their installation in the iron yoke of CMS. This installation phase started in June 2004. Currently (October 2005) the installation in the surface hall has been completed for the first two iron wheels (20% of the full detector). Once installed, the detectors go through a commissioning procedure to ensure its reliability. This contribution reviews the quality control, tests and certification procedures at CERN, the installation mechanism and the current status of the commissioning.

Puerta-Pelayo, Jesús

2006-04-01

79

Silicon vertex tracker for PHENIX detector at the central rapidity region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the status of the silicon vertex tracker for the PHENIX experiment. The purpose of the PHENIX detector is to investigate very high-density and high-temperature matter, so called Quark Gluon Plasma in heavy ion collisions upto 100 GeV/nucleon and spin structure of the nucleon with polarized proton beam up to 250 GeV/beam. We plan to build the silicon vertex tracker to identify the charm and bottom quark decay by using displaced decay vertex, with two inner pixel layers and two outer stripixel layers. The design goal of the displaced vertex resolution is at the level of 30-50 ?m in high charged multiplicity environment with minimum material budget requirement to avoid generating background for outer detectors in the PHENIX

80

Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

Alvarenga, T.A.; Andrade Filho, Luciano Manhaes; Nobrega, R.A. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Barbosa, A.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Simulation results for light propagation in the central detector for the Angra anti-neutrinos experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An antineutrino detector to be installed in the surrounding area of the Angra II nuclear reactor in Angra dos Reis is currently under development. The related experiment is intended to create a new tool capable of measuring the antineutrino flux coming from the reactor, making use of detection system placed near the reactor dome, and correlate it to the nuclear fuel fission and burn-up. The proposed detector is a box- shaped volume filled with water doped with 0.2% Gadolinium. The photons generated by the passage of particles are collected by 40 photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Aiming to evaluate the importance of reflecting inner surfaces and to provide directives concerning the best positioning of the PMTs inside the detector, a simulation of light propagation in its active volume has been done. Photons are supposed to be point-like entities traveling in straight lines. In the simulation, we investigate the overall photon counting efficiency by analyzing the number of reflections and the length travelled by the photons before being collected or absorbed, as well as the distribution of these photons in different configurations of the PMTs. Different light reflecting structures around the PMTs are also simulated, in order to find those that reduce the probability for a photon to be bounced back to the direction from which it was emitted. We show that a configuration in which the photon emission direction is preserved may be used as VETO for cosmic events. (author)

82

The technique of z-coordinate determination using a time-difference measurement for the ZEUS central tracking detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method to determine the z-coordinate of a track using a time-difference measurement has been developed for the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector. It has been demonstrated that a spatial resolution of 50 mm can be obtained under normal chamber operating conditions. This corresponds to a time-difference resolution of 330 ps. A method of minimizing nonlinearities in the time-to-distance response is described. This uses an inductor to form a matching network to achieve resistive termination of the chamber. Test beam measurements from a prototype chamber are presented, demonstrating the effects of the chamber surface field and beam incidence angle on the time-difference resolution. (orig.).

Harnew, N.; Nash, J.; Salmon, G.L.; Shield, P.D. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Physics); Jeffs, M.D.; Parham, A.G.; White, D.J. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (UK))

1989-11-10

83

Search for a Light Higgs Boson in Central Exclusive Diffraction: Method and Detectors  

CERN Document Server

By detecting leading protons produced in the Central Exclusive Diffractive process, p+p ? p+X+p, one can measure the missing mass, and scan for possible new particle states such as the Higgs boson. This process augments - in a model independent way - the standard methods for new particle searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will allow detailed analyses of the produced central system, such as the spin-parity properties of the Higgs boson. The exclusive central diffractive process makes possible precision studies of gluons at the LHC and complements the physics scenarios foreseen at the next e+e? linear collider. This thesis first presents the conclusions of the first systematic analysis of the expected precision measurement of the leading proton momentum and the accuracy of the reconstructed missing mass. In this initial analysis, the scattered protons are tracked along the LHC beam line and the uncertainties expected in beam transport and detection of the scattered leading protons are accounte...

Kalliopuska, Juha

84

Construction and test of the full-size prototype for the central jet chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the H1 project for the central track chamber CJC a prototype with the full wire length of 2.31 m was built and taken into operation. This full-size prototype comprehends three complete cells of the internal jet chamber CJC 1. The construction of the cells equals thereby in all points to that of the CJC. By this a chamber is available, by which important parameters like drift velocities, Lorentz angle, and position resolution can be determined before taking the CJC into operation. Furthermore reparatures can be first tried at the prototype. Besides the experiences obtained in the erection of the prototype and the taking of the chamber into operation help in the corresponding working steps of the CJC. The dependence of the position resolution on the position of the track in the detector was studied for the gas mixture Ar/CO2/CH4 in the mixing ratio 89/10/1. For this several measurement series were taken up, in which the distance of the track from the signal-wire plane, the angle ? between the track and the signal-wire plane, and the angel ? between track and longitudinal detector axis were varied. At a drift path of 10 mm in cell 2 a resolution of 160 ?m was reached, which increases for larger drift pathes because of the increasing of diffusion. For cell 1 however only a value of 180 ?m was reached. The determination of the position resolution in dependence on the track angle showed that the best values for the resolution were aimed at tracks, which run parallel to the signal-wire plane. (orig./HSI)

85

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!  

CERN Multimedia

Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!

2004-01-01

86

Whole study of nuclear matter collective motion in central collisions of heavy ions of the FOPI detector; Etude complete du mouvement collectif de la matiere nucleaire dans les collisions centrales d'ions lourds avec le detecteur FOPI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work we study the collective phenomena in the central collisions of heavy ions for the Au + Au, Xe + CsI and Ni + Ni systems at incident energies from 150 to 400 MeV/nucleon with the data of the FOPI detector. In order to describe completely the flow of the nuclear matter, we fit the double differential momentum distributions with two-dimensional Gaussian. We study the characteristic parameters of the collective flow (flow range, aspect ratios, flow parameter) versus the charge and the mass of the fragments as well as the incident energy and the centrality of the collisions. The transverse energy is used for selecting the central collisions. The method of the Gaussian fits requires also to reconstruct the reaction plane of the event. Then we correct the parameters for the finite number of particles effects and account for the influence of the acceptance of the detector. We confirm the importance of the thermal motion for the light charge or mass fragments and, conversely, the predominance of the collective motion for the heavy fragments. A common flow angle for all the types of particles is highlighted for the first time, demonstrating the power of the method of the Gaussian fits; The evolution of the other parameters confirms the observations done with other methods of flow analysis. These results should contribute to put constraints on the collision models and to enlarge our knowledge of the properties of the nuclear matter. (author)

Bendarag, A

1999-07-09

87

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG)

88

The Central Logic Board and its auxiliary boards for the optical module of the KM3NeT detector  

CERN Document Server

The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed of many optical modules, each of them containing 31 (3") photomultipliers, connected to a Central Logic Board. The Central Logic Board integrates Time to Digital Converters that measure Time Over Threshold of the photomulti- pliers signals while White Rabbit is used for the optical modules time synchronization. Auxiliary boards have also been designed and built in order to test and extend the performance of the Cen- tral Logic Board. The Central Logic Board, as well as the auxiliary boards, will be presented by focusing on the design consideration, prototyping issues and tests.

Biagi, S

2014-01-01

89

Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2011-01-01

90

The upgraded DØ detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters ...

Abazov, Vm; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, Bs; Adams, Dl; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J-l; Ahmed, Sn; Ahn, Sh; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, Gd; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.

2006-01-01

91

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}=5.02$~TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions (PDF) in the high-density nuclear environment. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in $p$+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 29/nb of proton-lead collisions at $5.02$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of $p$+Pb events is characterized through the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. In minimum bias $p$+Pb collisions, the jet yields are seen to be consistent with expectations from nuclear PDF effects. However, the jet yields in central and peripheral $p$+Pb collisions are found to be strongly suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

92

Centrality and rapidity dependence of inclusive jet production in $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of reconstructed jets in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions over a wide rapidity and transverse momentum range are a fundamental probe of the partonic structure of nuclei. Inclusive jet production is sensitive to the modification of parton distribution functions in the high-density nuclear environment. In the forward direction and at small pT jets may even explore the transition from a dilute to saturated partonic system. Furthermore, any modification of jet production in p+A collisions has implications for our understanding of the strong suppression seen in central A+A collisions. We present the latest results on inclusive jet production in 31/nb of proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The centrality of p+Pb events is determined by applying the Glauber model to the sum of the transverse energy in the Pb-going forward calorimeter. The jet yields in central and peripheral p+Pb collisions are found to be suppressed and enhanced, respectively, relative to geometr...

Perepelitsa, D V; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

93

A 4$\\pi$ Solid Angle Detector for the SPS used as a Proton-Antiproton Collider at a Centre of Mass Energy of 540 GeV  

CERN Multimedia

In the first phase of operation of the UA1 experiment, 700 $ nb ^- ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity were accumulated at the Sp$\\bar{p}$S collider up to the end of 1985. Published results include first observation and measurements of W and Z bosons, significant limits on the top quark, heavy lepton and supersymmetric particle masses, observation of $ B \\bar{B} $ mixing, studies of b~quark production and tests of QCD using jet, intermediate boson and photon production.\\\\ \\\\ For the second phase of operation the following items were upgraded for the high luminosity 1988 and 1989 collider runs: the muon detection system was improved by extra iron shielding, partly magnetised and instrumented with Iarocci tubes; the data acquisition system was redesigned using VME to prov speed and second level trigger capacity followed by a farm of 318E emulators for on-line event reconstruction and selection; the central detector was equipped with a laser calibration system. A total of 5 $ pb ^- ^{1} $ of mainly muon-triggered da...

2002-01-01

94

Construction and test of a drift-chamber track trigger for the central track chamber of the H1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the planning, the building and the testing of a trigger system for the central jet chamber (CJC) of the H 1-experiment at HERA. The purpose of the system is to provide a single particle trigger in the test phase of the H 1-experiment based on the signals of the CJC only. A trigger signal is generated for cosmic ray tracks crossing the vertex region similar to tracks of the ep-interactions at HERA. The track definition is provided by a coincidence of a number of signals (majority) belonging to the sense wires of adjacent cells. Due to the delayed occurence of the signals (finite drift velocity) they have to be expanded to the maximal drift time of around 1 ?s. Since the CJC was not available for testing the trigger, the drift chamber trigger electronics was adapted first to the conditions of a full-size-prototype (FSP) of the CJC. In test runs with cosmic radiation the adjustable parameters for track definition and noise suppression were optimized. The important performance quantities were measured: The trigger efficiency using a scintillator trigger system as a reference was (98.5±2.2)%. From a scan (92±10)% of the triggered events were determined to have reconstructable tracks. The trigger rate for cosmic rays was 62 Hz. As a result of this work a concept for a CJC-trigger electronics was developed. (orig./HSI)

95

Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e+e--collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of ?-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.)

96

The Upgraded D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

2005-07-01

97

The Upgraded D0 Detector  

CERN Document Server

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R

2005-01-01

98

The Upgraded D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0

99

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at ?sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |?| NN = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point 'tracklets' and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 ch/d?, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |?| NN results. The shape of the dNch/d? distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

100

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at ?(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |?|NN)=2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point “tracklets” and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2ch/d?, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |?|NN) results. The shape of the dNch/d? distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

 
 
 
 
101

Neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

2011-04-05

102

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D*± meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D* mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D* mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D* ? K??s with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D* mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb-1. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q2?p* mesons with transverse momenta above 1.8 GeV and in the central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke ?(D*) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

103

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

104

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Document Server

For the HERA luminosity upgrade in the year 2000, the ZEUS experiment is preparing a high-precision vertex detector using single-sided silicon microstrip detectors with capacitive charge division. The readout pitch of the detectors is 120 mu m with five intermediate strips. The paper reviews the design of the microvertex detector consisting of a central part with three double layers and four wheels in the forward region. Results on electrical measurements before and after irradiation on the detectors and on the test structures designed for quality-control measurements are presented. For a number of prototype detectors mounted to the prototype readout electronics (HELIX-128) the pulse height distribution and the position resolution has been measured in a test beam using 6 GeV electrons. The expected position resolution of about 7.5 mu m at normal incidence has been achieved.

Coldewey, C

2000-01-01

105

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at ?(sNN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at ?(sNN) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, ?2, was measured in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke ? vertical stroke ? 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum pT, thus reducing the uncertainty in ?2 integrated over pT, a 1 ?b-1 data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated ?2 is compared to other measurements obtained with higher pT thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with vertical stroke ? vertical stroke. The integrated ?2 transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data. (orig.)

106

Simulation and calibration of the specific energy loss of the central jet chambers of the H1 detector and measurement of the inclusive D{sup *{+-}} meson cross section in photoproduction at HERA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this thesis the photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in ep collisions at HERA is analysed. D{sup *} mesons are detected in the 'golden' decay channel D{sup *} {yields} K{pi}{pi}{sub s} with the H1 detector. Compared to earlier analyses, the systematic uncertainty is reduced due to two main improvements. Firstly, the simulation of the Fast Track Trigger, which is based on tracks measured within the central jet chambers, allows the trigger efficiency dependence of various kinematic variables to be evaluated. Secondly, the use of specific energy loss provides the possibility to suppress the non-resonant background. In order to use particle identification with the specific energy loss in the analysis, the simulation of the specific energy loss in the central jet chambers of the H1 detector is improved and the necessary correction functions and calibrations have been determined. This improved final H1 detector simulation is used to determine the cross section of photoproduction of D{sup *} mesons in the HERA II data sample, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 113 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the kinematic region of Q{sup 2}<2 GeV for the photon virtuality and photon-proton center of mass energies of 100central pseudorapidity range of vertical stroke {eta}(D{sup *}) vertical stroke <1.5 are determined and are compared to leading and next to leading order QCD predictions. (orig.)

Hennekemper, Eva

2011-12-15

107

Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at $\\sqrt(s_{NN})$= 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Multiplicity distributions of charged particles as function of pseudorapidity dNch/d? have been measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in p+Pb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC. The multiplicity of charged particles was measured in |?| < 2.7 using correlation of space points into tracklets in the Pixel detector. These measurements are presented as function of the centrality of the collision defined using forward energy deposited at 3.1 < ? < 4.9 and three Glauber type Monte-Carlo simulations of the collisions. The measured multiplicity distributions have similar shapes as the ones measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions.

Debbe, R R

2014-01-01

108

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

Using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally-segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The underlying event is measured and subtracted event-by-event, giving estimates of jet transverse energy above the ambient background. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres is observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, and which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Ackers, Mario; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Jose; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arms, Kregg; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan

2010-01-01

109

Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry in Lead-Lead Collisions at sqrt(S(NN))= 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

By using the ATLAS detector, observations have been made of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of lead-lead events with a per-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV, selected with a minimum bias trigger, jets are reconstructed in fine-grained, longitudinally segmented electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The transverse energies of dijets in opposite hemispheres are observed to become systematically more unbalanced with increasing event centrality leading to a large number of events which contain highly asymmetric dijets. This is the first observation of an enhancement of events with such large dijet asymmetries, not observed in proton-proton collisions, which may point to an interpretation in terms of strong jet energy loss in a hot, dense medium.

Aad...[], G.; Dam, Mogens

2010-01-01

110

Silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

111

Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over |eta| < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s_NN) = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < |eta| < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dN_ch/deta, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval |eta|<0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle y...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ?kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ?sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas

2012-01-01

112

Radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter covers basic principal of radiation detectors, which employed detection system based on the ionisation, excitation, molecular dissociation, Cherenkov effects, neutron detection. The following subjects are briefly discussed: gas-filled detector, ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, semiconductor detector, scintillation method, scintillators, scintillation detectors i.e. NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tubes, neutron detectors, boron trifluoride detectors, neutron detectors, photographic film, chemical dosimeter, TLD, pocket dosimeter. Auxiliary equipment, refers to electronic gears specially designed in support of radiation detectors, is also discussed in this chapter

113

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76$ TeV with the ATLAS detector.  

CERN Document Server

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, $v_2$, was measured in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|\\leq$ 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum $p_T$, thus reducing the uncertainty in $v_2$ integrated over $p_T$, a $1 \\mu b^{-1}$ data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated $v_2$ is compared to other measurements obtained with higher $p_T$ thresholds. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid-rapidity is observed only in peripheral collisions. The integrated $v_2$ transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data.

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert

2014-01-01

114

Measurement of $t\\overline{t}$ production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the jet activity in ttbar events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented, using 2.05 fb^-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The ttbar events are selected in the dilepton decay channel with two identified b-jets from the top quark decays. Events are vetoed if they contain an additional jet with transverse momentum above a threshold in a central rapidity interval. The fraction of events surviving the jet veto is presented as a function of this threshold for four different central rapidity interval definitions. An alternate measurement is also performed, in which events are vetoed if the scalar transverse momentum sum of the additional jets in each rapidity interval is above a threshold. In both measurements, the data are corrected for detector effects and compared to the theoretical models implemented in MC@NLO, POWHEG, ALPGEN and SHERPA. The experimental uncertainties are often smaller than the ...

Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; ? kesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; ? sman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert

2012-01-01

115

Combined detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A combined detector intended for both experiments in search of anomalous nuclei and using as an integral differential monitor in the course of experiments with reactor antineutrinos is described. The combined detector consists of three independent detectors: neutron detector, liquid scintillation detector and semiconductor or gas scintillation detector, structurally united with each other. The neutron detector is made of wood and has dimensions of 800x800x1080 mm. Neutron detection is realized by 105 proportional counters each of which represents a steel cylinder filled with He3 and Ar mixture. To increase the neutron detector efficiency either a liquid scintillation detector or aluminium containers with 13 proportional counters are placed along the neutron detector axis. The neutron detector efficiency in experiments with 252Cf operating with a liquid scintillation detector constitutes 54 %, when operating with aluminium containers filled with D2O - 64%. The liquid scintillation detector of 10 l volume is filled with a scintillator on the hexafluoro-benzene (C6F6) base. Its energy solution at the 1 MeV level constitutes 20%. In the centre of the liquid scintillation detector a gas scintillation detector filled with Ar and N mixture at 500 kPa pressure is located. The efficiency of such detector to 252Cf fission is not less than 99.5 %. The results of the combined detector preliminary experiments are presented

116

Measurement of the centrality dependence of open heavy flavour production in lead-lead collisions at sqrts = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

Measurements of heavy quark production and suppression in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions probe the interactions of heavy quarks with the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured heavy quark production in sqrts = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions via semi-leptonic decays of open heavy flavour hadrons to muons. Results obtained from an integrated luminosity of approximately 7/mub collected in 2010 are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, pT, over the range of 4 centrality dependence of the muon yields is characterized by the "central to peripheral'' ratio, Rcp. Using this measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of 2.5 in central collisions relative to...

The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01

117

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

CERN Document Server

The elliptic flow of charged particles integrated over their transverse momenta has been measured in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The anisotropy parameter, v2, has been determined using the event plane method in the pseudorapidity range |eta|< 2.5. A special track reconstruction method was applied in the analysis of data taken in 2010 without a magnetic field in order to explore the range of very low transverse momentum, pT, thus reducing the uncertainty in the v2 integrated over pT. Other track reconstruction methods have been used for consistency checks and to provide measurements directly comparable to previously published results. The centrality dependence of the integrated v2, spanning the range of 0-80% of most central Pb+Pb collisions, is compared to other LHC measurements obtained with a higher pT threshold. A weak pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow is observed for central collisions, and a small decrease when moving away from mid...

The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01

118

Self-powered radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector consists of a central wire made of inconel that is placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector, a tube-shaped emitter electrode of Rh or Co enclosing this wire, and a coaxial outer collector electrode separated from the emitter electrode by an insulation. The collector electrode may consist of inconel, too. The detector is manufactured by means of the cupping process or by working in the die. (DG)

119

Measurement of centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector.  

CERN Document Server

A measurement of the ATLAS experiment of azimuthal anizotropy in lead-lead collisions at the LHC will be presented. The Fourier coefficients v2 of the azimuthal angle distribution of charged particles measured in the ATLAS inner detector (|eta| < 2.5) was extracted on event-by-event basis in each of 48 milion minimum-bias Pb+Pb collisions. In particular, the measurements of the v2 distributions, from the event plane method, multi-particle cumulants and event-by-event distribution, unfolded for experimental resolution, will be presented.

Derendarz, D; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

120

The VENUS detector at TRISTAN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

 
 
 
 
121

Transmutation detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

2011-03-11

122

Multiple chamber ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg ?, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

123

Tomographic reconstruction of plasma electron temperature profiles using semiconductor detector arrays in the elliptic transition region and the circular central cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror  

CERN Document Server

Elliptically shaped transition-region plasmas located between circularly shaped central cell and fish-tail shaped anchor-cell plasmas have been observed using X-ray tomography techniques for the first time in the world largest tandem mirror device, GAMMA 10. These three regions are connected through the lines of magnetic forces. Electrons are, therefore, anticipated to move easily through these regions along the magnetic field lines when neither appreciable electron losses into the transverse direction across the magnetic field lines nor the formation of electron transport barrier potentials in the parallel direction are expected. From this viewpoint, comparisons of electron temperature (T sub e) profiles in these regions, thus, give information on one of the most critical issues in tandem mirror plasma confinement. The first data on good agreement in T sub e profiles of the central cell and the transition region have supported this basic and essential concept of tandem mirror confinement. Development of posi...

Hirata, M; Kohagura, J; Kanke, S; Kondoh, T; Minami, R; Numakura, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshida, M; Sasuga, T; Nishizawa, Y; Tamano, T; Yatsu, K; Miyoshi, S

2002-01-01

124

Measurement of the centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the integrated elliptic flow in lead-lead collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrated elliptic flow of charged particles produced in Pb+Pb collisions at ?(s{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV has been measured with the ATLAS detector using data collected at the Large Hadron Collider. The anisotropy parameter, ?{sub 2}, was measured in the pseudorapidity range vertical stroke ? vertical stroke ? 2.5 with the event-plane method. In order to include tracks with very low transverse momentum p{sub T}, thus reducing the uncertainty in ?{sub 2} integrated over p{sub T}, a 1 ?b{sup -1} data sample recorded without a magnetic field in the tracking detectors is used. The centrality dependence of the integrated ?{sub 2} is compared to other measurements obtained with higher p{sub T} thresholds. The integrated elliptic flow is weakly decreasing with vertical stroke ? vertical stroke. The integrated ?{sub 2} transformed to the rest frame of one of the colliding nuclei is compared to the lower-energy RHIC data. (orig.)

Aad, G. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Abbott, B. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Abdallah, J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Physics, Taipei (China); Collaboration: The ATLAS Collaboration; and others

2014-08-15

125

MUON DETECTOR  

CERN Multimedia

DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

F. Gasparini

126

Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems  

CERN Document Server

Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

Hilke, H J

2011-01-01

127

The bar PANDA MVD silicon strip detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The bar PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility will study annihilation reactions of antiprotons. The Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) as part of the tracking system will permit precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. It is made of silicon pixel detectors and double-sided silicon strip detectors. The unique data acquisition concept without a central trigger poses a challenge to all sub-detectors. Developments for the MVD strip detector cover the evaluation of prototype sensors as well as the readout chain, ranging from the front-end for the trigger-less readout over the Module Data Concentrator ASIC to the off-detector electronics.

Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

2013-02-01

128

Particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book about particle detectors gives a survey on the measuring methods, as they are mainly applied in nuclear and particle physics and in experiments in the field of cosmic radiation. The physical foundations for the understanding of the detectors are presented, a detailed derivation of complicated formulas was in most cases abandoned. For the illustration of the application possibilities of particle detectors examples from archeology, astrophysics, cosmic radiation, medicine, and radiation protection are presented. A glossary and a comprehensive key-word list facilitate the fast finding of the ''right'' detector for a special application

129

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector is manufactured of a lead dichloride monocrystal and its surface is covered with a layer of magnesium oxide. There may also be a layer of tantalum pentoxide between the scintillator surface and the MgO layer. The advantages of such detectors are their improved radiometric parameters such as energy resolution and radioluminescence efficiency. (E.J.)

130

Central Diffraction in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment consists of a central barrel in the pseudorapidity range -0.9 < $\\eta$ < 0.9 and of additional detectors covering about 3 units of pseudorapidity on either side of the central barrel. Such a geometry allows the tagging of single and double gap events. The status of the analysis of such diffractive events in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented.

Schicker, R

2011-01-01

131

CDF Central Outer Tracker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Central Outer Tracker is a large cylindrical drift chamber constructed to replace Collider Detector at Fermilab's original central drift chamber for the higher luminosity expected for Run 2 at the Fermilab Tevatron. The chamber's drift properties are described in the context of meeting the operating requirements for Run 2. The design and construction of the chamber, the front-end readout electronics, and the high-voltage system are described in detail. Wire aging considerations are also discussed

132

The ZEUS microvertex detector  

CERN Document Server

A new vertex detector for the ZEUS experiment at HERA will be installed during the 1999-2000 shutdown, for the high-luminosity runs of HERA. It will allow to reconstruct secondary vertex tracks, coming from the decay of long-lived particles with a lifetime of about 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s, and improve the global momentum resolution of the tracking system. The interaction region will be surrounded with single-sided silicon strip detectors, with capacitive charge division: three double layers in the central region (600 detectors), and 4 'wheels' in the forward region (112 silicon planes). Due to the high number of readout channels, 512 readout strips per silicon plane in the barrel region and 480 in the forward part, and the large coverage of the vertex detector (almost 1 m long), the front-end electronics has to be placed on top of the detectors and has to be radiation tolerant since doses up to 2 kGy are expected near the interaction region. The HELIX chip has been chosen as analog chip with a low-noise, charg...

Garfagnini, A

1999-01-01

133

Gaseous Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

Titov, Maxim

134

The PHOBOS detector at RHIC  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R. R.; Bia?as, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A. E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czy?, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M. P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Ga?uszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Ho?y?ski, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotu?a, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Micha?owski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wo?niak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wys?ouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; ?ychowski, P.; Phobos Collaboration

2003-03-01

135

Detectors - Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X ? e- converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

136

The CDF silicon detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A major silicon upgrade project is under way for the CDFII experiment that will operate during Run II of the Tevatron in the year 2000. The innermost detector, SVXII, will cover the interaction region with three barrels of five layers of double sided microstrip detectors. In the radial gap between the SVXII and the new main tracking chamber (COT) will be located the ISL that consists of two planes of double sided miscrostrip detectors at large pseudorapidity and one in the central region. A description of the project design and its motivation is presented here

137

MS Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

2005-11-01

138

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiation detector utilizing thin film thermocouples serially connected in an array and substantially disposed within a plane, said thermocouples being selectively mounted for non-perturbing introduction into the nearfield region of an electric field

139

Central Diffraction in ALICE  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

Schicker, R

2012-01-01

140

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
141

Intermediate silicon layers detector for the CDF experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) detector is currently being built as part of the CDF II detector upgrade project. The ISL detector will significantly improve tracking in the central region and, together with the Silicon Vertex detector, provide stand-alone 3D track information in the forward/backward regions. In this article, we present the quality of the production sensors manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics, which account for roughly half of the silicon sensors used in the ISL detector

142

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1992 to August 31, 1993. During this period, our AGS E802/E859/E866 experiments focused on strange particle production, and the fluctuation phenomenon associated with correlation studies in nucleus nucleus central collisions. We have designed and are implementing a new detector to replace the Target Multiplicity Array (TMA) for the E866 runs. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, we contributed to the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), and worked on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project, the central core of the multiplicity-vertex detector (MVD). In the coming year, we planned to complete the New Multiplicity Array (NMA) detector for the gold projectile E866 experiment, and analyzed the data associated with this new system. We are continuing our efforts in the preparation of the PHENIX detector system

143

Photon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

144

Photon detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

Va`vra, J.

1995-10-01

145

Design of a lepton detector for ISABELLE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical background is given for a proposed experiment to detect W mesons using their leptonic decay mode. A lepton detector was designed for use at the planned ISABELLE proton--proton colliding beam storage rings. The general configuration of the detector is shown, and an electron identification module, an electron-hadron calorimeter, methods of muon identification, and an optional central detector (magnetic solenoid spectrometer) are discussed

146

Diamond Detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in experimental particle physics in the coming decade depends crucially upon the ability to carry out experiments at high energies and high luminosities. These two conditions imply that future experiments will take place in very high radiation areas. In order to perform these complex and perhaps expensive experiments new radiation hard technologies will have to be developed. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors are being developed as a radiation tolerant alternative for use very close to the interaction region where detectors may have to operate in extreme radiation conditions. During the past few years many CVD diamond devices have been manufactured and tested. As a detector for high radiation environments CVD diamond benefits substantially from its radiation hardness, very low leakage current, low dielectric constant, fast signal collection and ability to operate at room temperature. We will present the present state-of-the-art of polycrystalline CVD diamond and the latest results obtained from detectors constructed with this material. Recently a new type of diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with polycrystalline material. We will also present recent results obtained from devices constructed from this new diamond material. Finally, we will discuss the use of diamond detectors in future applications and their survivability in the highest radiation environments.

Kagan, Harris

2006-04-01

147

Jet production and QCD in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparison was made between three-jet and two jet cross-sections in p anti p collisions measured in the UAI apparatus at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) p anti p Collidor. The motivation for this study stems from the need for a better understanding of general multijet production (three or more jets) in high-energy p anti p collisions. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), multijet events can occur as a result of strong radiative corrections to elastic parton-parton scattering processes. At sufficiently high process c.m.s. energies, single QCD bremsstrahlung should become the dominant mechanism for the production of three-jet events. In this paper the bremsstrahlung hypothesis is tested by comparing the measured three-jet differential cross-section, at the highest available energies, with the predictions of the single bremsstrahlung formulae. The observed relative rate of three-jet and two-jet events is used to obtain information on the value of the strong interaction coupling constant ?sub(s). Observations carried out include the two-jet and three jet angular distributions, Dalitz plot for a three-jet sample, and the three-jet/two-jet ratio, and dicussions are made based on results obtained. (Nogami, K.)

148

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention detects leakage of primary coolants to a pipeline of a secondary system in a PWR type plant and estimates a portion of the leakage. That is, a detector capable of discriminatively detecting nuclides, which release high energy gamma rays and have a short half life, is disposed to a secondary coolant pipe or a branch thereof. Alternatively, another detector is disposed in addition to the detector described above. Since the target nuclides concerned with the leakage are 16N, they release the gamma ray at a high energy of 4.5 to 7 MeV and have a short half life of about 7 sec. None of nuclides present in natural field has characteristics identical with both of them. Accordingly, 16N is discriminated based on the energy or the half life to detect a slight leakage of primary coolants to secondary coolants at an early stage of the leakage. (I.S.)

149

Calorimeter detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01

150

Pixel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

value of 0.3. Theoretical studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge sharing due to the limited mean free drift lengths of the charge carriers, the improvement of the CCE in unipolar detectors with decreasing pixel size and the 'small pixel effect' which shows the improved CCE of the photo peak with smaller pixels. The third detector is a graphite pixel detector for ion beam profiling. The system was tested in the ion implanters at the University of Salford and Surrey. Results are presented showing real time profiling of the ion beam and the measurement of the beam current. The secondary electron emission was qualitatively measured for different beam energies and different positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. (author)

151

Hydrogen detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

1980-01-01

152

BES detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e+e- annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

153

Aerosol detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aerosol detector of the ionization chamber type (fire or smoke detector) has got a testing device for simulation of an aerosol, which is necessary especially for battery-powered instruments. The instrument essentially consists of a chamber with two electrodes, a radioactive source, as well as analyzing electronics. Simulation can be performed by means of a damping device which, in the form of a flat spring, is manually brought into the radiation path from outside the chamber. By this means there is achieved an attenuation of the radiation resp. of the ionizing current between the electrodes. The attenuation may be increased until an alarm signal is given. (DG)

154

Muon chambers of Argus detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new universal ARGUS detector created to study e+e- interactions on the DORIS-II collider. The detector consists of a central drift chamber, time-of-flight counters, and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The detector is enclosed on all sides by three layers of muon counters for registration of muons. The entire system of muon chambers of the ARGUS detector has operated stably from October 1982 until today. The background loads of the muon chambers during an experiment are not great. The average number of signals in the chambers is 0.98 per start-up. The operation of the muon chambers has been constantly monitored according to the counting response of the tubes for cosmic particles, and the quality of the gas has been monitored by comparing the positions of the peaks from Fe 55 radioactive sources in test proportional counters at the inlet and outlet of the gas channel

155

XMASS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and 7Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system

156

Radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improved multi-cell detectors of X-ray and gamma radiation, particularly in computerized tomography are designed so that the electrode plates in the ionization cells are spaced closely and uniformly over the entire length of the array. Adhesives are used to achieve the required dimensional arrangement. (U.K.)

157

XMASS detector  

CERN Document Server

The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

2013-01-01

158

Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

Cortina, E.

2007-07-01

159

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD)of the T2K experiment  

CERN Document Server

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A; Blocki, J; Brinson, J; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Dziewiecki, M; Ellison, B; Golyshkin, L; Gould, R; Hara, T; Hartfiel, B; Holeczek, J; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kisiel, J; Kozlovskii, T; Kudenko, Yu; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Liu, J; Marzec, J; Metcalf, W; Mijakowski, P; Mineev, O; Musienko, Yu; Naples, D; Nauman, M; Northacker, D; Nowak, J; Paolone, V; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Reid, J; Rondio, E; Shaykhiev, A; Sienkiewicz, M; Smith, D; Sobczyk, J; Stodulski, M; Straczek, A; Sulej, R; Suzuki, A; Swierblewski, J; Szeglowski, T; Szeptycka, M; Wachala, T; Warner, D; Yershov, N; Yano, T; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M

2009-01-01

160

Scintillator counters with WLS fiber/MPPC readout for the side muon range detector (SMRD) of the T2K experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The T2K neutrino experiment at J-PARC uses a set of near detectors to measure the properties of an unoscillated neutrino beam and neutrino interaction cross-sections. One of the sub-detectors of the near-detector complex, the side muon range detector (SMRD), is described in the paper. The detector is designed to help measure the neutrino energy spectrum, to identify background and to calibrate the other detectors. The active elements of the SMRD consist of 0.7 cm thick extruded scintillator slabs inserted into air gaps of the UA1 magnet yokes. The readout of each scintillator slab is provided through a single WLS fiber embedded into a serpentine-shaped groove. Two Hamamatsu multi-pixel avalanche photodiodes (MPPC's) are coupled to both ends of the WLS fiber. This design allows us to achieve a high MIP detection efficiency of greater than 99%. A light yield of 25-50 p.e./MIP, a time resolution of about 1 ns and a spatial resolution along the slab better than 10 cm were obtained for the SMRD counters.

Izmaylov, A.; Aoki, S.; Blocki, J.; Brinson, J.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Dziewiecki, M.; Ellison, B.; Golyshkin, L.; Gould, R.; Hara, T.; Hartfiel, B.; Holeczek, J.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kozlowski, T.; Kudenko, Yu.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Liu, J.; Marzec, J.; Metcalf, W.; Mijakowski, P.; Mineev, O.; Musienko, Yu.; Naples, D.; Nauman, M.; Northacker, D.; Nowak, J.; Paolone, V.; Posiadala, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Reid, J.; Rondio, E.; Shaykhiev, A.; Sienkiewicz, M.; Smith, D.; Sobczyk, J.; Stodulski, M.; Straczek, A.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, A.; Swierblewski, J.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Wachala, T.; Warner, D.; Yershov, N.; Yano, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Physics capabilities of the DO upgrade detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The D0 detector at Fermilab is being upgraded to meet the demands imposed by high luminosity Tevatron running planned to begin in 1998. The central tracking detectors will be replaced with silicon and scintillating fiber tracking systems inside a solenoidal magnetic field and a preshower detector will be added to aid in electron identification. The design and performance of these systems are described and detailed simulations of the physics capabilities of the upgraded detector are presented. In particular the authors focus on the study of electroweak boson properties and top quark physics and briefly describe the b-physics capabilities

162

CDF Central Outer Tracker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Central Outer Tracker is a large cylindrical drift chamber constructed to replace Collider Detector at Fermilab's original central drift chamber for the higher luminosity expected for Run 2 at the Fermilab Tevatron. The chamber's drift properties are described in the context of meeting the operating requirements for Run 2. The design and construction of the chamber, the front-end readout electronics, and the high-voltage system are described in detail. Wire aging considerations are also discussed.

Affolder, T.; Allspach, D.; Ambrose, D.; Bialek, J.; Bokhari, W.; Brozovic, M.; Binkley, M.; Burkett, K.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Cogswell, F.; Dressnandt, N.; Feng, Z.; Franklin, M.; Galtieri, L.; Gerdes, D.W.; Greenwood, J.; Guarino, V.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Haggerty, R.; Hall, C.; Heinrich, J.; Holloway, A.; Jacobi, T.; Kephart, K.; Khazins, D.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kononenko, W.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kraus, J.; Liss, T.M.; Lockyer, N.; Madrak, R.; Miao, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Neu, C.; Newcomer, M.; Niczyporuk, J.M.; Nodulman, L.; Orejudous, W.; Phillips, T.J.; Pitts, K.T.; Reigler, W.; Richards, R.; Rivetta, C.; Robertson, W.J.; Roser, R.; Sadler, L.; Sandberg, R.; Sansone, S.; Schmitt, R.; Schultz, K.; Shuman, D.; Silva, R.; Singh, P.; Snihur, R.; Tamburello, P.; Taylor, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Tousignant, D.; Ukegawa, F.; Van Berg, R.; Veramendi, G.; Vickey, T.; Wacker, J.; Wagner, R.L. E-mail: wagner@fnal.gov; Weidenbach, R.; Wester, W.C.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, P.; Wittich, P.; Yagil, A.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.; Yun, J.C

2004-07-01

163

Flame Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific Instruments, Inc. has now developed a second generation, commercially available instrument to detect flames in hazardous environments, typically refineries, chemical plants and offshore drilling platforms. The Model 74000 detector incorporates a sensing circuit that detects UV radiation in a 100 degree conical field of view extending as far as 250 feet from the instrument. It operates in a bandwidth that makes it virtually 'blind' to solar radiation while affording extremely high sensitivity to ultraviolet flame detection. A 'windowing' technique accurately discriminates between background UV radiation and ultraviolet emitted from an actual flame, hence the user is assured of no false alarms. Model 7410CP is a combination controller and annunciator panel designed to monitor and control as many as 24 flame detectors. *Model 74000 is no longer being manufactured.

1990-01-01

164

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Document Server

The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

T. Camporesi

165

Scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the scintillation detector assembly for computerized tomography several cell chambers filled with a liquid scintillating medium are used. The medium contains a soluble fluorescent substance, like e.g. p-terphenyl, a solvent, like e.g. toluol, a compound having got a high atomic number, like lead alkyl or tin alkyl, and a substance transforming the wavelength, like dimethyl-POPO (usual scintillator fluids). (DG)

166

New science with new detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility), with the help of the user community, is in the process of developing its long term strategy, covering the next 10 to 20 years. A central role in this strategy will be given to detector developments, since it is clear that the biggest possible improvement in performance is by increasing the overall detection capabilities. These improvements can be both quantitative, meaning more and larger detectors, and qualitative, meaning new detection concepts. This document gathers the abstracts and transparencies of most presentations of this workshop.

Graafsma, H.; Grubel, G.; Ryan, A.; Dautet, H.; Longoni, A.; Fiorini, H.; Vacchi, A.; Broennimann, C.; Gruner, S.; Berar, J.F.; Boudet, N.; Clemens, J.C.; Delpierre, P.; Siddons, P.; O' Connor, P.; Geronimo, G. de; Rehak, P.; Ryan, C.; Poulsen, H.F.; Wulff, M.; Lorenc, M.; Kong, Q.; Lo Russo, M.; Cammarata, M.; Reichenbach, W.; Eybert, L.; Claustre, L.; Miao, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Riekel, C.; Monaco, G.; Cloetens, P.; Huotari, S.; Albergamo, F.; Henriquet, C.; Graafsma, H.; Ponchut, C.; Vanko, G.; Verbeni, R.; Mokso, R.; Ludwig, W.; Boller, E.E.; Hignette, O.; Lambert, J.; Bohic, S

2005-07-01

167

Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector Trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The timing, Trigger and control (TTC) system of the pixel detector receives Level 1 accept Trigger and control signals from the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and distributes them to the 1744 detector modules. It is organised in 3 independent TTC partitions to allow for implementation of different triggering schemes for the pixel detector. Back to the CTP a BUSY signal from the data processing electronic is propagated to throttle the triggers. Since readout data are solely defined by a trigger propagation time, an adjustment of a trigger delay of individual modules is needed to compensate for differences in propagation. Functionality tests of the TTC system are ongoing with simulated data instead of the real modules. Further dedicated runs with the CTP or combined runs with other ATLAS sub-detectors accompanying connection of the pixel detector are foreseen. I present an overview of the pixel detector TTC system and trigger timing adjustment mechanisms and report on the current status of the commissioning process

168

The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280  

Science.gov (United States)

The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle ?13 by observing ?e appearance via the sub-dominant ?? ? ?e oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described.

Allan, D.; Andreopoulos, C.; Angelsen, C.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bentham, S.; Bertram, I.; Boyd, S.; Briggs, K.; Calland, R. G.; Carroll, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Carver, A.; Chavez, C.; Christodoulou, G.; Coleman, J.; Cooke, P.; Davies, G.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dobson, J.; Duboyski, T.; Durkin, T.; Evans, D. L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Gannaway, F. C.; Grant, A.; Grant, N.; Grenwood, S.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D.; Haigh, M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Haycock, T. D. J.; Hyndman, A.; Ilic, J.; Ives, S.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kasey, V.; Kellet, L.; Khaleeq, M.; Kogan, G.; Kormos, L. L.; Lawe, M.; Lawson, T. B.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Lockwood, M.; Malek, M.; Maryon, T.; Masliah, P.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCauley, N.; Mercer, I.; Metelko, C.; Morgan, B.; Morris, J.; Muir, A.; Murdoch, M.; Nicholls, T.; Noy, M.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Owen, R. A.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkin, J. D.; Poplawska, E.; Preece, R.; Qian, W.; Ratoff, P.; Raufer, T.; Raymond, M.; Reeves, M.; Richards, D.; Rooney, M.; Sacco, R.; Sadler, S.; Schaack, P.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Short, S.; Siyad, M.; Smith, R.; Still, B.; Sutcliffe, P.; Taylor, I. J.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Thorpe, M.; Timis, C.; Touramanis, C.; Uchida, M. A.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Schalkwyk, J. F.; Veledar, O.; Waldron, A. V.; Ward, M. A.; Ward, G. P.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; West, N.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.

2013-10-01

169

The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle ?13 by observing ?e appearance via the sub-dominant ?? ? ?e oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described

170

Scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A unique scintillation detector unit is disclosed which employs a special light transfer and reflector means that encases and protects the scintillator crystal against high g forces. The light transfer means comprises a flexible silicone rubber optical material bonded between the crystal and the optical window and having an axial thickness sufficient to allow the scintillator to move axially inside the container under high g forces without destroying the bonds. The reflector means comprises a soft elastic silicone rubber sleeve having a multiplicity of closely arranged generally conical or pyramidal protuberances radiating toward and engaging the periphery of the scintillator crystal to cushion shocks effectively and having a reflective material, such as aluminum oxide powder, in the space between the proturberances. The reflector means provides improved shock absorption because of the uniform support and cushioning action of the protuberances and also provides the detector with the necessary high efficiency. The silicone rubber composition is specially compounded to include a large amount of aluminum oxide which enables the rubber to function effectively as a light reflector where it contacts the crystal

171

Scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An encapsulated scintillation detector is disclosed in which a detector crystal or the like is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a light-transmitting window at one end. In some instances, the window is mounted in a window assembly by a compression seal established by the differential coefficient of expansion and contraction during the cooling of the assembly. In other instances, the window is chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The window is mounted within a ring, which is in turn welded to the end of a tubular body portion of the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thermal barrier is provided to resist the flow of welding heat from the weld to the seal between the ring and the window. Such thermal barrier includes a zone of relatively thin section located between the weld zone and the seal through which weld heat must flow. The zone of relatively thin cross section is, in some embodiments, provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of lwo friction material such as Teflon is positioned between the tubular body and the crystal to minimize friction resisting relative axial movement created by differential coefficients of thermal expansion. (Auth.)

172

Multiple cathode gas proportional detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector for ionizing radiation is described comprising a generally cylindrical enclosure which contains an ionizable gas, a central wire which with a peripheral wall constitute the electrodes of the device, and a window to permit entry of ionizing radiation. With appropriate potentials applied to the central wire and peripheral wall, ionizing radiation produces electrons which are attracted to the central wire and positive ions which are attracted to the peripheral wall in proportion to the intensity of the radiation. One or more auxiliary electrodes are provided which extend parallel to and between the central electrode and the peripheral wall. An appropriate potential is applied to this auxiliary electrode to neutralize the positive ions

173

Smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

174

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

175

The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector  

CERN Document Server

The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

1999-01-01

176

MUON DETECTORS: CSC  

CERN Multimedia

The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

J. Hauser

2011-01-01

177

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

Marco Dallavalle

2013-01-01

178

Radiation detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a radiation detector having a radiation-stimulated light emitting scintillator and a photodetector for receiving the light emission from the scintillator, the scintillator is formed of a layer of phosphor particles and a light scattering layer is provided in an optical path between the phosphor particle layer and the photodetector. Light generated in the surface of the scintillator is scattered and absorbed by the light scattering layer in some degree so that the reduced quantity of light incident upon the photodetector lowers the output of the photodetector. This effect is balanced with the lowering of the photodetector output due to the absorption and scattering of light generated at the inner parts of the scintillator and further removes anisotropic light emission. As a result, signal-to-noise ratio is greatly improved. A shielding layer between the scintillator and photodetector prevents secondary radiation such as scattered and fluorescent radiation from reaching the photodetector. The shielding layer can also serve as the scattering layer.

Zuzuki, A.; Kohno, H.; Uchida, Y.; Yamada, H.; Yoshida, M.

1985-01-08

179

Ionization smoke detector and alarm system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

180

Muon chambers of the ARGUS detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new ARGUS universal detector was fabricated to study e+e- - interactions at the DORIS-2 storage ring. The detector comprises a central drift chamber, time-of-flight counters and electromagnetic calorimeter. The design, technique of test and utilization of muon chambers of the ARGUS detector assembled from proportional counters with the whole sensitive surface of approximately 400 m2 are described. Drift rate efficiency of detection and other characteristics of muon chambers were measured at the 2 GeV DESY electron beam

 
 
 
 
181

An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter  

CERN Document Server

The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

Katta, S

2002-01-01

182

Detector simulation needs for detector designers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

183

Central Reclamation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Central Reclamation. After the completion of the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation Feasibility Study in 1989, the Land Development Policy Committee endorsed the concept of gradual implementation of the reclamation. The proposed reclamation consisted of three district development cells, namely, Central, Tamar and Exhibition.

Kumaraswamy, Mohan

2002-01-01

184

Spiral silicon drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

185

New generation of ?-ray detector systems: HERA at Berkeley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using conventional systems (for example a sum spectrometer to select entry spin and several NaI detectors to observe the ?-ray decay), only the gross properties of nuclei at high spins could be studied. More detailed studies are now becoming possible with the advent of a new generation of ?-ray detector systems. The main criteria are: high energy resolution, good response function, high total ?-ray efficiency but low individual ?-ray efficiency, possibility of selecting ''good'' events. Such detector systems are large arrays of Compton-suppressed germanium (CSG) detectors surrounding a 4? central ?-ray detector (ball). He will describe the system, HERA, of 21 CSG detectors, and a central ball, emphasizing its particularities: mainly versatility and detection at high rates. He will also indicate the main features of the data acquisition. Finally, a few examples of new phenomena observed with HERA will be given

186

Particle identification with the fast COMPASS RICH-1 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new photon detection system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector has been designed and installed. In the central region, the project is based on multi-anode photo-multiplier technology accompanied by charge sensitive, high resolution and dead-time free time digitization. In the outer area, only the readout electronics for the existing photon detectors has been replaced. Details on the detector upgrade and its performance are presented.

Abbon, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alexeev, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of East Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); Angerer, H. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Birsa, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Bordalo, P. [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Chiosso, M. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Ciliberti, P. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Colantoni, M.L. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Dafni, T. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dalla Torre, S. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Delagnes, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Denisov, O. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Deschamps, H. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diaz, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dibiase, N. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Duic, V. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Eyrich, W. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Ferrero, A. [INFN, Sezione di Torino and University of Torino, Torino (Italy)

2010-11-01

187

Particle identification with the fast COMPASS RICH-1 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new photon detection system for the COMPASS RICH-1 detector has been designed and installed. In the central region, the project is based on multi-anode photo-multiplier technology accompanied by charge sensitive, high resolution and dead-time free time digitization. In the outer area, only the readout electronics for the existing photon detectors has been replaced. Details on the detector upgrade and its performance are presented.

188

The CMS Detector Control System  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is one of the Large Hadron Collider multi-purpose experiments. Its large subsystems size sum up to around 6 million Detector Control System (DCS) channels to be supervised. A cluster of ~100 servers is needed to provide the required processing resources. To cope with such a size a scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made a clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing for plugging in functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ease the component development task, a framework based on PVSSII [1] has been developed by the CERN Joint Controls Project [2] (JCOP). This paper describes the current status of CMS Detector Control System, giving an overview of the DCS computing infrastructure, the integration of DCS subsystem functional components an...

Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

2009-01-01

189

Self-powered gamma radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector is designed for radiation measurement in the reactor core; it meets the NRC requirements. It consists of a closed, tube-shaped cartridge as collector, a central rod as emitter and an isolation between both formed by vacuum or air. In order to increase its ?-sensitivity its dimensions are optimized and the emitter consists of platimun, the collectors of Inconel. (DG)

190

Self-powered neutron flux detector assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-powered neutron flux detector has both the central emitter electrode and its surrounding collector electrode made of inconel 600. The lead cables may also be made of inconel. Other nickel alloys, or iron, nickel, titamium, chromium, zirconium or their alloys may also be used for the electrodes

191

The HERMES Recoil Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HERMES Collaboration installed a new Recoil Detector to upgrade the existing spectrometer to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to generalised parton distributions (GPDs) and hence to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. The HERMES Recoil Detector mainly consists of three components: a silicon detector surrounding the target cell inside the beam vacuum, a scintillating fibre tracker and a photon detector with three layers of tungsten and scintillator bars in three different orientations. All three detectors are located inside a solenoidal magnet which provides a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector was installed in January 2006 and data taking will last until July of 2007. (orig.)

192

GADRAS Detector Response Function.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

2014-11-01

193

Alignment of the Fermilab D0 Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab D0 detector was used for the discovery of the top quark during Run I in 1996. It is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. Some of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Solenoid Magnet, the Central Fiber Tracker, the Preshower Detectors, the Calorimeter System, and the Muon System. This paper discusses the survey and alignment of the these detectors with emphasis on the Muon detector system. The alignment accuracy is specified as better than 0.5mm. A combination of the Laser Tracker, BETS, and V-STARS systems are used for the survey

194

Alignment of the Fermilab D0 Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab D0 detector was used for the discovery of the top quark during Run I in 1996. It is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. Some of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Solenoid Magnet, the Central Fiber Tracker, the Preshower Detectors, the Calorimeter System, and the Muon System. This paper discusses the survey and alignment of the these detectors with emphasis on the Muon detector system. The alignment accuracy is specified as better than 0.5mm. A combination of the Laser Tracker, BETS, and V-STARS systems are used for the survey.

Babatunde O' Sheg Oshinowo

2001-07-20

195

Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

1989-07-01

196

Central exclusive production in the ALICE experiment at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central exclusive production at the LHC.

Schicker, R

2014-01-01

197

Centrality, rapidity and $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ dependence of isolated prompt photon production in lead-lead collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured prompt photon production in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data collected in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 $\\mathrm{nb}^{-1}$. The measurement is performed with a hermetic, longitudinally segmented calorimeter, which gives excellent spatial and energy resolution, and detailed information about the shower shape of each measured photon. A multiparameter selection on a set of nine shower properties, coupled with an isolation criterion based on the energy deposited in the cone around a photon, gives measured purities ranging from approximately 50-90%, depending on $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, $\\eta$ and centrality. Photon yields, scaled by the mean nuclear thickness function, are presented as a function of collision centrality, pseudorapidity (in two intervals $|\\eta|<1.37$ and $1.52<|\\eta|<2.37$) and transverse momentum (from $22 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 280$ GeV). The scaled yields are compared to expectations from JETPHOX (pertur...

Steinberg, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

198

HIBP primary beam detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

199

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

G. Iaselli

2010-01-01

200

Technical design of a detector to be operated at the Superconducting Super Collider  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the following topics on the Soleoidal Detector Collaboration: Summary and overview of the detector; physics and detector requirements; central tracking system; superconducting magnet; calorimetry; muon system; electronics; online computing; offline computing; safety; experimental facilities; installation; test and calibration beam plan; and cost and schedule summary.

Solenoidal Detector Collaboration

1992-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Central collisions of heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R ampersand D project was performed

202

Tevatron detector upgrades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The D0 and CDF experiments are in the process of upgrading their detectors to cope with the high luminosities projected for the remainder of Tevatron Run II. They discuss the expected Tevatron environment through 2009, the detector challenges due to increasing luminosity in this period, and the solutions undertaken by the two experiments to mitigate detector problems and maximize physics results.

Lipton, R.; /Fermilab

2005-01-01

203

Gamma ray detector shield  

Science.gov (United States)

A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

1985-08-26

204

Differential optical proximity detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Updated detector can operate under ambient light and uses multiple detectors to locate objects in several different spacial volumes. Sensitivity is approved by scanning field-of-view twice: once with coherent light source turned on and once with background light only. Detector outputs for two cases are amplified and subtracted for each photodiode sensor in array, to eliminate effect of background light.

Johnston, A. R.; Shimada, K.; Tippins, H. H., Jr.

1977-01-01

205

Optical detectors for spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The modes of operation of photoconductive and photoemissive array detectors are described, and their performance characteristics compared and contrasted, with emphasis on their suitability for use as detectors for optical spectroscopy. The prospects for future developments of the array detectors are discussed.

Timothy, J. G.

1983-01-01

206

The CAPRICE RICH detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight

207

The JADE muon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

208

Gas filled detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

209

OPERA: Electronic Detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The OPERA detector aims to see {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in the CNGS {nu}{sub {mu}} beam as a result of neutrino oscillations. It is a hybrid detector consisting of both nuclear emulsions and electronic detectors that are discribed in this poster.

Cazes, A. [IPNL - Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Dusini, S. [INFN - Sezione di Padova I-35131 Padova (Italy); Gornushkin, Y. [J-tilde INR RUS-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15

210

Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within ?1%X0 per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the SPD has participated in the ALICE cosmic campaign to test the integration with all experimental sub-systems and to acquire data for alignment. Since the LHC start-up in November 2009, the SPD has been recording the LHC activities and in particular the first proton-proton collisions in ALICE.

211

Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector  

CERN Document Server

The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

Cavicchioli, C

2011-01-01

212

CBA special detectors: diffraction dissociation and heavy-quark production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two different but related experiments that would benefit from specialized detectors are measurements of diffraction dissociation and search for heavy quark production in the forward direction. At the CBA masses up to M/sub x/ approx. = 0.3 ?s approx. = 240 GeV can be produced coherently. The production of these states is of interest in itself and as a possible mechanism for copious production of new heavy flavors. In both cases, the required detectors are different from and more modest than the large central detectors. The required detectors are discussed

213

Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

214

Recent test results on the ATLAS SCT detector  

CERN Document Server

The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT, which is currently under construction, will consist of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. After an overview of the SCT and the detector module layout, the paper will summarize recent test results obtained from silicon detector modules, which have been extensively tested before starting their large series production. The tests presented here cover electrical performance of individual modules, their performance after irradiation, as well as system tests in a multi-module setup.

Pernegger, H

2003-01-01

215

Convergence of thermoluminescence detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype of a semiautomatic instrument for measuring the convergence of thermoluminescence detectors is described. The results of convergence studies of 17 domestic and foreign tableted thermoluminescence detectors are presented. The convergences of almost all of the detectors depended in the same way on the number of irradiation-measurement cycles -- a relatively rapid change in detector sensitivity in the first 20-50 cycles followed by a relatively slow change. The studies showed that the results of polycyclic convergence tests are decisive when one or another detector is used in a specific radioluminescence dosimeter

216

Radiation detectors laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

217

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS  

CERN Multimedia

P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the ?rst ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

T. Camporesi

218

High-energy detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22

219

Cooled detector system with a semiconductor detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detector system for cooling uses a semiconductor detector of the type of a Si(Li)-, Ge(Li)-Ga(AS) element to detect radioactive radiation and is arranged in a borehole probe. The cooling takes place by means of at least one Peltier element whose cold side has thermal contact to the support for the semiconductor detector and whose warm side has thermal contact to the casing of the probe. The detector system is almost independent of the position of the energy supply or of the cooling aggregate and of the measuring site by means of this cooling method. It is also possible to connect several Peltier elements in cascade. (DG/LH)

220

Electron identification in the D0 detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents the characteristics of the D0 detector together with the methods applied to identify electrons. The electron identification technique uses calorimeter information together with data from the central tracking detectors. The fine longitudinal and transverse segmentation of the D0 calorimeter enables the achievement of very good pion rejection for electrons above 20 GeV. The D0 calorimeter also provides excellent linearity of response for electrons above 110 GeV. Here the author presents recent results of studies of energy response for electrons with energy down to 2 GeV and discusses necessary extensions of electron identification algorithms for B-physics studies

 
 
 
 
221

@central park  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

222

UA2 central calorimeter  

CERN Multimedia

The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

223

Response functions of spherically moderated neutron detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of Monte Carlo calculations on the response functions of spherical moderator-detector systems as a function of neutron energy in the energy rang from 10-7-14 MeV. The diameter of the polyethylene moderator varied in the range of 2 inch to 12 inches and the central thermal neutron detectors considered were LiI scintillators and BF3 counters of varying diamters. The best microscopic cross section data available in the literature was used for all the constituents of the moderator and of the detectors. Anisotropy of neutron scattering was taken into account. Variations in the neutron response due to change of thermal neutron detector size or the detector material itself as well as due to the presence of an annular air gap surrounding the thermal neutron detector were studied. The air gap reduces the sensitivity of the system to neutrons but the nature of the energy response curve is not affected. Computed response functions of the rem counter devised by J.W. Leake of Harwell are also presented. (orig.)

224

Central drift chamber tracking at a Tau-Charm Factory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several design issues relevant to the design of a central tracking system for a ?cF are discussed, including light gases, cell geometry, and detector uniformity/hermeticity. (author). 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

225

Large-solid angle detector for charged and neutral particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of a PEP detector suitable for both charged and neutral particles is investigated. Such a detector would be well suited to studies of QED, hadronic final states and searches for new particles. The detector would consist of a central solenoidal magnet (conventional or superconducting) with drift chambers for charged particle momentum measurements and an outside system of shower detectors (Pb-glass or liquid argon) to measure both position and energy of the ? rays. High pressure Cerenkov counters can be introduced between the solenoid and the ? detectors in order to identify charged particles with a K-? separation up to 2 GeV/c and a p-? separation up to 4 GeV/c. In addition, at small angles a system of Cerenkov counters, toroidal magnets with internal drift chambers, and shower detectors can be added to measure the momenta and directions of charged and neutral particles

226

Local mapping of detector response for reliable quantum state estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved measurement techniques are central to technological development and foundational scientific exploration. Quantum physics relies on detectors sensitive to non-classical features of systems, enabling precise tests of physical laws and quantum-enhanced technologies including precision measurement and secure communications. Accurate detector response calibration for quantum-scale inputs is key to future research and development in these cognate areas. To address this requirement, quantum detector tomography has been recently introduced. However, this technique becomes increasingly challenging as the complexity of the detector response and input space grow in a number of measurement outcomes and required probe states, leading to further demands on experiments and data analysis. Here we present an experimental implementation of a versatile, alternative characterization technique to address many-outcome quantum detectors that limits the input calibration region and does not involve numerical post processing. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, the calibrated detector is subsequently used to estimate non-classical photon number states.

Cooper, Merlin; Karpi?ski, Micha?; Smith, Brian J.

2014-07-01

227

Garlic Central  

Science.gov (United States)

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

228

Central Park  

Science.gov (United States)

As one of the worldâÂÂs greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâÂÂs many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a âÂÂCentral Park Newsâ feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.

2006-01-01

229

Silicon Telescope Detectors  

CERN Document Server

The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

2005-01-01

230

IPO Central  

Science.gov (United States)

IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

231

The atlas detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

232

Semiconductor detector operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic types of interaction are discussed underlying gamma detection with a germanium semiconductor detector, such as the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect and the electron pair formation. The mechanism of detection is described in which electrons to whom part of the energy of the photon being detected were transmitted gradually release their energy in ionization during the passage through the detector material. A relation for the detector energy resolution is given. (J.B.)

233

ATLAS inner detector  

CERN Document Server

ATLAS is one of the two major general purpose detectors for the Large Hadron Collider presently under construction at CERN. According to the latest schedule, data taking will start in 2007. The prototype and test phase is now being completed for most of the detector components, and at the same time mass production is starting. This report gives a brief review of the design, status and physics potential of the Inner Detector, with emphasis on B-physics applications. (4 refs).

Ros, E

2003-01-01

234

Gas ionization detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard sets the basic parameters of corona counters and proportional and Geiger-Mueller detectors, of ionization chambers and pulse ionization chambers, their voltage and counting characteristics, dimensions, demands on resistance and service life of detectors, and on materials. The provisions on acceptance tests contain demands on testing instability of sensitivity, accuracy, resolution, background, etc. Demands on marking, packing, transport and storage of detectors are given. (M.D.). 4 figs., 4 tabs

235

Noble Gas Detectors  

CERN Document Server

This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

2006-01-01

236

The LHC detector challenge  

CERN Document Server

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

Virdee, Tejinder S

2004-01-01

237

Semiconductor radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electrical charge amplifier including a filter circuit is AC coupled to a semiconductor (CdTe) detector and generates a voltage pulse in response to an electrical charge generated in the detector by an incident pulse of radiation. The filter allows only frequencies within a predetermined range to contribute to the voltage pulse. The selected range of frequencies is determined in accordance with the duration of the incident radiation pulse such that the voltage pulse faithfully represents the magnitude of incident radiation in spite of undesirable detector characteristics which would otherwise introduce distortions. Exemplary charge amplifier and detector structures are also described. (Auth.)

238

Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

1978-01-01

239

... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors  

CERN Multimedia

Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

2006-01-01

240

COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS (DPG)  

CERN Multimedia

Pit commissioning activities The last 4 months have seen various major achievements in hardware commissioning, global data taking, readiness of the DPGs to deal with LHC data flows and alignment and calibration workflows. Since February, the global commissioning has been characterized on the one side by more and more of the final CMS detector becoming available for global readout and triggering and on the other side by consolidation of many of the central software infrastructure and of most of the services infrastructure. The reliability of services like cooling, power, gas has markedly improved with respect to what we observed in the second half of 2007.   Of particular note are the delivery of all low voltage power supplies, the commissioning of the final power distribution, the progressive commissioning ( still ongoing)  of the Detector Safety System and of the associated DCS early warning and alarm system. On the detector side, while already we are used to seeing all of HCAL being exe...

Tiziano Camporesi

 
 
 
 
241

Central and forward tracking collaboration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this subsystem R ampersand D project is to carry out a detailed study and design of a complete wire chamber tracking system covering pseudorapidity |?| ? 2.5 in a solenoidal detector for the SSC. Most of our group are now part of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC), so the work has evolved into developing a tracking system conceptual design for the SDC detector. The design discussed in this report uses straw tube drift chambers for the central tracking region. Because of the high rates in the SSC environment, a small cell design is needed for wire chambers in the central region. Straw tubes as small cells offer many advantages because the sense wire is enclosed in a continuous cathode, and the wire tension due to the sense wire only can be supported without a massive structure. The straw tubes are grouped together to form superlayers in order to provide local track segments. The superlayers are composed of modules consisting of about two hundred straw tubes enclosed in a carbon fiber composite shell. Straw tubes have been used in previous experiments for small vertex drift chambers. However, they have never before been used for a large tracking system

242

The 'Diogene' detector, 4? drift chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Diogene' is a detector with a solid angle near the steradian 4?, mainly comprising a drift chamber and capable of detecting in coincidence several tens of charged particles. Built by several laboratories (Dph-N/Saclay, CRN/Strasbourg and LPC/Clermont-Ferrand) it should be ready round about June 1980 to use the heavy ion beams of Saturne II for studying the multiple production of pions and protons in central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

243

Electron identification in the D OE detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the techniques used to identify electrons in the D0 detector. The D0 electron identification algorithm is based on the full covariance matrix of energy deposits in the calorimeter cells occupied by an electromagnetic shower and information from the central tracking system. The method exploits the fine longitudinal and transverse segmentation of the D0 calorimeter to achieve excellent pion rejection. Performance criteria are derived from test beam electron and pion data and from collider data

244

Optical proximity detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitive, relatively inexpensive instrument uses phase-detection techniques to sense presence of objects. Phase-sensitive detectors, LED, photodiode with response matched to LED output, and filtering lens allow detector to operate over narrow radiation band, giving selectivity over stray light.

Hermann, W. A.; Johnston, A. R.

1977-01-01

245

ALICE Silicon Strip Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

Nooren, G

2013-01-01

246

Gaseous Dark Matter Detectors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dark Matter detectors with directional sensitivity have the potential of yielding an unambiguous positive observation of WIMPs as well as discriminating between galactic Dark Matter halo models. In this article, we introduce the motivation for directional detectors, discuss the experimental techniques that make directional detection possible, and review the status of the experimental effort in this field.

Sciolla, Gabriella; Martoff, C. Jeff

2009-01-01

247

BESII Detector Simulation  

CERN Document Server

A Monte Carlo program based on Geant3 has been developed for BESII detector simulation. The organization of the program is outlined, and the digitization procedure for simulating the response of various sub-detectors is described. Comparisons with data show that the performance of the program is generally satisfactory.

Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, J J C; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X P; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, C G; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, Y L; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, L X; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Sun, H S; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z W; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Y; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

2005-01-01

248

New detector concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

249

Solid state track detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

250

Drift chamber detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

251

Fuel element detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To incorporate a beta ray detector in a gas reservoir part and the cause daughter nuclides of rare gas fission products (FP) to adhere onto the surface of the detector, and to detect radiations, thereby detecting any fuel failure at a high sensitivity and a high precision. Constitution: A gas passage port and a vapor trap are provided on the tube wall of a gas reservoir, and a beta ray detector is provided in the interior of the gas reservoir. A gas tube inlet port is formed on one of casings of the detector, and a gold evaporated membrane is formed on the facing surface of the detector. A negative voltage is applied on the surface of the detector, and the tube wall of the gas reservoir and silicone in the casing are rendered into an earth potential. The rare gas fission products (FP) which have been introduced in the gas reservoir portion are introduced into an intrinsic range and its daughter nuclides adhere to the surface of the detector, the radiated beta rays being detected by the detector. In this manner, any wire and any wire transfer mechanism become unnecessary, and the device becomes compact in construction and its precision is improved. (Sekiya, K.)

252

The CLAS Cherenkov detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design, construction, and performance of the CLAS Cherenkov threshold gas detector at Jefferson Lab is described. The detector consists of 216 optical modules. Each module consists of three adjustable mirrors of lightweight composite construction, a Winston light collecting cone, a 5-in. photomultiplier tube, and specially designed magnetic shielding. Efficiencies and response functions have been measured

253

ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Multimedia

Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < ? < 3.9.

Nayak, T

2013-01-01

254

B factory detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given on the e+e- B-factory experiments, which have just started taking data. Only one detector is operating at each accelerator: BABAR at PEP-II, BELLE at KEKB, and CLEOIII at CESR-III. Physics objectives and design principles for accelerators and detectors are summarized

255

The TESLA Detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the superconducting linear collider TESLA a multi purpose detector has been designed. This detector is optimised for the important physics processes expected at a next generation linear collider up to around 1 TeV and is designed for the specific environment of a superconducting collider.

Moenig, Klaus

2001-01-01

256

Redesigned ?-? radioxenon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ably with the original ARSA design in spectral resolution and efficiency and is significantly easier to set up and calibrate. The new materials and configuration allow the resulting ?-? coincidence detector to maintain the overall performance of the ARSA type ?-? detector while simplifying the design

257

Pixel detector readout chip  

CERN Multimedia

Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

1991-01-01

258

A combination fire detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes a combined detector made of a ionization chamber and a heat sensor which includes a chip microcomputer. The feature parameters of fire in the software are used as a base of judgement. finally, the test results of the detector are presented

259

The LEP detectors  

CERN Document Server

This article describes the four detectors which took data at LEP from 1989 to 2000. After a review of the design requirements and of the various answers, a more detailed description is given of some of the important detector components. Electronics, readout and computing are also described. (6 refs).

Callot, O

2002-01-01

260

Particle detector development  

CERN Document Server

A part of the split field spectrometer at the CERN intersection storage ring a multiwire proportional chamber has been developed. This detector has to be placed directly in the gap of a compensation magnet. As there is also the beam pipe in the gap, a special system has been developed. The paper describes the detector and the special system. (3 refs).

Bartl, Walter

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The ATLAS pixel detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

Cristinziani, M.

2007-01-01

262

Position sensitive gamma detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a detector for measuring the spatial gamma radiation intensity distribution. It can be used in nuclear medicine for measuring the intensity distribution of 511 keV gamma quanta resulting from positron annihilation in oganic tissue, if positron active diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are applied, as well as in gamma cameras for the registration of low energy gamma radiation with energies above 100 keV. The detector is characterized by high counting rate, good spatial resolution, low production cost (like positron sensitive gas-filled radiation detectors) and high gamma efficiency and good time resolution (like scintillation detectors). It was found that it is possible to construct large-area position sensitive gamma detectors on the basis of the principle of a parallel-plate avalanche counter

263

Nanomechanical resonance detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

2013-10-29

264

Advanced far infrared detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > ? > 50 ?m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

265

TTC distribution for LHC detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At each of the CERN LHC experiments, timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals must be distributed to numerous electronic systems from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. A multichannel optical distribution system has been developed which can broadcast the signals to several thousand destinations from a few relatively high power laser sources over a passive optical fiber network with uncontrolled path lengths. The system delivers the LHC timing reference and first-level trigger decisions with the corresponding bunch and event numbers. It incorporates facilities to compensate for particle flight times and detector, electronics and propagation delays. In addition it provides for the simultaneous transmission of synchronized broadcast commands and individually-addressed controls and parameters, such as channel masks and calibration data

266

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?{sub av}, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?{sub 0}. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?{sub av}/?{sub 0} was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the {sup 64}Zn+{sup 112}Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

Zhang, S.; Lin, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Rodrigues, M.R.D. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wada, R., E-mail: wada@comp.tamu.edu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Keutgen, T. [FNRS and IPN, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-Neuve (Belgium); Kowalski, S. [Institute of Physics, Silesia University, Katowice (Poland); Hagel, K.; Barbui, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Bonasera, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, via Santa Sofia, 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J.B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Schmidt, K.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); and others

2013-05-01

267

First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...  

CERN Multimedia

ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

2006-01-01

268

Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ?av, is found to be significantly lower (20–30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ?0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=?av/?0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code

269

ALICE time of flight detector  

CERN Multimedia

Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector . System description . Principle of operation . Detector description . Detector performance . Electronics . The MRPC strips construction

2003-01-01

270

International Large Detector. Letter of intent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their own goals of detector technology development. Members of the detector concept groups participate in the R and D collaborations and make sure that the detector technologies are successfully applied to the detector concept designs. By the creation of the ILD concept group, the application efforts became more focused. Currently, the ILD management includes subdetector contacts who are also key members of the detector R and D collaborations. This scheme is working efficiently such that we can finish basic R and D in time for the Technical Design Report which is envisaged around 2012. Overall, the ILD group structure is efficient while keeping exibility and openness. Even though we are still short on person power and funding at this time, we believe that we are well positioned to successfully complete a technical design for a detector at the International Linear Collider. The ILD group is firmly committed to the ILD project. (orig.)

Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

2010-07-01

271

Micromegas detectors for CLAS12  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability.

Charles, G.

2013-08-01

272

Micromegas detectors for CLAS12  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability

273

Chile central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La futura habilitación de un corredor de comercio a través de un valle de los Andes de Chile Central, ha motivado la necesidad de analizar desde un punto de vista geomorfológico los ambientes presentes, que consideran un dominio periglacial de alta montaña y media montaña, en ambiente de cordillera plegada. La información geomorfológica sirve de base para analizar los riesgos geodinámicos que afectan al valle, y cómo ellos podrán afectar la habilitación del proyecto de corredor comercial entre Chile y Argentina. Se analiza la relación vertiente - talweg, la potencialidad de aporte de sedimentos de las vertientes y su condición de estabilidad actual. La dinámica actual de las vertientes, de los depósitosbasales y de las formas fluviales presenta una condición dinámica relacionada al dominio morfoestructural y morfoclimático.

Mar\\u00EDa Victoria Soto B\\u00E4uerle

2004-01-01

274

The HERMES recoil detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

275

The optical alignment system of the ZEUS microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The laser alignment system of the ZEUS microvertex detector is described. The detector was installed in 2001 as part of an upgrade programme in preparation for the second phase of electron-proton physics at the HERA collider. The alignment system monitors the position of the vertex detector support structure with respect to the central tracking detector using semi-transparent amorphous-silicon sensors and diode lasers. The system is fully integrated into the general environmental monitoring of the ZEUS detector and data has been collected over a period of 5 years. The primary aim of defining periods of stability for track-based alignment has been achieved and the system is able to measure movements of the support structure to a precision around 10?m

276

The Muon system of the run II D0 detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors describe the design, construction and performance of the upgraded D0 muon system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. Significant improvements have been made to the major subsystems of the D0 muon detector: trigger scintillation counters, tracking detectors, and electronics. The Run II central muon detector has a new scintillation counter system inside the iron toroid and an improved scintillation counter system outside the iron toroid. In the forward region, new scintillation counter and tracking systems have been installed. Extensive shielding has been added in the forward region. A large fraction of the muon system electronics is also new.

Abazov, V.M.; Acharya, B.S.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Anosov, V.A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bardon, O.; Bartlett, J.F.; Baturitsky, M.A.; Beutel, D.; Bezzubov,; Bodyagin, V.; Butler, J.M.; Cease, H.; Chi, E.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.P.; Diehl, H.T.; Doulas, S.; Dugad, S.R.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Charles U. /Prague, Tech.

2005-03-01

277

The AGILE anticoincidence detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AGILE is a ?-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10-4. In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

278

X-ray detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

279

Lithium germanium detectors reactivation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author)

280

The Clover detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4?-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs

 
 
 
 
281

The LHCb Vertex Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LHCb is a forward detector which will study CP violation and other rare phenomena in the decays of Beauty particles at the LHC. One of the challenges of the experiment is to design a fast and efficient trigger for selecting the Beauty events. Apart from providing excellent tracking information for the analysis the Vertex Detector provides one of the most selective triggers in the experiment. The requirements and possible implementation of the Vertex Detector are described. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

282

Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57Co and 60Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

283

Layered semiconductor neutron detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

2013-12-10

284

Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-08-01

285

Central Pain Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

286

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10{sup 6}/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator and the dead-time free F1 TDC chip. The project was completely designed and implemented in less than two years: The upgraded detector is in operation since the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and test studies to characterise the single photon response of the MAPMTs coupled to the read-out system as well as the detector performance based on the 2006 data. (authors)

Colantoni, M.L.; Panzieri, D. [Univ E Piemonte, Alessandria (Italy); Joosten, R.; Naehle, O. [Univ Bonn, Helmholtz Inst Strahlen and Kernphys, D-5300 Bonn (Germany); Kolosov, V.N. [CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Schroeder, W.; Teufel, A. [Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Phys, D-8520 Erlangen (Germany); Fischer, H.; Hagemann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Konigsmann, K.; Mutter, A.; Nerling, F.; Schill, C.; Wollny, H. [Univ Freiburg, Inst Phys, Freiburg (Germany); Kramer, D.; Polak, J.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M. [Tech Univ Liberec, Liberec (Czech Republic); Silva, L. [LIP, P-1000 Lisbon (Portugal); Von Harrach, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Kernphys, D-6500 Mainz (Germany); Angerer, H.; Gerassimov, S.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.; Paul, S. [Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-8046 Garching (Germany); Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Slunecka, M.; Steiger, L. [Joint Inst Nucl Res Dubna, Dubna, (Russian Federation); Finger, M.; Finger, M. Jr.; Slunecka, M.; Steiger, L. [Charles Univ Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Abbon, P.; Dafni, T.; Delagnes, E.; Deschamps, H.; Kunne, F.; Magnon, A.; Neyret, D.; Panebianco, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Alekseev, M.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Costa, S.; Dibiase, N.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Maggiora, A. [Univ Turin, Turin (Italy); Alekseev, M.; Busso, L.; Chiosso, M.; Costa, S.; Dibiase, N.; Faso, D.; Ferrero, A.; Maggiora, A. [Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, (Italy); Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Ciliberti, P.; Torre, S. Dalla; Diaz, V.; Duic, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Pagano, P.; Pesaro, G.; Rocco, E.; Schiavon, P.; Sozzi, F.; Tessarotto, F. [Univ Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Apollonio, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Ciliberti, P.; Torre, S. Dalla; Diaz, V.; Duic, V.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A. [and others

2008-07-01

287

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 106/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electronics based on the MAD4 amplifier-discriminator and the dead-time free F1 TDC chip. The project was completely designed and implemented in less than two years: The upgraded detector is in operation since the 2006 CERN SPS run. We present the photon detection design, constructive aspects and test studies to characterise the single photon response of the MAPMTs coupled to the read-out system as well as the detector performance based on the 2006 data. (authors)

288

Solid radiation detector and detector array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid x-ray detector with high sensitivity can be produced in compact multiple arrays for use e.g. in the computerized tomography. It is built in a multiple film structure, and for detection of the x-ray flow it uses a part of PbO, CdSe or Se. The electrodes may consist of parallel Ni-W-layers which are place together with a common bias voltage electrode on the photoconducting part. (DG)

289

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment : . SPD Structure . Bump Bonding . Test beam . ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip . Chip Tests . Data from the SPD

2003-01-01

290

The LUX Prototype Detector  

CERN Document Server

The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

2012-01-01

291

Subspace Detectors: Theory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broadband subspace detectors are introduced for seismological applications that require the detection of repetitive sources that produce similar, yet significantly variable seismic signals. Like correlation detectors, of which they are a generalization, subspace detectors often permit remarkably sensitive detection of small events. The subspace detector derives its name from the fact that it projects a sliding window of data drawn from a continuous stream onto a vector signal subspace spanning the collection of signals expected to be generated by a particular source. Empirical procedures are presented for designing subspaces from clusters of events characterizing a source. Furthermore, a solution is presented for the problem of selecting the dimension of the subspace to maximize the probability of detecting repetitive events at a fixed false alarm rate. An example illustrates subspace design and detection using events in the 2002 San Ramon, California earthquake swarm.

Harris, D B

2006-07-11

292

ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector  

CERN Document Server

The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

Christensen, C

2013-01-01

293

Low level detector monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes an improvement in a method for monitoring the neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor by means of a neutron detector which is composed of two electrodes between which a d.c. bias voltage is applied and which has a greater neutron sensitivity when the d.c. bias voltage is applied with one polarity than with the opposite polarity. It comprises: operating the nuclear reactor at a power level close to zero; applying a d.c. bias level with the one polarity between the detector electrodes and measuring the neutron-induced current flowing through the detector electrodes; increasing the nuclear reactor operating power level; and reversing the polarity of the bias voltage applied between the electrodes and continuing to measure the neutron-induced current flowing through the detector electrodes

294

Europe plans megaton detector  

CERN Multimedia

A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

Cartlidge, Edwin

2004-01-01

295

Grazing angle detector array  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector array for use in an X-ray or gamma-ray imaging system comprises a plurality of elongated tubular detector members which are juxtaposed in generally parallel relation to one another. Each detector includes a thin body of scintillator material which is so oriented relative to an X-ray beam of rectangular cross-section that the beam intercepts the scintillator material at a grazing angle, and the dimensions and orientation of the several scintillators are such that they intercept different portions of the X-ray beam respectively. The output signals from the several detectors are combined and processed to produce a display of an object being examined. The energy collected from the radiant source is greatly increased and is detected with nearly 100% efficiency

296

Modular optical detector system  

Science.gov (United States)

A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

Horn, Brent A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2006-02-14

297

Recent ATLAS Detector Improvements  

CERN Document Server

During the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. For the calorimeters, repairs were carried out on front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that had been lost since the last maintenance period. The ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is currently being commissioned. Smaller scale repairs were needed on the Inner Detector. Maintenance on the muon system included repairs on the readout as well as updates and leak checks in the gas systems. Six TGC chambers were also replaced. This poster summarizes the repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of ATLAS for the upcoming LHC run.

de Nooij, L; The ATLAS collaboration

2011-01-01

298

The pixelated detector  

CERN Multimedia

"Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

Sutton, C

1990-01-01

299

The DELPHI microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main characteristics of the DELPHI Microvertex Detector are presented. The performance in terms of impact parameter resolution, association efficiency, and ambiguity is evaluated after two years of data taking at LEP

300

Multi electrode semiconductors detectors  

CERN Document Server

Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The central tracking detectors for D/O/  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of drift chambers are being constructed for the Fermilab D/O/ experiment. The construction and readout of these chambers stress good spatial resolution, good two hit separation, and dE/dx. A 106 MHz FADC system with hardware zero suppression is being constructed to readout this system. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Clark, A.; Goozen, F.; Klopfenstein, C.; Kerth, L.T.; Loken, S.; Strovink, M.; Trippe, T.G.; Bantly, J.; Buchholz, D.; Claes, D.

1988-01-01

302

Integrated Pointing and Signal Detector for Optical Receiver  

Science.gov (United States)

A design concept for the receiver portion of a proposed free-space optical-communication terminal calls for integration of its communication and pointing detectors. As explained below, this would entail a departure from prior designs, in which pointing and communication detectors have been separate. As used here, communication detector denotes a single high-speed photodetector used for reception of a laser beam that has been modulated to convey information, while pointing detector denotes an array of photodetectors (typically, a quad-cell detector or a charge-coupled device) used in sensing the pointing error (the error in the aim of a receiver telescope, relative to the laser-beam axis). The pointing detector of this or any free-space optical-communication receiver is necessary for proper acquisition and tracking of the received laser beam. The suitably processed output of the pointing detector is fed back to a fine-steering mirror to reduce any pointing error and thereby maintain optimum reception. Heretofore, it has been common practice to pass the incoming laser beam through a beam splitter that sends about 10 percent of the beam power to a pointing detector and the rest to a separate communication detector, as illustrated in the upper part of the figure. One disadvantage of this is that because only 10 percent of the received signal power is available for use by the pointing detector, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the pointing detector is lower than it otherwise would be. The performance of the pointing detector is correspondingly limited. Another disadvantage is that the alignment between the communication and pointing detectors is critical and must be ensured by means of a calibration procedure. According to the proposal, there would be no beam splitter. The communication and pointing detectors would be positioned coaxially in the same focal plane, as shown in the lower part of the figure: the communication detector would occupy the central part of the focal plane, while the pointing detector would occupy the surrounding area. This arrangement would inherently ensure the proper alignment of the detectors with each other.

Britcliffe, Michael; Hoppe, Daniel

2005-01-01

303

The Impact Failure Detector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work proposes a new and flexible unreliable failure detector whose output is related to the trust level of a set of processes. By expressing the relevance of each process of the set by an impact factor value, our approach allows the tuning of the detector output, making possible a softer or stricter monitoring. The idea behind our proposal is that, according to an acceptable margin of failures and the impact factor assigned to processes, in some scenarios, the failure o...

Rossetto, Anubis G. M.; Geyer, Cla?udio F. R.; Arantes, Luciana; Sens, Pierre

2014-01-01

304

Gaseous leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

1988-01-01

305

Calibration of germanium detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

306

Pixel detectors hybridisation  

CERN Document Server

Modern pixel detectors have up to 100 millions of sensing elements which need to be individually connected to their read-out chains. High-density reliable connectivity is therefore one of the key issues for the success of pixel detectors and the most important step in the hybridisation process. An overview of the hybridisation techniques used in the various particle physics experiments and the results obtained so far is presented. Critical issues are underlined and commented.

Rossi, L

2003-01-01

307

Microsonic detector (MSD)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

308

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of {approx} 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with {approx}800 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000.

Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg, E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; LOwder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

1999-03-01

309

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of ? 104 m2, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with ?800 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000

310

ALICE detector layout  

CERN Multimedia

This computer-simulation of the ALICE detector layout shows the collision point inside the tracking systems and barrel detector. To the right, the specially constructed dipole magnet can be seen along with the outer dimuon spectrometer. The ALICE experiment at the LHC at CERN will sit inside the huge solenoid that once housed the L3 experiment until the LEP accelerator was closed in 2000.

ALICE

2003-01-01

311

Fiber optic detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

1990-12-31

312

Superconducting Single Photon Detectors:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and fluorescence spectroscopy. Superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) are sensitive to single photons from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. In this thesis steps has been taken towards improvi...

Dorenbos, S. N.

2011-01-01

313

The Micro Wire Detector  

CERN Document Server

We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 micron apertures, crossed by 25 micron anode strips to which it is attached by 50 micron kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture like in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material.

Adeva, B; Pazos, A; Pfau, R; Pló, M; Rodríguez, J M; Vázquez, P; Labbé, J C

1999-01-01

314

Multiwire dielectric detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results on investigating the operation of a multiwire dielectric detector with pulsed power supply in the millisecond range of working and depolarizing voltage duration are given. Cathodes of the detector investigated are made of fine-structure grids with transparence of about 70%. The distance between three these electrodes equals 560+-20 ?m. Gold coated tungsten anode wires 25 ?m in-diemater are stretched between cathodes with 0.5 mm pitch. The detector working area is 2x4 cm. Porous CsI with the density of 1% and 2% relatively to monocrystal density is used as the working medium. All anode wires are connected with the common load of 50 Ohm. The detector is set up in evacuated volume and operates at the pressure of 10-3 Torr. A scintillation counter is installed under the detector to count particles passing through it. The efficiency of particle detection eta is determined as the ratio of the number of particles registered by the detector to the number of particles detected by the scintillation counter. Measurements were carried out with radioactive alpha source at the 5.5 MeV energy and ? source at the energy of 1-2 MeV. The analysis of the data obtained shows that eta value falls with duration of working voltage pulses increase and in this case eta decrease quicker at the 2%-density than at 1%-one. The detector operates practically in a stable regime upto t=3 ms at the 2%-densit while at 1%-densit.y.the fall in registration effectiveness upto t=5 cm doesn't observe. The conclusion is made that the detector studied may be applied to detect both high- and low ionizing particles

315

Charged particle multiplicity distributions in proton-antiproton collisions at 540 GeV centre of mass energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results on charged particle production in panti p collisions at ssup(1/2) =540 GeV are presented. The data were obtained at the CERN panti p collider using the UA 1 detector, operated without magnetic field. The central particle density is 3.3 +- O.2 per unit of pseudo-rapidity for non-diffractive events. KNO scaling of the multiplicity distributions with results from ISR energies is observed. (orig.)

316

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic and TTC system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ATLAS central level-1 trigger logic consists in the Central Trigger Processor and the interface to the detector-specific muon level-1 trigger electronics. It is responsible for forming a level-1 trigger in the ATLAS experiment. The distribution of the timing, trigger and control information from the central trigger processor to the readout electronics of the ATLAS subdetectors is done with the TTC system. Both systems are presented

317

Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors  

CERN Document Server

expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

Mathieson, K

2001-01-01

318

Detectors for CBA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

319

Portable Neutron Search Detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A portable Neutron Search Detector has been developed in the NRCN. The Neutron Search Detector is a high efficiency detector for counting fast and thermal neutrons with improved gamma rejection. The detector measures from background to a count rate higher than 1000 cps. The Neutron Search Detector includes two operating modes: count rate and count integration. In count rate mode, the fast response enables detection of hidden sources; in count integration mode an accurate flux measurement is achieved. The neutron detection is based on two 3He tubes installed within a polypropylene moderator. Low background is achieved by discrimination of gamma and electronic noise pulses. The Neutron Search Detector consists of four main units including the following components: 1. Detection unit - two 3He neutron tubes, polypropylene moderator. 2. Signal processing unit - charge amplifier, discriminator, filters for gamma and noise rejection. 3. Power supply unit - operating voltage supply for the electronic circuits, High Voltage for the sensor. 4. Display unit - data processing, serial communication, Human Machine Interface including display and control buttons

320

High resolution radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under this invention the high resolution detector comprises a scintillation crystal located along the propagation path of the incident X rays so as to react of these X rays to produce a corresponding luminous radiation. The visible light passes through a lateral part of the crystal and comes out by a lateral upper and lower facet of the crystal. Networks of detectors with several solid state detector components are placed along the side emission facets of the crystals, so as to receive the visible light emitted and to produce corresponding electric signals. An optical coupling grease is provided between the solid state detectors and the lateral emission facets of the crystals. The succesive networks of solid state detectors are alternated in positions located between the lateral emission facets and overlap so as to form a continuous radiation receiving area along the crystal. The detector components of the network start at the front of the scintillation crystal, in the propagation direction of the incident X rays

 
 
 
 
321

Gamma ray detector modules  

Science.gov (United States)

A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

322

ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)  

CERN Multimedia

To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

ATLAS Outreach

2006-01-01

323

Signal Formation in Various Detectors  

CERN Document Server

In this write up we present the general theory of the signal formation in various detectors. We follow a pedagogical analysis and presentation such that the results could easily understood and applied by the interested reader to the different detector configurations. We include few applications to gaseous detectors, namely, Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) and microstrip pattern detector of the micromegas type.

Dris, Manolis

2014-01-01

324

Progress in semiconductor drift detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

325

The outer detector of Borexino  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of the Borexino Outer Detector is described. It is a large water Cherenkov detector for identifying cosmic muons, penetrating the whole detector system. The Outer Detector is important for tagging cosmic muon generated background events in Borexino. Here, we present the muon identification efficiency and show the capability of muon tracking reconstruction.

Göger-Neff, M.; Lewke, T.; Oberauer, L.; Wurm, M.

2014-05-01

326

Report of the large solenoid detector group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a conceptual design of a large solenoid detector for studying physics at the SSC. The parameters and nature of the detector have been chosen based on present estimates of what is required to allow the study of heavy quarks, supersymmetry, heavy Higgs particles, WW scattering at large invariant masses, new W and Z bosons, and very large momentum transfer parton-parton scattering. Simply stated, the goal is to obtain optimum detection and identification of electrons, muons, neutrinos, jets, W's and Z's over a large rapidity region. The primary region of interest extends over ±3 units of rapidity, although the calorimetry must extend to ±5.5 units if optimal missing energy resolution is to be obtained. A magnetic field was incorporated because of the importance of identifying the signs of the charges for both electrons and muons and because of the added possibility of identifying ? leptons and secondary vertices. In addition, the existence of a magnetic field may prove useful for studying new physics processes about which we currently have no knowledge. Since hermeticity of the calorimetry is extremely important, the entire central and endcap calorimeters were located inside the solenoid. This does not at the moment seem to produce significant problems (although many issues remain to be resolved) and in fact leads to a very effective muon detector in the central region

327

The COMPASS RICH-1 detector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The COMPASS experiment at CERN provides hadron identification in a wide momentum range employing a large size gaseous Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH). The presence of large uncorrelated background in the COMPASS environment was limiting the efficiency of COMPASS RICH-1 in the very forward regime. A major upgrade of RICH-1 required a new technique for Cherenkov photon detection at count rates of several 10$^{6}$/s per channel in the central detector part, and a read-out system allowing for trigger rates of up to 100 kHz. To cope with these requirements, the photon detectors of the central region have been replaced with a fast photon detection system described here, while, in the peripheral regions, the existing multi-wire proportional chambers with CsI photo-cathodes have been equipped with a new read-out system based on APV preamplifiers and flash ADC chips. The new system consists of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes, and fast read-out electr...

Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

2008-01-01

328

Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors, the Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and the Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). It covers the central pseudo-rapidity region ? < 1.0 for all vertices located within the length of the interaction diamond 1 ?. The outer layers of the ITS consist of double sided Silicon Strip Detectors mounted on carbon-fiber support structures. The SSD is crucial for the connection of tracks from the main tracking device of ALICE, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), to the ITS and also provides dE/dx information to assist particle identification for low-momentum particles. The detector consists of 1698 modules each one having 1536 p and n-side strips, resulting in total to more than 2.6 million channels. The SSD has been actively participating in all the testing, commissioning and run activities as well as in all the data taking periods of the ALICE experiment, making it the largest working double sided detector in the world. It has registered large statistics of cosmic data in 2008 and is included in the initial detector configuration of ALICE for the first LHC collisions. In this talk, the latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics will be presented. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring will be shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to address the alignment with the rest of the ITS sub-detectors along with both on-line and off-line calibration strategies will be described. Finally, results from simulations as well as from the reconstruction of cosmic data demonstrating the performance of the detector will be presented, proving that the SSD is ready for the forthcoming proton-proton data taking. (author)

329

Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

Alessandro, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cortes Maldonado, I. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez Tellez, A. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez Jimenez, R. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Gonzalez Santos, H. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Herrera Corral, G. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Leon, I. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Podesta, P. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Ramirez Reyes, A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., E-mail: mrodrigu@mail.cern.c [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Sitta, M. [Universita Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria (Italy); Subieta, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

2010-05-21

330

The D0 inter-cryostat detector, massless gaps and missing ET resolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps are located in the intermediate rapidity regions between the central and end calorimeters of the D0 detector and are designed to improve energy measurements in those regions. Results are presented from test beam and collider data showing the improvement of single particle and jet energy resolutions with the inclusion of the inter-cryostat detector and massless gaps. The calorimeter missing ET resolution in collider data is presented

331

UV detectors aboard SOHO  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide variety of ultraviolet detectors are used aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The ultraviolet instrument package aboard SOHO includes one full disk EUV flux monitor (SEM: 30.4 nm), one full sky mapper (SWAN: 121.6 nm), one full-Sun imager (EIT: 17.1 - 30.4 nm), and three spectrometers (CDS: 15.1 - 78.5 nm; SUMER: 66.0 - 161.0 nm; UVCS: 93.7 - 136.1 nm). All wavelengths are first order. In total, there are fifteen UV detectors aboard SOHO with six distinctly different designs. These range from photodiodes, through backside-thin CCDs, to two-dimensional microchannel-plate detectors. Some instruments measure an analog signal (such as the charge deposited in a CCD well), while others measure single photon events. The intense brightness of the Sun imposes unique challenges on these astronomical detectors. After almost three years of continuous observation in space, a large body of data has been gathered on their performance. How well each detector system has performed over this period is examined in turn.

Thompson, William T.

1999-11-01

332

Recuperation of semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convenient methods to recuperate damaged semiconductor detectors used by various Brazilian atomic and nuclear physics research groups have been applied in the authors laboratory, and are described in this paper. The recuperated detectors are of Ge(Li), Ge(HP), and Si(Li) types, and in all cases they are mounted in cryostates. Generally these instruments present vacuum leakages in the cryostate, which require the recuperation of vacuum conditions. Subsequently the crystals are warmed up between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C above room temperature, in order to clean the crystal surface. Some clean-up drifting is then performed in the Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detectors, before cooling down the cryostate to liquid nitrogen temperature. When the beryllium window of one of the detectors is damaged, it is replaced by a mylar window. Damaged FET is also replaced. This paper summarizes the results obtained with 3 Ge(Li), 5 Ge(HP), and 4 Si(Li) detectors, from which some general and valuable conclusions have been found

333

Recuperation of semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convenient methods to recuperate damaged semiconductor detectors used by various Brazilian atomic and nuclear physics research groups have been applied in our laboratory, and are described in this paper. The recuperated detectors are of Ge(Li), Ge(HP), and Si(Li) types, and in all cases they are mounted in cryostates. Generally these instruments present vacuum leakages in the cryostate, which require the recuperation of vacuum conditions. Subsequently the crystals are warmed up between 100C and 300C above room temperature, in order to clean the crystal surface. Some clean-up drifting is then performed in the Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detectors, before cooling down the cryostate to liquid nitrogen temperature. When the beryllium window of one of the detectors is damaged, it is replaced by a mylar window. Damaged FET is also replaced. This paper summarizes the results obtained with 3 Ge(Li), 5 Ge(HP), and 4 Si(Li) detectors, from which some general and valuable conclusions have been found. (author)

334

The LHCb Detector Upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

335

Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-?m (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

336

Improved photon detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

337

Transition Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

Andronic, A

2012-01-01

338

The Delphi outer detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design criteria, construction and performance of the Delphi outer detector are discussed. The detector is a 5-layer, 5 m long, 2 m inner radius, 2.1 m outer radius 'cylindrical' drift chamber consisting of 3480 individual 1.65x1.65 cm2 drift tubes operating in limited streamer mode. The drift time-distance relationship for a single tube has been measured using a pulsed laser as a function of both track angle and longitudinal magnetic field. These data have been used to reconstruct cosmic rays in a completed detector module and yield a transverse resolution of 80 ?m per point over most of the cell, rising to 90 ?m near the corners of the tubes. The detection efficiency per cell for minimum ionising particles is greater than 98.5%. (orig.)

339

Microwave kinetic inductance detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Low temperature detectors have been a subject of intense interest to the scientific community over the last decade. These detectors work at very low temperatures, often well below 1 Kelvin, to minimize the noise in the measurement of photons. This leads to very powerful detectors applicable to a broad wavelength range. Since these detectors are so sensitive even single pixels and small arrays (up to several hundred pixels) enable deeper explorations of the cosmos than ever before. Instruments based on these technologies have been used at submillimeter, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. The scientific prospects for these detectors increase as they grow in pixel count. For some applications, especially for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization work, a large focal plane will not only increase efficiency but will also enable new and vital science. Current superconducting technologies, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), can currently deliver extremely high sensitivity in the submillimeter and read- noise free imaging spectroscopy at Optical/UV and X-ray wavelengths, but the largest arrays contain less that 100 pixels. In order to make real progress these arrays must contain many thousands of pixels. This is a formidable technical challenge. This thesis will explore a promising emerging technology called Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs make use of the change in the surface impedance of a superconductor as incoming photons break up Cooper pairs. This is accomplished by making the strip of superconductor part of a microwave resonant circuit, and monitoring the phase of a signal transmitted through (or past) the resonator. The primary advantage of this technology is that by using resonant circuits with high quality factors, passive frequency domain multiplexing will allow up to thousands of resonators to be read out through a single coaxial cable and a single HEMT amplifier. This eliminates the cryogenic electronics (SQUIDS) and wiring problems associated with current superconducting devices. Inexpensive and powerful room-temperature readout electronics can leverage the microwave integrated circuits developed for wireless communications.

Mazin, Benjamin A.

2005-11-01

340

Edgeless silicon pad detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in 'edgeless' planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8stat..±6syst.) ?m

 
 
 
 
341

The MINOS calibration detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001-2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2-10GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS.

Adamson, P.; Crone, G.; Jenner, L.; Nichol, R.; Saakyan, R.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J. [University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kordosky, M. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: kordosky@fnal.gov; Lang, K.; Vahle, P. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Belias, A.; Nicholls, T. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11OQX (United Kingdom); Pearce, G.; Petyt, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11OQX (United Kingdom); Barker, M.; Cabrera, A.; Hartnell, J.; Miyagawa, P.S.; Tagg, N.; Weber, A. [Oxford University, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Falk Harris, E.; Harris, P.G.; Morse, R.; Symes, P. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Michael, D. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Litchfield, P.J. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Lee, R. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Boyd, S. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2006-01-01

342

The MINOS calibration detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001-2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2-10GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS

343

Intelligent Detector Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of {approx} 30%/{radical}E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design.

Graf, N.; Cassell, R.; Johnson, T.; McCormick, J.; /SLAC; Magill, S.; Kuhlmann, S.; /Argonne

2007-02-13

344

Semiconductor neutron detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

Ianakiev, Kiril D. (Los Alamos, NM); Littlewood, Peter B. (Cambridge, GB); Blagoev, Krastan B. (Arlington, VA); Swinhoe, Martyn T. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Sullivan, Clair J. (Los Alamos, NM); Alexandrov, Boian S. (Los Alamos, NM); Lashley, Jason Charles (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-03-08

345

CMS detector performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The CMS experiment at the LHC collected in 2011 around 5 /fb of integrated luminosity at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. The CMS detector has shown an excellent data taking efficiency. The global CMS and several subdetector performances will be sented. The goal of the 2012 operations is to collect again 5 /fb by the end of June finally more than 15 /fb at the end of 2012, with a new center-of-mass energy at 8 TeV and higher luminosity. The CMS detector should cope with these new conditions and first results from 2012 data will be given.

Teyssier Daniel

2014-04-01

346

Acoustic emission intrusion detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01

347

Intelligent Detector Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At a future e+e- linear collider, precision measurements of jets will be required in order to understand physics at and beyond the electroweak scale. Calorimetry will be used with other detectors in an optimal way to reconstruct particle 4-vectors with unprecedented precision. This Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) approach is seen as the best way to achieve particle mass resolutions from dijet measurements in the range of ?30%/?E, resulting in innovative methods for choosing the calorimeter technology and optimizing the detector design

348

CMS detector performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS experiment at the LHC collected in 2011 around 5 /fb of integrated luminosity at 7 TeV center-of-mass energy. The CMS detector has shown an excellent data taking efficiency. The global CMS and several subdetector performances will be sented. The goal of the 2012 operations is to collect again 5 /fb by the end of June finally more than 15 /fb at the end of 2012, with a new center-of-mass energy at 8 TeV and higher luminosity. The CMS detector should cope with these new conditions and first results from 2012 data will be given.

Teyssier, Daniel

2014-04-01

349

Report of the compact detector subgroup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

350

Particle detectors and black holes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author recalls the elevator experiment which ultimately led Einstein to his formulation of General Relativity. In addition to the classical falling weights, flashlights, etc, the author suggests the experimenter also take along a particle detector. This detector will be a particularly simple detector consisting of a Schroedinger particle of mass m in a box with walls impermeable to the detector particle. From the equivalence principle, the detector particle in the accelerated elevator will be in an effective potential maz where z is the coordinate in the direction of the acceleration a, measured from let's say, the center of the detector. The author gives a derivation of the detection process. (Auth.)

351

DEPFET-detectors: New developments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available

352

Capillary toroid cavity detector for high pressure NMR  

Science.gov (United States)

A Toroid Cavity Detector (TCD) is provided for implementing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of chemical reactions under conditions of high pressures and temperatures. A toroid cavity contains an elongated central conductor extending within the toroid cavity. The toroid cavity and central conductor generate an RF magnetic field for NMR analysis. A flow-through capillary sample container is located within the toroid cavity adjacent to the central conductor to subject a sample material flowing through the capillary to a static magnetic field and to enable NMR spectra to be recorded of the material in the capillary under a temperature and high pressure environment.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Downers Grove, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Honer Glen, IL); ter Horst, Marc (Chapel Hill, NC)

2007-09-11

353

The ATLAS detector -- status and plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATLAS detector is preparing for the first data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHC is a proton-proton Collider with 14 TeV center of mass energy and a designed luminosity of 10^34 cm-2s-1. Beam crossings are 25 ns apart and at designed luminosity there are ˜23 interactions per crossing. The LHC thus presents an enormous experimental challenge to enable us to select the small fraction of interesting events and to measure their properties. The main components of the ATLAS detector include: The Magnet system that is composed of two main magnet systems, a central superconducting solenoid that provides the field for the central tracker, and a large superconducting Barrel and End-cap air-core Toroids outside the calorimeter that provides the field for the muon spectrometer. The Inner Detector (ID) of tracker allows pattern recognition, momentum measurements, and electron identifications at high luminosity. This is achieved using a combination of high resolution pixel and silicon strip detectors in the inner part of the tracking volume and a straw tube tracking with transition radiation capability in its outer part. A high granularity liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter has excellent performance in term of energy and position resolution. In the end-caps, the LAr technology is also used for hadronic and special forward calorimeters. The bulk of the hadronic calorimeter is provided by a novel scintillator-tile calorimeter. The combined calorimeter system gives a very good jet and missing ET resolution. The muon spectrometer surrounds the calorimeter system and is composed of the air-core Toroids system that generates a large magnetic field volume with strong bending power. The air core Toroid minimizes the multiple scattering, and the excellent muon momentum resolution is achieved with three stations of high precision tracking chambers. This gives the external muon spectrometer stand alone capabilities that are important at high luminosity. The trigger system is composed of Level 1 triggers with a 75 kHz rate followed by high level trigger to make finer selection. The Level 1 trigger relies on the calorimeter and muon information while the High level trigger has the full information for the regions of interest allowing for finer selection. The construction of the ATLAS experiment is nearly complete and the installation and commissioning is progressing in preparation for first beams. We will describe the present status of the installation and commissioning of ATLAS detector and the plans for completing the installation and commissioning the detector prior to the first collisions.

Lissauer, David

2007-04-01

354

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip detector modules for LHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3·1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers...

Perea Solano, Blanca

2004-01-01

355

The ALICE detector at the CERN LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a dedicated heavy-ion detector designed to exploit the physics potential of nucleus-nucleus interactions at the LHC. As a general purpose experiment, it will allow a comprehensive study of hadrons, electrons, muons and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei, up to the highest particle multiplicities anticipated at the LHC. The central part of ALICE, which covers (90±45)o(|?|o - 9o, ?=2.5 - 4) has recently been added to study production and suppression of heavy quark resonances. (author)

356

The central part of CMS is lowered  

CERN Multimedia

On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

Maximilien Brice

2007-01-01

357

Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

2005-07-06

358

Diamond Pixel Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

359

The Borexino Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

Montanari, David

2010-04-01

360

Optical detector calibrator system  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Optimizing WIMP directional detectors  

CERN Document Server

We study the dependence of the exposure required to directly detect a WIMP directional recoil signal on the capabilities of a directional detector. Specifically we consider variations in the nuclear recoil energy threshold, the background rate, whether the detector measures the recoil momentum vector in 2 or 3 dimensions and whether or not the sense of the momentum vector can be determined. We find that the property with the biggest effect on the required exposure is the measurement of the momentum vector sense. If the detector cannot determine the recoil sense, the exposure required is increased by an order of magnitude for 3-d read-out and two orders of magnitude for 2-d read-out. For 2-d read-out the required exposure, in particular if the senses can not be measured, can be significantly reduced by analyzing the reduced angles with the, time dependent, projected direction of solar motion subtracted. The background rate effectively places a lower limit on the WIMP cross-section to which the detector is sens...

Green, A M; Green, Anne M.; Morgan, Ben

2006-01-01

362

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01

363

Solid state detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of a position sensitive, semi-conductor detector for use in a gamma camera system is discussed in detail. Explicit descriptions are also given of the electronic circuitry required to produce 2-dimensional position information and of the method of data processing. The problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

364

The Friendship Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

After years of using Rube Goldberg-inspired projects to teach concepts of simple machines, the author sought a comparable project to reinforce electricity lessons in his ninth-grade Science and Technology course. The Friendship Detector gives students a chance to design, test, and build a complex circuit with multiple switches and battery-powered…

Cox, Scott

2012-01-01

365

Ionization chamber smoke detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

366

Gaseous wire detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article represents a series of three lectures describing topics needed to understand the design of typical gaseous wire detectors used in large high energy physics experiments; including the electrostatic design, drift of electrons in the electric and magnetic field, the avalanche, signal creation, limits on the position accuracy as well as some problems one encounters in practical operations

367

Inorganic vitreous detector material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An inorganic vitreous detector material which in principle is composed of the three-component system consisting of metaphosphoric acid, aluminum metaphosphate, and zinc oxide, is used for the determination of the energy of particles of high energy. Such a material may additionally contain silicon dioxide and boron trioxide

368

Ionic smoke detectors  

CERN Document Server

Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

2002-01-01

369

X-ray detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved X-ray or other ionizing radiation detector is described. It comprises of an array of adjacent cells containing alternately oppositely polarized electrodes and guard electrodes with insulators between them. Means are provided for maintaining uniform and accurate dimensions between the electrodes and the overall length of the array. (C.F.)

370

X-ray detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ionization chamber array, useful in computerized X-ray tomography apparatus comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, rod-like cathodes disposed equi-distant between parallel planar anodes in a high-pressure detector gas. X-ray energy enters the array in the plane of the cathodes in a direction substantially parallel to their long dimensions

371

Solid state parallel detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss semiconductors phoso-sensitive arrays and channel plate electron multiplier detectors. Currents applications include light detection in the spectral range from visible to X-rays, with sensitivity threshold from 103 to a single photon, and single electron/ion detection. (A.C.A.S.)

372

Overview of silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the ingredients and layout of the most commonly used Si-detectors is given. Their performance is illustrated by the results of some selected experiments. The challenges in the high radiation environment of the LHC, and the changes in signal collection after heavy irradiation are reviewed. Possible future solutions in ultra high radiation environments are briefly discussed

373

First ALICE detectors installed!  

CERN Multimedia

Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

2006-01-01

374

Status of Lhc detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report about the readiness of the four Lhc experiments, ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb as of Spring 2008, few months before the first collisions scheduled for September. In particular we discuss the status of installation and integration and we describe some examples of detector performance figures obtained during the commissioning phase.

375

Superconducting particle detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of a nuclear particle or x-ray with a superconductor leads to the breaking of Cooper pairs and the creation of excess quasi-particles and phonons. Under certain conditions this can produce a transition from the superconducting state to the normal state which can be detected in a number of ways. In other cases the quasi-particle excitations are detected with a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction. The phonon excitations can also be detected with an SIS junction or arrays of SIS junctions, or with superconducting transition edge bolometers. In addition, these superconducting sensors can detect the phonons produced by individual particle interactions in dielectric absorbers. At very low temperatures individual particles can also be detected with normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions due to the increase in electron temperature on the N side. Because of the smallness of the superconducting energy gap and the sharpness of the normal-to-superconducting transition, better energy resolution and sensitivity to smaller energy depositions can be achieved using superconductors as compared to conventional detectors. Moreover, a wide range of materials can be made into detectors for specific physics applications. The basic physics of the interactions of nuclear particles and x-rays in superconductors and in dielectrics is outlined, and the present status of superconducting particle detectors is reviewed. (author)cle detectors is reviewed. (author)

376

Metal?detectors ????????????????. ???????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is an overview of all currently existing principles of finding metals -magnetic and nonmagnetic. The main attention is focused on advanced models. Presents the comparative characteristics of various types of metal detectors and consider possible areas of application. Modern and promising principles of their construction, described in this article, are being actively developed due to their geology, archeology and military importance.?????? ?????? ...

Abramovych, A. O.; Dyachenko, S. M.

2011-01-01

377

Scintillation detector construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to the structure of collimated scintillation detector arrays which are useful in tomography and other related industrial applications. The system enhances the channeling of the optical output of a scintillator body, excited by x-ray radiation, to photoelectrically responsive devices. (UK)

378

ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector  

CERN Multimedia

The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

Manzari, V

2013-01-01

379

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Document Server

The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

P. Paolucci

2012-01-01

380

Noise-Contamination Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Deviations in periods of output from tracking filter measured. Signal-analyzing system measures degree to which sinusoid contaminated by noise. Noise-contamination detector indirectly measures noise in noisy sinusoidal signal by measuring average value of fractional absolute dither in period of signal. Developed to measure noise in outputs of vibration sensors used to test bearings and other components of rotating machinery.

Randall, Richard L.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab D0 detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is {+-}0.5 mm, and {+-}2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey.

Babatunde O' Sheg Oshinowo

2000-06-13

382

Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fermilab DO detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is {+-}0.5 min, and {+-}2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey. (author)

Arics, Babatunde O.O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1999-07-01

383

Survey of the A, B and C layers of the Fermilab D0 muon detector system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fermilab D0 detector is currently being upgraded to exploit the physics potential to be presented by the Main Injector and the Tevatron Collider during Run II in the Fall of 2000. One of the essential elements of this upgrade is the upgrade of the Muon detector system. The Muon detector system consists of the Central Muon Detector and the Forward Muon Detector. The Central Muon Detector consists of three detector systems: the Proportional Drift Tube (PDT) chambers which were used in Run I, the B- and C-layer Scintillation Counters, and new the A-layer Scintillation Counters. The Forward Muon Detector consists of the Mini-Drift Tubes (MDTs) and the Scintillation Pixel Counters. There are three layers, designated A, B, C, of the Muon detector system. The A-layer is closest to the interaction region and a toroid magnet is located between the A- and B-layers. This paper discusses the methods currently employed to survey and align these PDTs, MDTs, and the scintillation pixel counters in the three layers of the Muon detector system within the specified accuracy. The accuracy for the MDTs and PDTs is ±0.5 mm, and ±2.0 mm for the scintillation pixel counters. The Laser Tracker, the BETS, and the V-STARS systems are the major instruments used for the survey

384

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

385

OPAL detector end-cap  

CERN Multimedia

An end-cap of the OPAL detector with its electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter consists of 566 Cherenkov lead glass counters and weighs 10 tonnes. The OPAL detector ran on the LEP accelerator between 1989 and 2000.

1988-01-01

386

The ALEPH silicon vertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aleph silicon vertex detector at the LEP e+e- collider at CERN is described. A detailed information on the various components of the detector is given. Preliminary results obtained during 1990 LEP running are presented. (orig.)

387

Back Reaction to Rotating Detector  

CERN Document Server

The rotating vacuum is just equivalent to Minkowski vacuum. Nevertheless, the detector in uniform circular motion in Minkowski vacuum has non-zero response function. In this paper, this puzzle of the rotating detector is solved by considering back reaction. We show that the appearance of the non-zero response function of the rotating detector is due to the back reaction existing even in the infinite limit of the detector's mass.

Takayuki, S; Kenji, I; Takayuki, Suga; Riuji, Mochizuki; Kenji, Ikegami

1997-01-01

388

Introduction to nuclear radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book is an introduction to the more widely used types of detectors of nuclear radiation. The contents includes chapters on: ionising radiations, statistics of particle counting and dead-time, gas-filled detectors, the Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counter, semiconductor detectors, electronics for nuclear detectors, and radiation doses and their measurement. The book is intended for students in first degree University courses. (U.K.)

389

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K

2005-07-01

390

STRAW based precision tracking detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basic results on developing the thin-film drift tubes, which became the basis for creating the precision tracking detectors at the ATLAS and COMPASS (CERN) facilities, are discussed. The STRAW-chambers are characterized by the detector low radiation thickness, cylindrical geometry for each registration channel, simple chamber design and detector high performance reliability

391

Workshops on radiation imaging detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

392

Effect of the detector response on measurements performed with heavy-ion 4? detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the effect of geometrical efficiency and detection energy thresholds of a typical heavy-ion 4? detector (AMPHORA at the ISN) on measurements at energies near 35 MeV/nucleon. The study is based on simulation data generated by two different models: a microscopic interaction code which describes central as well as peripheral collisions, and a statistical code that describes the emission of pre-equilibrium nucleons followed by evaporation from an equilibrated incomplete-fusion system. Two reactions are studied, 32S+ 27Al at 37.5 MeV/nucleon and 40Ca+ 40Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon. We have investigated the effect of the incomplete (and selective) detection of the charged particles on several variables (parallel momentum, multiplicities, charge distribution), momentum distribution variables and moments of the event-by-event charge distribution. The results show that the response of the detector severely distorts the variable distributions and that a selection is required to obtain a set of data that represents the original ensemble. Total detected charge ( ZP + ZT) selection can give, depending on the system, an acceptable representation of some of the variables in central and semi-peripheral reactions but the effect of the detector depends strongly on the kinematics of the studied reaction. The optimum application of this selection appears to be associated to relatively light systems studied under conditions of inverse kinematics.

Brandan, M. E.; Cole, A. J.; Désesquelles, P.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Michaelian, K.

1993-10-01

393

Effect of the detector response on measurements performed with heavy-ion 4?detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the effect of geometrical efficiency and detection energy thresholds of a typical heavy-ion 4? detector (AMPHORA at the ISN) on measurements at energies near 35 MeV/nucleon. The study is based on simulation data generated by two different models: A microscopic interaction code which describes central as well as peripheral collisions, and a statistical code that describes the emission of pre-equilibrium nucleons followed by evaporation from an equilibrated incomplete-fusion system. Two reactions are studied, 32S+27Al at 37.5 MeV/nucleon and 40Ca+40Ca at 35 MeV/nucleon. We have investigated the effect of the incomplete (and selective) detection of the charged particles on several variables (parallel momentum, multiplicities, charge distribution), momentum distribution variables and moments of the event-by-event charge distribution. The results show that the response of the detector severely distorts the variable distributions and that a selection is required to obtain a set of data that represents the original ensemble. Total detected charge (ZP+ZT) selection can give, depending on the system, an acceptable representation of some of the variables in central and semi-peripheral reactions but the effect of the detector depends strongly on the kinematics of the studied reaction. The optimum application of this selection appears to be associated to relatively light systems studied under conditions of inverse kinematics. (orig.)

394

Conceptual design of a 2 tesla superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab D{O} detector upgrade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a conceptual design of a superconducting solenoid to be part of a proposed upgrade for the D0 detector. This detector was completed in 1992, and has been taking data since then. The Fermilab Tevatron had scheduled a series of luminosity enhancements prior to the startup of this detector. In response to this accelerator upgrade, efforts have been underway to design upgrades for D0 to take advantage of the new luminosity, and improvements in detector technology. This magnet is conceived as part of the new central tracking system for D0, providing a radiation-hard high-precision magnetic tracking system with excellent electron identification.

Brzezniak, J.; Fast, R.W.; Krempetz, K.

1994-05-01

395

Beam tests of prototype fiber detectors for the H1 forward proton spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different prototypes of fiber detectors with an internal trigger system were tested in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY. A silicon microstrip telescope was used for an external reference measurement of the beam to study the spatial resolution of the fiber detectors. On average 75% of all crossing electron tracks could be reconstructed with a precision better than 150 ?m. These successful methodical investigations led to the installation of similar detectors in the proton beamline 81 m downstream of the central H1-detector at HERA as part of a forward proton spectrometer in spring 1994. (orig.)

396

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

G. Iaselli.

397

Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors  

CERN Document Server

Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

Owens, Alan

2012-01-01

398

Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector  

Science.gov (United States)

The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

2007-06-05

399

Detector KEDR tagger  

Science.gov (United States)

The KEDR Tagging System is designed to enhance the detector ability to study the two-photon processes e+e-?e+e-X. The collider magnetic elements (dipoles and lenses) form a magnetic spectrometer for the scattered electrons and positrons. Its energies are measured with 8 blocks of the drift tube hodoscope which are placed beside of the vacuum chamber. This allows to determine an invariant mass of the system X with resolution 3-15 Mev for W=300÷3000 MeV at the beam energies Eb=1.5-5.0 GeV. Recently the TS was upgraded with triple-GEM 2-dimensional detectors and a laser Compton scattering calibration system. The energy resolution for the scattered e± at the level 3?10-4 was demonstrated.

Zhilich, V. N.; KEDR Collaboration

2012-04-01

400

Carbon nanotube terahertz detector.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terahertz (THz) technologies are promising for diverse areas such as medicine, bioengineering, astronomy, environmental monitoring, and communications. However, despite decades of worldwide efforts, the THz region of the electromagnetic spectrum still continues to be elusive for solid state technology. Here, we report on the development of a powerless, compact, broadband, flexible, large-area, and polarization-sensitive carbon nanotube THz detector that works at room temperature. The detector is sensitive throughout the entire range of the THz technology gap, with responsivities as high as ?2.5 V/W and polarization ratios as high as ?5:1. Complete thermoelectric and opto-thermal characterization together unambiguously reveal the photothermoelectric origin of the THz photosignal, triggered by plasmonic absorption and collective antenna effects, and suggest that judicious design of thermal management and quantum engineering of Seebeck coefficients will lead to further enhancement of device performance. PMID:24875576

He, Xiaowei; Fujimura, Naoki; Lloyd, J Meagan; Erickson, Kristopher J; Talin, A Alec; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Jiang, Qijia; Kawano, Yukio; Hauge, Robert H; Léonard, François; Kono, Junichiro

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17

402

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs

403

Triac failure detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

Nola, F. J.

1983-08-01

404

Precision synchrotron radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

405

Gas leak detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of the various gas-detection devices available, those based on catalytic gas sensor (known as a pellistor) are preferred by British Gas Corp. for giving reliable indications of gas concentrations within the lower explosive limits. The primary limitation of the portable devices (used by service crews) as well as the fixed monitors (installed in methane terminals, compressor stations, and large boiler rooms) is their susceptibility to catalytic poisoning, particularly if used in industrial atmospheres. Regular calibration with a standard gas-air mixture ensures their reliability. Other detector types rely on the principles of thermal conductivity, chemical detection, and electrical conductivity. BGC particularly opposes the use of semiconductor detectors - currently marketed for residential use - because of their unreliability, lack of selectivity to combustible gases, and need for frequent maintenance and calibration.

Sonley, J.M.

1978-03-01

406

Integrated Dual Imaging Detector  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

Rust, David M.

1999-01-01

407

MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT  

CERN Multimedia

Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

G.Gomez

408

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01

409

\\eta- and \\eta'-mesic nuclei and U_A(1) anomaly at finite density  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss theoretically the possibility of observing the bound states of the \\eta and \\eta'(958) mesons in nuclei. We apply the NJL model to study the \\eta and \\eta' meson properties at finite density and calculate the formation cross sections of the \\eta and \\eta' bound states with the Green function method for (\\gamma,p) reaction. We also discuss the experimental feasibility at photon facilities like SPring-8. The contributions due to the \\omega meson production are also ...

Nagahiro, Hideko; Takizawa, Makoto; Hirenzaki, Satoru

2006-01-01

410

Cross-sections and masses of the intermediate vector bosons in UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this analysis we study the cross-sections of W± ? ?±? and Z0 ? ?+?- and the masses of the intermediate vector bosons in panti p collisions. Related subjects, such as the total width of the W±, which test the Standard Model are discussed. (orig.)

411

UA1 results on jet activity associated with W+- and Z0 production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production properties of Intermediate Vector Bosons produced at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Collider are described. The longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and the properties of the hadronic jet activity produced in association with the Intermediate Vector Bosons, are in good agreement with the expectations of perturbative QCD. 14 refs

412

UA1 results on jet activity associated with W/sup +-/ and Z0 production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production properties of Intermediate Vector Bosons produced at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) Collider are described. The longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and the properties of the hadronic jet activity produced in association with the Intermediate Vector Bosons, are in good agreement with the expectations of perturbative QCD

413

Experimental observations of isolated large transverse momentum leptons with associated jets in experiment UA1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Events containing an electron or muon of large transverse momentum with two hadronic jets of large transverse energy are reported. These leptons are isolated with respect to the jets and together with the measured missing transverse energy give (l?sub(T)jj) masses clustering around the W mass. If interpreted as a novel decay of the W into tb, where t is the sixth ''top'' quark of the Cabibbo current, then the mass of the top is bounded between 30 and 50 GeV/c2. (author)

414

Analysis of the production of W and Z bosons in the UA1 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery in 1983 of the intermediate vector bosons W and Z, the number of events has considerably increased so that the first time one can study their properties precisely. A selection procedure for W ? e? and Z ? e+e- events, taking into account several quality criteria in a common ?2, gives final samples of 294 W ? e? events and 31 Z ? e+e- events. With these two samples, it is then possible to study the production and decay properties of the intermediate vector bosons in terms of cross sections, and Standard Model parameters as well as angular W/Z decay distribution of charged leptons. Measuring the R = ?W/?Z ratio yields an upper limit to the number of light neutrino species. The W longitudinal and transverse momentum distribution have been analysed in detail and confirm QCD predictions. Moreover, the vector character of the gluon, necessary in QCD, can be shown directly in large momentum W events. In conclusion, the experimental distributions of the W ? e? and Z ? e+e- events confirm the Standard Model Predictions (electroweak and QCD) at Q2 = M2W

415

Simulation of interdetector scattering in BGO block detector  

Science.gov (United States)

Inter-crystal scatter could lead to loss of data or mispositioning of scintillation events, which is of a particular interest in imaging detectors used in Positron Emission Tomography. Because it is difficult to measure the scatter and to quantify its effects, a Monte Carlo simulation has been proposed to study inter-detector scattering and how it affects the spatial resolution of a BGO block. The MCNP4C2 code was used for simulations of the 8 x 4 crystal BGO block detector, the silicon layer covering its face and a line source. Accurate simulations were made for the grooves in the BGO block detector (light guides), which vary according to the location of the crystal within the block. In transaxial plane the cuts are symmetrical about the central cut and have a depths of 23.1, 24.4, 27.7 and 30mm respectively. In the axial plane there are three cuts, tow outer cuts are 30mm deep and the central cut is 23.1mm deep. The line spread function (LSF) was simulated for each column and row at a time by scanning the line source axially and transaxially across the collimated fall of the BGO block detector, which shielded all other columns and rows. Comparison was made between simulated inter-crystal scattering for neighbouring crystals

Alghamdi, Ali A.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.; Mesbahi, Mohammed E.

2004-05-01

416

[Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a progress report on research that has been conducted under DOE Grant DEFG0292ER40697 for the past year, and describes proposed work for the second year of this 8 year grant starting November 15, 1992. Personnel supported by the contract include 4 faculty, 1 research faculty, 4 postdocs, and 9 graduate students. The work under this grant has in the past been directed in two complementary directions -- DO at Fermilab, and the second SSC detector GEM. A major effort has been towards the construction and commissioning of the new Fermilab Collider detector DO, including design, construction, testing, the commissioning of the central tracking and the central calorimeters. The first DO run is now underway, with data taking and analysis of the first events. Trigger algorithms, data acquisition, calibration of tracking and calorimetry, data scanning and analysis, and planning for future upgrades of the DO detector with the advent of the FNAL Main Injector are all involved. The other effort supported by this grant has been towards the design of GEM, a large and general-purpose SSC detector with special emphasis on accurate muon measurement over a large solid angle. This effort will culminate this year in the presentation to the SSC laboratory of the GEM Technical Design Report. Contributions are being made to the detector design, coordination, and physics simulation studies with special emphasis on muon final states. Collaboration with the RD5 group at CERN to study muon punch through and to test cathode strip chamber prototypes was begun

417

A fossils detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because fossil bones are often rich in uraninite they can be detected using a portable gamma-ray detector run over the prospected site. Zones with higher radioactivity are possible accumulations of bones or skeletons. This method invented by R. Jones from the University of Utah (Salt Lake City, USA) has been successfully used in the field and led to the discovery of new dinosaur skeletons. Short paper. (J.S.)

418

The LHCb detector upgrade  

CERN Document Server

The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, with its installation scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will transform the data acquisition and processing architecture to a triggerless readout at 40 MHz with subsequent software-based event selection in a CPU farm. In this contribution, an overview of the detector technology options under consideration and the associated challenges is given and selected highlights of the ongoing R&D programme are presented

Schindler, H

2013-01-01

419

The AMANDA Neutrino Detector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detectorat the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effectivearea for TeV neutrinos of similar to 10(4) m(2), has been taking datasince 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties,as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage20-string detector AMANDA-II with similar to 800 PMTs will be completedin spring 2000.

Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstrom, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg,E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren,A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark,S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold,M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; de, los, Heros, CP.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering,C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

1999-08-23

420

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2014-04-15

 
 
 
 
421

The ALEPH detector  

CERN Multimedia

For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

1988-01-01

422

The scintillation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how detector systems used in nuclear medicine serve to intercept, measure the energy of, and count the ?-ray and x-ray photons that are emitted from a volume, the boundaries of which are defined by a collimator or well. They provide information about the concentration of a radionuclide within the volume, since the rate of photon emission is proportional to this concentration

423

Biological detector and method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

2013-02-26

424

Thin epitaxial silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements have been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with ENERTEC-INTERTECHNIQUE, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements, made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS,CEA,MEN) will also be reported

425

CMS detector performance  

CERN Document Server

excellent data taking efficiency. The global CMS and several subdetectors performances will be presented. The goal of the 2012 operations is to collect again 5 /fb by the end of June and finally 15 /fb at the end of the year, with a new center-of-mass energy at 8 TeV and higher luminosity. The CMS detector should cope with these new conditions and the first results from this year data will be given.

Teyssier, Daniel Francois

2012-01-01

426

Semiconductor radiation detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CMEA standard is presented for semiconductor radiation detectors, viz., photodiodes and phototransistors. The standard specifies the methods of measuring basic parameters for wavelengths within 380 and 2000 nm. It lists basic specifications, such as dark current, total current and photocurrent, spectral sensitivity, flat angle of view, time specifications for photodiodes and transistors. The methods of measuring dark resistance and light resistance of photoresistors are listed in a supplement. (Pu)

427

A high resolution ?-detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak ?-activity, with a 10 ?m resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 ?m and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

428

Thin epitaxial silicon detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manufacturing procedures of thin epitaxial surface barriers will be given. Some improvements has been obtained: larger areas, lower leakage currents and better resolutions. New planar epitaxial dE/dX detectors, made in a collaboration work with Enertec-Intertechnique, and a new application of these thin planar diodes to EXAFS measurements made in a collaboration work with LURE (CNRS, CEA, MEN) will also be reported. (orig.)

429

The CMS pixel detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pixel detectors will be the innermost tracking layers of the CMS experiment. A large Lorentz angle will help to achieve good spatial resolution by interpolation. The first measurement of the Lorentz angle in irradiated silicon sensors is presented. A small pixel assembly using a radiation hard prototype readout chip has been tested with X-rays. The developments for the full readout chip are reviewed and results from SEU measurements with DMILL structures are shown

430

Detector limitations, STAR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

Underwood, D. G.

1998-07-13

431

Superstar central bankers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The personalities of central bankers moved center stage during the recent financial crisis. Some central bankers even gained superstar status. In this paper, we evaluate the pivotal role of superstar central bankers by assessing the difference an outstanding governor makes to economic performance. We employ school grades given to central bankers by the financial press. A superstar central banker is one receiving the top grade. In a probit estimation we first relate the grades to measures of e...

Neuenkirch, Matthias; Tillmann, Peter

2013-01-01

432

Superstar Central Bankers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The personalities of central bankers moved center stage during the recent financial crisis. Some central bankers even gained "superstar" status. In this paper, we evaluate the pivotal role of superstar central bankers by assessing the difference an outstanding governor makes to economic performance. We employ school grades given to central bankers by the financial press. A superstar central banker is one receiving the top grade. In a probit estimation we first relate the grades to measures of...

Neuenkirch, Matthias; Tillmann, Peter

2014-01-01

433

Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC  

CERN Document Server

CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

Perea-Solano, B

2004-01-01

434

Off-center efficiency of HPGe detectors  

CERN Document Server

The gamma ray detection efficiency of two HPGe detectors for off-center points was measured both on the detector's cap and outside the detector's cap. It was found that similar to measurements on the detector symmetry axis, for off-center measurements including those outside the detector cap also, the detector could be treated as an effective point detector. The virtual point detector was found to be almost at the same position for vertical and horizontal source displacements.

Presler, O; German, U; Leichter, Y; Alfassi, Z B

2002-01-01

435

Optical ionization detector  

Science.gov (United States)

An optical ionization detector wherein a beam of light is split so that one arm passes through a fiber optics and the other arm passes through a gas-filled region, and uses interferometry to detect density changes in a gas when charged particles pass through it. The gas-filled region of the detector is subjected to a high electric field and as a charged particle traverses this gas region electrons are freed from the cathode and accelerated so as to generate an electron avalanche which is collected on the anode. The gas density is effected by the electron avalanche formation and if the index or refraction is proportional to the gas density the index will change accordingly. The detector uses this index change by modulating the one arm of the split light beam passing through the gas, with respect to the other arm that is passed through the fiber optic. Upon recombining of the beams, interference fringe changes as a function of the index change indicates the passage of charged particles through the gaseous medium.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Lowry, Mark E. (Castro Valley, CA)

1994-01-01

436

MUON DETECTORS: DT  

CERN Multimedia

The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

M. Dallavalle.

437

MUON DETECTORS: RPC  

CERN Multimedia

RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

P. Paolucci

2011-01-01

438

Compact THz imaging detector  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe preliminary design, modeling and test results for the development of a monolithic, high pixel density, THz band focal plane array (FPA) fabricated in a commercial CMOS process. Each pixel unit cell contains multiple individual THz band antennae that are coupled to independent amplifiers. The amplified signals are summed either coherently or incoherently to improve detection (SNR). The sensor is designed to operate at room temperature using passive or active illumination. In addition to the THz detector, a secondary array of Visible or SWIR context imaging pixels are interposed in the same area matrix. Multiple VIS/SWIR context pixels can be fabricated within the THz pixel unit cell. This provides simultaneous, registered context imagery and "Pan sharpening" MTF enhancement for the THz image. The compact THz imaging system maximizes the utility of a ~ 300 ?m x 300 ?m pixel area associated with the optical resolution spot size for a THz imaging system operating at a nominal ~ 1.0 THz spectral frequency. RF modeling is used to parameterize the antenna array design for optimal response at the THz frequencies of interest. The quarter-wave strip balanced bow-tie antennae are optimized based on the semiconductor fabrication technology thin-film characteristics and the CMOS detector input impedance. RF SPICE models enhanced for THz frequencies are used to evaluate the predicted CMOS detector performance and optimal unit cell design architecture. The models are validated through testing of existing CMOS ROICs with calibrated THz sources.

Newman, J. Daniel; Lee, Paul P. K.; Sacco, Andrew P.; Chamberlain, Thomas B.; Willems, Dave A.; Fiete, Robert D.; Bocko, Mark V.; Ignotovic, Zeljko; Pipher, Judith L.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Rhodes, David B.; Ninkov, Zoran

2013-05-01

439

Detector array and method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

440

Micromechanical Uncooled Photon Detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of uncooled infrared detectors operate as micromechanical thermal detectors or micromechanical quantum detectors. The authors report on a new method for photon detection using electronic (photo-induced) stresses in semiconductor microstructures. Photo-induced stress in semiconductor microstructures, is caused by changes in the charge carrier density in the conduction band and photon detection results from the measurement of the photo-induced bending of semiconductor microstructures. Small changes in position (displacement) of microstructures are routinely measured in atomic force microscopy (AFM) where atomic imaging of surfaces relies on the measurement of small changes (and lt; 10(sup -9) m) in the bending of microcantilevers. Changes in the conduction band charge carrier density can result either from direct photo-generation of free charge carriers (electrons, holes) or from photoelectrons emitted from thin metal film surfaces in contact with a semiconductor microstructure which forms a Schottky barrier. In their studies, they investigated three systems: (1) Si microstructures, (2)InSb microstructures and (3) Si microstructures coated with a thin film of Pt. They found that for Si the photo-induced stress results in a contraction of the crystal lattice due to the presence of excess electron-hole-pairs while for InSb photo-induced stress causes the crystal lattice to expand. They auses the crystal lattice to expand. They present their results and discuss their findings

 
 
 
 
441

The DELPHI Microvertex detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DELPHI Microvertex detector, which has been in operation since the start of the 1990 LEP run, consists of three layers of silicon microstrip detectors at average radii of 6.3, 9.0 and 11.0 cm. The 73 728 readout strips, oriented along the beam, have a total active area of 0.42 m2. The strip pitch is 25 ?m and every other strip is read out by low power charge amplifiers, giving a signal to noise ratio of 15:1 for minimum ionizing particles. On-line zero suppression results in an average data size of 4 kbyte for Z0 events. After a mechanical survey and an alignment with tracks, the impact parameter uncertainty as determined from hadronic Z0 decays is well described by ?(69/pt)2+242 ?m, with pt in GeV/c. For the 45 GeV/c tracks from Z0??+?- decays we find an uncertainty of 21 ?m for the impact parameter, which corresponds to a precision of 8 ?m per point. The stability during the run is monitored using light spots and capacitive probes. An analysis of tracks through sector overlaps provides an additional check of the stability. The same analysis also results in a value of 6 ?m for the intrinsic precision of the detector. (orig.)

442

Cryogenic semiconductor detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Semiconductor particle detectors utilizing impurity levels for charge stoprange at cryogenic temperatures are discussed. The ionizing radiation signal generation, storage, and extraction processes are reviewed. Commercial silicon p-i-n diodes were used as detectors. The electric field within the I-V behavior of the diodes under forward injection and reverse ejection conditions were studied and realistically modeled. A thermionic emission model in silicon p-i-n diodes was set up and it works well down to 10 K. An injection barrier at the v-n interface in the diodes has been verified. The effective barrier height varies with the diode parameters. The band diagram of the diode is described and the noise generation mechanism is discussed. The space charge induced by ionized impurities in the i region causes self-injection under low bias. The fluctuation in the number of self-injected carriers is believed to be the main source of the unusually high noise in commercial silicon p-i-n diodes used as charge storage particle detectors. The self-injected charges were measured as a function of the diode bias and the experimental results matched the model prediction very well. In the course of this work, the detection parameters charge-storage efficiency and charge storage capacity were defined

443

Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector. PMID:20515130

Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

2010-05-01

444

Optical Scattering Lengths in Large Liquid-Scintillator Neutrino Detectors  

CERN Document Server

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents PXE, LAB, and Dodecane which are under discussion for next-generation experiments like SNO+, Hanohano, or LENA. Results comprise the wavelength range from 415 to 440nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

Wurm, Michael; Goeger-Neff, Marianne; Hofmann, Martin; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Lewke, Timo; Undagoitita, Teresa Marrodan; Meindl, Quirin; Moellenberg, Randoplh; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Tippmann, Marc; Todor, Sebastian; Traunsteiner, Christoph; Winter, Juergen

2010-01-01

445

Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

446

Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.