WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

A K Wertsching

2012-09-01

2

Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970's. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

2012-01-01

3

Fabrication results of gamma uranium-molybdenum alloys fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results on the development of the technology of the fabrication of the gamma uranium molybdenum alloys in IPEN-CNEN-SP, and presents some of their more recent experimental results. The importance of this class of fuels relies on the fact that they are the fuels considered to be loaded in the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, RMB, stated as one of the tasks in the Nuclear Brazilian Plan, PNB. The study of ? UMo fuels started with their preparation by the arc and induction melting technique, followed by thermal treatment to the obtention of a better degree of homogenization, under argon atmosphere at 1000 deg C. Additions of Mo varied from 5 to 10% weight. Samples of both classes of fuels were characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction, density, SEM and optical microscopy with image analysis, The main results of the alloy's production and an emphasis of the use of XRD data in the gamma-UMo powder obtention process are presented and emphasized here. The results enabled us to study future methodologies to avoid most of the problems encountered in the recent technological approach to the fabrication of the alloys of UMo, which will lead to the production of materials with best efficiency and quality. (author)

2009-10-02

4

Irradiation performance of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels of Material Test Reactors (MTR) are analyzed in terms of their irradiation performance. The irradiation performance aspects are associated to the neutronic and thermal hydraulics aspects to propose a new core configuration to the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP using U-Mo-Al fuels. Core configurations using U-10Mo-Al fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 8 gU/cm3 were analyzed with the computational programs Citation and MTRCR-IEA R1. Core configurations for fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 5 gU/cm3 showed to be adequate to use in IEA-R1 reactor e should present a stable in reactor performance even at high burn-up. (author)

2005-01-01

5

Progress in irradiation performance of experimental uranium - Molybdenum dispersion fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-density dispersion fuel experiment, RERTR-4, was removed from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) after reaching a peak U-235 burnup of ?80% and is presently undergoing postirradiation examination at the ANL alpha-gamma hot cells. This test consists of 32 mini fuel plates of which 27 were fabricated with nominally 6 and 8 g cm-3 atomized and machined uranium alloy powders containing 7 wt% and 10 wt% molybdenum. In addition, two miniplates containing solid U-10 wt% Mo foils and three containing 6 g cm-3 U3Si2 are part of the test. The results of the postirradiation examination and analysis of RERTR-4 in conjunction with data from previous tests performed to lower burnup will be presented. (author)

2002-11-01

6

CONCEPTUAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM-MOLYBDENUM FUEL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Nuclear Security Agency Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is tasked with minimizing the use of high-enriched uranium (HEU) worldwide. A key component of that effort is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program, previously known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program was initiated in 1978 by the United States Department of Energy to develop the nuclear fuels necessary to enable these conversions. The program cooperates with the research reactors’ operators to achieve this goal of HEU to LEU conversion without reduction in reactor performance. The programmatic mandate is to complete the conversion of all civilian domestic research reactors by 2014. These reactors include the five domestic high-performance research reactors (HPRR), namely: the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory, the National Bureau of Standards Reactor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Missouri University Research Reactor at the University of Missouri–Columbia, and the MIT Reactor-II at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Characteristics for each of the HPRRs are given in Appendix A. The GTRI Convert Fuel Development program is currently engaged in the development of a novel nuclear fuel that will enable these conversions. The fuel design is based on a monolithic fuel meat (made from a uranium-molybdenum alloy) clad in Al-6061 that has shown excellent performance in irradiation testing. The unique aspects of the fuel design, however, necessitate the development and implementation of new fabrication techniques and, thus, establishment of the infrastructure to ensure adequate fuel fabrication capability. A conceptual fabrication process description and rough estimates of the total facility throughput are described in this document as a basis for establishing preconceptual fabrication facility designs.

Daniel M. Wachs; Curtis R. Clark; Randall J. Dunavant

2008-02-01

7

Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metallurgical properties are given in this report of uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent of molybdenum. Since some of these alloys are used in EDF power reactors are given: briefly the operating conditions imposed on nuclear fuels: maximum temperature, temperature gradient and external pressure. In the first part are considered the structural properties of the alloys correlation with the phase transformation kinetics; a description is given of the effects of certain physico-metallurgical factors on the morphology and the crystalline structure of the materials: - solidification conditions and the heredity of the ? structure, - cooling rate at the transformation points, - whether or not the intermediate ? ? ? transformation is suppressed In the second part we show how a knowledge of the phase transformation processes has made it possible to define the optimum preparation conditions for these materials in the form of fuel tubes intended for the EDF reactors: casting conditions, controlled cooling treatments, weldability. In the third part we study the thermal, stability during the long duration high temperature treatments and the cycles in the two zones of the diagram ? + ?; ? + ? the effects of the morphology (in particular the two types of ? pseudo-grains observed) and of the cooling rate during the transformation point transitions are described. In the fourth part are discussed the mechanical properties: resistance to a tractive force, resistance to creep, resilience. These properties can also be affected by the ? structure heredity and by the cooling rate to which the alloy has been subjected. In conclusion we discuss the reasons which led to the choice of some of these alloys for the first EDF reactors in particular the advantages of their high creep resistance between 450 and 600 deg C for use in the form of tubes subjected to an external pressure. (authors)

1964-01-01

8

Update on uranium-molybdenum fuel foil fabrication development activities at the Y-12 National Security Complex in 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In support of the RERTR Program, efforts are underway at Y-12 to develop and validate a production oriented, monolithic uranium molybdenum (U-Mo) foil fabrication process adaptable for potential implementation in a manufacturing environment. These efforts include providing full-scale prototype depleted and enriched U-Mo foils in support of fuel qualification testing. The work has three areas of focus; develop and demonstrate a feasible foil fabrication process utilizing depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) source material, transition these production techniques to enriched uranium (EU-Mo) source material, and evaluate full-scale implementation of the developed production techniques. In 2006, Y-12 demonstrated successful fabrication of full-size DU-10Mo foils. In 2007, Y-12 activities were expanded to include continued DU-Mo foil fabrication with a focus on process refinement, source material impurity effects (specifically carbon), and the feasibility of physical vapor deposition (PVD) on DU-10Mo mini-foils. FY2007 activities also included a transition to EU-Mo and fabrication of full-size enriched foils. The purpose of this report is to update the RERTR audience on Y-12 efforts in 2007 that support the overall RERTR Program goals. (author)

2008-07-01

9

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel - conclusions of an international workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-MO alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17--18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the US RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper

2000-03-19

10

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel -- conclusions of an international workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-MO alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17--18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the US RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper.

Snelgrove, J. L.; Languilee, A.

2000-02-14

11

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel - conclusions of an international workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-Mo alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17-18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the U.S. RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper. (author)

Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States); Languille, A. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

2000-07-01

12

Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature, time and pre-treatment to stabilize the gamma structure. The addition of a bit low ternary excess and formation of an intergranular phase, the increase in stability, it was demonstrated that there is not a damage in the formation of their powders.(author)

2008-01-01

13

Irradiation performance of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuels; Desempenho sob irradiacao de elementos combustiveis do tipo U-Mo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels of Material Test Reactors (MTR) are analyzed in terms of their irradiation performance. The irradiation performance aspects are associated to the neutronic and thermal hydraulics aspects to propose a new core configuration to the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP using U-Mo-Al fuels. Core configurations using U-10Mo-Al fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 8 gU/cm{sup 3} were analyzed with the computational programs Citation and MTRCR-IEA R1. Core configurations for fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 5 gU/cm{sup 3} showed to be adequate to use in IEA-R1 reactor e should present a stable in reactor performance even at high burn-up. (author)

Almeida, Cirila Tacconi de

2005-07-01

14

Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process {approx} 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce {approx}16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually ({approx}10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M.

Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

2007-09-30

15

Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process ? 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce ?16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually (?10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M

2007-01-01

16

Uranium-molybdenum nuclear fuel plates behaviour under heavy ion irradiation: An X-ray diffraction analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy ion irradiation has been proposed for discriminating UMo/Al specimens which are good candidates for research reactor fuels. Two UMo/Al dispersed fuels (U-7 wt%Mo/Al and U-10 wt%Mo/Al) have been irradiated with a 80 MeV 127I beam up to an ion fluence of 2 x 1017 cm-2. Microscopy and mainly X-ray diffraction using large and micrometer sized beams have enabled to characterize the grown interaction layer: UAl3 appears to be the only produced crystallized phase. The presence of an amorphous additional phase can however not be excluded. These results are in good agreement with characterizations performed on in-pile irradiated fuels and encourage new studies with heavy ion irradiation

2009-03-31

17

Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod' homme, A.

2003-02-25

18

Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature, time and pre-treatment to stabilize the gamma structure. The addition of a bit low ternary excess and formation of an intergranular phase, the increase in stability, it was demonstrated that there is not a damage in the formation of their powders.(author)

Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

2008-07-01

19

Qualification of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys for Research Reactor Community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys are being produced to refuel international research reactors - replacing current highly-enriched uranium fuel assemblies. Over the past two years, Y-12 Analytical Chemistry has been the primary qualification laboratory for current U-Mo materials development in the U.S. During this time, multiple analytical techniques have been explored to obtain complete and accurate characterization of U-Mo materials. For the chemical characterization of U-Mo materials, three primary techniques have been utilized: (i) thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for uranium content and isotopic analyses, (ii) a combination of inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) techniques for determination of molybdenum content and trace elemental concentrations and (iii) combustion analyses for trace elemental analyses. Determination of uranium content, uranium isotopic composition and elemental impurities by combustion analyses (H, C, O, N) required only minimal changes to existing analytical methodology for uranium metal analyses. However, spectral interferences (both isobaric and optical) due to high molybdenum content presented significant challenges to the use of ICP instrumentation. While providing a brief description of methods for determination of uranium content and H, C, O and N content, this manuscript concentrates on the challenges faced in applying ICP techniques to qualification of U-Mo fuels. Multiple ICP techniques were explored to determine the effectiveness (e.g., accuracy, precision, speed of analysis, etc.) for determining both molybdenum content and trace elemental impurity concentrations: high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS), inductively- coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The merits and limitations of these techniques for qualification of U-Mo alloys are presented, to include the limits of quantitation and uncertainties of measurements regarding the most efficient methods for qualifying the U-Mo alloys. (author)

2011-03-20

20

Regularities of the vertical distribution of uranium-molybdenum mineralization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geological structure of one of ore fields of the uranium-molybdenum formation pertaining to the northern framing of a large volcano-tectonic depression is studied. The main uranium deposits are related to necks formed by neck facies of brown liparites. Three zones are singled out within the limits of the ore field. In the upper one there are small ore bodies with a low uranium content represented by phenolite-chlorite, pitchblende 3-coffinite 3-jordizite and calcinite-sulphide associations, in the middle one - the main ore bodies formed by pitchblende 1-chlorite, molybdenite 2 (jordizite)-pitchblende 2-hydromica, coffinite 2-pyrite associations; in the lower one-thin veinlets formed by coffinite-molybdenite 1-chlorite, brannerite-pyrite and pitchblende 1-chlorite associations. Dimensions of the ore deposits depend on the neck sizes: in small necks the middle zone and, rarely, the lower one are of the industrial interest; in the large ones - the upper middle and, probably, lower ones. The regularities found can be extended to other deposits of the uranium-molybdenum formation

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Powder formation of ? uranium-molybdenum alloys via hydration-dehydration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma uranium-molybdenum alloys has been considered as fuel phase in plate type fuel elements for MTR reactors, mainly due to their acceptable performance under irradiation and metallurgical processing. To its use as a dispersion phase in aluminum matrix, a necessary step is the conversion of the as cast structure into powder, and one of the techniques considered at IPEN / CNEN - Brazil is HDH (hydration-dehydration). The alloys were produced by the induction melting technique, and samples were obtained from the alloys for the thermal treatments, under constant flow of hydrogen, for temperatures varying from 400 deg C to 600 deg C and times from 1 to 4 hours, followed by dehydration. A preliminary characterization of the powders was made and the curves of mass variation versus time were obtained and related to the powder characteristics. This paper describes the first results on the development of the technology to the powder formation of the (5 to 10) % weight molybdenum ?-UMo alloys, and discusses some of its aspects, mainly those related to the ? ? ? equilibrium data. (author)

2008-07-01

22

Basic design of a rotating disk centrifugal atomizer for uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most used techniques to produce metallic powders is the centrifugal atomization with a rotating disk. This process is employ to fabricate ductile metallic particles of uranium-molybdenum alloys (typically U- 7 % Mo, by weight) for nuclear fuel elements for research and testing reactors. These alloys exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (? phase) which is stable above 700 C degrees and can be retained at room temperature. The rotating disk centrifugal atomization allows a rapid solidification of spherical metallic droplets of about 40 to 100 ?m, considered adequate to manufacture nuclear fuel elements. Besides the thermo-physical properties of both the alloy and the cooling gas, the main parameters of the process are the radius of the disk (R), the diameter of the atomization chamber (D), the disk rotation speed (?), the liquid volume flow rate (Q) and the superheating of the liquid (?T). In this work, they were applied approximate analytical models to estimate the optimal geometrical and operative parameters to obtain spherical metallic powder of U- 7 % Mo alloy. Three physical phenomena were considerate: the liquid metal flow along the surface of the disk, the fragmentation and spheroidization of the droplets and the cooling and solidification of the droplets. The principal results are the more suitable gas is helium; R ? 20 mm; D ? 1 m; ? 20,000 - 50,000 rpm; Q ? 4 - 10 cm3/s; ?T ? 100 - 200 C degrees. By applying the relevant non-dimensional parameters governing the main physical phenomena, the conclusion is that the more appropriate non-radioactive metal to simulate the atomization of U- 7 % Mo is gold

2001-01-01

23

Environmental impact study report, Ben Lomond uranium-molybdenum project, Northern Queensland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A significant uranium-molybdenum mineralisation has been discovered in Northern Queensland, west of Townsville. Granting of a mining lease is subject to the compilation and acceptance of an environmental impact study report. The report describes the proposed mining and milling project, the existing environment and the impact of the proposal on the environment. Two main environmental safeguards incorporated into the project are a comprehensive water management scheme and a progressive site rehabilitation

1979-01-01

24

Uranium-molybdenum mineralization at Ben Lomond, Hervey Range, North Queensland, Australia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the course of an integrated airborne survey in 1975, a uranium-molybdenum deposit was discovered in North Queensland, approximately 70 km by road west of Townsville. The primary ore minerals are coffinite, pitchblende and molybdenite, accompanied by various alteration products (particularly uranium molybdates). The vein-type mineralization is considered epigenetic. A comprehensive program of surface drilling and underground exploration is in progress to establish the uranium and molybdenum reserves

1980-01-01

25

Surface engineering of low enriched uranium–molybdenum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent attempts to qualify the LEU(Mo) dispersion plate fuel with Si addition to the Al matrix up to high power and burn-up have not yet been successful due to unacceptable fuel plate swelling at a local burn-up above 60% {sup 235}U. The root cause of the failures is clearly related directly to the formation of the U(Mo)–Al(Si) interaction layer. Excessive formation of these layers around the fuel kernels severely weakens the local mechanical integrity and eventually leads to pillowing of the plate. In 2008, SCK·CEN has launched the SELENIUM U(Mo) dispersion fuel development project in an attempt to find an alternative way to reduce the interaction between U(Mo) fuel kernels and the Al matrix to a significantly low level: by applying a coating on the U(Mo) kernels. Two fuel plates containing 8gU/cc U(Mo) coated with respectively 600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN in a pure Al matrix were manufactured. These plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to a maximum heat flux of 470 W/cm{sup 2} until a maximum local burn-up of approximately 70% {sup 235}U (?50% plate average) was reached. Awaiting the PIE results, the advantages of applying a coating are discussed in this paper through annealing experiments and TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) calculations.

Leenaers, A., E-mail: aleenaer@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van den Berghe, S. [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2013-09-15

26

Surface engineering of low enriched uranium-molybdenum  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent attempts to qualify the LEU(Mo) dispersion plate fuel with Si addition to the Al matrix up to high power and burn-up have not yet been successful due to unacceptable fuel plate swelling at a local burn-up above 60% 235U. The root cause of the failures is clearly related directly to the formation of the U(Mo)-Al(Si) interaction layer. Excessive formation of these layers around the fuel kernels severely weakens the local mechanical integrity and eventually leads to pillowing of the plate. In 2008, SCK·CEN has launched the SELENIUM U(Mo) dispersion fuel development project in an attempt to find an alternative way to reduce the interaction between U(Mo) fuel kernels and the Al matrix to a significantly low level: by applying a coating on the U(Mo) kernels. Two fuel plates containing 8gU/cc U(Mo) coated with respectively 600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN in a pure Al matrix were manufactured. These plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to a maximum heat flux of 470 W/cm2 until a maximum local burn-up of approximately 70% 235U (˜50% plate average) was reached. Awaiting the PIE results, the advantages of applying a coating are discussed in this paper through annealing experiments and TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) calculations.

Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

2013-09-01

27

A metallographic investigation of corrosion cracking in a uranium-molybdenum alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Components of a uranium-molybdenum alloy not usually susceptible to corrosion cracking in moist air were found to have a severe cracking problem. Metallographic examination indicated that stringers of blocky shaped, internally cracked inclusions were responsible. The inclusions, when intersecting the surfaces of the components, served to provide a site for accelerated corrosion attack, either due to crevice or galvanic corrosion effects. Cathodically produced hydrogen diffusing into the metal at these sites caused the formation of hydride precipitates which resulted in alloy embrittlement. Tensile stresses responsible for crack propagation were provided by corrosion products of lower density than the matrix alloy producing a wedging effect and subsequent crack propagation. (orig.)

1976-04-01

28

SASSE MODELING OF A URANIUM MOLYBDENUM SEPARATION FLOWSHEET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) is evaluating the feasibility of processing material from the Super Kukla Prompt Burst Reactor, which operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. This material is comprised of 90 wt % uranium (U) (at approximately 20% 235U enrichment) alloyed with 10 wt % molybdenum (Mo). The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) in the H-Canyon dissolvers and then to process the dissolved material through H-Canyon First and Second Cycle solvent extraction. The U product from Second Cycle will be sent to the highly enriched uranium (HEU) blend down program. In the blend down program, enriched U from the 1EU product stream will be blended with natural U at a ratio of 1 part enriched U per 3.5 parts natural U to meet a reactor fuel specification of 4.95% 235U before being shipped for use by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its nuclear plants. The TVA specification calls for <200 mg Mo/g U (200 ppm). Since natural U has about 10 mg Mo/g U, the required purity of the 1EU product prior to blending is about 800 mg Mo/g U, allowing for uncertainties. HCE requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) define a flowsheet for the safe and efficient processing of the U-10Mo material. This report presents a computational model of the solvent extraction portion of the proposed flowsheet. The two main objectives of the computational model are to demonstrate that the Mo impurity requirement can be met and to show that the solvent feed rates in the proposed flowsheet, in particular to 1A and 1D Banks, are adequate to prevent refluxing of U and thereby ensure nuclear criticality safety. SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction), a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that supports Argonne National Laboratory's proprietary AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) code, was selected to model the U/Mo separation flowsheet. SASSE spreadsheet models of H-Canyon First and Second Cycle solvent extraction show that a standard unirradiated fuel flowsheet is capable of separating U from Mo in dissolved solutions of a U/Mo alloy. The standard unirradiated fuel flowsheet is used, except for increases in solvent feed rates to prevent U refluxing and thereby ensure nuclear criticality safety and substitution of higher HNO{sub 3} concentrations for aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3})){sub 3} in the feed to 1A Bank. (Unlike Savanah River Site (SRS) fuels, the U/Mo material contains no aluminum (Al). As a result, higher HNO3 concentrations are required in the 1AF to provide the necessary salting.) The TVA limit for the final blended product is 200 {micro}g Mo/g U, which translates to approximately 800 mg Mo/g U for the Second Cycle product solution. SASSE calculations give a Mo impurity level of 4 {micro}g Mo/g U in the Second Cycle product solution, conservatively based on Mo organic-to-aqueous distributions measured during minibank testing for previous processing of Piqua reactor fuel. The calculated impurity level is slightly more than two orders of magnitude lower than the required level. The Piqua feed solution contained a significant concentration of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, which is not present in the feed solution for the proposed flowsheet. Measured distribution data indicate that, without Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} or other salting agents present, Mo extracts into the organic phase to a much lesser extent, so that the overall U/Mo separation is better and the Mo impurities in the Second Cycle product drop to negligible concentrations. The 1DF U concentration of 20 g/L specified by the proposed flowsheet requires an increased 1DX organic feed rate to satisfy H-Canyon Double Contingency Analysis (DCA) guidelines for the prevention of U refluxing. The ranges for the 1AX, 1BS, and 1DX organic flow rates in the proposed flowsheet are set so that the limiting ratios of organic/aqueous flow rates exactly meet the minimum values specified by the DCA.

Laurinat, J

2007-05-31

29

The Problem of Storing Fission Products Arising from the Processing of Irradiated Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium-molybdenum alloys are of value thanks to their in-pile behaviour but serious disadvantages arise in connection with the storing of fission products resulting from the processing of these alloys. Because of the insolubility of molybdenum it is impossible to concentrate a solution of fission products by evaporation, and for this reason we have directed our efforts towards the solubilization of molybdenum through the addition of reagents such as iron or phosphoric ions. In this way one can obtain final solutions of 60 g/l Mo with Fe 100 g/l Mo with PO4H3. The volumes to be stored are still considerable (especially with Fe) and the possibility of nitrate calcination in a fluidized bed was considered. The reaction takes place at about 400°C. The behaviour of the ruthenium and the friability of the calcined solid (formation of considerable amounts of fine material) have led us to abandon this process in favour of the preparation of phosphate glasses. (author)

1963-02-01

30

A study of phase transformations processes in 0,5 to 4% mo uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isothermal and continuous cooling transformations process have been established on uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 4 w% Mo. Transformations process of the ? and ? solid solutions are described. These processes depend upon molybdenum concentration. Out of the ? solid solution phase appears an eutectoid decomposition of ? to (? + ?) or the formation of a martensitic phase ?''. The ? solid solution shows a decomposition of ? to (? + ?) or (? + ?'), or a formation of martensitic phases a' or a'b. The U-Mo equilibrium diagram is discussed, particularly in low concentrations zones. Limits between domains (? + ?) and (? + ?), (? + ?) and ?, (? + ?) and ?, have been determined. (author)

1959-01-01

31

Obtention of uranium-molybdenum alloy ingots technique to avoid carbon contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The replacement of high enriched uranium (U{sup 235} > 85 wt%) by low enriched uranium (U{sup 235} < 20wt%) nuclear fuels in research and test reactors is being implemented as an initiative of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, conceived in the USA since mid-70s, in order to avoid nuclear weapons proliferation. Such replacement implies in the use of compounds or alloys with higher uranium densities. Among the several uranium alloys investigated since then, U-Mo presents great application potential due to its physical properties and good behavior during irradiation, which makes it an important option as a nuclear fuel material for the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. The development of the plate-type nuclear fuel based on U-Mo alloy is being performed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and also at IPEN. The carbon contamination of the alloy is one of the great concerns during the melting process. It was observed that U-Mo alloy is more critical considering carbon contamination when using graphite crucibles. Alternative melting technique was implemented at CDTN in order to avoid carbon contamination from graphite crucible using Yttria stabilized ZrO{sub 2} crucibles. Ingots with low carbon content and good internal quality were obtained. (author)

Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Reis, Sergio C.; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Faeda, Kelly Cristina M.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.b, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.b, E-mail: jgmb@cdtn.b, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

32

Obtention of uranium-molybdenum alloy ingots microstructure and phase characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The replacement of high enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} > 85 wt%) by low enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} < 20 wt%) nuclear fuels in research and test reactors is being implemented as an initiative of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, conceived in the USA since mid-70s, in order to avoid nuclear weapons proliferation. Such replacement implies in the use of compounds or alloys with higher uranium densities. Several uranium alloys that fill this requirement has been investigated since then. Among these alloys, U-Mo presents great application potential due to its physical properties and good behavior during irradiation, which makes it an important option as a nuclear fuel material for the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. The development of the plate-type nuclear fuel based on U-Mo alloys is being performed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and also at the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN. U-{sup 10}Mo ingots were melted in an induction furnace with protective argon atmosphere. The microstructure of the ingots were characterized through optical and scanning electronic microscopy in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction were used as characterization techniques for elemental analysis and phases determination. It was confirmed the presence of metastable gamma-phase in the as cast condition, surrounded by hypereutectoid alpha-phase (uranium-rich phase), as well as a pearlite-like constituent, composed by alternated lamellas of U{sub 2}Mo compound and alpha-phase, in the heat treated condition. (author)

Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Braga, Daniel M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.b, E-mail: bragadm@cdtn.b, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.b, E-mail: jgmb@cdtn.b, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

33

Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

2012-10-01

34

A new fuel for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) to be constructed at Lucas Heights will use fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU), 235U, whereas its predecessor HIFAR operates with fuel fabricated from high-enriched uranium (HEU). The fuel will be based on uranium silicide (U3Si2) with a density of 4.8 g U/cm3. This fuel has been qualified and in use in 20 research reactors worldwide for over 12 years A brief description is given of the metallurgy, behaviour under irradiation, and fabrication methods, all of which are well-understood Progress on development of new, higher density LEU fuel based on uranium molybdenum alloys is also described and the implications for the RRR discussed briefly

2001-10-24

35

Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

2011-10-01

36

A study of phase transformations processes in 0,5 to 4% mo uranium-molybdenum alloys; Etude des processus des transformations dans les alliages uranium-molybdene de teneur 0,5 a 4% en poids de molybdene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isothermal and continuous cooling transformations process have been established on uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 4 w% Mo. Transformations process of the {beta} and {gamma} solid solutions are described. These processes depend upon molybdenum concentration. Out of the {beta} solid solution phase appears an eutectoid decomposition of {beta} to ({alpha} + {gamma}) or the formation of a martensitic phase {alpha}''. The {gamma} solid solution shows a decomposition of {gamma} to ({alpha} + {gamma}) or ({alpha} + {gamma}'), or a formation of martensitic phases a' or a'{sub b}. The U-Mo equilibrium diagram is discussed, particularly in low concentrations zones. Limits between domains ({alpha} + {gamma}) and ({beta} + {gamma}), ({beta} + {gamma}) and {gamma}, ({beta} + {gamma}) and {beta}, have been determined. (author) [French] Les processus des transformations isothermes, et au cours de refroidissements continus ont ete etablis sur les alliages uranium-molybdene de 0,5 a 4 % en poids de Mo. Ceci a permis de mettre en evidence les processus des transformations de solutions solides {beta} et {gamma}, differents suivant la teneur en molybdene de l'alliage. Dans le premier cas il y a decomposition eutectoide de {beta} en ({alpha} + {gamma}) ou formations d'une phase martensitique {alpha}''. Dans le second cas il y a decomposition de {gamma} soit en ({alpha} + {gamma}) soit en ({alpha} + {gamma}') suivant la temperature, ou bien formation des phases martensitiques {alpha}' ou {alpha}'{sub b}. Le diagramme d'equilibre, uranium-molybdene est sujet a de nombreuses controverses, en particulier dans la zone des faibles concentrations. Les limites entre les domaines ({alpha} + {gamma}) et ({beta} + {gamma}), ({beta} + {gamma}) et {gamma}, ({beta} + {gamma}) et {beta}, ont ete determinees. (auteur)

Lehmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1959-06-15

37

Contribution to the study of remedy solutions to uranium(molybdenum)/aluminium interactions: role of silicon addition to aluminium, study of coupled effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the project development and qualification program of a nuclear fuel with Low Enriched Uranium for Materials Testing Reactors, the dispersed U(Mo)/Al fuel is being developed due to its excellent stability during irradiation. However, in pile experiments showed that depending on the irradiation conditions (e.g. high burnup or high heat flux), an extensive interaction occurs between the fissile element U(Mo) and the Al based matrix resulting in swelling, which could eventually lead to a fuel plate failure. Among the ways to improve the behavior of the dispersed U(Mo) fuel, the solution now seen as the reference remedy by the entire scientific community is the addition of silicon into the aluminum matrix. In order to provide some understanding and optimizing the solution 'Si additions into Al matrix' under neutron irradiation, an out of pile study is performed on (i) the interaction mechanisms involved in the U(Mo)/Al (Si) system and (ii) the impact of the Si additions into the Al matrix on alternative solutions to the U(Mo)/Al interactions, namely the modification of the ?-U(Mo) fissile compound by adding a third element and/or modifying the interface between the ?-U(Mo) fissile compound and the matrix. This document provides a mechanistic description of the U(7Mo)/Al(Si) interaction for a range of Si content in Al between 2 and 10 wt.%, based on the multi-scale characterization of diffusion couples. The location of the Mo and its role in the reaction mechanisms are demonstrated. The influence of elements X = Y, Cu, Zr, Ti, Cr, on the U (Mo)/Al and U (Mo)/Al (Si) interactions mechanisms was then studied. It is shown that adding a third element to the U(Mo) alloy acts on the second order on diffusion kinetics and (micro)structure of the interaction layer compared to the addition of Si into Al. Finally, an alumina coating which shows a potential interest to improve the performance of the fuel has been developed. (author)

2011-01-01

38

Research reactor fuel - an update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the two years since the last ANA conference there have been marked changes in the research reactor fuel scene. A new low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, 'monolithic' uranium molybdenum, has shown such promise in initial trials that it may be suitable to meet the objectives of the Joint Declaration signed by Presidents Bush and Putin to commit to converting all US and Russian research reactors to LEU by 2012. Development of more conventional aluminium dispersion UMo LEU fuel has continued in the meantime and is entering the final qualification stage of multiple full sized element irradiations. Despite this progress, the original 2005 timetable for UMo fuel qualification has slipped and research reactors, including the RRR, may not convert from silicide to UMo fuel before 2007. The operators of the Swedish R2 reactor have been forced to pursue the direct route of qualifying a UMo lead test assembly (LTA) in order to meet spent fuel disposal requirements of the Swedish law. The LTA has recently been fabricated and is expected to be loaded shortly into the R2 reactor. We present an update of our previous ANA paper and details of the qualification process for UMo fuel

2003-11-05

39

Application of the DART Code for the Assessment of Advanced Fuel Behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) code is a dispersion fuel analysis code that contains mechanistically-based fuel and reaction-product swelling models, a one dimensional heat transfer analysis, and mechanical deformation models. DART has been used to simulate the irradiation behavior of uranium oxide, uranium silicide, and uranium molybdenum aluminum dispersion fuels, as well as their monolithic counterparts. The thermal-mechanical DART code has been validated against RERTR tests performed in the ATR for irradiation data on interaction thickness, fuel, matrix, and reaction product volume fractions, and plate thickness changes. The DART fission gas behavior model has been validated against UO2 fission gas release data as well as measured fission gas-bubble size distributions. Here DART is utilized to analyze various aspects of the observed bubble growth in U-Mo/Al interaction product. (authors)

2007-09-09

40

Modeling thermal and stress behavior of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel mini-plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel development and qualification program is in process with the objective of qualifying very high density monolithic low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel for high-performance research reactors. The monolithic fuel foil creates differences in the mechanical and structural characteristics of the fuel plate because of the planar interface created by the fuel foil and cladding. An initial finite element analysis model has been developed to investigate worst-case scenarios for the basic monolithic fuel plate structure using typical mini-plate irradiation conditions in the Advanced Test Reactor. Initial analysis shows that the stress normal to the fuel-clad interface dominates during irradiation and that the presence of small, rounded delaminations at the interface is not of great concern. However, larger and/or fuel-clad delaminations with sharp corners can create areas of concern, as maximum principal cladding stress, strain, displacement, and peak fuel temperature are all significantly increased. Furthermore, stresses resulting from temperature gradients that cause the plate to bow or buckle in an unconstrained fuel plate configuration is greatly enhanced in a constrained fuel plate configuration. The sensitivities of the model and input parameters are discussed, along with some overlap of initial experimental observations using as-fabricated plate characterization and post-irradiation examination.

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Selenium fuel: Surface engineering of U(Mo) particles to optimise fuel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments on the stabilisation of U(Mo) in-pile behaviour in plate-type fuel have focussed almost exclusively on the addition of Si to the Al matrix of the fuel. This has now culminated in a qualification effort in the form of the European LEONIDAS initiative for which irradiations will start in 2010. In this framework, many discussions have been held on the Si content of the matrix needed for stabilisation of the interaction phase and the requirement for the formation of Si-rich layers around the particles during the fabrication steps. However, it is clear that the Si needs to be incorporated in the interaction phase for it to be effective, for which the currently proposed methods depend on a diffusion mechanism, which is difficult to control. This has lead to the concept of a Si coated particle as a more efficient way of incorporating the Si in the fuel by putting it immediately where it will be required : at the fuel-matrix interface. As part of the SELENIUM (Surface Engineered Low ENrIched Uranium-Molybdenum fuel) project, SCK CEN has built a sputter coater for PVD magnetron sputter coating of particles in collaboration with the University of Ghent. The coater is equipped with three 3 inch magnetron sputter heads, allowing deposition of 3 different elements or a single element at high deposition speed. The particles are slowly rotated in a drum to produce homogeneous layer thicknesses. (author)

2010-03-21

42

Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U3O8 mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties

2006-01-01

43

Improving the performance of the performance of U-Mo fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Recent developments showed that uranium-molybdenum nuclear fuel particles dispersed in an aluminum matrix had misbehavior when irradiated at high neutron fluxes. The appearance of a third phase, with the presence of great porosity in the interaction zone of the Al/U-Mo interface, conditions severely the performance of this fuel. At the light of the resolution of this limitation, UMo monolithic fuel achieves a greater importance, since there is some expectation that in this bulk geometry the problem will not be present. From the simplest point of view, the addition of extra alloys to the aluminum matrix or to the nuclear fuel can be an alternative to reduce the interface growing kinetics and thereafter the appearance of the problematic third phase. The kinetics reduction would be a quantitative effect controlling chemical potentials (diffusion driving force) and barely will avoid the problem. Similar considerations can be attributed to the monolithic fuel if only quantitative solutions are proposed. In this paper are presented two drastical alternatives, from the point of view of qualitative metallurgy, for increasing the performance of U-Mo fuels. The first one is related with the coverage of the fuel particles with compound diffusion barriers to avoid the transportation of uranium and aluminum threw them. The second alternative is a monolithic fuel with zircaloy cladding where the interaction is much smaller than with aluminum. (author)

2004-11-01

44

Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

2012-03-01

45

SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO3), using 4 M HNO3-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO3 and 5 M HNO3. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 (micro)g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 (micro)g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic

2007-01-01

46

Fabrication and characterisation of uranium, molybdenum, chromium, niobium and aluminium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes fabrication of binary uranium alloys by melting and casting. The following alloys with nominal composition were obtained by melting in the vacuum furnace: uranium with niobium contents from 0.5%- 4.0% and uranium with molybdenum contents from 0.4% - 1.2%. Uranium alloys with chromium content from 0.4% - 1.2% and uranium alloy with 0.12% of aluminium were obtained by vacuum induction furnace (electric arc melting)

1965-11-01

47

Material test reactor fuel research at the BR2 reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of new, high performance material test reactor or the conversion of such reactors' core from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) based fuel requires several fuel qualification steps. For the conversion of high performance reactors, high density dispersion or monolithic fuel types are being developed. The Uranium-Molybdenum fuel system has been selected as reference system for the qualification of LEU fuels. For reactors with lower performance characteristics, or as medium enriched fuel for high performance reactors, uranium silicide dispersion fuel is applied. However, on the longer term, the U-Mo based fuel types may offer a more efficient fuel alternative and-or an easier back-end solution with respect to the silicide based fuels. At the BR2 reactor of the Belgian nuclear research center, SCK-CEN in Mol, several types of fuel testing opportunities are present to contribute to such qualification process. A generic validation test for a selected fuel system is the irradiation of flat plates with representative dimensions for a fuel element. By flexible positioning and core loading, bounding irradiation conditions for fuel elements can be performed in a standard device in the BR2. For fuel element designs with curved plates, the element fabrication method compatibility of the fuel type can be addressed by incorporating a set of prototype fuel plates in a mixed driver fuel element of the BR2 reactor. These generic types of tests are performed directly in the primary coolant flow conditions of the BR2 reactor. The experiment control and interpretation is supported by detailed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic modeling of the experiments. Finally, the BR2 reactor offers the flexibility for irradiation of full size prototype fuel elements, as 200mm diameter irradiation channels are available. These channels allow the accommodation of various types of prototype fuel elements, eventually using a dedicated cooling loop to provide the required thermal and hydraulic conditions. The availability of a comprehensive set of post irradiation examination facilities on site complements the versatile BR2 reactor to provide a set of high performance tools for MTR fuel qualification. (author)

2012-03-01

48

Modeling Thermal and Stress Behavior of the Fuel-clad Interface in Monolithic Fuel Mini-plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, a fuel development and qualification program is in process with the objective of qualifying very high density low enriched uranium fuel that will enable the conversion of high performance research reactors with operational requirements beyond those supported with currently available low enriched uranium fuels. The high density of the fuel is achieved by replacing the fuel meat with a single monolithic low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel foil. Doing so creates differences in the mechanical and structural characteristics of the fuel plate because of the planar interface created by the fuel foil and cladding. Furthermore, the monolithic fuel meat will dominate the structural properties of the fuel plate rather than the aluminum matrix, which is characteristic of dispersion fuel types. Understanding the integrity and behavior of the fuel-clad interface during irradiation is of great importance for qualification of the new fuel, but can be somewhat challenging to determine with a single technique. Efforts aimed at addressing this problem are underway within the fuel development and qualification program, comprised of modeling, as-fabricated plate characterization, and post-irradiation examination. An initial finite element analysis model has been developed to investigate worst-case scenarios for the basic monolithic fuel plate structure, using typical mini-plate irradiation conditions in the Advanced Test Reactor. Initial analysis shows that the stress normal to the fuel-clad interface dominates during irradiation, and that the presence of small, rounded delaminations at the interface is not of great concern. However, larger and/or fuel-clad delaminations with sharp corners can create areas of concern, as maximum principal cladding stress, strain, displacement, and peak fuel temperature are all significantly increased. Furthermore, stresses resulting from temperature gradients that cause the plate to bow or buckle in an unconstrained fuel plate configuration is greatly enhanced in a constrained fuel plate configuration. The sensitivities of the model and input parameters are discussed, along with some overlap of initial experimental observations using as-fabricated plate characterization and post-irradiation examination.

2010-08-01

49

Fabrication and characterization of atomized U-Mo powder dispersed fuel compacts for the RERTR-3 irradiation test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano-plates will be conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor(ATR). 49 compacts with a uranium density of 8 gU/cc consist of 7 different atomized uranium-molybdenum alloy powders such as as-atomized U-10Mo, phase decomposed U-10Mo (alpha+gamma), homogenized U-10Mo, U-7Mo, U-6Mo, U-6.1Mo-0.9Ru, and U-6Mo-1.7Os. 25 fuel plates, referred to as nano-plates, were produced with atomized fuel compacts at ANL-W. The relationship between the volume fraction of fuel and the green density of the compacts was established. The relative density of the compacts increases with decreasing volume fraction of fuel powder. The compressibility of comminuted powder compacts was larger than that of the atomized powder compacts due to the fragmentation of comminuted particles. The green strength of comminuted powder compacts is higher than that of the atomized powder compact. This seems to have resulted from the smaller pore size and the larger contact area between the comminuted fuel powders and Al powders. It is suggested that the compacting condition adjustment be required to fabricate the atomized powder compacts having comparable green strength. (author)

1999-10-01

50

Fueling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peaked density profiles may not only improve confinement properties, but also give the additional benefits of increased fusion production and ignition margin in BPX, as shown. The ability to control density profiles in the core and scrape-off regions is governed by a number of both physics and operational considerations that make it difficult to specify optimized fueling systems. For this reason, the fueling systems for BPX are designed to maximize flexibility, allowing operation to determine optimal scenarios. In this paper, after listing some of the issues impacting fueling assessments, the authors present the latest information on pellet ablation and penetration and then give example fueling scenarios. Some degree of external control over the density profile in the core can be achieved through pellet injection, but recycle and other plasma edge physics limit the degree of control that is possible. Passive pumping and fueling by the walls, limiters, and other structures (collectively called fuel recycle) is a function of the temperature of the surface, incident particle energy, and history of the fluence

1992-05-01

51

Conceptual Design Parameters for HFIR LEU U-Mo Fuel Conversion Experimental Irradiations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a versatile research reactor that is operated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HFIR core is loaded with high-enriched uranium (HEU) and operates at a power level of 85 MW. The primary scientific missions of the HFIR include cold and thermal neutron scattering, materials irradiation, and isotope production. An engineering design study of the conversion of the HFIR from HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The LEU fuel considered is based on a uranium-molybdenum alloy that is 10 percent by weight molybdenum (U-10Mo) with a 235U enrichment of 19.75 wt %. The LEU core design discussed in this report is based on the design documented in ORNL/TM-2010/318. Much of the data reported in Sections 1 and 2 of this document was derived from or taken directly out of ORNL/TM-2010/318. The purpose of this report is to document the design parameters for and the anticipated normal operating conditions of the conceptual HFIR LEU fuel to aid in developing requirements for HFIR irradiation experiments.

Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL

2013-03-01

52

A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO2 power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the ?-, intermediate- and ?-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified

2007-01-01

53

A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

2007-10-18

54

Swelling of U(Mo) dispersion fuel under irradiation - Non-destructive analyses of the SELENIUM plates  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive fuel-matrix interactions leading to plate pillowing have caused a severe impediment on the development of a suitable high density low-enriched uranium dispersion fuel for high power applications in research reactors. Surface engineering of the U(Mo) kernel surfaces, where the interaction occurs, is put forward by SCK?CEN as a possible solution in the Surface Engineering of Low ENrIched Uranium Molybdenum fuel (SELENIUM) program. The project involved the construction of a sputter coater, the coating of U(Mo) kernels, the production of fuel plates, the irradiation and post-irradiation examination of 2 plates. The irradiation of 2 distinct (600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN coated) full size, flat fuel plates was performed in the BR2 reactor in 2012. The irradiation conditions were: 470 W/cm2 peak Beginning Of Life (BOL) power, with a ˜70% 235U peak burnup. The plates were successfully irradiated and did not show any pillowing at the end of the irradiation. This paper reports the results and interpretation of the non-destructive post-irradiation examinations that were performed on these fuel plates and derives a law for the fuel swelling evolution with burnup for this fuel type. It further reports additional PIE results obtained on fuel plates irradiated in campaigns in the past in order to allow a complete comparison with all results obtained under similar conditions. The fuel swelling is shown to evolve linearly with the fission density, with an increase in swelling rate around 2.5 × 1021 f/cm3, which is associated with the restructuring of the fuel. A further increase in swelling rate is observed at the highest burnups, which is discussed in this article.

Van den Berghe, S.; Parthoens, Y.; Cornelis, G.; Leenaers, A.; Koonen, E.; Kuzminov, V.; Detavernier, C.

2013-11-01

55

Advanced research reactor fuel development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano-plates will be conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor(ATR). 49 compacts with a uranium density of 8 gU/cc consist of 7 different atomized uranium-molybdenum alloy powders. The tensile strength increased and the elongation decreased with increasing the volume fraction of U-10Mo powders in dispersion fuel. The tensile strength was lower and elongation was larger in dispersion fuel using atomized U-10Mo powders than that using comminuted fuel powders. The green strength of the comminuted powder compacts was about twice as large as that of the atomized powder compacts. It is suggested that the compacting condition required to fabricate the atomized powder compacts is over the 350MPa. The comminuted irregular shaped particles and smaller particle size of fuel powders showed improved homogeneity of powder mixture. The homogeneity of powder mixtures increased to a minimum at approximately 0.10 wt% moisture and then decreased with moisture content.

Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

2000-05-01

56

Characterization of poly- and single-crystal uranium-molybdenum alloy thin films  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poly- and single-crystal thin films of U-Mo alloys have been grown both on glass and sapphire substrates by UHV magnetron sputtering. X-ray and Electron Backscatter Diffraction data indicate that for single-crystal U1-xMox alloys, the pure cubic uranium gamma-phase exists for x > 0.22 (10 wt.% Mo). Below 10 wt.% Mo concentration, the resulting thin film alloys exhibited a mixed alpha-gamma uranium phase composition.

Adamska, A. M.; Springell, R.; Scott, T. B.

2013-01-01

57

Thermal cycling behaviour and thermal stability of uranium-molybdenum alloys of low molybdenum content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the behaviour during thermal cycling of as-cast U-Mo alloys whose molybdenum content varies from 0.5 to 3 per cent; results are given concerning grain stability during extended heat treatments and the effect of treatments combining protracted heating with thermal cycling. The thermal cycling treatments were carried out at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 1000 cycles; the protracted heating experiments were done at 550, 575, 600 and 625 deg C for 2000 hours (4000 hrs at 625 deg C). The 0.5 per cent alloy resists much better to the thermal cycling than does the non-alloyed uranium. This resistance is, however, much lower than that of alloys containing over l per cent, even at 550 deg C it improves after a heat treatment for grain-refining. Alloys of over 1.1 per cent have a very good resistance to a cycling treatment even at 625 deg C, and this behaviour improves with increasing concentrations up to 3 per cent. An increase in the temperature up to the ?-phase has few disadvantages provided that it is followed by rapid cooling (50 to 100 deg C/min). The ? grain is fine, the ?-phase is of the modular form, and the behaviour during a thermal cycling treatment is satisfactory. If this cooling is slow (15 deg /hr) the ?-grain is coarse and cycling treatment behaviour is identical to that of the 0.5 per cent alloy. The protracted heat treatments showed that the ?-grain exhibits satisfactory stability after 2000 hours at 575, 600 and 625 deg C, and after 4000 hours at 625 deg C. A heat cycling treatment carried out after these tests affects only very little the behaviour of these alloys during cycling. (authors)

1963-01-01

58

Coulometric determination of carbon in plutonium and in uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present report described a coulometric method to determine the carbon. This method is speedy and sensible. One determination is executed in 10 mn for uranium or alloys and in 45 mn for plutonium and alloys. The limit of sensibility is about 5 ppm for a sample of 1 g. (authors)

1966-01-01

59

Fueling systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with concepts of the Tiber II tokamak reactor fueling systems. Contained in this report are the fuel injection requirement data, startup fueling requirements, intermediate range fueling requirements, power range fueling requirements and research and development considerations

1987-06-16

60

Alcohol fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To increase the core burnup as much as possible by the incorporation of samarium in fuel pellets and thereby increase the shut-down margin in the initial burning period in BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of fuel pellets formed by sintering nuclear fuel substances are sealed in fuel can to form a fuel element. A fuel assembly is formed by disposing such fuel elements in a square lattice pattern. A slight amount of natural samarium or samarium-149 is incorporated to the fuel pellets either partly or entirely. The shut-down margin is increased by the incorporation of samarium. (Seki, T.)

1979-01-01

62

Automotive fuels and fuel systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains information of interest to automotive design engineers, technologists in the petroleum industry, students, legislators, and others interested in petroleum technology, Automotive Fuels and Fuel Systems covers the technology associated with the fuel system from tank to metering.

Garrett, T.K.

1991-01-01

63

Nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

2011-01-01

64

Fuel unto fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An organic compound reported three decades ago has now been found to have this interesting property of fanning its own combustion. This rare polymer gets oxidized during combustion releasing two major products, benzaldehyde and formaldehyde, which are themselves combustible. This unusual property of poly (styrene peroxide) was discovered by two scientists working in the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Such a fast burning autocombustible fuel was hitherto known. According to the researchers, once ignited, the fuel no only sustains its own degradation, but also supports a flame in air, with a burning rate comparable to that of solid propellants. The rate of burning, however, can be controlled by proper additives. This polymer is being eyed as the fuel of the future.

1987-01-01

65

Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

1998-01-01

66

Complexes of osmium, uranium, molybdenum, and tungsten with the catechol amines adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, dopa, and isoproterenol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New complexes of the form trans-(OsO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/ and UO/sub 2/Lcenter dotnH/sub 2/O (H/sub 2/L = adrenaline (H/sub 2/ad), noradrenaline (H/sub 2/nad), dopamine (H/sub 2/dpm), dopa (H/sub 2/dp), and isoproterenol (H/sub 2/prot)) are reported, as are cis(MO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/(L = nad, dp, prot for M = Mo or W, and ad for M = W), (MO/sub 2/(Hdpm)/sub 2/) (M = Mo or W), and (Mo/sub 2/O/sub 5/(Had)/sub 2/). The structures of these species are discussed on the basis of their Raman, infrared, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C n.m.r. spectra.

El-Hendawy, A.M.; Griffith, W.P.; Pumphrey, C.A.

1988-07-01

67

Fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a fuel element which can simplify the fabrication work thereof, shorten the working time thereof and improve the reliability thereof even if employing an electron beam welding process. Constitution: A fuel element is contained with partial space retained in a fuel can, and plugs are charged into both ends of the fuel can. In the fuel element thus formed is contained a gas container which has a fusible metal portion formed in the space, inert gas filled therein, and tracer gas ionized and filled in the fusible metal portion. The fabriction work of the fuel element can be simplified by employing the fuel element structure thus fabricated. (Aizawa, K.)

1980-01-01

68

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To increase the thermal margin by optimizing the position for the arrangement of fuel rods. Constitution: Taking the heat conduction flow phenomenon in the fuel assembly into consideration and for improving the thermal margin such that transition boiling is not generated in specific fuel rods, fuel rods are regularly arranged in a lattice-like manner so as to satisfy the relationship: 1.00 less than or equal to a/b less than or equal to 1.10 in which a represents the gap between the fuel assembly wall and the fuel rod and b represents a gap between fuel rods. (Sekiya, K.).

Bessho, Yasunori; Fujimura, Koji; Ishii, Yoshihiko.

1988-06-30

69

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent cladding tube failures due to fuel-cladding interaction by restricting the size of fuel pellets in fuel assemblies of a bwr type reactor. Constitution: The outer diameter of fuel pellets is restricted to 10.4 - 10.5 mm relative to the size of the cladding tube (outer diameter: 12.5 mm, inner diameter: 10.8). By restricting the gap between the cladding tube and the fuel pellet to such a specific value, thermal failures such as melting of the cladding tube in a fuel rod, or cladding tube failures due to fuel-cladding interaction can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

1979-01-01

70

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent the failure of fuel pellets due to pellets-cladding interaction without lowering the thermal power. Constitution: Gaps formed between the cladding tubes of fuel rods facing the control rod and the fuel pellets are made greater than gaps formed between other fuel rods and fuel pellets. That is, only fuel rods having a high failure probability have pellets of small outer diameters and gaps of large diameters. Thus, the average power lowering of the fuel assembly accompanied by the weight reduction of the pellets can be ignored and it becomes possible to accomplish the desired object. Furthermore, in order to make the desired object more effective, the central parts of the pellets of each of fuel rods whose gaps are made larger are made hollow, and the gaps formed at the central parts in the axial direction of the fuel rods are made larger than those in the longitudinal direction. (Kamimura, Y.)

1978-01-01

71

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To flatten axial power distribution in fuel assemblies for BWR type reactors. Constitution: Several of the fuel rods for use with fuel assemblies are filled with fissile substances in the lower half and with reflectors or moderators in the upper half thereof. Such fuel rods are disposed near the center of the fuel assemblies and other fuel rods of usual structure are used. The reflectors and the moderators usable herein are light water, heavy water, metal beryllium, beryllium oxides, zirconium hydrides and the likes. Burnable poison (such as Gd) are added to the reflector and the moderator. (Ikeda, J.)

1980-01-01

72

Fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent the occurrence of damages to the other surface of fuel rods. Constitution: Coating layers are disposed to the outer surface of fuel cans in a fuel rod. The coating layers are harder than the material for the fuel can, that is, zircaloy-2 or zircaloy-4, and are composed of such metal oxides or metal carbides as having the neutron absorption cross section substantially equal with or less than that of the material for the fuel can and heat conductivity equal to or higher than the material for the fuel can, for example, zirconium carbide, aluminum oxide, etc. (Yoshino, Y.)

1986-03-22

73

Fuel assembly and fuel spacer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spacer of the present invention ensures the inherent function of holding fuel rods at an exact position, as well as promotes heat transfer from fuel rods as a heat source to coolants thereby improving the thermal margin of the fuel assembly and reducing the void coefficient to increase the reactivitiy. That is, a notch is formed to a portion of aside wall for each cell of a fuel spacer. Then, the notch is bent so as to protrude obliquely to space between fuel rods to form vane. The vane forms a swirling stream, toward the fuel rods to coolants flowing in a two-phase flow in the space between the fuel rods. Accordingly, heat transfer from the fuel rod as the heat source to the coolants is promoted, by which the thermal margin of the fuel assembly is improved and the void coefficient is reduced to increase the reactivity. (I.S.).

Orii, Akihito; Yokomizo, Osamu; Masuhara, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Koji; Murata, Shigeto; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Inoue, Kotaro; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro.

1990-11-22

74

Fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

1983-01-01

75

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the strength and prevent interference between adjacent fuel assemblies in PWR type reactors, by providing reinforcing materials in specified arrangement and forming guide parts to the lattice outer plate at the corner of a fuel rack. Constitution: A solid rod as the reinforcing material strong enough to reinforce fuel assemblies is inserted in the axial direction of the fuel assemblies through the corner cell of a fuel rack and secured at the upper end to the upper nozzle and at the lower end to the lower nozzle. Guide parts are formed to the upper and/or lower edges of the outer plate at the corner of the fuel rack in order to prevent the adjacent fuel assemblies from meshing due to their contact. The solid rod functions as the structural material to increase the strength of the fuel assemblies and prevent them from bending. (Moriyama, K.)

1981-01-01

76

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention determines an optimum distribution of an enrichment degree of a targeted fuel assembly by previously evaluating the amount of the neutron leakage from or out of surrounding a fuel assemblies when the targeted fuel assembly is actually loaded in a reactor core. As a result, a fuel assembly which satisfies a thermal limit value relative to a local power distribution and having an excellent fuel economy can be obtained. That is, when a spectral index and a reciprocal number of a thermal neutron diffusion distance in an infinite lattice system of the fuel assembly are defined as fo and ko respectively, the spectral index of the infinite lattice system of the fuel assemblies in adjacent therewith in the reactor core is defined as fn, and the limit power peaking of the fuel rod of the fuel assembly is defined as LPFx, the power peaking LPFo(i) of the infinite lattice system to be calculated for an optional fuel rod i in the fuel assembly having a distance from the adjacent fuel assembly of ri satisfies the following equation: LPFx ? LPFo (i) x { 1 + (fn - fo)/(2fo) x exp(-ko ri) } (I.S.)

1991-11-18

77

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By utilizing in a multi-layered fuel cell, plastic separators with the inter-cell connectors supported in resilient but vaportight fashion within the separators, a lighweight fuel cell may be realized which does not suffer from fuel-oxidizer leakage despite temperature rises and accompanying differential component expansion.

Arai, T.; Tajima, H.

1980-09-30

78

Fossil Fuels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

Crank, Ron

79

Fuel distribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

1979-07-01

80

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the fuel economy by increasing the reactivity at the latter burning stage of fuel assemblies and thereby increasing the burn-up degree. Constitution: At the later stage of the burning where the infinite multiplication factor of a fuel assembly is lowered, fuel rods are partially discharged to increase the fuel-moderator volume ratio in the fuel assembly. Then, plutonium is positively burnt by bringing the ratio near to an optimum point where the infinite multiplication factor becomes maximum and the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased by utilizing the spectral shift effect. The number of the fuel rods to be removed is selected so as to approach the fuel-moderator atom number ratio where the infinite multiplication factor is maximum. Further, the positions where the thermal neutron fluxes are low are most effective for removing the rods and those positions between which no fuel rods are present and which are adjacent with neither the channel box nor the water rods are preferred. The rods should be removed at the time when the burning is proceeded at lest for one cycle. The reactivity is thus increased and the burn-up degree of fuels upon taking-out can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

1985-05-17

 
 
 
 
81

DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

2011-02-01

82

Fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a fuel element used for a BWR type reactor. In the fuel element, a gadolinia-incorporated fuel pellet is disposed axially with a predetermined distance between plurality of fuel pellets. The distance of disposing the gadolinia-incorporated fuel pellets corresponds to 1 notch of a control rod, and the gadolinia fuel-incorporated pellet is disposed at the intermediate portion between each of the notches. Accordingly, when a control rod is withdrawn and moved by 1 notch, the peak of power increase caused thereby is flattened to some extent at the central portion. This can moderate the local power change along with the movement of the control rod and prevent stress corrosion cracks due to local stress concentration. (I.N.)

1989-08-08

83

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gap between a fuel rod disposed to the outermost circumference of a fuel band and a fuel rod disposed at the second circumference from the outside is made larger than gaps in other portions. Further, fuel rods at the corner positions in the fuel band are shifted inward of the bundle and, correspondingly, the thickness of the corner portions of the channel box is made greater toward the inside. Further, the lateral cross sectional area of the channel box is enlarged in the portion excepting the corner portions. This can ensure the thermal margin of fuel rods with small thermal margin, as well as improve the neutron economy by the substantial reduction of the channel material. During operation, the pressure loss of coolants can be reduced by the enlargement for the coolant flow channel. (T.M.).

Ueda, Makoto.

1991-01-24

84

Nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.)

1980-01-01

85

Fuel support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To form orifices, through which a bypass flow passes, in a fuel support, to thereby prevent an outer wall of a fuel assembly from being damaged as a result of vibration of a neutron detector tube due to coolant jet. Structure: In a fuel support mounted on a core supporting plate in a boiling water reactor, a suitable number of orifices are provided to provide communication between a lower plenum under the core supporting plate and a water gap between fuel channel boxes to flow a part of coolant into the water gap through said orifices. (Seki, T.)

1975-01-01

86

Fuel taxation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the autumn of 2000, increases in the price of petrol led to fuel protests across Britain. It was argued that high levels of indirect taxation on fuel, which had risen rapidly in each year from 1993 to 1999 (the "escalator", which saw duties on fuel increase by 3 percentage points above inflation between 1993 and 1997, and 6 points between 1997 and 1999), had provoked the protests. Since abandoning the escalator in the 1999 Pre-Budget Report, the Chancellor has not increased fuel duties abo...

Leicester, A.

2005-01-01

87

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel assembly comprises a fuel movable portion in which a group of fuel pins are vertically movable by gravity or fluid pressure of coolants, a releasing mechanism which secures axial displacement and rotation of the fuel movable portion during normal operation and releases the securing state when a temperature of the secured portion exceeds a predetermined limit value if coolant temperature is abnormally elevated, and a re-securing mechanism for securing the fuel movable portion after movement. When the coolant temperature is abnormally elevated, the fuel movable portion moves axially moved to change the relative position between the fuel movable portion and a reactor core, which leads to reactor shut down by utilizing caused negative reactivity. That is, if the temperature of the coolants is abnormally elevated, the releasing mechanism releases the securing state, so that the fuel movable portion moves axially and is secured again at the distal end of movement. With such procedures, the relative position between the fuel movable portion and the reactor core is changed to provide negative reactivity which surely leads to reactor shut down. (N.H.)

1993-03-09

88

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel assembly adapted for use with a pressurized water nuclear reactor having capabilities for fluid moderator spectral shift control is described comprising: parallel arranged elongated nuclear fuel elements; means for providing for axial support of the fuel elements and for arranging the fuel elements in a spaced array; thimbles interspersed among the fuel elements adapted for insertion of a rod control cluster therewithin; means for structurally joining the fuel elements and the guide thimbles; fluid moderator control means for providing a volume of low neutron absorbing fluid within the fuel assembly and for removing a substantially equivalent volume of reactor coolant water therefrom, a first flow manifold at one end of the fuel assembly sealingly connected to a first end of the moderator control tubes whereby the first ends are commonly flow connected; and a second flow manifold, having an inlet passage and an outlet passage therein, sealingly connected to a second end of the moderator control tubes at a second end of the fuel assembly

1988-01-01

89

Fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of the US Department of Energy's Fuel Cells Program as at the end of FY 85 is described. The report consists of: (1) an overview of the Fuel Cells Program including a brief discussion of how fuel cells work; (2) a synopsis of the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Programs and their 1985 projects; (3) a discussion of the Fuel Cells Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Program and projects; and (4) a summary of the Fuel Cells Systems and Applications Program. A common direction of fuel cell development has been to combine individual cells into groups called stacks or modules in order to increase power output. In 1985, the scale-up of PAFC stacks to the 40-kW level continued, and a project involving the manufacturing of 46 power plants was completed. SOFC scale-up proceeded to the 24-cell submodule stage. An MCFC 1-ft stack demonstrated effective management of electrolyte, control of end-cell shorting, and resistance of separator plates to corrosion during 4000 hours of operation. AR and TD provided information on reaction mechanisms and materials for MCFC's, SOFC's, and PAFC's.

90

Fuel cells 101  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

Hirschenhofer, J.H.

1999-07-01

91

Fuel cells and hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel cells operate in an effective manner today only on hydrogen fuel. The most probable fuels for future use will be hydrogen itself, when it will be available in quantity from renewable sources, natural gas and coal. Both the latter must be converted into hydrogen-rich gases, the first by steam-reforming followed by water-gas shift, the second by steam-oxygen (or air) gasification. Hydrogen fuel cell system for automobiles are examined and their economic feasibility is compared with IC engines. Hydrogen storage problems are also investigated. 9 refs

1993-01-01

92

Fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

1982-01-01

93

Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This humorous video segment includes prominent roles for NPR's Robert Krulwhich and the Car Talk hosts. It highlights the electrochemical reaction that takes place within a hydrogen fuel cell and explores the challenges of producing the pure hydrogen that fuels it.

Sciencenow, Nova; Domain, Teachers'

94

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Boiling transfer from nuclear boiling to film boiling generally occurs in fuel rods. Accordingly, if liquid films at the surface of a fuel rod is increased, thermal margin to the boiling transfer is usually increased. Further, when protrusions or notches are applied near the upper end of a short fuel rod, flow rate area is reduced and, at the same time, the pressure loss there is increased to restrict the flow of both of steams and water in the flow channel above the short fuel rod. Accordingly, defoliation of the liquid filsm at the surface of the film rod is usually reduced and, due to this effect, the thermal margin to the boiling transfer is increased. Thus, the thermal margin of fuel assemblies loaded to the BWR type reactor can be increased. (T.M.).

Bessho, Yasunori.

1989-07-04

95

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boiling transfer from nuclear boiling to film boiling generally occurs in fuel rods. Accordingly, if liquid films at the surface of a fuel rod is increased, thermal margin to the boiling transfer is usually increased. Further, when protrusions or notches are applied near the upper end of a short fuel rod, flow rate area is reduced and, at the same time, the pressure loss there is increased to restrict the flow of both of steams and water in the flow channel above the short fuel rod. Accordingly, defoliation of the liquid filsm at the surface of the film rod is usually reduced and, due to this effect, the thermal margin to the boiling transfer is increased. Thus, the thermal margin of fuel assemblies loaded to the BWR type reactor can be increased. (T.M.)

1987-12-25

96

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To obtain higher unit heat generation amount by radially varying the uranium enrichment degree in the pellets of a fuel rod to thereby render the radial temperature distribution more uniform. Constitution: In a fuel assembly comprising a plurality of fuel rods arranged and disposed by way of spacers in a channel box, with the upper and lower ends of the fuel rods being fixed with upper and lower tie plates, the pellet of the fuel rod is prepared by disposing an uranium layer of lower enrichment degree in the axial center portion and an uranium layer of higher enrichment degree in the axial peripheral, molding and sintering them in a cylindrical configuration. The uranium layer of lower enrichment degree consists of natural uranium (0.711% of uranium 235 content) and the uranium layer of higher enrichment degree has an enrichment degree more than 1.1 times of the average enrichment degree in the pellet. (Aizawa, K.)

1981-01-01

97

Fuel Chemistry Preprints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers are presented under the following symposia titles: advances in fuel cell research; biorefineries - renewable fuels and chemicals; chemistry of fuels and emerging fuel technologies; fuel processing for hydrogen production; membranes for energy and fuel applications; new progress in C1 chemistry; research challenges for the hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage; SciMix fuel chemistry; and ultraclean transportation fuels.

NONE

2005-09-30

98

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor comprises a plurality of fuel rods arranged in 9 x 9 matrix and water rods disposed between the fuel rods. The total of the cross sectional area of the water rods is determined as AW, the cross section of the fuel assembly is determined as ACH, the total of the cross section of the fuel rods is determined as Arod, and a wall thickness of the cladding tube of the fuel rod is determined as ?. The fuel assembly is constituted so that Arod/ACH and AW/ACH satisfy the following formulas. (Arod/ACH) ? -1.050(AW/ACH) +0.469, (Arod/ACH) ? (0.337? + 0.1421)(AW/ACH) + 0.0804? + 0.302, 0.98(0.2425? + 0.384/(0.337? + 1.192) ? (Arod/ACH) ? 1.02(0.2425? + 0.384)/(0.337? + 1.192), 0.98(0.0804? - 0.167)/(-0.337? - 1.192) ? (AW/ACH) ? 1.0(0.0804? - 0.167)/(-0.337? - 1.192). (I.N.)

1987-03-20

99

Transportation fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our dependence on imported oil for transportation fuels is pointed out. The ability of the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) to help sustain normal usage during an interruption of supply is noted; however, the nearly 600 million barrels of oil are only equal to about 75 days of total imports. A large tax on motor fuels is seen as the most effective means of decreasing dependence on foreign oil. Proceeds from such a tax should be devoted to creating a variety of synthetic supplies. Increased support of research and development of programs could substantially reduce the costs of liquefying coal. Alternative motor fuels such as methyl alcohol and natural gas should receive more attention.

Abelson, P.H.

1990-10-26

100

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To effectively utilize a channel box in the continuous use of fuel assemblies by measuring the axial bending of the channel box and re-loading the fuel assemblies depending on the results. Constitution: A channel box is inspected by a channel box measuring device to detect the amount of deformation. The channel box is rotated such that the protruded deformation is away from the control rod, laid over a fuel bundle and mounted with a spacer for continuous use in the next cycle. This can eliminate the troubles in the operation of the control rod due to the deformation in the channel box which narrows the gap between adjacent fuel assemblies and can improve the safety. (Kawakami, Y.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Fuel composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

Badger, S.L.

1983-09-20

102

Abstracts and papers of the 1999 International RERTR Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers presented at the 22nd International RERTR Meeting dealt with the following topics: development and testing of new fuel elements (uranium-molybdenum alloys); research reactors core conversion studies (change from highly to moderately or slightly enriched uranium), including both measurements and calculations: spent fuel storage and transportation; production of 99Mo from low enriched uranium. A number of papers were devoted to the status and future of national RERTR programs

1999-10-03

103

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To stabilize the thermal characteristic and cycle gain degree of burn-up in a transfer cycle by reducing variations in each cycle. Constitution: This fuel assembly is used for a BWR type reactor, and is constructed of the first, second, third and fourth fuel assemblies gradually increasing in enrichment combined in a lattice. The first fuel assembly has a concentration of 0.71 to 1.0%, the ratio of the concentrations of the second to the third fuel assemblies is in the range of 0.65 to 0.72, and the fourth assembly has the same concentration as that of the fuel assembly used for the second cycle or later. Thus, the quasi-equilibrium cycle can be presented from the first cycle to fasten the converging to the equilibrium cycle, and the maximum linear output density in the transfer cycle and the cycle gain degree of burn-up can be stabilized and can be retained in a preferable range. (Kamimura, M.)

1982-01-01

104

Method of reactor fueling and fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to a method of reactor fueling with a safe reactor building, particularly of pressurized-water reactors, with interchangeable cauless fuel elements consisting of a number of fuel elements and a composite fuel element frame to take up the fuel elements. (orig./TK)

1976-01-01

105

Fuel spacer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great number of small apertures giving no influences on the flow of coolants are formed at the circumferential surface of a cylindrical cell constituting a fuel spacer. A great number of small apertures are also formed to protrusions and to spring tabs to the cylindrical cell for supporting a fuel rod. Many small apertures are formed further to an outer belt. The shape of the small apertures is circle or other shape than the circle. A great number of small apertures are previously formed to a pipe for the material of the cylindrical cell, cutting and pressing the pipe to easily situate the small apertures to the protrusions and the spring tabs for supporting the fuel rod. With such procedures, it can be manufactured easily, and improvement of thermal margin and reduction of the pressure loss can be attained without degradation of mechanical strength. Further, since the amount of metal is reduced, neutron economy can be improved. (I.N.)

1990-11-21

106

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: In a boiling water reactor, to effectively release, outside the fuel assembly, steam generated by initial water pouring at the time of loss of coolant so as to achieve rapid reflooding. Structure: The top end opening can be positioned at a level higher than a position in which a core spray sparger is mounted, and a steam guide pipe, upper side wall of which is formed with steam guide holes, is received along the fuel rod within a channel box. When a coolant level lowers due to loss of coolant, water is poured onto fuel assemblies to generate steam. This steam flows into the steam guide pipe through the steam guide holes and then discharged from the top end. (Furukawa, Y.)

1975-01-01

107

Oxygenated fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advantage of adding oxygenated compounds to gasoline lies in their high octane number and their anti-pollution properties. Their use is already widespread in the United States and Europe and it will continue to grow in view of the anti-pollution regulations that are in effect on both sides of the Atlantic and the global trend to phase out lead in gasoline. It is this situation together with fiscal incentives, that has led to the development of bio-fuels, which are blended with both gasoline and diesel fuel. (authors)

Torck, B. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France). Strategy and Corporate Planning Division

1999-03-01

108

Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels  

Science.gov (United States)

Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

1980-01-01

109

Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

Hawkins, M. D.

1973-01-01

110

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel cell contains 2 lithium electrodes on nickel wire and an anode made of soot, asbestos, and a dispersion of teflon pressed on a titanium mesh. A solution of 1.11 M LiClO/sub 4/ and 6.71 M NO/sub 2/ in a 3 to 1 ratio of propylene carbonate and methyl cyanide was the electrolyte.

Schlaikjer, C.R.

1973-09-13

111

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Joining fuel rods fit to an upper tie plate and a lower tie plate for supporting the weight of fuel assemblies upon handling are gathered near the handle thereby bringing the point of operation and point of application upon handling to approach to each other. If each of the boss outer diameter and the web thickness is ensured to a required minimum, it is possible to make the outer diameter smaller and the wall thickness thinner to their utmost extent for other bosses and webs. Further, other bosses and webs than the boss and the web that connect the base end of the handle and the boss for the joining fuel rods by a shortest distance are removed. This enables to make the length shorter for the fuel rods and hollow rods at the positions corresponds to the bosses to thereby enlarge the cross sectional are for the coolant flow channel. Accordingly, it is possible to sufficiently insure the mechanical strength and reduce the pressure loss, and improve the thermohydrodynamic property. (T.M.)

1988-02-19

112

Fuel oil poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.

113

Repairing fuel for reinsertion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eqiupment for nuclear reactor fuel assembly repairing produced by Westinghouse and Brawn Bovery companies is described. Repair of failed fuel assemblies replacement of defect fuel elements gives a noticeable economical effect. Thus if the cost of a new fuel assembly is 450-500 thousand dollars, the replacement of one fuel element in it costs approximately 40-60 thousand dollars. In simple cases repairing includes either removal of failed fuel elements from a fuel assembly and its reinsertion with the rest of fuel elements into the reactor core (reactor refueling), or replacement of unfailed fuel elements from one fuel assembly to a new one (fuel assembly overhaul and reconditioning)

1986-02-01

114

Unconventional fuels panel discussion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An unconventional fuels panel discussion is outlined that deals with plastics and non-recyclable papers. The following topics are discussed: sources of feedstock, plastics role in energy recovery, plastics derived fuels, process and combustion technology, plastics in fuel pellets, pellet fuels in the US, pellet fuels combustion, agenda for the development of a pellet fuel industry, and plastics role in energy recovery.

Fisher, M.M. [American Plastics Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

115

Fuel processing for fuel cells  

CERN Multimedia

Adopting a unique integrated engineering approach, this text covers all aspects of fuel processing: catalysts, reactors, chemical plant components and integrated system design. While providing an introduction to the subject, it also contains recent research developments, making this an invaluable handbook for chemical, power and process engineers, electrochemists, catalytic chemists, materials scientists and engineers in power technology.

Kolb, Gunther

2008-01-01

116

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The object of the invention is a nuclear reactor fuel assembly including fuel elements arranged in a supporting frame comprising two endpieces, the upper and the lower respectively, to which are attached the ends of a plurality of vertical tubes, each endpiece including a plane base in which are arranged two series of orifices for retaining the tubes and for the flow of the cooling fluid. In accordance with the invention the base of each endpiece is joined side by side with an inner plate equipped with the same series of orifices for retaining the tubes and for the flow of the fluid, and the orifices have an oblong cross-section and are equipped with parts for attachment which cooperate with corresponding parts for attachment of the said tubes by transverse displacement of the inner plate.

LeParGneux, J.

1983-12-13

117

Fuel recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global nuclear power programme should be designed not only to produce electricity at the lowest possible cost, but also to make the best use of our fissile fuel reserves in the longer term. This clearly indicates the necessity of using breeder reactors, which with plutonium recycling, can achieve total fuel utilisation figures of 70% to 80% as opposed to the very small percentages available from non-breeders, even with recycling. The plutonium can be separated from spent fuel elements chemically. The United Kingdom is in a favourable situation to initiate a fast breeder reactor programme because it has appreciable supplies of plutonium accumulated from the Magnox programme, but on a global scale there is a danger that a sudden expansion of the nuclear programme based on non-breeder reactors will exhaust the supplies of commercially viable uranium before adequate supplies of plutonium have been built up to provide the cores for a significant fast breeder programme. This situation will be worse if, as seems likely, the thermal programmes are based on reactors which are poor producers of plutonium and themselves require enriched fuel. A more modest global expansion of the thermal nuclear programme to about 600,000 MW(e) by the year 2000 is possible using reasonably economic uranium reserves. If this were based on thermal reactors which were reasonably good producers of plutonium (Candu, Magnox and HTR) the programme could provide plutonium for the cores of 800, 000 MW(e) of installed fast breeder capacity by the year 2000. Thereafter, if the doubling time of the electricity demand is shorter than that of the plutonium inventory, either the gas-cooled fast breeder or a combination of thermal 'near breeders' and liquid-metal fast breeders will be required. (author)

1977-03-25

118

Fuel composite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fuel composite based on hydrocarbon fuel with the addition of an additive (ad) in order to reduce the pour point of the composite and prevent settling out of Na-salts from it, uses as the ad 0.5-2.0% waste from production of propylene oxide, an easily mobile liquid that does not freeze at temperature -60/sup 0/, is easily soluble in mazut when mixed without heating, and has the composition,%: butylene oxide 28-36, dichloropropane 34-35, butylene glycol 18-22, water 12-15. For example, furnace mazut according to MRTU 12N41-63, brand +10/sup 0/ is placed in a quantity of 500 g into a laboratory mixer, with continuous mixing at room temperature, 5 g of ad. are added to the composition,%: butylene oxide 30, dichloropropane 35, butylene glycol 20, water 15. At the end of 45 days, the pour point was defined and depression of the fuel composite which are respectively -25/sup 0/C and 30/sup 0/C. There is no separation of the mazut and ad. into layers and the precipitate does not settle out.

Blinov, G.A.; Dmitriyev, V.M.; El' bert, E.I.; Gel' mut, A.G.; Oshchepkov, I.A.

1984-01-01

119

Coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction of coal based fuel systems such as coal/air and coal water mixtures was an attempt to minimize the use of heavy fuel oils in large scale power generation processes. This need was based on forecasts of fuel reserves and future pricing of fuel oils, therefore economic considerations predominated over environmental benefits, if any, which could result from widespread use of these fuels. Coal continued as the major fuel used in the power generation industry and combustion systems were developed to minimize gaseous emissions, such as NOx. Increasing availability of natural gas led to consideration of its use in combination with coal in fuel systems involving combined cycle or topping cycle operations. Dual fuel coal natural gas operations also offered the possibility of improved performance in comparison to 100% coal based fuel systems. Economic considerations have more recently looked at emulsification of heavy residual liquid fuels for consumption in power generation boiler and Orimulsion has emerged as a prime example of this alternative fuel technology. The paper will discuss some aspects of the burner technology related to the application of these various coal based fuels, fuel systems and alternative fuels in the power generation industry.

Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

1998-07-01

120

Fuel and fuel elements for HTGR reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of the state of works on fuel and uranium-graphite fuel elements for the VG-400 and VGR-50 high temperature gas cooled reactors designed in the USSR is given. Results of investigation into the basic characteristics of materials and components of spherical fuel elements namely, uranium dioxide fuel microspheres, protective coatings of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide, fuel microparticles and matrix graphite, are presented. The obtained level of technical characteristics testifies to the serviceability of fuel microparticles and spherical fuel elements in the VGR-50 and VG-400 reactors

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Methanol: An alternate fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the production, performance and uses of methanol fuels. Topics considered at the conference included markets, economic factors, methanol as an alternative motor vehicle fuel, coal-water fuels, methanol production from high-sulfur coal, methanol plants, transport and handling, gasohol, the stabilization of methanol slurry fuels using coal oils, fuel economy, the effects of methanol atomization on combustion in diesel engines, fuel system compatibility tests, and catalysts for methanol-fueled vehicles.

Shade, W.N.

1986-01-01

122

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

123

Powder production of U-Mo alloy, HMD process (Hydriding- Milling- Dehydriding)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys can be hydrided massively in metastable {gamma} (gamma) phase. The brittle hydride can be milled and dehydrided to acquire the desired size distributions needed for dispersion nuclear fuels. The developments of the different steps of this process called hydriding-milling- dehydriding (HMD Process) are described. Powder production scales for industrial fabrication is easily achieved with conventional equipment, small man-power and low investment. (author)

Pasqualini, E. E.; Garcia, J.H.; Lopez, M.; Cabanillas, E.; Adelfang, P. [Dept. Combustibles Nucleares. Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2002-07-01

124

Fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrolyte matrix structures are disclosed for molten carbonate fuel cells which: have a fine, uniform, and controlled porosity; are stable under operating conditions; and readily meet acceptable performance levels. These structures or matrices are easily manufactured by a simple and scalable technique from a slip containing particulate LiAlO{sub 2} dispersed in an organic vehicle and an acrylic-based binder. The solvent is evaporated, leaving a flat, flexible, green structure. The green-structure is heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to thermally decompose and thereby remove the binder. This leaves a porous structure which is impregnated with molten carbonate by capillary action. 4 figs.

Ong, E.T.; Camara, E.H.

1995-03-21

125

Fuel feed system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel feed system for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine is described the engine including a first fuel pump including an inlet adapted to be connected to a fuel tank, and an outlet, a fuel vapor separator including an inlet communicating with the first fuel pump outlet, and an outlet. A second fuel pump communicates with the fuel vapor separator outlet, and a priming system communicates between the first fuel pump outlet and the second fuel pump inlet, the priming system including a conduit extending between the first fuel pump outlet and the second fuel pump inlet, and a valve which is located in the conduit and selectively operable to allow fuel passage through the conduit.

Baltz, G.F.

1989-03-07

126

Recent fuel repair experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For more than ten years, C-E has been involved with a variety of fuel related field services that include: failed fuel rod detection; failed fuel assembly reconstitution; fuel assembly repair; fuel assembly and rod inspections; fuel consolidation; and control element examination and measurement. C-E has conducted over thirty-five poolside inspections involving the examination of 800 fuel assemblies and more than four thousand individual fuel or poison rods. This paper describes some of the specialized techniques C-E has designed, tested, and used to permit disassembly, inspection and reassembly of irradiated fuel

1985-01-01

127

Fuel axial relocation in ballooning fuel rods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel movement, in the longitudinal direction in ballooning fuel rods, shifts the position of heat generation and may cause an increase in cladding temperature in the ballooning region. This paper summarizes the axial fuel relocation data obtained in fuel rod tests conducted in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, describes a model for calculating fuel axial relocation, and gives a quantitative analysis of the impact of fuel relocation on cladding temperature. The amount of fuel relocation in 18 ballooned fuel rods was determined from neutron radiographs, niobium gamma decay counts, and photomicrographs. The fuel rods had burnups in the range of 0 to 35,000 MWd/t and cladding hoop strains varying from 0 to 72%

1983-08-22

128

Fuel can for nuclear fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To obtain a fuel can for nuclear fuel elements excellent in corrosion resistance. Constitution: To the outer surface of a metal fuel can made of zirconium or zirconium alloy and charged to the inside thereof with nuclear fuel material, is appended a metal plate made of aluminum or aluminum alloy which is less noble than the metal fuel can in the electrochemical point of view. Since the fuel can is appended with different metal which is electrochemically less noble, a local cell is formed to the fuel can to suppress the anodic reaction, control the corrosive reaction in the metal fuel can and suppress the abnormal oxidation to prevent the stripping of the oxide membranes, whereby the soundness of the fuels can be secured. (Moriyama, K.)

1982-08-02

129

Fuel Burn Estimation Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Conclusions: Validated the fuel estimation procedure using flight test data. A good fuel model can be created if weight and fuel data are available. Error in assumed takeoff weight results in similar amount of error in the fuel estimate. Fuel estimation error bounds can be determined.

Chatterji, Gano

2011-01-01

130

Methanol fuel mixture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel composition. It comprises: a major portion of fuel comprising 85 to 95% by volume of methanol; demineralized water, from 3 to 15% of the fuel; a fluorosurfactant for increasing the lubricity of the fuel, comprising approximately 0.01 to 0.05 weight percent of the fuel.

Thrasher, D.A.; Greiner, L.; Cooper, G.

1990-06-12

131

Aviation fuels outlook  

Science.gov (United States)

Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

Momenthy, A. M.

1980-01-01

132

Fuel Cell Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from Project Lead the Way Ohio looks at fuel cells. The origins of the technology, how fuel cells work and modern applications of fuel cell technologies are discussed. Information on different types of fuel cells and their potential use in fueling automobiles is also included. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

2012-08-30

133

Nuclear fuel and fuel element production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state of the nuclear fuel and fuel element industry abroad and trends in future development are reviewed. Predictions are that by 1980 we may expect a significant increase in industrial power plants operating with uranium dioxide. A predominant part (>99%) of the fuel and fuel element industry is located in developed capitalistic countries: USA, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, Japan, and Canada. More than half the world's production and use of nuclear fuel for LWRs (light water reactors) is in the USA. Some 70 plants in operation for producing fuel and fuel elements can process 9 to 10 thousand tons of uranium fuel (calculated on the basis of uranium) per year and about 30 to 40 tons of plutonium fuel (calculated on the basis of plutonium) per year. In 1990 the consumption of nuclear fuel will probably be 5 to 6 times that in 1973, and will be about 30 to 40 thousand tons (U+Pu) per year. Oxide fuel for LWRs will continue to predominate. In the development of a nuclear fuel production industry there is a very definite trend to concentration of the industry and formation of large industrial complexes and engineering cycles which include all operations from production of initial fuel to manufacture of fuel elements and assemblies. (N.E.)

1975-10-01

134

Cryogenic fuel tank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel tank is provided for the automotive transport of a cryogenic liquid fuel which in the course of transport is being consumed by an engine or the like. The fuel tank consists essentially of two containers, one for the cryogenic fuel and the other for a secondary cryogenic liquid which is used to cool the fuel during storage when no fuel is being consumed. By the method of the invention the build up of fuel vapor pressure during storage is avoided and the vapor pressure maintained at a predetermined level. The fuel tank described herein was two distinct modes of operation, namely, the fuel storage mode and the fuel supply mode. In the fuel storage mode the cryogenic fuel is being stored for later use while the secondary fluid is being used as a heat sink for the heat absorbed by the tank from the environment. In the fuel supply mode fuel is being supplied by the tank for consumption both as a liquid and as a gas while the secondary fluid is being restored to its initial state of lower temperature by the use of a refrigerator which employs the fuel as a heat sink. The two containers are thermally insulated from the outside environment as well as from each other. The fuel container and the secondary fluid container are connected by a heat transfer bridge which permits heat flow from the fuel to the secondary fluid only during the storage mode of operation. The fuel container has two fuel discharge connections, one carrying the liquid fuel the other carrying gaseous fuel which is vaporized within the fuel container. The pressure in the fuel container is maintained at an adequate level for the fuel supply to proceed without the need for a fuel pump

1981-01-01

135

Fuel pellet loading apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

1980-01-01

136

Fuel Cell Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this publication is to update the technical status of fuel-cell technologies for stationary power generation, with the major emphasis being to update the technical advances in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (...

K. Kinoshita F. R. McLarnon E. J. Cairns

1988-01-01

137

Nuclear fuel replacement device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

1983-02-04

138

Hydrogen and fuel taxation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The competitiveness of hydrogen depends on how it is integrated in the energy tax system in Europe. This paper addresses the competitiveness of hydrogen and fuel cell technology when the taxation of fuels is taken into consideration. The study shows that even if hydrogen is taxed with exactly the same rate as conventional fuels, fuel taxes will amplify the competitiveness of hydrogen and fuel cell technology due to its superior energy efficiency. The higher the fuel taxes the m...

Hansen, Anders Chr

2007-01-01

139

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description is given of a fuel-element comprising an envelope between the fuel and its cladding. It comprises a can enclosing a nuclear-fuel body so that a gap is left between said nuclear-fuel body and the can, a metal envelope placed between the fuel and the can, said envelope being provided with a coating containing at least one additive on the surface thereof adjacent to the fuel-body

1974-06-24

140

Maps showing distribution of pH, copper, zinc, fluoride, uranium, molybdenum, arsenic, and sulfate in water, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

These maps show the regional distribution of copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, uranium, fluoride, sulfate, and pH in surface and ground water from the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle. This study supplements (Miller and others, 1984a-j) the regional drainage geochemical study done for the Richfield quadrangle under the U.S. Geological Survey’s Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Regional sampling was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be used, along with geologic and geophysical data, to assess the mineral resource potential of the Richfield quadrangle. Analytical data used in compiling this report were published previously (McHugh and others, 1981). The Richfield quadrangle in west-central Utah covers the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt that extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 250 km into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province, and the eastern third in the High Plateaus of Utah subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time.

McHugh, J. B.; Miller, W. R.; Ficklin, W. H.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Toxicity of uranium, molybdenum, nickel, and arsenic to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in water-only and spiked-sediment toxicity tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory spiked-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus were undertaken to determine acute and chronic toxicity thresholds for uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) based on both whole-sediment (total) and pore water exposure concentrations. Water-only toxicity data were also generated from separate experiments to determine the toxicities of these metals/metalloids under our test conditions and to help evaluate the hypothesis that pore water metal concentrations are better correlated with sediment toxicity to benthic organisms than whole-sediment metal concentrations. The relative toxicity of the four elements tested differed depending on which test species was used and whether whole-sediment or pore water metal concentrations were correlated with effects. Based on measured whole-sediment concentrations, Ni and As were the two most acutely toxic elements to H. azteca with 10-d LC50s of 521 and 532 mg/kg d.w., respectively. Measured pore water concentrations indicated that U and Ni were the two most acutely toxic elements, with 10-d LC50s to H. azteca of 2.15 and 2.05 mg/L, respectively. Based on pore water metal concentrations, the no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) for growth were (H. azteca and C. dilutus, respectively) 0.67 and 0.21 mg/L for U, 260-fold higher, respectively, than the CNSC LELs for these metals/metalloids. Data on pore water metal concentrations in toxic sediment would be a useful addition to future Guidelines documents. PMID:21529943

Liber, Karsten; Doig, Lorne E; White-Sobey, Suzanne L

2011-07-01

142

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

143

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a phosphoric acid type fuel cell, in order to remove phosphoric acid in the gas exhausted from the cell, a scrubber filled with a metallic wool is used. After a long use, however, during the reaction of the metallic wool and the phosphoric acid, the volume of the metallic wool will increase because of the phosphoric acid generated finally clogging the gas inlet port. In this invention, a metallic wool having higher reaction rate with phosphoric acid at the gas exit than at the gas inlet is filled in the gas scrubber. This will give a uniform reaction will phosphric acid over the entire area, thus removing the phosphoric acid without causing the pressure loss due to the local clogging. (4 figs)

Iyasu, Kotaro; Nara, Hideyuki; Takeu, Toshihiko

1988-08-16

144

Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

Lai, Ming-Chia D.

2003-01-01

145

Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

2001-01-01

146

Nuclear fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To flatten neutron flux and decrease the maximum linear power density in fuel rods by providing gas plenums in the upper part of some fuel rods and in the lower part of other fuel rods. Constitution: A fuel assembly used for BWR type reactors consists of a plurality of fuel rods having pellets filled in cladding tubes. Gas plenums are provided to the upper ends of some fuel rods and to the lower ends of other fuel rods. Since this can increase the power near the both ends of the fuel assembly, the power in the central portion can be suppressed and thereby flattening the neutron flux in the axial direction of the reactor core. This can reduce the maximum linear power density of the fuel rods contained in the fuel assembly, as well as decrease the probability in the fuel rod failures. (Moriyama, K.)

1979-01-01

147

Nonpetroleum vehicular fuels IV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses current techniques for producing and using alcohol fuels, liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), as well as recent advances in fuel preparation, storage and transportation. Current and proposed RandD projects, the results of field investigations, and newly developed equipment are reviewed. Topics considered include marketing initiatives for CNG, gaseous-alternative fuels field trials in the Canadian environment, alternative vehicle fuel potential in the US, marketing propane carburetion, a new fuel system for LPG engines, natural gas as a locomotive fuel, LNG liquefiers and dual fuel diesel conversion, toward the commercialization of natural gas vehicles, high speed collision and severe abuse testing of composite reinforced aluminium CNG vehicle fuel cylinders, the City of Baltimore's methanol fuel program, ethanol production from food processing wastes, low pressure storage systems for natural gas fueled vehicles, and the status of US RandD in the use of alternative transportation fuels.

Joyce, T.J.

1984-01-01

148

European Fuel Group`s fuel performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three companies comprising the European Fuel Group (EFG) are Empresa Nacional del Uranio S.A. of Spain, British Nuclear Fuels plc of the United Kingdom and Westinghouse Electric Corporation of the USA. EFG provides nuclear fuel and services, developed by the individual companies and jointly, to European utilities. A summary is given of the performance of EFG fuel and the background experience of the individual companies. Specific fuel issues discussed are: reliability; debris-induced fretting; grid-to-rod fretting; corrosion; incomplete insertions of Rod Control Cluster Assemblies. (12 figures, 6 references). (UK).

DeMatias, E. [Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A. (ENUSA), Madrid (Spain); Grimoldby, R. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Springfields (United Kingdom); Knott, R.; Sabol, G.; Wilson, H. [Westinghouse Electric Corp. (United States)

1997-12-31

149

Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have led to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

1993-10-01

150

Instrumentation of fuel elements and fuel plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When controlling the behaviour of a reactor or developing a new fuel concept, it is of utmost interest to have the possibility to confirm the thermohydraulic calculations by actual measurements in the fuel elements or in the fuel plates. For years, CERCA has developed the technology and supplied its customers with fuel elements equipped with pressure or temperature measuring devices according to the requirements. Recent customer projects have lead to the development of a new method to introduce thermocouples directly into the fuel plate meat instead of the cladding. The purpose of this paper is to review the various instrumentation possibilities available at CERCA. (author)

1993-10-01

151

Fuel Integrity Evaluation for Ultrasonic Fuel Cleaning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KNFC is developing of ultrasonic device to remove CRUD deposits from the outer surface of PWR fuel rods. The CRUD removal device utilizes ultrasonic transducers to produce high frequency pressure pulses in the water surrounding the fuel assembly. As a consequence of the ultrasonic cleaning process, low frequency vibrations are induced in the cladding. This has prompted the fuel rod integrity issues such as pellet cracking and pulverization, cladding fatigue failure and PCI. This paper summarizes the analysis performed to evaluate the fuel rod integrity related to ultrasonic CRUD cleaning of irradiated PWR fuel assemblies. The analysis utilized experimental data and observations from the full size sectional mockup tests to perform fuel integrity evaluation through the finite element modeling of the fuel pellet and cladding response during cleaning

2006-05-25

152

HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 7400C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 10000C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th-233U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized

1976-01-01

153

Automotive fuels handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is aimed at automotive engineers, fuel technologists, commercial and academic researchers, fuel additive manufacturers, and government personnel in energy-related positions. Covering fuels and procedures used on a worldwide basis, this reference is a single-source guide to the spectrum of automotive fuels topics.

Owen, K.; Coley, T.

1990-01-01

154

Spent fuel management strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel cycle is divided into two sections; front end and back end of the fuel cycle. Front end of the fuel cycle, which covers all the activities of the fuel cycle before the fuel goes into the reactor has better developed and well-defined technologies. For storage of the spent fuel which are subjects of the back end of the fuel cycle, the waste management policies are not so well defined. There are three approaches that exist today for management of spent fuel. 1. For once through or open fuel cycles direct disposal of spent fuel in a deep geological repository, 2. For closed fuel cycles reprocessing of spent fuel and recycling of the recovered plutonium and uranium in new mixed oxide (MOX) fuels, 3. The spent fuel is placed in long term interim storage pending a decision as to its ultimate reprocessing or disposal. There are so large scale geological repositories for the final disposal of spent fuel in operation. Studies on suitable site selection, design, construction and licensing take about 30-40 years. Reprocessing, on the other hand, produces plutonium and is therefore under close inspection because of the Non Proliferation Treaty. Today more countries are delaying their final decision about the spent fuel management approach and using the long term interim storage approach

1997-09-03

155

Fuel Cells Fact Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides a basic introduction to fuel cells: how they work, the different types of fuel cells (PEM, AFC, PAFC, DMFC, MCFC and SOFC) and the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Two useful graphic representations of fuel cells are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-09-18

156

Microfluidic fuel cell systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A microfluidic fuel cell is a microfabricated device that produces electrical power through electrochemical reactions involving a fuel and an oxidant. Microfluidic fuel cell systems exploit co-laminar flow on the microscale to separate the fuel and oxidant species, in contrast to conventional fuel cells employing an ion exchange membrane for this function. Since 2002 when the first microfluidic fuel cell was invented, many different fuels, oxidants, and architectures have been investigated conceptually and experimentally. In this mini-review article, recent advancements in the field of microfluidic fuel cell systems are documented, with particular emphasis on design, operation, and performance. The present microfluidic fuel cell systems are categorized by the fluidic phases of the fuel and oxidant streams, featuring gaseous/gaseous, liquid/gaseous, and liquid/liquid systems. The typical cell configurations and recent contributions in each category are analyzed. Key research challenges and opportunities are highlighted and recommendations for further work are provided.

Ho, Bernard; Kjeang, Erik

2011-06-01

157

Fuel cells seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

NONE

1996-12-01

158

Finnish Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current nuclear fuel cycle used in Finland is open once-through fuel cycle in which spent fuel is disposed directly without any reprocessing. However, future nuclear energy systems, which are now under development, are planned to utilize mainly partly or fully closed fuel cycles where spent nuclear fuel is reprocessed and reusable compounds are recycled back to fuel fabrication process. The objective of this report is to evaluate development of Finland's nuclear capacity and nuclear fuel cycle in coming years, and also evaluate impact of spent fuel reprocessing, recycling and introducing of fast reactors on uranium consumption, amount of spent nuclear fuel and economy of nuclear energy. In addition uranium production in Talvivaara and Sokli mines was evaluated. Finland's nuclear capacity for coming years was first evaluated based on current situation and some assumptions. Then, based on preceding capacity, two advanced nuclear fuel cycle scenarios were compared to today's once-through fuel cycle. Mass flows between different fuel cycle processes were calculated with IAEA's Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System. According to the results, uranium need for recent open nuclear fuel cycle was about 100 thousand tons by 2100. With reprocessing and plutonium recycling uranium need was dropped in 75 thousand tons by 2100. Replacing half of the nuclear capacity with fast reactors in 2074 and 2080, uranium need reduced further in 66 thousand tons by 2100. Accumulated amount of spent nuclear fuel was with open nuclear fuel cycle about 11900 tons by 2100 and with fast reactors about 11200 tons by 2100. Uranium production from Talvivaara and Sokli were evaluated to be sufficient to cover Finland's uranium need up to year 2070 with open nuclear cycle and with advanced fuel cycles up to 2089 and 2106. Fuel cycle costs increased with reprocessing and fuel recycling about 50-67 % compared to open fuel cycle. However, investment and operation and maintenance costs were very similar between different scenarios, so difference between total costs stayed relatively low. (orig.)

2011-01-01

159

Diesel fuel injection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers in this volume present a range of experimental and theoretical studies of diesel engine fuel injection systems. The topics covered include: fuelling control of turbocharged diesel engines under transient operating conditions; the ideal rate of injection for wire supported diesel engines; premium diesel fuels and residual fuels; advanced fuel injection concepts; computerized simulation; devices for improving combustion characteristics, reducing emissions and noise whilst retaining good fuel consumption; pilot injection; pre-injection; injector design; electronic control. (UK).

1989-01-01

160

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description is given of a fuel element devoid of local stresses due to friction between the nuclear fuel and the clad. It comprises a layer of a material with a high lubricating power interposed between an alongated clad and a metal jacket with a small neutron capture cross-section, nuclear fuel partly filling said clad, a fuel-retaining device and caps fixed to both ends of said clad, respectively. This can be applied to fuel elements containing uranium or plutonium compounds

1974-02-11

 
 
 
 
161

Fuel research in Halden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute for Energy Technology is an international research institute for energy and nuclear technology in Norway. This institute operates the Halden research reactor which is used for fuel research and development in all nuclear fields. This report is a short review of executed experiments of advanced fuels like inert matrix fuel, thorium fuel and Mixed OXides (MOX) fuel which have been conducted in the last three years (Authors)

2006-10-01

162

Fuel pattern recognition device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

1994-01-28

163

Fuel control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel control system is described for a turbine engine for delivering fuel from a fuel source and to a combustion chamber, the turbine engine having a compressor with an intake and an outlet and a throttle, comprising: means for pumping fuel from the fuel source and to a fuel pump outlet, a fuel control assembly having a housing, an inlet and an outlet, means for fluidly connecting the fuel pump outlet to the fuel control assembly inlet, means for fluidly connecting the fuel control assembly outlet to the combustion chamber, wherein the fuel control assembly comprises, means for determining the difference between the compressor intake and discharge pressures and for generating a signal representative thereof, means for determining the position of the throttle and for generating a signal representative thereof, and a variable orifice means fluidly connected in series between the fuel control assembly inlet and outlet and independently responsive to both the pressure difference signal and the throttle position signal for controlling the fuel flow rate from the pump means and to combustion chamber wherein the variable orifice means comprises a first orifice member having an orifice, one side of the first orifice member being open to the fuel control assembly inlet, and a second orifice member having an orifice, one side of the second orifice member being open to the fuel control assembly outlet.

Gardiner, P.; Chevis, R.W.; Penny, R.N.

1987-03-17

164

Halogen fueled organic electrolyte fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell is described comprising a halogen-fueled porous cathode, an active metal anode, and an organic electrolyte having dissolved therein sulfur dioxide, to improve the solubility of the halogen fuel, to prevent passivation of the electrodes by the products of the reaction of the halogen with the active metal anode, and to protect the active metal anode from reacting directly with the halogen dissolved in the electrolyte. 2 tables.

Dey, A.N.; Schlaikjer, C.R.

1977-07-19

165

Combination of fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NO /sub x/ emissions are reduced in the combustion of fuels by carrying out the combustion in at least four serially connected combustion zones, including at least three fuel-rich zones followed by a fuel-lean zone. In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, SO /sub x/ emissions are reduced in the burning of a normally solid fuel, containing significant amounts of SO /sub x/ precursors, by adding a sulfur scavenger to the fuel and thereafter burning the fuel in at least four serially connected combustion zones, including at least three fuel-rich zones followed by a last fuel-lean zone, and carrying out the combustion of the fuel in at least four combustion zones.

Beardmore, D.H.

1985-03-12

166

Dual Tank Fuel System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)

1999-11-16

167

BWR fuel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The General Electric experience base on BWR fuel includes over 29,000 fuel assemblies which contain 1,600,000 fuel rods. Over the last five years, design, process and operating changes have been introduced which have had major effects in improving fuel performance. Monitoring this fuel performance in BWRs has been accomplished through cooperative programs between GE and utilities. Activities such as plant fission product monitoring, fuel sipping and fuel and channel surveillance programs have jointly contributed to the value of this extensive experience base. The systematic evaluation of this data has established well-defined fuel performance trends which provide the assurance and confidence in fuel reliability that only actual operating experience can provide

1979-05-02

168

Fuel Cells: Green Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This online report, written in 2006, provides a comprehensive overview of fuel cell technology. In layman's terms, it gives a brief history, compares various types of fuel cells, and discusses environmental implications of using hydrogen as a fuel. For teachers and learners of physics, this publication explains the process by which fuel cells convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy, resulting in greater fuel efficiency and reduction of emissions. One chapter is devoted to an in-depth exploration of the PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell, which is being widely studied for use in automobiles.

Thomas, Sharon; Zalbowitz, Marcia; Gill, Dennis

2007-11-29

169

National Fuel Cell Seminar. Program and Abstracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (ERA citation 03:033267)

1977-01-01

170

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

2011-01-01

171

Romanian nuclear fuel program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle of January 1997 with fuel produced by the Romanian fuel plant. The quality evaluation of the 'pre-1990' fuel started in April 1996 and was performed by the Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) Pitesti, under the supervision of the Nuclear Power Group (GEN) - a distinct department of RENEL. The paper presents the involvement of Romania in the activities related to the Advanced CANDU Fuel Cycle. The future prospect and trend of the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program are also presented in this paper. (author)

1999-11-01

172

Spent fuel transportation in the fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the fuel cycle, it is the spent fuel transportation which offers the most original character against conventional transportation as requiring very special packaging which has to fulfill special safety conditions on public thoroughfares or working centers. Facing safety and economy criteria three parameters intervene in designing such packagings: the mass of the package, its internal and external lay out

1978-01-01

173

Fuel channel development for advanced BWR fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ach fuel channel face is expected to reduce bowing. The following section describes the design methodology including stress analysis, creep calculation, and a statistical evaluation of control rod to fuel channel interaction. A brief overview of the manufacturing process is also presented. (author)

1994-04-05

174

Fuel cell generates electricity using fuel oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOFCo company recently announced that it has engineered and successfully demonstrated a solid oxide fuel cell system that generates electricity using logistics fuel oil. The system has many benefits including lower emissions, compact size, high energy efficiency, quiet operation, and potential for low-cost, high-volume manufacturing.

Hansen, T.

1996-12-01

175

Future automotive fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

1993-05-18

176

Heavy Fuel Oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

This dossier on heavy fuel oils collates the currently available data on all grades of heavy fuel oils and covers the health, safety and environmental properties of these products as sold for the industrial and marine markets.

1998-01-01

177

Distillate fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distillate fuel additives containing an activator for increasing the efficiency with which the fuel can be burned, a pour point depressant, a dispersant, and a base stock or carrier for the foregoing constituents.

Lurix, P.

1982-03-16

178

???????????? ?????? Alcohol fuels C??????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ???????, ???????? (??????????, ?????????,?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????. The existing motor fuel alternative, namely alcohol - biomethanol, bioethanol and biobutanol, the possibility of using them in different concentrations of gasoline were consider. From the most perspective of considered alternative fuels for were shows. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ? ?????????, ????????? (??????????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????.

?.?. ???????

2010-02-01

179

Reactor fueling method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MOX fuels are mainly loaded, as fresh fuels, to a region surrounded by a control rod insertion cells of a long-time single control rod pattern. Thermal neutrons are absorbed by plutonium in the MOX fuels and neutron absorption of gadolinium as burnable poisons is reduced to delay the burn out time and lower the maximum value of an infinite multiplication factor. As a result, radial power peaking of the MOX fuels is made lower than that of uranium fuels. Further, when long-time single control rod pattern operation is conducted, a region of severe fuel thermal margin is relatively limited. If the MOX fuels are loaded to the region, the maximum radial power peaking can be decreased to lower than a case of using uranium fuels, to ensure thermal margin. (N.H.).

Yoshioka, Toshiro; Fujita, Satoshi (Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-09-03

180

Fuel supply system. Kraftstoffversorgungsanlage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel supply system is proposed, which is used for the fuel supply of a compressing externally ignited internal combustion engine. The fuel supply system includes an electric motor situated in the suction pipe of the internal combustion engine, where the spray head is solidly connected to the motor rotor. The spray head has a fuel space extending in the radial direction. Fuel is supplied to the fuel space via a fuel pipe. Spray nozzles are fitted in the spray head away from the electric motor at radial spacing from the axis of rotation of the spray head. The quantity of fuel sprayed by the spray nozzles is determined by the speed of the electric motor, which can be controlled depending on the working parameters of the internal combustion engine.

Soucek, R.; Szuets, F.

1986-03-13

 
 
 
 
181

Reformulated diesel fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28

182

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce the fuel can casting one of the fuel rods has two supports, displaced relative to each other in the axial direction on the outside, between which a spacer is positioned. A lock is connected to be form-locking with the lower end of the fuel rod having the supports, which is situated transversely through the axial falling path of other fuel rods and limits axial movement in the direction of falling. (orig./HP)

1982-06-04

183

Transportation fuels from wood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

1980-01-01

184

Control of Fuel Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficient, scalable and silent devices that can provide power to a wide variety of utilities, from portable electronics to vehicles, to nation-wide electric grids. Whereas studies about the design of fuel ...

Zenith, Federico

2007-01-01

185

Fuel injection systems. Einspritzeinrichtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed fuel injection system is intended for all types of liquid fuels used in auto-ignition internal combustion engines. The system design ensures that injection is free from disturbing vibrations even at maximum speeds. The injection system consists of injection control pump, two-chamber injection valve, continuous maximum-pressure fuel pump, pressure control valve, high-pressure fuel supply pump and prepressurizing pump.

Anon.

1991-02-21

186

Apparatus for burning fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A firing box device with fluidized bed contains a primary firing box with a supply connected to a fuel drier, which is equipped with a drying agent dust trap. This dust trap is connected to the additional fuel hopper of the precombustion chamber for return of flue dust. A higher temperature level in the precombustion chamber allows one to burn fine fractions of fuel. Therefore, the efficiency of the device is improved by reducing losses through the use of flue gas fuel.

Leykin, V.Z.; Dronov, Yu.D.; Luzin, P.M.

1980-11-07

187

Fuels for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research reactors are indispensable in several scientific studies. They make use of fuels based on highly enriched uranium and aluminium. The CERCA Company, owned by Framatome (51%) and Cogema (49%), holds a predominant place on the fuel market. The paper presents technical generalities, the industrial configuration in the production of highly enriched fuels for research reactors and a table containing the principal clients, the reactor types and the enrichment level of the fuels supplied by CERCA Company

1994-03-01

188

Changing fuel specifications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will describe the goals, methods, and results of a program designed to expand fuel specifications. The ability to expand fuel specs can provide many advantages to a power company. These would include increased fuel flexibility, better performance and lower fuel cost. The expansion of transportation modes also may enhance the scenario. Although brief, this paper should provide a good understanding of the types of problems that can be encountered, and the cooperative effort necessary to resolve them.

Hatt, R.

1995-08-01

189

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

Science.gov (United States)

This sheet provides information about direct methanol fuel cells. Details on the chemistry involved are included in graphic form along with several notes on these fuel cells. This material would be most appropriate for upper level students who already have a basic understanding of fuel cell technology and chemistry. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-08-08

190

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell  

Science.gov (United States)

This page is an introduction to the Molten Carbonate fuel cell. It uses flash animation to explain in greater detail what the Molten Carbonate fuel cell consists of and how it works. The website has an introductory animation which is followed by more in depth description of the molten carbonate fuel cell works.

2010-09-08

191

Fire Resistant Fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

During an Army research program in the mid-1980s, fire resistant diesel fuel that self extinguished when ignited by an explosive projectile was developed. Chemically, this fire resistant fuel (FRF) was a stable mixture of diesel fuel, 10 percent water, an...

J. Schmitigal S. D. Marty

2009-01-01

192

Fuel assembly identification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Requirements are presented for the unique identification of fuel assemblies utilized in nuclear power plants. Although developed primarily for commercial light-water reactor fuel, this standard may be used for any reactor containing discrete fuel assemblies. It is a revision of N18.3-1972

1979-01-01

193

Cracked fuel mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel pellets undergo thermally induced cracking during normal reactor operation. Some fuel performance codes have included models that address the effects of fuel cracking on fuel rod thermal and mechanical behavior. However, models that rely too heavily on continuum mechanics formulations (annular gaps and solid cylindrical pellets) characteristically do not adequately predict cladding axial elongations. Calculations of bamboo ridging generally require many assumptions concerning fuel geometry, and some of the methods used are too complex and expensive to employ on a routine basis. Some of these difficulties originate from a lack of definition of suitable parameters which describe the cracked fuel medium. The methodology is being improved by models that describe cracked fuel behavior utilizing parameters with stronger physical foundations instead of classical continuum formulations. This paper presents a modelling concept and a set of measurable parameters that have been shown to improve the prediction of the mechanical behavior of cracked fuel/cladding systems without added computational expense. The transition from classical annular gap/cylindrical pellet models to modified bulk properties and further to local behavior for cracked fuel systems is discussed. The results of laboratory experiments to verify these modelling parameters are shown. Data are also presented from laboratory experiments on unirradiated and irradiated rods which show that fuel rod mechanical response depends on fuel fragment size. The impact of these data on cracked fuel behavior and failure modelling is also discussed. (author)

1983-03-01

194

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

1975-01-01

195

DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, analysis results for the CANDU 6 reactor with DUPIC fuel have been described. Various problems are assessed against the standard natural uranium fuel core such as fuel fabrication, fuel rod and bundle design, in-core loading, in-core fuel management, spent fuel treatment and overall fuel cycle. Some of the results are related to the license and demonstration. From the up to date results, it is known that the DUPIC fuel fabrication is technically feasible and the anticipated in-core problems can be resolved by current technique. Also, the benefit is expected in power distribution and fuel burnup. However, because the CANDU 6 reactor is originally designed for natural uranium fuel, some demerits are found in some field such as radiation damage of the reactor structural material, operational margin decrease by composition heterogeneity, increase in fission product release of accident condition, deterioration of fuel pellet material property. These problems should be resolved technically including design improvement of DUPIC fuel and CANDU 6 reactor. Furthermore, experimental verifications should be performed for reactor physics and thermal hydraulics. This report describes the compatibility with the CANDU 6 reactor, and it should be noted that detail and wide work should be performed for more reliable results

2002-01-01

196

Dense fuels in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ways of development nitride fuels for fast reactors and fuel element radiation testings carried and by the Europeam Institute of Transuranium Elements in Karslrue are described. Ways for reducting radiation compaction of fuel at the initial stage of irradiation and approved programs within the scope of Europeam FBA project are discussed

1990-07-01

197

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rotating parts should be avoided on the holding rods of the fuel elements for the fitting and removal and mounting in fuel elements of fuel rods under water by remote control. This is achieved by the radial holding element being a radially spread spring. (HP)

1982-07-29

198

Nuclear fuel operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operations of the British Nuclear Fuels Limited are discussed against the background of the title of the Conference. The subject is treated under the following heads: economics of nuclear power; nuclear fuel cycle (uranium, uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing); environmental issues (fission product storage, plutonium). (U.K.)

1976-07-09

199

Metallic fuel development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metallic fuels are capable of achieving high burnup as a result of design modifications instituted in the late 1960's. The gap between the fuel slug and the cladding is fixed such that by the time the fuel swells to the cladding the fission gas bubbles interconnect and release the fission gas to an appropriately sized plenum volume. Interconnected porosity thus provides room for the fuel to deform from further swelling rather than stress the cladding. In addition, the interconnected porosity allows the fuel pin to be tolerant to transient events because as stresses are generated during a transient event the fuel flows rather than applying significant stress to the cladding. Until 1969 a number of metallic fuel alloys were under development in the US. At that time the metallic fuel development program in the US was discontinued in favor of ceramic fuels. However, development had proceeded to the point where it was clear that the zirconium addition to uranium-plutonium fuel would yield a ternary fuel with an adequately high solidus temperature and good compatibility with austenitic stainless steel cladding. Furthermore, several U-Pu-Zr fuel pins had achieved about 6 at.% bu by the late 1960's, without failure, and thus the prospect for high burnup was promising.

Walters, L.C.

1987-01-01

200

Hydrogen and fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Alternate fuels IV conference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of the Alternate Fuels IV Conference held February 8-9, 1994 in New Orleans, LA are presented. Sixteen papers were presented dealing with the topics renewable fuels, derived fuels, industrial by-products, petroleum coke, sludges, tires, municipal solid wastes, and emission control. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1994-12-31

202

Upgrading of LWR fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Now, nuclear power supplies 30 % of the electric power demand in Japan, and has become an important energy source for national life. It is expected to further increase in future. The improvement and standardization of LWRs have been promoted since late 1970s, and in the latter half of 1980s, the upgrading of nuclear power generation is called for. The upgrading of LWR fuel assemblies is to improve the rate of operation of nuclear reactors by increasing fuel burnup while considering the economical efficiency and the effective use of uranium resources, and to develop and put to practical use the high performance fuel which can withstand more flexible operation in future. The fuel assemblies are all produced in four Japanese factories now, and BWR fuel assemblies exceed 20,000, while PWR fuel assemblies are about 6,600. Their highest burnup is 37,000 and 38,000 MWd-t, respectively. It was verified that the reliability of the fuel assemblies manufactured by Japanese technology is very high. The rate of leaking fuel in recent fuel assemblies shows the result of 10-6 order. The burnup of improved fuel assemblies is expected to be increased to 50,000 - 60,000 MWd-t. The cost of nuclear fuel, the trend of high burnup in various countries and the technology of upgrading fuel are discussed. (Kako, I.)

1988-01-01

203

Nuclear fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel assembly includes and upper yoke, a base, an elongated, outer flow channel disposed substantially along the entire length of the fuel assembly and an elongated, internal, central water cross, formed by four, elongated metal angles, that divides the nuclear fuel assembly into four, separate, elongated fuel sections and that provides a centrally disposed path for the flow of subcooled neutron moderator along the length of the fuel assembly. A separate fuel bundle is located in each of the four fuel sections and includes an upper tie plate, a lower tie plate and a plurality of elongated fuel rods disposed therebetween. Preferably, each upper tie plate is formed from a plurality of interconnected thin metal bars and includes an elongated, axially extending pin that is received by the upper yoke of the fuel assembly for restraining lateral motion of the fuel bundle while permitting axial movement of the fuel bundle with respect to the outer flow channel. The outer flow channel is fixedly secured at its opposite longitudinal ends to the upper yoke and to the base to permit the fuel assembly to be lifted and handled in a vertical position without placing lifting loads or stresses on the fuel rods. The yoke, removably attached at the upper end of the fuel assembly to four structural ribs secured to the inner walls of the outer flow channel, includes, as integrally formed components, a lifting bail or handle, laterally extending bumpers, a mounting post for a spring assembly, four elongated apertures for receiving with a slip fit the axially extending pins mounted on the upper tie plates and slots for receiving the structural ribs secured to the outer flow channel. Locking pins securely attach the yoke to the structural ribs enabling the fuel assembly to be lifted as an entity

1985-01-01

204

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns fuel elemnts, where the guide tubes for the control rods are made of zirconium alloys (e.g. Zircaloy), while the spacing grid, the fuel element top and the fuel element bottom consist of steel. In order to connect these different materials together reliably, it is proposed to provide envelopes of material which is the same as that of the fuel element parts, which are metallurgically connected with parts made of the same material, while they are secured to other parts of the fuel elements by positive mechanical locking. The subclaims explain preferred constructional details by means of 13 drawings. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MB

1979-01-01

205

Transportation of nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

1979-01-01

206

Oconee spent fuel rerack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spent fuel storage problems facing electric utilities with nuclear generation are growing more critical as existing spent fuel storage capacity is utilized. Due to the inaccessibility of spent fuel reprocessing plants, alternative temporary solutions such as transfer of spent nuclear fuel to other storage facilities and increasing the capacity of existing storage facilities through reracking are becoming increasingly prevalent. This paper describes the method and installation of new racks for increasing the fuel storage capacity of unit 3 of Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station near Seneca, South Carolina

1985-05-03

207

Cornell Fuel Cell Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fuel Cell Institute at Cornell University takes "An Advanced Materials Approach to Fuel Cell Technologies." Materials experts at the Institute are examining ways to improve the efficiency of the main components of a low temperature (fuel cell and adapt reformer catalysts for low temperature operation. The website reviews some of the basics on fuel cells and identifies the remaining research challenges, including questions regarding the materials used in the main components of a fuel cell, such as the anode, the cathode, membrane assembly and, the reformer. These components and their research approach are described further, along with pictures and diagrams to illustrate the processes. Recent publications are available to download.

208

Nuclear fuel lease accounting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

1986-11-16

209

Transportation of spent fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JMTR (Japan Material Test Reactor) of JAERI, Oarai Establishment, transported spent fuels from JMTR reactor to Savannah River Site, US DOE, in June 1997, for the first time since the US Government adopted a new policy for accepting spent fuels from foreign research reactors (New Off-Site Fuel Policy, 1993). The present report describes the details of the transportation. It includes the characteristics of the fuel elements, the fuel casks used, the storage facilities, the necessary administrative procedures, an outline of the contract, and examinations to confirm the safety during transportation by sea and by land made from Japan side and also US DOE side (S. Ohno)

1998-03-01

210

Solid-fuel burner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A burner for solid fuel in pulverulent form has a central conduit for primary combustion air, a fuel conduit surrounding the central conduit for admission of the pulverulent fuel, and one (or two concentric) secondary-air outer conduits. The annular space between the fuel conduit and the single (or the innermost) outer conduit is subdivided into two annular channels by an intermediate conduit. An inlet arrangement is provided for feeding combustion air into one of these channels, and another arrangement permits the selective feeding of either only combustion air, or of a mixture of such air with pulverulent fuel, into the other of the annular channels.

Schroder, U.

1983-12-27

211

Fuel cells for buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of fuel cells are characterized and their suitability for buildings is assessed. At present, there are three fuel cells available for building use; a 200 kW commercial plant by ONSI, a 250 kW prototype power system by Ballard, and a 250 kW prototype CHP system by Siemens-Westinghouse. Cost of the fuel cells is still very high and because cost reduction projections are invariably on the optimistic side, fuel cells for residential buildings are feasible only in countries with high electricity prices, such as Japan, the USA and Europe. There are also a large number of unknowns concerning fuel cells. Among these, life expectancy and maintenance of the fuel cell stack, and the fuel processor, operating and maintenance costs and the length of the payback period, are the most significant.

Hammerli, M. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2001-07-01

212

Fuel injection apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas turbine engine fuel injection apparatus comprises a fuel spray atomiser which directs a fuel spray on to the radially inner surface of an annular flow deflector. The fuel flows in a film over the flow deflector surface towards an annular lip at the downstream end of the deflector. Swirling air flows are directed over the radially inner and outer surfaces of the flow deflector so as to atomise the fuel as it leaves the annular lip. The fuel is evaporated in the swirling airflows and thoroughly mixed with the airflows in a mixing duct before being discharged into a combustion chamber. The thorough mixing of the evaporated fuel and the airflows prior to combustion results in the production of reduced quantities of the oxide of nitrogen. (author)

Richardson, J.S.

1994-05-25

213

Fuel Cells 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

214

Reactor fuel charging equipment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented

1976-12-07

215

Fuel element services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning, fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

2006-01-01

216

Fuel injection. Benzineinspritzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition on the carburettor and fuel injection sector has become more fierce as a result of stringent exhaust regulations, high demands on engine performance, and a demand for low-consumption cars. The service manual describes the available mechanical and electronic fuel injection systems, including less well-known and widespread systems. A historical outline of fuel injection is followed by a discussion of its physical fundamentals. Injection methods (direct, with suction channel or with suction pipe) and mechanical fuel injection systems with or without external drives are described. Functional and structural features of electronic fuel injection systems are listed, including Japanese systems and the Bosch-Motronic system. Future trends in fuel injection systems are outlined. Apart from the theoretical explanations and practical hints, the book presents detailed guidelines for engine diagnosis and fuel injection system adjustment for car repair shops.

Kasedorf, J.

1983-01-01

217

AFIP-6 Irradiation Summary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-6 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a length prototypic to that of the ATR fuel plates (45 inches in length). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones of approximately 22.5 inches in length1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

2011-09-01

218

Automatical fuel inspection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The device of the present invention can inspect fuel rods accurately and in a short period of time. That is, the device of the present invention comprises a device main body for incorporating a fuel assembly at a predetermined position, a camera supported so that it can advance and retreat between the gaps of fuel rods and can slide in the axial direction of the fuel rod, and a device for controlling the sliding movement of the camera and the position of incorporating the fuel assembly. With such a constitution, a fuel assembly can be incorporated while determining its position to the device main body comprising the camera for photographing the fuel rods. Accordingly, the camera can easily move between the gaps in the fuel assembly incorporated at a predetermined position toward the inspection position. Further, with the device of the present invention, scattering for photographing positions can be eliminated and the fuel rods disposed inside of the fuel assembly can also be inspected in a short period of time. (I.S.)

1989-10-06

219

Fuel safety research 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

2000-01-01

220

Fuel safety research 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel rod according to the present invention can prevent displacement of pellets during fuel handling, prevent damages to a fuel can due to pellet-fuel can interaction (PCI) and, further maintain the position of the fuel pellet to a predetermined height. That is, in the fuel element, a pellet stack comprising a plurality of fuel pellets is inserted into a fuel can, plenum portions are disposed in the upper and the lower portions of the pellet stack, in which springs are inserted. Then, the spring force of the upper plenum spring and the pre-load for the lower plenum spring are set each to a predetermined range. Since the pellet elongates axially due to the torsion of the upper spring with no deformation of the lower spring until the pellets are brought into close contact with the fuel can due to PCI and no more movable, the pellet stack can be maintained at a predetermined height. On the other hand, when the pellets become no more movable, since the elongation of the pellets is absorbed by the deformation of the lower plenum spring, fracture of the fuel can can be prevented. (I.S.)

1989-03-06

222

Fuel cell technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel cell technology is receiving significant attention in recent years because of its potential application as a highly efficient electric power generation system with low environmental impact. There are four fuel cell categories that are currently in use or under development: polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (SPFC), phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC), molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The phosphoric acid is the only available technology that has been produced in approaching series production and has already accumulated a significant in-service experience. It is generally accepted that fuel cells are a viable alternative to the use of internal combustion engine and gas turbines for the electric power generation in the range of capacity from a few kW up to tens MW. At high power ranges (above 20 MW) fuel cells have to compete with well-established technologies, such as gas turbines, that have made great gains over the last decade, in term of efficiency, emission performance and capital cost. Presently the cost of fuel cell plants are still high, but the major technology development companies indicate that the prices will be driven down to the required level (1500 $/kW) by 2000, both through technology refinements and increase of production volume. Market analysis indicates that in Italy the fuel cells could find early applications in three primary areas: dispersed-type power by electric utilities, small-scale cogeneration in residential and industrial applications and electric transportation

1999-04-01

223

Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from the interviews was supplemented with examples from the literature

Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

2012-02-15

224

Zero-failure fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ABB's SVEA-96/100 fuel is the only fully proven 10 x 10 fuel in the industry which have attained final burnup in reload quantities. The expected improvements are now seen in detailed inspections, Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of high burnup 10 x 10 fuel, proving very low fission gas release, and PCI free operation. Liner fuel mitigates the risk for PCI failures during power ramp operation at higher burn-up. For protection against severe degradation it is necessary to have a liner that is not only mitigating PCI, but also has good corrosion properties. ABB has therefore developed the Zr-Sn liner, which is the only fully operational proven concept against PCI and long axial splits in the industry. Both steam tests of ABB's Zr-Sn liner and Hot Cell PIE of failed Zr-Sn liner fuel have confirmed a very low cladding rate. Through 1998, ABB has delivered 35 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been more than one cycle in core and 22 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been 5 cycles or more in core. The operational experience has been as expected, with no PCI failures and only minor degradation of occasional debris failures. To date, all the identified ABB 10 x 10 fuel failures have been due to debris fretting, except one single event of four failed six cycles fuel rods which were affected by ESSC (Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion) during 1996-97. ESSC is now effectively remedied, which leaves only debris fretting as primary failure cause on ABB 10 x 10 fuel. ABB has now a very good understanding of the cause of primary failures and the generic fuel degradation mechanisms. Based on this understanding, ABB has developed effective remedies both against debris fretting and fuel rod degradation. These remedies include fretting resistant cladding, mitigating of debris from the primary system and fuel assemblies, operation guide lines for operation with a primary leaker in core and other efficient remedies against degradation and fuel washout etc. Immediate and accurate fuel failure detection is also very important for the operation of a nuclear power plant, as well as correct evaluation of fuel failure type and severity. ABB has therefore developed an on-line nuclide specific off-gas monitoring system designed to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel by analyzing the activity levels of the reactor off-gas. (authors)

1999-09-13

225

Zero-failure fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABB's SVEA-96/100 fuel is the only fully proven 10 x 10 fuel in the industry which have attained final burnup in reload quantities. The expected improvements are now seen in detailed inspections, Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of high burnup 10 x 10 fuel, proving very low fission gas release, and PCI free operation. Liner fuel mitigates the risk for PCI failures during power ramp operation at higher burn-up. For protection against severe degradation it is necessary to have a liner that is not only mitigating PCI, but also has good corrosion properties. ABB has therefore developed the Zr-Sn liner, which is the only fully operational proven concept against PCI and long axial splits in the industry. Both steam tests of ABB's Zr-Sn liner and Hot Cell PIE of failed Zr-Sn liner fuel have confirmed a very low cladding rate. Through 1998, ABB has delivered 35 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been more than one cycle in core and 22 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been 5 cycles or more in core. The operational experience has been as expected, with no PCI failures and only minor degradation of occasional debris failures. To date, all the identified ABB 10 x 10 fuel failures have been due to debris fretting, except one single event of four failed six cycles fuel rods which were affected by ESSC (Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion) during 1996-97. ESSC is now effectively remedied, which leaves only debris fretting as primary failure cause on ABB 10 x 10 fuel. ABB has now a very good understanding of the cause of primary failures and the generic fuel degradation mechanisms. Based on this understanding, ABB has developed effective remedies both against debris fretting and fuel rod degradation. These remedies include fretting resistant cladding, mitigating of debris from the primary system and fuel assemblies, operation guide lines for operation with a primary leaker in core and other efficient remedies against degradation and fuel washout etc. Immediate and accurate fuel failure detection is also very important for the operation of a nuclear power plant, as well as correct evaluation of fuel failure type and severity. ABB has therefore developed an on-line nuclide specific off-gas monitoring system designed to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel by analyzing the activity levels of the reactor off-gas. (authors)

Sihver, L.; Hallstadius, L. [Nuclear Fuel Div. ABB Atom AB, Wasteras (Sweden)

1999-07-01

226

Fuel oil compatibility probed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) can be used to characterize heavy fuel oils into asphaltenic, paraffinic and light aromatic groups. The asphaltenic content by GPC and ASTM D3279 were found to agree within about 15%. The GPC results can give an indication of previous blending of a fuel oil. The heptane/fuel oil blends showed that if asphaltenes are present in a fuel oil, a fine precipitant can be formed and, at certain heptane/oil ratios, a tar-like deposit can be formed. The ASTM spot test for compatibility, designed for blending a light distillate oil with a heavy fuel oil, was found unreliable as a test for compatibility of two or more heavy fuel oils.

Holmes, J.W.; Bullin, J.A.

1983-09-01

227

Reactor fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a fuel assembly used in a BWR type reactor, the inside of the fuel spacer for keeping the distance between each of fuel rods is formed as a trancated conical shape which is converged at the inlet and as a trancated conical shape which is diverged at the exit. If a restricted channel is thus formed in the fuel spacer, the gas phase velocity is increased, to increase the mass velocity of deoptlets. Accordingly, since the deposition amount of droplets per unit length at a flowing portion just below the fuel spacer is decreased, the state of a great droplet concentration is kept for a predetermined distance. Therefore, the deposition amount of the droplents at the periphery of the fuel spacer in the downstream portion is increased, to increase the channel power causing liquid membrane dry out. This increases the thermal limit power. (I.N.)

1990-07-03

228

Alcohol fuels for aviation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

Schauffler, P.

1982-06-01

229

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To maintain soundness of a nuclear reactor during operation by preventing excessive local distortion in the cladding tube of the nuclear fuel element with fibrous material used for ceramic fuel pellets in the fuel element. Structure: Ceramic fuel pellets charged in the cladding tube in the nuclear fuel element are formed from a ceramic material and a fibrous material dispersed in the ceramic material and having a higher mechanical strength than that of the ceramic material. With this fuel pellet construction the mechanical strength can be increased by incorporating the fibrous material, so that the pellet will not break easily. In addition, even if rupture takes place, the phenomenon of rearrangement can be prevented by the tension of the fibrous material. Carbon and inorganic carbides are suitable as the fibrous material. (Moriyama, M.)

1976-01-01

230

Fuel cell generation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the load cut-down in the conventional fuel cell generation system, even after the supply of air and fuel gets zero, due to the oxygen molecules attached to the electrode, the potential of the air electrode is high causing the degradation of the cell. This is also problematic at the general shut down. In this invention, a resistor and a switch are connected in parallel with a fuel cell, separating a load to stop the fuel cell, and the supply of fuel or air is stopped; output voltage of the fuel cell is withheld below a specific value by varying the resistance by the control of the switch, in order to restrict the residual voltage, thus preventing such cell degradation as the catalyst corrosion and sintering. All of this allowed to stop the cell quickly without giving harm to the cell. (4 figs)

Yamada, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Masaaki

1988-07-26

231

Bio-fuels; Biocarburants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-fuels are fuels produced from non-fossil vegetal or animal matter (biomass). After a general presentation of bio-fuel characteristics, this paper describes successively: the production of bio-fuels from biomass (alcohols and their ethers (ethylic alcohol or ethanol, methanol, ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE), methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE), balance-sheet of fluxes for the production of ETBE and MTBE), vegetal oils and their esters (non-chemically transformed oils, esters of vegetal oils), biogas), the use of bio-fuels (use of alcohols and of their ethers, high concentration of oxygenated compounds, low concentration of oxygenated compounds (criteria for the use of ethanol and ETBE, energy statement, environmental statement), use of vegetal oils and of their derivatives in diesel engines (vegetal oils and esters of vegetal oils), use of biogas, global environmental impact and greenhouse effect), and the development of bio-fuels in Europe. (J.S.)

Poitrat, E. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France). Dir. de l`Agriculture et des Bioenergies

1999-01-01

232

Nuclear fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

233

Nuclear fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To minimize the gap between a wrapper tube and a fuel rod, as well as reduce the swelling stress exerted on the fuel rod. Constitution: The portion of the wrapper tube corresponding to the highest temperature portion in the fuel rod is made of a substance of greater swelling than other portions. For example, in the wrapper tube made of stainless steel through 20% cold working, the degree of cold working for the highest temperature portion is reduced to about 10%. Since greater swelling is resulted in the portion with lower cold working degree, if a fuel rod expands during reaction operation, the portion of the wrapper tube corresponding thereto swells remarkably, so that the gap between the wrapper tube and the fuel rod is not decreased. This allows to reduce the gap between the wrapper tube and the fuel rod enabling to decrease the vibration caused by the flow of the coolant. (Ikeda, J.)

1978-01-01

234

Failed fuel degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Failed fuel degradation is the term used to describe the post-defect deterioration of a fuel rod which can occur under continued operation in certain circumstances. Two mechanisms are generally postulated for failed fuel degradation in light water reactors. The first of these attributes degradation susceptibility (axial split formation) to the inherently low fracture toughness of the zircaloy cladding exacerbated by hydrogen embrittlement. The second mechanism attributes the degradation to the reduced relative corrosion resistance of the zirconium liner present in barrier fuel. This leads to a greater fuel rod internal inventory of embrittling hydrogen in conjunction with increased cladding stresses caused by closure of the pellet-cladding gap due to liner corrosion. Key observations relating to these mechanisms are reviewed and the development of mitigating actions to address them described. Commercial irradiation experience gained with subsequently improved fuel designs is discussed. (5 figures; 7 references) (UK).

Montes, J.A. [ENUSA, Madrid (Spain); Potts, G.A. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

235

Nuclear fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the invention the fuel assembly is particularly suitable for liquid metal cooled fast neutron breeder reactors. Hence, according to the invention a fuel assembly cladding includes inward corrugations with respect to the remainder of the cladding according to a recurring pattern determined by the pitch of the metal wire helically wound round the fuel rods of the assembly. The parts of the cladding pressed inwards correspond to the areas in which the wire encircling the peripheral fuel rods is generally located apart from the cladding, thereby reducing the play between the cladding and the peripheral fuel rods situated in these areas. The reduction in the play in turn improves the coolant flow in the internal secondary channels of the fuel assembly to the detriment of the flow in the peripheral secondary channels and thereby establishes a better coolant fluid temperature profile

1976-01-02

236

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30

237

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

1976-01-01

238

Fuel safety research 2001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2002-11-01

239

Fuel Cells and Biogas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis concerns biogas-operated fuel cells. Fuel cell technology may contribute to more efficient energy use, reduce emissions and also perhaps revolutionize current energy systems. The technology is, however, still immature and has not yet been implemented as dominant in any application or niche market. Research and development is currently being carried out to investigate whether fuel cells can live up to their full potential and to further advance the technology. The research of thesi...

Hedstro?m, Lars

2010-01-01

240

Fuel safety research 2001  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Engine fuel preheater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an engine fuel preheater utilizing a source of heated fluid, and a fuel pump for motivating the engine fuel. The heating fluid is passed into a casing through an inlet and is removed from the casing through an outlet. A tube is also placed in the casing and has a portion which is adjustable in and out of the casing to provide varying degrees of heat exchange capability.

Stolz, R.J.

1988-03-08

242

NOVA: Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This 14-minute video explores the technology of the hydrogen fuel cell designed for use in automobiles. It delves into the promise of the technology, hurdles (such as building filling stations), and challenges of finding green ways to produce hydrogen. You'll also find an animated tutorial on how fuel cells work, a clickable schematic view of a fuel cell installed in a car, and an a question/answer set featuring an expert in energy conversion devices.

2014-03-30

243

Renewable jet fuel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered ...

2014-01-01

244

Nuclear fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel rod is described which consists of a gas-tight cladding tube filled with nuclear fuel, on one end of which there is a zone filled with a gas-adsorbing material which takes up fission gases. The adsorption material is activated carbon which is contained in a capsule provided with a gas-permeable screen on the side facing the nuclear fuel. (RW)

1977-01-01

245

Fuel performance, design and development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The normal fuel configurations for operating 220 MWe and 540 MWe PHWRs are natural uranium dioxide 19-element and 37- element fuel bundle types respectively. The fuel configuration for BWRs is 6 x 6 fuel. So far, about 330 thousand PHWR fuel bundles and 3500 number of BWR bundles have been irradiated in the 14 PHWRs and 2 BWRs. Improvements in fuel design, fabrication, quality control and operating practices are continuously carried out towards improving fuel utilization as well as reducing fuel failure rate. Efforts have been put to improve the fuel bundle utilization by increasing the fuel discharge burnup of the natural uranium bundles The overall fuel failure rate currently is less than 0.1 % . Presently the core discharge burnups in different reactors are around 7500 MWD/TeU. The paper gives the fuel performance experience over the years in the different power reactors and actions taken to improve fuel performance over the years. (author)

2006-11-13

246

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a nuclear fuel element which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container forming an internal cavity at one end of the container and an internal gap between the fuel material and the cladding, 3) a refractory metal liner disposed in the internal gap between the body of nuclear fuel material and the clad container and partially filling the internal gap, 4) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and 5) a helical member positioned in the internal cavity. (author)

1976-04-15

247

Fuel channel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarizes the performance of fuel channels in CANDU reactors. The evolution of the overall fuel channel design and the modifications to individual components are described. The main fuel channel component, the pressure tube, is subject from service conditions, to changes in three principal factors, dimensions, properties and composition, each of which can affect performance or life of the tube. The changes that occur are reviewed briefly. The performance of the channels from the view point of operating problems and replacement experience show the relatively low man-rem expenditure associated with fuel channel replacement. The report concludes with an outline of channel design development

1988-06-12

248

Spent fuel management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle has always been based on the assumption that the spent fuel would stay for between one and three years in storage basins at the reactor before being reprocessed. Only a limited storage capacity is required in the fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycle, since early reprocessing - to recover the new fissile material ''bred'' in the reactor - is an integral component of the fuel cycle. On the other hand, it was originally intended that spent fuel from Candu heavy-water reactors (HWR) should be stored permanently and not reprocessed. Delays in implementing the LWR reprocessing step have occurred in some States as questions have arisen about technologies, economics of the nuclear industry, the choice of fuel cycle, and the political aspects of non-proliferation. As a result of the increased need for extended storage of LWR spent fuel and of a review of the eventual recycle of HWR spent fuel, methods for the interim storage of spent fuel and for its eventual recycling are being considered afresh

1981-01-01

249

Fuel cell arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12

250

Fuel design and fabrication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel elements are at the heart of a nuclear reactor, the heat resulting from nuclear fission is generated in the fuel material they contain and conducted into the coolant medium that flows past them. It is a prime requirement that a fuel element generates its design heat output. This is determined by the quantity of fuel material and its specific heat rating, a function of the material composition, the uranium enrichment, and the neutron flux. A fuel pin, the key component of a fuel element has the fuel material sealed into it, and the cladding material is the primary barrier to the release of radioactive fission products. Fuel elements have long lives compared with conventional types of fuel, and they remain in reactor for periods varying from about one year (fast reactors) to seven years (Magnox reactors). The rod/oxide types used in the predominant light water reactors are commonly in the reactor for between three and five years. Damage to materials caused by the intense neutron bombardment includes embrittlement, dimensional changes, and swelling. In selecting suitable materials and designs, these changes must be allowed for, as well as compatibility of materials, corrosion, and neutron absorption

1983-01-01

251

HTGR fuel performance basis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600"0C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660"0C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents. The slow release of fission products over hundreds of hours allows for decay of short-lived isotopes. The slow and limited release of fission products under HTGR accident conditions results in very low off-site doses. The slow nature of the accident provides more time for operator action to mitigate the accident and for local and state authorities to respond. These features can be used to take advantage of close-in siting for process applications, flexibility in site selection, and emergency planning

1982-06-02

252

Reprocessing nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a process for the reprocessing of nuclear fuel material, fuel pins which have been removed from a fuel element are fed into a cylindrical chamber one at a time. When sufficient fuel pins are in the chamber they are pushed by a ram into a slotted steel can which is transported to a shear machine where the fuel pins and the can are cut into small pieces. The slots in the can may be arranged parallel to the axis of the can on a helical path. The invention is of particular use for fuel elements in which the fuel pins are supported inside inner and outer sleeves of graphite by grids and braces. The pins may be pulled one at a time from the fuel element with the sleeves intact or the fuel elements and grids may be separated from the sleeves and all the pins removed from the grid in a single punching operation. The graphite sleeves may be split between a fixed horizontal blade and a vertically moving blade and the split parts may be crushed to facilitate disposal. (author)

1980-01-01

253

Fuel injection pump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

1988-12-06

254

Fuel assembly reconstitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

2009-10-02

255

Fuel processing device  

Science.gov (United States)

An improved fuel processor for fuel cells is provided whereby the startup time of the processor is less than sixty seconds and can be as low as 30 seconds, if not less. A rapid startup time is achieved by either igniting or allowing a small mixture of air and fuel to react over and warm up the catalyst of an autothermal reformer (ATR). The ATR then produces combustible gases to be subsequently oxidized on and simultaneously warm up water-gas shift zone catalysts. After normal operating temperature has been achieved, the proportion of air included with the fuel is greatly diminished.

Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Burr Ridge, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Naperville, IL); Lee, Sheldon H. D. (Willowbrook, IL)

2011-08-02

256

Reprocessing RERTR fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort High density, low enrichment aluminum-clad dispersed uranium compound fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad aluminum-uranium alloy fuels now in use Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR fuels at Savannah River Plant Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests with both unirradiated and irradiated (up to approximately 90% burnup) fuels will be presented (author)

1984-05-01

257

Spent fuel integral experiments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of parallel spent fuel integral experiments are underway at Battelle-Columbus. These experiments are operational in the Battelle hot cell facility and are designed to provide information on effects of cladding degradation on the release of radionuclides from spent fuel waste forms and on combined effects interactions between spent fuel waste forms, the waste package, and the surrounding repository environment. To accomplish these objectives, the integral experiments have been designed the emulate characteristics of repository environments for spent fuel materials in deep-mined repositories in tuff, basalt, and granite media

1986-01-01

258

Fuel injection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An electronic fuel injection control includes a main fuel control circuit which operates to control fuel flow to the engine by controlling the duration of engine-synchronized fuel valve opening pulses in accordance with at least one engine parameter. An auxiliary pulse source is arranged to provide extra unsynchronized pulses to improve the acceleration characteristics of the control, such pulses being produced when the throttle is opened. A muting circuit is provided which operates for a fixed period following closing movement of the throttle, to prevent the auxiliary pulse source responding to throttle opening during said period. The muting circuit prevents excess fuelling during gear changes etc.

Russell, S.J.; Southgate, J.P.; Tingey, A.R.; Williams, M.

1981-05-12

259

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15

260

Transient fuel melting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release

1982-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

TRIGA fuel element instrumentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To upgrade the reliability of TRIGA fuel temperature measurements, the instrumented element has been redesigned to increase thermocouple life. The primary requirement of the new design is to improve thermocouple reliability while maintaining or exceeding the time response of the existing system. The thermocouples are located in the fuel at three elevations (radially identical) spanning the fuel center. Additional instrumentation, in the form of a self-powered neutron flux monitor is internally applied along the fuel center line. The Atomics Internation thermocouple design and implementation are described

1970-02-19

262

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01

263

Fuel cells. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity (without intermediate heat generation) is a long-established method to improve the efficiency of power generation, as well as to reduce polluting emissions from thermal plants. The origins of fuel cells, as well as their operating principles, are dealt with. Then, various types of cells are taken into consideration, on the basis of both their characteristics and the operating principles of electrolytes. Finally, structure and operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) and Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) are described

1999-01-01

264

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description is given of an element without mechanical interactions between the clad and the nuclear fuel, comprising a clad insulated from fission products and having an increased maximum axial thermal gradient. That element comprises a clad, nuclear fuel partly filling said clad so as to define an inner cavity and an inner space between said clad and the fuel, a retaining-member placed in said inner cavity, a sealed cap at each clad extremely and a jacket of refractory metal in the inner space between said clad and the fuel

1974-02-11

265

Nuclear fuel quality assurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that the full application of the quality assurance concept in the purchase of fuel and fuel manufacturing services will depend to a large extent on the availability of fuel specification data. On the part of fuel purchasers, there is an obvious interest in getting as many details of fuel specification as possible in order to be able to establish a proper level of control over the quality of their purchases. On the other hand, if such specifications are set up in advance by the purchasers, there are often complaints by the manufacturers that the specifications were set up without proper regard for the latest technical information on fuel performance and for the realities of manufacturing processes and technical capabilities. This problem may be resolved when fuel design activities are properly meshed with a full quality assurance system. Discussions during the seminar showed that the operation of acceptable quality assurance systems is a well-established practice at most of the fuel manufacturers. The fuel purchaser may monitor such a system through quality assurance programme auditing as agreed to the individual vendor-purchaser contracts. In this way confidence may be obtained in the quality of the purchased product. However, it is considered that the further improvement of the relations between fuel manufacturers and purchasers could be achieved through the following actions undertaken at the international level: (1) standardization of fuel specifications and testing procedures; (2) dissemination of information on fuel specifications and their connections with observed fuel failure rate; (3) Establishment of a standardized quality assurance programme for fuel fabrication; (4) establishment of a central information service to assist utility groups in preparing documents and procedures to be used in quality assurance activities

1976-05-24

266

Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

2005-05-01

267

Failed fuel detection from viewpoint of fuel inspection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cause of the failed fuel problem is discussed from the viewpoint of the inspection in fuel processing. Especially the problem of (1) the qualification of cladding and (2) the qualification of fuel rod welding are mentioned in detail. (auth.)

1973-07-17

268

Fuel safety research 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

2001-01-01

269

TRIGA low enrichment fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium-zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched-uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with GA's standard commercial warranty

1993-08-01

270

TRIGA low enrichment fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty TRIGA reactors have been sold and the earliest of these are now passing twenty years of operation. All of these reactors use the uranium zirconium hydride fuel (UZrH) which provides certain unique advantages arising out of its large prompt negative temperature coefficient, very low fission product release, and high temperature capability. Eleven of these Sixty reactors are conversions from plate fuel to TRIGA fuel which were made as a result of these advantages. With only a few exceptions, TRIGA reactors have always used low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with an enrichment of 19.9%. The exceptions have either been converted from the standard low-enriched fuel to the 70% enriched FLIP fuel in order to achieve extended lifetime, or are higher powered reactors which were designed for long life using 93%-enriched uranium during the time when the use and export of highly enriched uranium (HEU) was not restricted. The advent of international policies focusing attention on nonproliferation and safeguards made the HEU fuels obsolete. General Atomic immediately undertook a development effort (nearly two years ago) in order to be in a position to comply with these policies for all future export sales and also to provide a low-enriched alternative to fully enriched plate-type fuels. This important work was subsequently partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The laboratory and production tests have shown that higher uranium densities can be achieved to compensate for reducing the enrichment to 20%, and that the fuels maintain the characteristics of the very thoroughly proven standard TRIGA fuels. In May of 1978, General Atomic announced that these fuels were available for TRIGA reactors and for plate-type reactors with power levels up to 15 MW with General Atomic's standard commercial warranty

1993-08-01

271

Reprocessing of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

1960-01-01

272

Zero-failure fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABB's SVEA-96/100 fuel is the only fully proven 10x10 fuel in the industry which have attained final burnup in reload quantities. The expected improvements are now seen in detailed inspections, Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of high burnup 10x10 fuel, proving very low fission gas release, and PCI free operation. Liner fuel mitigates the risk for PCI failures during power ramp operation at higher burn-up. For protection against severe degradation it is necessary to have a liner that is not only mitigating PCI, but also has good corrosion properties. ABB has therefore developed the Zr-Sn liner, which is the only fully operational proven concept against PCI and long axial splits in the industry. Both steam tests of ABB's Zr-Sn liner and Hot Cell PIE of failed Zr-Sn liner fuel have confirmed a very low corrosion rate. To date, all the identified ABB 10x10 fuel failures have been due to debris fretting, except one single event of four failed six cycles fuel rods which were affected by ESSC (Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion) during 1996-97. ESSC is now effectively remedied, which leaves only debris fretting as primary failure cause on ABB 10x10 fuel. ABB has now a very good understanding of the cause of primary failures and the generic fuel degradation mechanisms. Based on this understanding, ABB has developed effective remedies both against debris fretting and fuel rod degradation. These remedies include fretting resistant cladding, mitigating of debris from the primary system and fuel assemblies, operation guide lines for operation with a primary leaker. (orig.)

Sihver, L.; Hallstadius, L. [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden). Nuclear Fuel Div.

2000-01-01

273

Fuel safety research 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2001-03-01

274

Fuel heater and fuel contamination detecting apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel heater and fuel contamination detecting apparatus for automotive vehicles, is described consisting of: a casing member in the form of a heating body which comprises a thermoplastic resin and short metal fibers and which forms a fluid reservoir therein; a filter located within the casing member; a pair of terminals embeded in the casing member for selectively heating the casing; a reed switch located proximate to a bottom portion of the casing and being connected to an alarm for activating the alarm upon closing of the reed switch; a float slidably disposed in the fluid reservoir formed in the casing member; and a permanent magnet fixed to the float, the magnet cooperating with the reed switch to automatically close the reed switch due to shifting of the float caused by contamination of the fuel with a liquid.

Kawabata, Y.

1986-04-08

275

Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel for the nuclear fuel cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel are being developed to meet safeguards and materials managment requirements at nuclear facilities. Spent-fuel measurement technology and its applications are reviewed.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.

1980-01-01

276

Nuclear fuel transport flask  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel transport flask has a fuel containing compartment which is supplied with decontaminating fluid via inlet passageways and tubes which discharge into the compartment. The outlet from the compartment is via a box and outlet passageways within end cap. The passageways are conveniently situated at the same end of the flask. (author)

1982-04-23

277

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To provide sintered nuclear fuel pellets subject to less strain during high temperature sintering and to prevent damage to tubular clad. Structure: The instant nuclear fuel element comprises a plurality of cylindrical sintered nuclear fuel pellets stacked one above another within a tubular clad in the axial direction thereof and each provided with ring-like grooves formed at opposite ends. As the linear output density of fuel progressively increases with the sintering of the nuclear fuel element, with low linear output density the center of the nuclear fuel pellet is hard and has high coefficient of thermal expansion, so that contact pressure between adjacent pellets is concentrated at the center of the end face. With an intermediate linear output density plastic deformation is produced at the center of the nuclear fuel pellet, so that the contact pressure is dispersed from the center toward the edge. With high linear output density the contact pressure is dispersed by the groove, so that the strain radial of the nuclear fuel pellet is held at a minimum

1974-01-01

278

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A lower end plug is divided into a fuel element portion at an upper portion and an element stopping portion at a lower portion. There are four recessed grooves open to the outer circumference in the fuel element portion and there is an engaging portion at the center. The element stopping portion has one recessed groove opening to the outer circumference thereof and has an engaging hole at the center. The fuel element portion and the element stopping portion have securing holes in radial direction respectively in communication with the recessed grooves. The engaging portion of the fuel element portion and the engaging hole of the element stopping portion are engaged to each other and a U-shaped connection piece is inserted to recessed groove and the securing hole of both of them, to connect the fuel element portion and the element stopping portion. When curved fuel elements are taken out of the reactor and then recharged, the fuel element portion and the element stopping portion are connected while changing the circumferential position so as to upset the curved direction. This can facilitate the recharging of the fuel elements. Further, progress of fretting corrosion can be prevented. (I.N.)

1992-07-14

279

The nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is treated in six chapters, entitled: providing uranium, fuel element manufacture, uranium enrichment (gaseous diffusion and centrifuge methods); the reactors (Magnox, AGR, HTR, PWR, BWR, CANDU, SGHWR, sodium-cooled fast reactors and gas-cooled fast reactors); reprocessing of irradiated fuel; waste treatment and storage. (U.K.)

1978-01-01

280

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Fuel sorting evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaluation of functions and requirements associated with sorting fuel from the Hanford K Basins is presented to support design issue resolution decisions for achieving interim fuel storage. Potential requirements are recommended for implementation in design activities. The recommendations are provided as input to a management decision process where decisions are finalized and the sorting issue is closed

1996-01-01

282

The nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of nuclear fuel cycle technology is presented. The process of uranium-plutonium fuel cycle is shown with a flow chart from uranium mining through conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, fuel reprocessing including mixed UO2-PuO2 reprocessing for fast breeder reactors to waste storage. The uranium resources reasonably assured at the cost under $80/kgU, and the uranium annual production in 1978 in principal countries are tabulated. The technical issues are outlined for each item of uranium minerals and mining, uranium milling, uranium purification, natural uranium conversion including conventional uranium refining processes and Allied Chemical UF6 process, uranium enrichment technologies such as gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, separation nozzle process, South African process, French Chemex process and three advanced processes developed by USDOE, namely atomic vapor laser isotope separation process (AVLIS), molecular laser isotope separation process (MLIS) and plasma separation process, conversion of UF6 to UO2, fuel fabrication, irradiation in converter reactor, irradiated fuel storage and reprocessing by purex process. The fast breeder fuel cycle constitutes a feature of handling mixed dioxide with burn-up from 60,000 to 100,000 megawatt-days per ton and depleted uranium dioxide. The waste processing and waste storage are outlined for vitrification and Joule-heated ceramic process. (Nakai, Y.)

1980-11-05

283

Spent nuclear fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

2005-01-01

284

Fuel Cell Laboratory Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

This in-class lab exercise gives students the chance to build a zinc- copper fuel cell out of its component parts. The procedure for the lab is provided along with a graphical representation of what the fuel cell should look like. Several student questions are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-04-27

285

Focus on fuel cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel Cell(FC) Technology has been recognised as an effective alternative to the traditional electric energy generator; in the last years the research results and the technological level reached by FC have increased the interest for this technology. The present paper synthesises, the state of the art and the development perspective of the major fuel cell technologies

1998-10-01

286

Mixed oxide fuel development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the success of the ongoing mixed-oxide fuel development program in the United States aimed at qualifying an economical fuel system for liquid metal cooled reactors. This development has been the cornerstone of the US program for the past 20 years and has proceeded in a deliberate and highly disciplined fashion with high emphasis on fuel reliability and operational safety as major features of an economical fuel system. The program progresses from feature testing in EBR-II to qualifying full size components in FFTF under fully prototypic conditions to establish a basis for extending allowable lifetimes. The development program started with the one year (300 EFPD) core, which is the FFTF driver fuel, continued with the demonstration of a two year (600 EFPD) core and is presently evaluating a three year (900 EFPD) fuel system. All three of these systems, consistent with other LMR fuel programs around the world, use fuel pellets gas bonded to a cladding tube that is assembled into a bundle and fitted into a wrapper tube or duct for ease of insertion into a core. The materials of construction progressed from austenitic CW 316 SS to lower swelling austenitic D9 to non swelling ferritic/martensitic HT9. 6 figs., 2 tabs

1987-09-13

287

Hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to developing petro-crops as a source of hydrocarbon fuels, indigeneous laticiferous species belonging to the families Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Convolvulaceae have been evaluated for their biocrude potential. Hydrocracking of biocrude, from E. royleana, E. neriifolia, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Calotropis gigantea to hydrocarbon fuels, preferably middle distillates, has been demonstrated. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

Bhatia, V.K.; Mittal, K.G.; Mehrotra, R.P.; Mehrotra, M.

1989-04-01

288

Alternative fuel costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost of alternative fuel is examined by the World Bank. The production of alcohol from agricultural products in Brazil can compete with oil-based petrol, costs are estimated at less than $45 per barrel. However, the cost of motor fuel produced from methanol is about $50.60 per barrel.

1981-03-01

289

Nuclear fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To improve the fuel economy, increase the thermal margin to burnout and decrease the pressure loss to thereby improve the reactor core stability in fuel assemblies. Constitution: Moderator rods have been disposed at the center of fuel assemblies to effectively moderate neutrons thereby improving the neutron availability. The cross section of the moderator rod occupying the containing space for the fuel rods at the center of the fuel assembly is made square or like other shape and the occupying area is so adapted that a predetermined condition can be satisfied between the outer diameter of the fuel rod and the lattice arrangement pitch and the unit constituent cells of the spacer at the periphery of the fuel rod is partially depleted. Further, protrusions are formed to the surface of the moderator rod so as to keep a distance between them. In this way, the diameter of the moderating rod is increased to sufficiently moderate neutrons thereby improving the fuel economy, decreasing the strain in the steam weight % distribution and increasing the thermal margin. Further, the pressure loss is decreased as well to improve the stability of nuclear hot water. (Kamimura, M.).

Bessho, Yasunori; Maruyama, Hiromi; Aoyama, Motoo; Morimoto, Yuichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Sadaoka, Noriyuki.

1987-02-03

290

PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

291

International fuel bank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

292

Alternative Fuels in Transportation  

Science.gov (United States)

The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative…

Kouroussis, Denis; Karimi, Shahram

2006-01-01

293

Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition).  

Science.gov (United States)

The report provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of po...

2004-01-01

294

Fire Resistant Fuel Program Update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives of the Fire Resistant Fuel (FRF) program are: 1) developing new emulsified fuel formulations; 2) investigating anti-mist additives to diminish the fuel fireball; 3) determining the effect of FRF on vehicle and equipment; designing field blendin...

J. Schmitigal

2011-01-01

295

Fuel spill reports-Format  

Science.gov (United States)

Title : Fuel spill reports-Format Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : February 05, 1991 ... Action Memorandum (Threshold for Fuel Spill Reports/Format for Fuel Spill Reports) To: Files (S.7 - ...

296

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the reliability of a fuel can be suppressing the stress corrosion cracks and preventing abrupt oxidation at the inner surface of the fuel can upon the failure due to the mechanical interaction with fuels in corrosive gas atmosphere. Constitution: A liner layer made of a zirconium alloy material with low oxygen content is lined at least to a part of the inner surface of a fuel can made of zirconium alloy. The fuel can is made with zircalloy-2 or zircalloy-4 and lined at the whole inner surface thereof with a liner layer formed with zircalloy-2 or zircalloy-4 containing oxygen concentration of less than 500 ppm. Because the hardness, or yield stress of the low-oxigen zirconium alloy decreases with oxigen content, the stress corrosion crack can be suppressed. (J.P.N.)

1982-09-29

297

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a nuclear fuel element. It comprises: an elongated composite cladding container of a zirconium alloy tube consisting of constituents, other than the zirconium, in amounts greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and having a barrier lining of zirconium metal in a thickness of the alloy tube, metallurgically bonded to the inner surface of the alloy tube, a central core of nuclear fuel material disposed within and partially filling the lined tubular container so as to leave a gap between the container and fuel proving the core. The nuclear fuel material being selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof which contain dispersed therethrough an additive of aluminum silicate in an effective amount up to about 5 percent by weight of the fuel material

1988-09-19

298

Uranium plutonium oxide fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

1981-10-15

299

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Object: To soundly maintain a fuel rod by preventing the production of excessive local deformation in the cladding tube of the fuel rod even if the power of the fuel rod is abruptly increased. Structure: Between the cladding tube and fuel pellet is provided a means for restricting the movement of broken pellet pieces in the raidal direction (such as plate springs or corrugated plate springs). As the pellet is heated with the rise in power of the fuel rod, the broken pieces of the pellet undergo expansion while they are elastically held by the plate springs. Thus, while the corrugated plate springs are urged against the inner surface of the cladding tube with the thermal expansion of the pellet, the hard end faces of the pellet do not directly touch the cladding tube itself so that local deformation of the cladding tube is prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

1975-01-01

300

Fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection system is proposed, which improves the acceleration of an internal combustion engine. The fuel injection equipment includes a meter situated in the suction pipe, which is moved against a return force according to the amount of air flowing through, and actuates the control actuator of a metering valve. The return force on the air meter is produced by the fuel which is supplied by a fuel pump via a damping throttle to a pressure space, into which a front surface of the control actuator projects. A non-return valve is situated in a pressure release line between the pressure space and the pressure side of the pump, which opens above a pre-set pressure in the pressure space. This gives quick pressure release of the pressure space during acceleration and quick response from the fuel injection equipment.

Maisch, W.; Peters, K.J.; Wissmann, M.; Schelhas, P.

1980-11-20

 
 
 
 
301

Alternative fuel transit buses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01

302

Fuel cells for hospitals  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, electrical and thermal energy is produced in a conventional combustion process. Coal, fuel oil, and natural gas are common fuels used for electrical generation, while nuclear, hydroelectric, and solar are non-combustion processes. All fossil fuels release their stored energy and air pollution simultaneously when burned in a contemporary combustion process. To reduce or eliminate air pollution, the combustion process must be shifted in some way to another type of process. Extracting pollution-free energy from fossil fuels can be accomplished through the electrochemical reaction of a fuel cell. A non-combustion process is a foundation from which pollution-free energy emerges, fulfilling our incessant need for energy without environmental compromise.

Damberger, Thomas A.

303

Biochemical fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project involved a study of biochemical fuel cells employing redox enzymes to effect the efficient transduction of chemical into electrical energy. The use of carbon cloth to provide a cheap, high surface area electrode material as an alternative to the precious metals that have been used in previous enzyme fuel cells was examined. Three enzymes were used in the study: alcohol oxidase, yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase. The alcohol oxidase studied was found to be unsuitable for use in the experimental fuel cell as it underwent a substrate independent reaction with the mediator. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was also unsuitable as it was unstable in the fuel cell; immobilisation while enhancing the stability did not produce a satisfactory solution. Glucose oxidase appeared to be well suited for use in the fuel cell.

Murray, K.D.

1988-01-01

304

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grid-shaped spacer for PWR fuel elements consists of flat, upright metal bars at right angles to the fuel rods. In one corner of a grid mesh it has a spring with two end parts for the fuel rod. The cut-outs for the end parts start from an end edge of the metal bar parallel to the fuel rods. The transverse metal bar is one of four outer metal bars. Both end parts of the spring have an extension parallel to this outer metal arm, which grips a grid mesh adjacent to this grid mesh at the side in one corner of the spacer and forms an end part of a spring for the fuel rod there on the inside of the outer metal bar. (HP)

1983-09-27

305

Methanol commercial aviation fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

1992-03-25

306

Fuel mixture. Kraftstoffgemisch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with a fuel mixture, suitable for Otto- and Diesel-engines. The mineral oil can be partly substituted and the fuel consumption will be reduced. In the first group of this fuel mixtures the following liquids will be choosable: petrol, gasoil, naphta, combustion oil. The second mixture consists of a water-alcohol mixture and a chemical compound of camphor and hydrocarbon. The two basis components are at first mixed inside the inlet channel, beginning before the throttle flap of the carburetor, completed in the manifold. The mixture consists of 80...96% petrol, the difference contains 70...80% water, 0,1% camphor and some ethylenalcohol. Test runs of passenger coaches with this fuel mixture over a route of 10,000...20,000 km were successful. Data of the specific km-fuel consumption are mentioned.

Scifoni, M.

1980-07-07

307

Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology  

Science.gov (United States)

A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

Longwell, J. P. (editor)

1978-01-01

308

MOX fuel at BNFL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989, BNFL decided to use the expertise developed for the Fast Reactor project to enter the thermal MOX fuels market with the aim of becoming a world leader in thermal MOX supply and to return the products from its reprocessing business to its customers as MOX fuel. To reach this objective the company developed a two-stage strategy which involved: (a) Constructing a small-scale plant, the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF), on a short time-scale to produce commercial quality fuel for irradiation in commercial reactors, and (b) Constructing a small-scale plant, the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP), for bulk fuel supply. MOX production in the MOX Demonstration Facility at Sellafield began in October 1993 and, since that time, the plant has produced more than 10 tonnes of MOX for BNFL's customers. The MDF was constructed to produce LWR MOX fuel, using BNFL's patented Short Binderless Route (SBR) in order to gain operational and irradiation experience to support fuel supply from the 120te/yr Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). The first fuel from MDF was loaded into the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) Beznau 1 reactor in July 1994 and since that time the plant has been used continuously to provide more fuel for NOK and other customers. Construction of the SMP commenced in April 1994 against a fast-track programme designed to have the plant producing its first MOX fuel by the end of 1997. The SMP will be the most flexible MOX fabrication plant in the world, capable of producing PWR and BWR fuels using the SBR as the basis of the production process. (Author)

1994-04-00

309

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science.gov (United States)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL) [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL) [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL) [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA) [Vancouver, CA

2009-11-17

310

Fuel development program of the nuclear fuel element centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel technology development program pf the nuclear fuel element centre is still devised into two main pillars, namely the research reactors fuel technology and the power reactor fuel technology taking into account the strategic influencing environment such as better access to global market of fuel cycle services, the state of the art and the general trend of the fuel technology in the world. Embarking on the twenty first century the fuel development program has to be directed toward strengthening measure to acquire and self-reliance in the field of fuel technology in support to the national energy program as well as to the utilisation of research reactor. A more strengthened acquisition of fuel cycle technology, in general, and particularly of fuel technology would improve the bargaining power when negotiation the commercial fuel technology transfer in the future

1998-02-01

311

Safety analysis of MOX fuels by fuel performance code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance of plutonium rick mixed oxide fuels specified for the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been analysed by modified fuel performance code. Thermodynamic properties of these fuels up to 120 GWd/t burnup have not been measured and estimated using existing uranium fuel models. Fission product release, pressure rise inside fuel rods and mechanical loads of fuel cans due to internal pressure have been preliminarily assessed based on assumed axial power distribution history, which show the integrity of fuel performance. Detailed evaluation of fuel-cladding interactions due to thermal expansion or swelling of fuel pellets due to high burnup will be required for safety analysis of mixed oxide fuels. Thermal conductivity and swelling of plutonium rich mixed oxide fuels shall be taken into consideration. (T. Tanaka)

Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2002-12-01

312

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

Amornpitoksuk, P.

2003-09-01

313

Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

1979-01-01

314

Spent fuel workshop'2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238Pu doped UO2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with ? doped UO2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO2 / water interfaces under He2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of UO2(s): experimental approach and preliminary results on uranium oxide - water interface (J. Devoy), Preliminary results on studies on radiolysis effects on dissolution of UO2 (E. Ekeroth, M. Jonnson); Session 5 - Modeling of the Spent Fuel Dissolution: tUO2 dissolution and the effect of radiolysis (T. Lundstrom), Prediction of the effect of radiolysis (F. King), Experimental determination and chemical modeling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel / water interface (E. Cera, J. Bruno, T. Eriksen, M. Grive, L. Duro); Session 6 - Influence of the Potential Evolution prior to the Water Access on IRF: Potential occurrence of ? self-irradiation enhanced-diffusion (H.J. Matzke, T. Petit), Are grain boundaries a stable microstructure? (Y. Guerin), Modeling RN instant release fractions from spent nuclear fuel under repository conditions (C.Poinssot, L. Johnson, P. Lovera). (J.S.)

2002-09-23

315

Fuel performance and operation experience of WWER-440 fuel in improved fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes WWER-440 second-generation fuel operation experience in improved fuel cycles using the example of Kola NPP units 3 and 4. Basic parameters of fuel assemblies, fuel rods and uranium-gadolinium fuel rods, as well as the principal neutronic parameters and burn-up achieved in fuel assemblies are presented. The paper also contains some data concerning the activity of coolant during operation (Authors)

2007-10-01

316

Hydrogen as automotive fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

1993-01-01

317

Evolution of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear fuel is the primary energy source for sustaining the nuclear fission chain reactions in a reactor. The fuels in the reactor cores are exposed to highly aggressive environment and varieties of advanced fuel materials with improved nuclear properties are continuously being developed to have optimum performance in the existing core conditions. Fabrications of varieties of nuclear fuels used in diverse forms of reactors are mainly based on two naturally occurring nuclear source elements, uranium as fissile 235U and fertile 238U, and thorium as fertile 232Th species. The two metals in the forms of alloys with specific elements, ceramic oxides like MOX and ceramic non-oxide as mixed carbide and nitride with suitable nuclear properties like higher metal density, thermal conductivity, etc. are used as fuels in different reactor designs. In addition, efficiency of various advanced fuels in the forms of dispersion, molten salt and other types are also under investigations. The countries which have large deposits of thorium but limited reserves of uranium, are trying to give special impetus on the development of thorium-based fuels for both thermal and fast reactors in harnessing nuclear energy for peaceful uses of atomic energy. (author)

2013-01-01

318

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable to retain nuclear fuel material at a predetermined position in a fuel can without applying machining fabrication to the inner surface of the fuel can and without decreasing the volume of the plenum portion therein. Constitution: Nuclear fuel materials prepared from UO2, UO2-PuO2 or the like by molding the powder under pressure into a cylindrical shape and then sintering the same are filled in a multi-layered manner to the inside of a fuel can and they are fixed by a spring disposed in the upper plenum and a support member disposed in the lower plenum. The support member comprises a resilient semi-spherical member having a gas vent hole at its top and a binder filled to the gap with respect to the fuel can. The binder employed is, for example, nicrobraz that melts at an ambient temperature in a case where the nuclear fuel element is charged to a reactor core, for instance, at a high temperature about above 4000C when liquid sodium is used, for instance, as coolants. (Horiuchi, T.)

1977-07-15

319

Fuel injection control apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injection apparatus for controlling the fuel injection valves which feed the fuel to each cylinder of an engine which is utilized in a vehicle. This apparatus consists firstly of a first sensing means for detecting an engine coolant temperature. A second sensing means for detecting a parameter which indicates a driving condition of the engine and also provides a signal for use of the apparatus. A computational means for calculating an amount of fuel to be injected into each cylinder according to the magnitude of the parameter detected by the second sensing means is also characterized in the patent. A second calculation means for the determination of an opening timing of each of the fuel injection valves based on the quantative measurement of the parameter sensed by the second sensing means, and the amount of fuel to be injected calculated by the first calculation means, is also elucidated upon. In addition, a memorization modality for memorizing at least three zones of engine coolant temperatures is portrayed. Relatedly, the particulars of a determining means for determining which of the three zones the detected engine coolant temperature falls within are indicated. The last modality of the apparatus which is described in the patent is a third calculation means for determining a compensation value being an amount of compensation that an opening timing of each fuel injection valve is adjusted by.

Ujihashi, M.

1986-01-14

320

Fuel injection control apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injection control apparatus for use of an engine. This apparatus consists of: a first means for detecting an amount of an intake air which is suctioned into the engine; a second means for detecting an engine speed; a third means for determining whether the detected engine speed is in a low engine speed zone, whether the detected engine speed is in a high engine speed zone, or whether the detected engine speed is in an intermediate engine speed zone whose speed is between the first and second predetermined engine speeds; a fourth means for setting a minimum amount of an injected fuel according to the engine speed zone, the fourth means maintains the first value in the intermediate engine speed zone when the engine speed increases from the low engine speed zone and the second value in the intermediate engine speed zone when the engine speed drops from the high engine speed zone; a fifth means for determining an amount of an injected fuel according to the amount of the intake air and the engine speed detected by the first and second means respectively, the fifth means determining the amount of the injected fuel as a final amount of an injected fuel when the determined amount of the injected fuel is greater than the minimum amount set by the fourth means; and a sixth means for injecting the amount of fuel calculated by the fifth means.

Suziki, M.; Nomura, K.

1986-01-21

 
 
 
 
321

Alkaline fuel cells applications  

Science.gov (United States)

On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

322

Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Just over a month ago, on July 1, Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries (JNFI) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Services (JNFS) merged to form the integrated nuclear fuel cycle company, Japan Nuclear Fuel, Ltd. (JNFL). The announcement in mid-January that the country's two major fuel cycle firms intended to merge had long been anticipated and represents one of the most significant restructuring events in Japan's nuclear industry. The merger forming JNFL was a logical progression in the evolution of Japan's fuel cycle, bringing complementary technologies together to encourage synergism, increased efficiency, and improved community relations. The main production facilities of both JNFI and JNFS were located near the village of Rokkashomura, on the northern end of the main island of Honshu, and their headquarters were in Tokyo. The former JNFS was responsible for spent fuel reprocessing and also was building a high-level waste (HLW) management facility. The former JNFI focused on uranium enrichment and low-level waste (LLW) disposal. It was operating the first stage of a centrifuge enrichment plant and continuing to construct additional capacity. These responsibilities and activities will be assumed by JNFL, which now will be responsible for all JNFI and JNFS operations, including those at Rokkashomura

1992-08-01

323

Nuclear fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An interposed region where the power of fuel pellets are lowered is disposed to the upstream of coolants at the end portion of a fuel spacer. In the interposed region, the concentration of fissionable nuclides is reduced and burnable poisons are mixed. The surface of fuel rods tends to cause burnout at the upstream of coolants of the fuel spacer due to rupture of liquid membrane by fuel spacers. However, since the interposed region is disposed, the surface heat fluxes are reduced in this range, to increase thermal margin and suppress occurrence of burnout. Further, if the length of the interposed region is determined within a range up to 5cm from the lower end of the fuel spacer, it can sufficiently cover the range of occurrence of burnout recognized experimentally. Further, the position of the interposed region is determined at the upstream up to the third fuel spacer from the terminal end of heat generation portion, the surface heat fluxes in the interposed region are reduced to increase thermal margin, thereby enabling to relatively increase a minimum limit power ratio at the initial stage of the burning. (N.H.).

Mitsutake, Toru.

1994-01-21

324

Method of judging failed fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To inject aragon gas into uranium fuel rods or mixed oxide fuel rods to easily detect any fuel rods that are damaged. Method: Pressurized helium gas is injected into the uranium fuel rods and argon gas is injected into the mixed oxide fuel rods. These fuel rods are then placed in cooling water. When plutonium oxide fuel or uranium di-oxide fuel is burnt in the nuclear reactor furnace, the argon 40 is converted into the radioactive argon 41 by the neutrons generated when the fuel is combusted. If the cladding tube of the fuel rod filled with argon gas breaks, radioactive argon gas leaks into the cooling water through the cracks. The gamma radiation given out by the radioactive argon gas is detected by a detector which allows pinpointing the damaged fuel rods. (Takahashi, M.)

1985-03-27

325

Concentric fuel line system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel injection type of fuel distribution system for motor vehicles, a connector structure is described comprising, in combination: an integral fuel line formed of an innermost tube having a first duct defined therein for carrying a first fuel component of the fuel distribution system, an intermediate tube being spaced from and surrounding the innermost tube so as to form a second duct there between for carrying a second fuel component of the fuel distribution system, and an outer tube being spaced from and surrounding the intermediate tube so as to form a third duct there between for carrying a third fuel component of the fuel distribution system; manifold means having a first coupling union, a second coupling union disposed upstream of the first coupling union, and a third coupling union disposed upstream of the second coupling union; the first coupling union including a first axial bore for receiving one end of the innermost tube, and a first passageway in fluid communication with the first duct; the second coupling union including a second axial bore for receiving one end of the intermediate tube, and a second passageway in fluid communication with the second duct; the third coupling union including a third axial bore for receiving one end of the outer tube, and a third passageway in fluid communication with the third duct; the first coupling union having a first mounting hole, extending transversely to the first axial bore, for receiving first screw so that an outer peripheral edge portion of the first screw is tangentially aligned with an outer circumferential wall portion of the innermost tube so as to mechanically and positively secure the one end thereof with the first axial bore; the second coupling union including a second mounting hole, extending transversely to the second axial bore, for receiving a second screw.

Diener, A.N.; Parker, E.G.

1993-08-31

326

Distillate Fuel Processing for Marine Fuel Cell Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing a 625 kW fuel cell power plant for marine applications based on its Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC(Trademark)) technology. The power plant is designed for operation on Mil-F- 16884J Naval distillate fuel designat...

G. Steinfield R. Sanderson H. Ghezel-Ayagh S. Abens M. C. Cervi

2000-01-01

327

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02

328

Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

TEDESCHI, D.J.

1999-03-17

329

Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

TEDESCHI, D.J.

1998-11-09

330

Ionic liquids and fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionic liquids have drawn a lot of attention in recent years due to their unique physical and chemical properties. They were successfully applied in various processes as catalysts, solvents, electrolytes, lubricants, thermo fluids or plasticizers. In this short review, we would like to show benefits ionic liquids can potentially bring to fuel problematic. The recent scientific development suggests that ionic liquids could be successfully applied in sulfur and mercury removal from hydrocarbons, serve as hypergolic fuels or play crucial role in the synthesis of alternative fuels. (orig.)

Adamova, Gabriela; Ahrens, Maria; Schubert, Thomas J.S. [IoLiTec GmbH, Heilbronn (Germany)

2013-06-01

331

Fuel rod technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By extensive mechanization and automation of the fuel rod production, also at increasing production numbers, an efficient production shall be secured, simultaneously corresponding to the high quality standard of the fuel rods. The works done up to now concentrated on the lay out of a rough concept for a mechanized production course. Detail-studies were made for the problems of fuel rod humidity, filling and resistance welding. Further promotion of this project and thus further report will be stopped, since the main point of these works is the production technique. (orig.)

1979-01-01

332

Improved nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

1976-04-15

333

Nuclear fuel pins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel pin for a fast breeder reactor is described which has a central region containing fissile nuclear fuel material in the form of large and small diameter microspheres. The small diameter microspheres are capable of passing through and packing into the interstices between the large diameter microspheres. Axial regions containing breeder material are located above and below the central region. Barrier layers above and below the central region separate the central region from the axial regions. The barrier layers comprising intermediate diameter microspheres prevent intermixing of the material in the central and axial regions of the fuel pin. (U.K.)

1979-01-01

334

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel assembly with cylindrical fuel rods and control rod guide tubes. To this guide tubes spacer grids rectangular or square meshes are fastened. In the corners between tube and grid there are mounted baffles in the shape of lugs, covering the area in the corners totally or up to 3/4. There is no need for the lugs to fit directly against the guide tube. With this arrangement the coolant flow in the range of the guide tubes and with it the flow resistance of the fuel assembly is reduced. (RW) 891 RW

1977-01-01

335

Synthesis of fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The great developments in engine design require the availability of high quality fuels with good low temperature properties. Pour point depressants and flow improvers have become of great assistance in fulfilling such demands. This paper is aimed at finding the optimum conditions to prepare some pour point depressants, flow improvers and ashless dispersant additives, which can be used in both gas oil and fuel oil samples. Accordingly, the work includes the following products: polysaccharides, allylnaphthalene succinimides, acylated diaromatics and esters of styrene-maleic anhydride copolyerms. Comparative evaluation of the synthesized products with available commercial additives showed their efficiency and suitability to use in fuels. (orig.)

Mohamed, M.M.; Abou el Naga, H.H.; El Meneir, M.F. [MISR Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1999-11-01

336

Synthesis of fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The great developments in engine design require the availability of high quality fuels with good low temperature properties. Pour point depressants and flow improvers have become of great assistance in fulfilling such demands. This paper is aimed at finding the optimum conditions to prepare some pour point depressants, flow improvers and ashless dispersant additives, which can be used in both gas oil and fuel oil samples. Accordingly, the work includes the following products: polysaccharides, allylnaphthalene succinimides, acylated diaromatics and esters of styrene-maleic anhydride copolyerms. Comparative evaluation of the synthesized products with available commercial additives showed their efficiency and suitability to use in fuels. (orig.)

Mohamed, M.M.; Abou el Naga, H.H.; El Meneir, M.F. (MISR Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt))

1999-01-01

337

Fuel storage tank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG)

1979-01-01

338

Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs

1997-05-21

339

Second International Conference on CANDU Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four papers were presented at this conference in sessions dealing with international experience and programs relating to CANDU fuel; fuel manufacture; fuel behaviour; fuel handling, storage and disposal; and advanced CANDU fuel cycles. (L.L.)

1989-10-01

340

Diesel fuel quality and effects of fuel additives. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This synthesis will be useful to administrators, engineers, and others in the transit industry concerned with evaluation of diesel fuel and fuel additives used in transit buses. Detailed information is presented on costs, benefits, and adverse effects of available fuel additives and related products. In recent years, environmental awareness, economic pressures, and a general decline in crude oil quality have caused transit operators to seek ways to make use of fuel additives and less expensive blends. This report of the Transportation Research Board includes information on the evaluation of fuel additives and related products in terms of their effects on vehicle maintenance requirements, emissions control, fuel economy, fuel storage, and engine performance.

Moulton, D.S.; Sefer, N.R.

1984-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets  

Science.gov (United States)

A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

2007-10-16

342

Improved CANDU fuel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel defect rate in CANDU power reactors has been very low (0.06 percent) since 1972. Most defects were caused by power ramping. The two measures taken to reduce the defect rate, by about an order of magnitude, were changes in the fuelling schemes and the introduction of thin coatings of graphite on the inside surface of the Zircaloy fuel cladding. Power ramping tests have demonstrated that graphite layers, and also baked poly-dimethyl-siloxane layers, between the UO_2 pellets and Zircaloy cladding increase the tolerance of fuel to power ramps. These designs are termed graphite CANLUB and siloxane CANLUB; fuel performance depends on coating parameters such as thickness and wear resistance and on environmental and thermal conditions during the curing of coatings. (author)

1979-08-01

343

Hydrogen as a fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01

344

Fluidic fuel feed system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the development and testing of a fluidic fuel injector for a coal-water slurry fueled diesel engine. The objective of this program was to improve the operating life of coal-water slurry fuel controls and injector components by using fluidic technology. This project addressed the application of fluidic devices to solve the problems of efficient atomization of coal-water slurry fuel and of injector component wear. The investigation of injector nozzle orifice design emphasized reducing the pressure required for efficient atomization. The effort to minimize injector wear includes the novel design of components allowing the isolation of the coal-water slurry from close-fitting injector components. Three totally different injectors were designed, fabricated, bench tested and modified to arrive at a final design which was capable of being engine tested. 6 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Badgley, P.

1990-06-01

345

Cooking up fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

Wouldn't it be wonderful if we could solve our waste and energy problems at the same time, by turning one into the other? Attempts have been made to do just that, by making fuel from waste through pyrolysis.

Inman, Mason

2012-04-01

346

Structure of Fuel Elements  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Study of Structure of Materials Based on U-Pu-Zr alloy, their Thermodynamic Properties and Interaction with Materials of Fuel Element Shell under Quasi-Isothermal Conditions and Conditions of Non-stationary Exposure

347

Control of Fuel Cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ambition of this thesis is to consider the main phenomena influencing the dynamics of fuel cells, to properly define the control problem and suggest possible approaches and solutions to it. This thesis will focus on a particular type of fuel cell, a variation of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells with a membrane of polybenzimidazole instead of the usual, commercially available Nafion. The advantages of this particular type of fuel cells for control are particularly interesting, and stem from their operation at temperatures higher than those typical of Nafion-based cells: these new cells do not have any water-management issues, can remove more heat with their exhaust gases, and have better tolerance to poisons such as carbon monoxide

Zenith, Federico

2007-06-15

348

Supercharging and Fuel Injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the supercharging and fuel injection systems used on army vehicles to provide increased horsepower for engines without increasing the size of the engine and covers their purpose, components, and functions.

1994-01-01

349

Nuclear fuel rods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To obtain tag gas-sealed capsules easily filled with high pressure tag gas and being small in volume by sealing the tag gas into an extensible capsule in an expanded state and then loading the capsule in a compacted state into a fuel can. Constitution: A tag gas-sealed capsule to be loaded in the plenum formed between a fuel pellet inserted in a fuel can and the upper end plug is made extensible by forming bellows to its side. Then, tag gas is filled inside of the capsule while extended the latter to its extreme, openings at both ends thereof are sealed, the capsule is compacted axially to closely contact the bellows pieces on the side to each other and secured such as by means of brazing. After loading the compacted capsule in the fuel can, gas seal is released from an appropriate external means. (Kawakami, Y.)

1979-01-01

350

Nuclear fuel waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

1983-01-01

351

Nuclear fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor comprises a plurality of vertically extending fuel elements and control rod guide tubes and a plurality of spacer assemblies, each comprising a plurality of rectangular slotted grid plates intersecting and interlocking in egg-crate fashion, which laterally maintain the fuel elements and guide tubes in a spaced array. Spacer assembly movement is restrained, to maintain structural integrity of the nuclear fuel assembly during all phases of reactor operation, by collars welded to guide tubes and mechanically fixed to guide tube sleeves circumscribing the guide tubes at each spacer assembly location by virtue of each collar being crimped to extend into an aperture in a sleeve. Each collar is interlocked to a spacer assembly by a said grid plate thereof passing through a slot in the collar so that the collar is interlocked with the grid plate. (UK)

1979-01-01

352

Fuel cycle studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

1978-08-01

353

Nuclear fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple friction device for cutting nuclear fuel wrappers comprising a thin metal disc clamped between two large diameter clamping plates. A stream of gas ejected from a nozzle is used as coolant. The device may be maintained remotely. (author)

1981-01-01

354

Supercharging and fuel injection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This video discusses the supercharging and fuel injection systems used on army vehicles to provide increased horsepower for engines without increasing the size of the engine and covers their purpose, components, and functions.

NONE

1994-12-31

355

Fuel/contaminant separator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel/contaminant separator is described comprising: an inlet pipe; an outlet pipe; a curved nozzle assembly that includes a plurality of nozzles connected to said inlet pipe that guides a contaminated fuel from said inlet pipe to a separation section to form an interface due to centrifugal effect between a clean fuel and a contaminant mixture so that said contaminant mixture can collect in a collection section below said separation section wherein said collection section has a bottom and said clean fuel can rise up through said outlet pipe; a drainage valve that can be opened to release said contaminant mixture from said collection section; said separation section includes a replaceable wear sleeve; and said collection section includes a perforated cone filter where minute particles of said contaminant mixture collect at perforations of the perforated cone filter where said minute particles accumulate and fall to said bottom of said collection section.

Bedsole, R.D.

1993-07-13

356

Integral-fuel blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

1975-01-01

357

The spent fuel fate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spent fuel is not a waste. It can be upgrade by a reprocessing which extracts all products able to produce energy. The today situation is presented and economically analyzed and future alternatives are discussed. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

358

Fuel cell cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

1995-08-01

359

Hydrogen fueled transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature reveals periodic interest in hydrogen as an engine fuel since it was used in the first self sustaining combustion engine in 1820. Current interest is driven by the need for drastic reduction in the noxious pollutants emitted with fossil fuels, as well as the fact that fossil fuels are non renewable and must, inevitably, become unavailable. There are, of course, severe problems to be overcome prior to general acceptance of hydrogen fueled engines. These include: the economics of large scale production and distribution of hydrogen, the storage of hydrogen onboard the vehicle, and the development of the infrastructure necessary for the services for its vehicular usage. Safety is not the problem as perceived by the public. Hydrogen may well play a highly significant role in surface transportation (including rail), and is destined to play a dominant one in high speed air travel. 3 figs., 1 tab., 42 refs.

Van Vorst, W.M.D. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-31

360

Ceramic nuclear fuel pellets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low density nuclear fuel pellets are produced by mixing uranium dioxide powder and/or plutonium dioxide powder with ammonium oxalate, forming the mixture into pellets and sintering the pellets. 1 claim, 2 figures

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since a great temperature gradient is caused in the radial direction of a fuel pellet, the upper and the lower ends of the pellet are extended outwardly and deformed into a saddle-like form, by which the end face of the pellet is brought into contact with a fuel can, to apply high stress and distortion to the fuel can. If nuclear fission products should exert on the stress-strained portion, the possibility of causing stress corrosion cracks is increased. Then, in the present invention, an aluminium thin film is formed as a second layer at the inside of a lined cladding tube comprising a pure zirconium layer disposed to the inner surface of a fuel can made of a zirconium-based alloy. This can protect the zirconium of the first coating layer and prevent selective corrosion due to corrosive fission products. Further, since aluminum is excellent in ductility and easily deformed, stress concentration can be moderated. (T.M.)

1989-07-04

362

North Korea's corroding fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The roughly 8,000 irradiated or open-quotes spentclose quotes fuel rods recently discharged from the North Korean 25 megawatt (thermal) reactor are difficult to store safely under the conditions in the spent fuel ponds near the reactor. The magnesium alloy jacket, or open-quotes cladding,close quotes around the fuel elements is corroding. If the corrosion creates holes in the cladding, radionuclides may be released. In addition, the uranium metal underneath the cladding may begin to corrode, possibly creating uranium hydride which can spontaneously ignite in air. Unless the storage conditions are improved, North Korea may use the risk posed by the corrosion as an argument for reprocessing this fuel, a violation of its June 1994 pledge to the United States to freeze its nuclear program. North Korea, however, can take several steps to slow dramatically the rate of corrosion. Using available techniques, it can extend safe storage times by months or even years

1994-12-01

363

Renewable jet fuel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. PMID:24679258

Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

2014-04-01

364

Supercritical Fuel Measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work was performed on stimulated scattering for fuel property measurements at high temperatures and high pressures. The performance of a two- stage double-pass amplifier was improved to achieve required pulse energies and pulse lengths. Frequency modulati...

G. W. Faris

2012-01-01

365

Nuclear fuel cycle back end  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section consists of 3 subpapers, viz. 'Fuel cycle back end', 'Spent fuel casks', and 'Fuel cycle back end programme for WWER type plants - a market segment in the focus of interest of SKODA JS company'. The role and activities of SKODA JS, a traditional manufacturer in the nuclear industry, in the complex area of the nuclear fuel cycle back end are highlighted. (author)

2000-01-01

366

FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis.

Huang, Xiaoyu

2011-01-01

367

Design of HTGR fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working environment and the requirements of HTGR fuel element are described, the factors which influence the performance, mechanical and chemical stability of coated fuel particles and fuel element are analyzed, the preliminary design Specification of the fuel element of 10 MW HTR experiment reactor is given

1993-12-01

368

Fuels research: Combustion effects overview  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of broadened property fuels on gas turbine combustors were assessed. Those physical and chemical properties of fuels that affect aviation gas turbine combustion were isolated and identified. Combustion sensitivity to variations in particular fuel properties were determined. Advanced combustion concepts and subcomponents that could lessen the effect of using broadened property fuels were also identified.

Haggard, J. B., Jr.

1980-01-01

369

Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

Not Listed

2012-11-01

370

Gaseous fuels for transportation I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel. Topics considered at the conference included marketing, energy policy, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases, propane, fuel systems, spark ignition engines, compression ignition engines, liquefied natural gas, fuel substitution, antiknock ratings, and methane as an automotive fuel.

1987-01-01

371

Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

NETL

2004-11-01

372

Spent fuel reprocessing options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles is also given. As a conclusion, spent fuel reprocessing options have evolved significantly since the start of nuclear energy application. There is a large body of industrial experience in fuel cycle technologies complemented by research and development programs in several countries

2008-01-01

373

Optical fuel spray measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel spray and accumulation of droplets. Also shockwave formation was recorded when supersonic fuel jet exits the nozzle orifice. These results were used to evaluate spray formation and the structure was compared with simulated fuel sprays. Novel information, more refined and focused results, and better understanding of the nature of atomization and sprays was gathered. It was shown that new methods enable more precise understanding of transient two-phase sprays to be gained. (orig.)

Hillamo, H.

2011-07-01

374

Fuel rod behaviour at high burnup WWER fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modernisation of WWER fuel cycles is carried out on the base of complete modelling and experimental justification of fuel rods up to 70 MWd/kgU. The modelling justification of the reliability of fuel rod and fuel rod with gadolinium is carried out with the use of certified START-3 code. START-3 code has a continuous experimental support. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-440 fuel is justified for fuel rod and pellet burnups 65 MWd/kgU and 74 MWd/U, accordingly. Results of analysis are demonstrated by the example of uranium-gadolinium fuel assemblies of second generation under 5-year cycle with a portion of 6-year assemblies and by the example of successfully completed pilot operation of 5-year cycle fuel assemblies during 6 years at unit 3 of Kolskaja NPP. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-1000 fuel is justified for a fuel rod burnup 66 MWd/kgU by the example of fuel operation under 4-year cycles and 6-year test operation of fuel assemblies at unit 1 of Kalininskaya NPP. By the example of 5-year cycle at Dukovany NPP Unit 2 it was demonstrated that WWER fuel rod of a burnup 58 MWd/kgU ensure reliable operation under load following conditions. The analysis has confirmed sufficient reserves of Russian fuel to implement program of JSC 'TVEL' in order to improve technical and economical parameters of WWER fuel cycles

2003-10-03

375

Fuel gas conditioning process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

376

Nuclear fuel particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention relates to the field of nuclear fuels. It refers more specifically to nuclear fuel particles comprising a nucleus of a refractory compound of a fissile element provided with a large number of empty spaces, a carbonaceous layer acting as a buffer, a layer of carbon, a layer of silicon carbide and finally, a layer of pyrolytic carbon, such layers, although thin being sufficiently resistant and gas-tight for preventing the fission gases generated in use within the nucleus from escaping

1974-01-07

377

Solid fuel cooking stoves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts are now being made by various researchers to design more efficient and less expensive cooking stoves. A survey of significant world literature on solid fuel cooking stoves is presented. It provides a systematic presentation of all the known stove designs with suitable illustrations. It does not however recommend any single design for universal application. The publication should be useful to the stove designers and also to those who want to know more about solid fuel cooking stoves.

1980-11-01

378

Screening spent fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new research facility named 'armored processes chain' (CBP) has been implemented in the Atalante installation of CEA/Valrho (Marcoule, France). This facility will contribute to validate the different steps of the advanced separation process for the separation of the most toxic radionuclides of spent fuels. The chain is tested at a significant scale (15 kg of spent fuel) before its industrial development planned for the beginning of 2005. Short digest paper. (J.S.)

2004-01-01

379

Vibrating fuel grapple  

Science.gov (United States)

A reactor refueling method utilizing a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core which incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head, enabling additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.

Chertock, deceased, Alan J. (late of San Francisco, CA); Fox, Jack N. (San Jose, CA); Weissinger, Robert B. (Santa Clara, CA)

1982-01-01

380

Compliant fuel cell system  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY) [Albany, NY; Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY) [Albany, NY

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
381

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel element box is fixed to a top plate by bolts via angular parts. So that the bolt will only crack at the expansion shank, if the expansion forces become too large, a narrow place is provided at the bolt head. A locking pin prevents the fractured parts of the bolt from coming loose from the fuel element of the BWR when the expansion shank cracks. (DG)

1983-11-21

382

Fuel cell system configurations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA); Cyphers, Joseph A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

383

Nuclear fuel elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

1979-01-01

384

HTGR fuel rod deconsolidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel particles are bonded into rods by a carbonaceous matrix. In conjunction with the development of a system to determine fuel failure fractions from gamma analysis of individual particles, a technique was developed to separate the particles from the matrix after irradiation. Electrolytic deconsolidation at low power levels (2 A, 4 V) was found to yield undamaged individual particles.

Tiegs, T.N.; Ryan, E.L.; Kania, M.J.

1978-12-01

385

Diesel Dual Fuel Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work covered in this report includes a literature study of the diesel dual fuel technology (hereinafter referred to as DDF). The literature study covers earlier work that has been done regarding the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel in a DDF system. Moreover a one cylinder research diesel engine was fitted with a CNG fuel system for experimental testing. The installation of the engine and the test cell is described. Results from the tests are presented covering emissions, hea...

2008-01-01

386

Nuclear reactor fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel rod for an LWR consists of a tube closed on both sides with cylindrical fuel pellets and fission gas spaces. So that there will be as much helium as possible in the pellet area, a system of interconnected hollow spaces in the form of a central hole, grooves on the outer surface of the pellets and corrugations on the front is provided. (DG)

1979-01-01

387

MICROBIAL FUEL CELL  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent depart the cathode chamber, a cathode electrode and an electrolyte permeable membrane, wherein both the anode electrode and the cathode chamber are to be submersed into an anaerobic environment to generate electrical energy.

Angelidaki, Irini Technical University of Denmark,

388

Fuels for Transportation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a need to reduce the amount of fossil energy used for transport, both because of the easily available fossil fuel is becoming sparser and because of climate concerns. In this article, the concept of “peak oil” is briefly presented. Second, a practical approach to reduction of fossil fuel use for transport elaborated by two British commissions is presented. A key feature is the introduction of electric cars. This raises the third issue covered in this article: namely, how battery ...

Fredholm, Bertil B.; Norde?n, Bengt

2010-01-01

389

Fuel Cell History  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper from George Wand outlines the history of fuel cells and hydrogen use, beginning with historical information on battery powered electric vehicles and moving through the decades and development of a variety of different vehicles. The end of the report takes a brief look into the possible future of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to power automobiles. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Wand, George

2012-09-14

390

WWER-1000 fuel cycle improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of organization of fuel cycles with different operation time of stationary load for the reactor WWER-1000 are considered. The outcomes of matching of the characteristics for stationary load constructed on fuel cells of existing and improved designs are presented. Improved designs of a fuel cell are include increase of an altitude of a fuel stake, change of outside and axial diameters of a fuel pellet, change thickness of a cladding of a fuel cell. Effect of the layout solutions on improving of a fuel cycle WWER-1000 also considered (Authors)

2005-11-01

391

Experiments at the UKAEA Winfrith on the penetration of molten fuel into pin arrays and tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of experiments is described which studied the penetration of structures by molten uranium dioxide. The uranium dioxide was produced by ignition of a uranium/molybdenum trioxide thermite which yielded a molten mixture of uranium dioxide and molybdenum at a temperature of about 3600 K. This mixture was injected into pin arrays and tubes with driving pressures ranging from zero (a gravity pour) to 0.7 MPa. Four tests were carried out (three at room temperature and one at 6000C) using small arrays seven pins wide which gave a one-dimensional flow of melt. One further test used a full size SPX1 type subassembly with a three-dimensional melt flow pattern. There were two tests with tubes, most of the tubes being 3 mm i.d. but one was 5 mm i.d. As well as the penetration distances of the melt, which ranged from four to 17 rows in the case of the pin array tests and from 160 to 520 mm for the tubes, the penetration times and rates of heating of the pins and tubes were also measured. After each test the pin array or tubes were sectioned to find the distribution and grain structure of the solidified melt. (author)

1989-01-01

392

Fuel inspection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel inspection device of the present invention has a feature of obtaining an optimum illumination upon fuel rod interval inspection operation in a fuel pool. That is, an illumination main body used underwater is connected to a cable which is led out on a floor. A light control device is attached to the other end of the cable and an electric power cable is connected to the light control device. A light source (for example, incandescent lamp) is incorporated in the casing of the illumination main body, and a diffusion plate is disposed at the front to provide a plane light source. The light control device has a light control knob capable of remote-controlling the brightness of the light of the illumination main body. In the fuel inspection device thus constituted, halation is scarcely caused on the image screen upon inspection of fuels by a submerged type television camera to facilitate control upon inspection. Accordingly, efficiency of the fuel inspection can be improved to shorten the operation time. (I.S.)

1988-11-16

393

Fuel assembly inspection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention provides a device suitable to inspect appearance of fuel assemblies by photographing the appearance of fuel assemblies. Namely, the inspection device of the present invention measures bowing of fuel assembly or each of fuel rods or both of them based on the partially photographed images of fuel assembly. In this case, there is disposed a means which flashily projects images in the form of horizontal line from a direction intersecting obliquely relative to a horizontal cross section of the fuel assembly. A first image processing means separates the projected image pictures including projected images and calculates bowing. A second image processing means replaces the projected image pictures of the projected images based on projected images just before and after the photographing. Then, images for the measurement of bowing and images for inspection can be obtained simultaneously. As a result, the time required for the photographing can be shortened, the time for inspection can be shortened and an effect of preventing deterioration of photographing means by radiation rays can be provided. (I.S.)

1997-03-28

394

Nuclear fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the zirconium alloy cladding tubes for the fuel element for BWR. Constitution: One metal oxide compound out of the CO_3O_4/CoO compound and CuO/Cu_3O_4 compound is allocated to the place in between the fuel pellets and to the central axis of each fuel pellet. Over 4-torr oxigen partial pressure can be obtained during the reactor operation by allocating the abovementioned metal oxide compounds to the pellet central pore of each pellet or the place in between the fuel pellets, as the temperature of the fuel pellets is raised usually to more than 1,000 deg K. Thus, SCC of the cladding tube under the iodine atmosphere can be prevented. Under the equilibrium state with 4-torr oxigen partial pressure, the fuel pellet absorbs oxigen and the oxigen-to-uranium ratio for the uranium dioxide pellet becomes approximately 2.2. In view of pellet composition changing, it is necessary to set it to 2.25 or less. (Horiuchi, T.)

1984-12-14

395

Overview of fuel conversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

1991-10-06

396

Nuclear fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To increase a thermal margin by fluttening the distribution of steam volume rate and to enhance the economy of fuel by effectively modrating neutrons. Constitution: It is possible to decrease the flow rate of coolant by increasing the diameter of fuel rods more than that of water rods and moderator rods in the surroundings of these water rods and moderator rods of little heating ratio and to provide a greater thermal margin by fluttening the distribution of steam volume rate within fuel assemblies. In the vicinity of a fuel assembly wall where the flow channel has a small surface area and accordingly boiling transition easily occurs and the thermal margin is relatively small, the above-mentioned effect is remarkable when the water rods and moderator rods are of smaller diameter than those disposed admist the fuel assemblies. In the present invention, therefore, water rods or moderator rods having at least two kinds of larger diameters than fuel rods are employed, thereby enhancing safety and economy. (Takahashi, M.)

1984-12-29

397

Solid fuel burning stove  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solid fuel burning stove includes a firebox having an insulated bottom chamber in which fuel is burned. The bottom chamber includes an insulated bottom surface and walls which provides for heat retention when fuel is burn therein thereby creating high temperatures. The bottom chamber of the firebox is divided from a top chamber by a horizontally extending baffle which directs flow of exhaust gases from the bottom to the top of the firebox. The exhaust gases are burned in the top portion of the firebox by means of the heat generated within the lower chamber and the introduction of fresh combustion air. This fresh combustion air is drawn in through an orificed pipe extending along the length of the firebox. After the gases are burned in the top portion of the stove, they are communicated to a heat saver including an inverted v-shaped flow diverter which reduces the velocity of the exiting gases and provides for greater recovery of heat therefrom. The stove in accordance with the invention provides for a two-stage burning process wherein solid fuel is burned in the first stage and the volatile gases released by the fuel are burned in the second stage. In this way, the fuel is consumed in a most efficient manner.

Good, L.D.

1982-07-13

398

Thorium fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost every type of reactor has been associated at one time or another with a proposal to utilize a thorium fuel cycle. Commercial-scale experience with the use of thorium fuel cycles has however been extremely limited to date. Thorium cycles offer the attraction of good fissile material utilization in thermal reactors, and if high priority is given to this aspect, thorium could in principle have commercial attractions in this application. Given, however, the relatively advanced state of development of the U-Pu fast reactor cycle, with its even better fissile material utilization, that attraction is no longer of much significance. Thorium is inferior to depleted uranium as a fertile material in fast reactors. The article considers in detail the use of thorium fuel cycles both in thermal and fast reactors, and the parameters governing the choice between thorium-based and uranium-based cycles in these various applications. All stages of a thorium fuel cycle, including the mining of ore, conversion, and the reprocessing and fabrication of /sup 233/U fuels must be taken into account when assessing its merits. In the unlikely event that thorium reprocessing were available, while for some reason /sup 238/U-plutonium reprocessing were not, then the HTR, HWR and LWR would all be possible candidates for thorium-based thermal reactor fuel cycles

1983-01-01

399

Fuel handling benchmarking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-power fuelling is unique to the CANDU type of reactor. The systems and equipment used to handle the fuel from the time it enters the station to the time it is transferred to the spent fuel bay are designed, operated and maintained exclusively for the CANDU stations. Over the last ten years it was perceived by several CANDU utility executives and outside organizations that CANDU fuel handling (FH) performance was degrading. FH organizations were seen as insular from the rest of the station and did not appear to be working to the same standards of excellence as the rest of the industry. The concerns raised were common to the industry. In 2005, COG was requested by one of its members to undertake an industry wide fuel handling Benchmarking (FHB) exercise of CANDU fuel handling organizations. The COG members decided to 'Take the cape off fuel handling' allowing all CANDU stations to see: actual performance of FH organizations; i.e. based on performance not perception, FH best practices, and identification of stations with best practices available for widespread use. All COG members joined COG project JP 4207. Taken together, the FH Benchmarking Final Report and the station Reports provide a good picture of current CANDU FH best practices and performance. (author)

2010-06-01

400

Advanced CANDU fuel cycle vision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural uranium fuel Cycle and currently developed advanced CANDU fuel cycles in the near future are described. High neutron economy, on line refueling and a simple fuel bundle design result in unsurpassed fuel cycle flexibility and variety for CANDU reactors. These features facilitate the introduction and exploitation of advanced fuel cycles in existing CANDU reactors, without requiring major modification. These advanced fuel cycles include the use of slight enriched uranium (SEU), use of re-cycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel, direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU (DUPIC), use of plutonium-containing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, thorium fuel cycle and actinide burning in CANDU reactors. Especially the LWR/CANDU synergism is of great economical and practical significance for the countries possessing both of the LWR and CANDU nuclear power plants

1999-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Development of plutonium fuel technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of Pu fuel started in the Plutonium Fuel Development Facility (PFDF) with introduced Pu from the United States in 1966. In the PFDF, various kinds of research and development concerned with physical and chemical properties of Pu, design, chemical analysis, welding technology fuel fabrication etc. have been carried out for about 30 years. These R and D`s results in PFDF was reflected to evaluate fuel designs and to fabricate fuels for `JOYO` and `FUGEN` in the Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility (PFFF). Based on the operational experience and R and D`s results in PFDF and PFFF, remote and automated fuel fabrication technologies were adopted to supply MOX fuel for `MONJU` and `JOYO` in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF). It is purpose of this paper to report the main results of R and D of Pu fuel. (author)

Kawada, Tomio; Kishimoto, Yoichiro [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-12-01

402

EPRI fuel cladding integrity program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

Yang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

403

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15

404

Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and ‘endless’ resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, in...

Styring, Stenbjo?rn

2012-01-01

405

Fast reactor spent fuel processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of fast reactor fuel and of the fuel cycle and specific problems of fast reactor fuel reprocessing are discussed. Wet and dry methods of spent fuel reprocessing are described and the two methods are compared. Reprocessing efforts in France, FRG, Great Britain, USSR, Italy, Japan, and Belgium are reviewed. The problem is briefly outlined of proliferation associated with spent fuel reprocessing. (J.P.)

1979-01-01

406

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17

407

Light water reactor fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current state is described of the introduction in the world, of the technologies of light water reactor fuel cycle with emphasis on the technology of nuclear fuel production, spent fuel management, and radioactive waste processing and disposal. The basic technical and economic parameters are systematically classified of the individual stages of the fuel cycle and the overall developmental trends are outlined of providing fuel cycle services. (B.S.)

1981-01-01

408

Fuel performance in water storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950's prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material

1993-01-01

409

Fuel re-location chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To decrease the falling danger of fuel transport casks and enable effective utilization of spaces by communicating a fuel transport cask station and a fuel storage pool with pool plugs for fuel transport cask station of a movable partition wall type. Constitution: A channel between a fuel storage pool and a fuel transport cask station in a nuclear reactor building is communicated by way of a pool plug for fuel transport cask station of a movable partition wall type, and a drain pipeway having a cleaning spray device for fuel transport casks and a drain valve and a water pouring pipeway are provided. In this structure, the pool plug for fuel transport cask can be mounted where spent fuels are provisionally placed in the fuel transport cask station by a crane and cleaned with the cleaning spray device, and the pool plug can be detached where the spent fuels are loaded in the fuel transport casks by way of fuel exchange vehicles, whereby the cycles for lifting up and down the fuel transport casks can be decreased to attain the desired object. (Horiuchi, T.)

1981-01-01

410

Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

Cohen, Joseph Perry (Bethlehem, PA); Farese, David John (Riegelsville, PA); Xu, Jianguo (Wrightstown, PA)

2002-06-11

411

Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor.

Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

2005-10-15

412

Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor

2005-01-01

413

Hydrogen-enriched fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

1998-08-01

414

Biodegradation of biodiesel fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel fuel test substances Rape Ethyl Ester (REE), Rape Methyl Ester (RME), Neat Rape Oil (NR), Say Methyl Ester (SME), Soy Ethyl Ester (SEE), Neat Soy Oil (NS), and proportionate combinations of RME/diesel and REE/diesel were studied to test the biodegradability of the test substances in an aerobic aquatic environment using the EPA 560/6-82-003 Shake Flask Test Method. A concurrent analysis of Phillips D-2 Reference Diesel was also performed for comparison with a conventional fuel. The highest rates of percent CO2 evolution were seen in the esterified fuels, although no significant difference was noted between them. Ranges of percent CO2 evolution for esterified fuels were from 77% to 91%. The neat rape and neat soy oils exhibited 70% to 78% CO2 evolution. These rates were all significantly higher than those of the Phillips D-2 reference fuel which evolved from 7% to 26% of the organic carbon to CO2. The test substances were examined for BOD5 and COD values as a relative measure of biodegradability. Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) was experimentally derived and BOD5 and COD analyses were carried out with a diluted concentration at or below the WAF. The results of analysis at WAF were then converted to pure substance values. The pure substance BOD5 and COD values for test substances were then compared to a control substance, Phillips D-2 Reference fuel. No significant difference was noted for COD values between test substances and the control fuel. (p > 0.20). The D-2 control substance was significantly lower than all test substances for BCD, values at p 5 value

1995-11-05

415

Fissile fuel doubling time characteristics for reactor lifetime fuel logistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The establishment of nuclear fuel requirements and their efficient utilization requires a detailed knowledge of some aspects of fuel dynamics and processing during the reactor lifetime. It is shown here that the use of the fuel stockpile inventory concept can serve effectively for this fuel management purpose. The temporal variation of the fissile fuel doubling time as well as nonequilibrium core conditions are among the characteristics which thus become more evident. These characteristics - rather than a single figure-of-merit - clearly provide an improved description of the expansion capacity and/or fuel requirements of a nuclear reactor energy system

1978-01-01

416

Reformer Fuel Injector  

Science.gov (United States)

Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most efficient configuration to incorporate into the specific compact jet he1 reformer test rig. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Suder, Jennifer L.

2004-01-01

417

Reformate fuel cell system durability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this research is to identify the factors limiting the durability of fuel cells and fuel processors. This includes identifying PEM fuel cell durability issues for operating on pure hydrogen, and those that arise from the fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons (e.g., gasoline) as a function of fuel composition and impurity content. Benchmark comparisons with the durability of fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen are used to identify limiting factors unique to fuel processing. We describe the design, operation and operational results of the durability system, including the operating conditions for the system, fuel processor sub-section operation over 1000 hours, post-mortem characterization of the catalysts in the fuel processor, and single cell operation.

Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01

418

The fabrication of nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chronology of fuel product and core management development over the past 25 years in the USA is explained. Nuclear fuel for Westinghouse reactors is made by converting enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into uranium dioxide (UO2) powder. The powder is pressed into pellets which are loaded into zircalloy fuel tubes (typically over 14 million pellets in 50,952 rods). The fuel rods are arranged in fuel assemblies which are shipped to the reactor site (typically 193 fuel assemblies are needed for one 1000MWe reactor). Each stage of the fuel fabrication cycle (cladding manufacture, chemical conversion UF6 - UO2, pellet production, fuel rod fabrication, grid assembly, skeleton assembly, fuel assembly) is described, with particular reference to the Westinghouse process and plant. (UK)

1987-01-01

419

Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

2005-01-01

420

Advances in PHWR fuel technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel design for Indian PHWRs started with the selection of circular array of 19-element wire wrap natural uranium dioxide fuel for RAPS-1. Subsequently, the design was updated to split spacer design. In Indian PHWRs, 19-element fuel bundles are used in the sixteen number of 220 MWe reactors and the 37-element fuel bundle design in 540 MWe TAPS- 3 and 4 units and the 700 MWe PHWR power reactors. The 37-element fuel bundle design is used by all the PHWR operating countries. During the last 38 years of operation of PHWRs in India, number of improvements in fuel design, fabrication and quality control and operation have been carried out to improve fuel performance and simplify the fuel production. The paper gives the different advanced fuel design concepts studied for Indian PHWRs

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly.

Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

1986-01-01

422

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01

423

Nuclear fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost $400 billion is likely to be spent on the world's fuel cycle services and facilities during the last 17 years of this century. At the end of 1982, there were 294 reactors on line in 25 nations. IAEA estimates show more than 500 units in operation outside the U.S. by 2000. This outlook is spurring fuel cycle developments in all nations. Outside the U.S., the desire for energy self-sufficiency has led a half dozen nations to close their fuel cycles, and others to consider doing so With the trend to extended burnups, longer cycles, higher enrichment, and low leakage fuel shuffling came the need for burnable absorbers to control power peaking and the moderator coefficient at the beginning of the cycle. Most PWRs use Al2O3-B4C pellets as the burnable absorbers. There is a recent trend toward use of gadolinia as the burnable absorber. It is mixed directly with the urania to produce UO2-Gd2O3 pellets. These are put in selected fuel rods of the assemblies, and a number of demonstrations are underway here and abroad

1983-01-01

424

Fueling Global Fishing Fleets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L/t. Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible protein energy content of the resulting catch

2005-12-01

425

Fuel retention in tokamaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Tritium retention constitutes an outstanding problem for ITER operation and future fusion reactors, particularly for the choice of the first wall materials. In present day tokamaks, fuel retention is evaluated by two complementary methods. The in situ gas balance allows evaluation of how much fuel is retained during a discharge and, typically, up to one day of experiments. Post-mortem analysis is used to determine where the fuel is retained, integrated over an experimental campaign. In all the carbon clad devices, using the two methods, the retention is demonstrated to be very closely related to the carbon net erosion. This results from plasma-wall interaction with ion and charge-exchange fluxes, ELMs and is proportional to the pulse duration. The fuel retention by implantation saturates at high wall temperatures and limits the D/C ratio in the deposited layers but, as far as a carbon source exists, the dominant retention process remains the co-deposition of carbon with deuterium. In full metallic device, in the absence of wall conditioning with boron, co-deposition is strongly reduced and fuel retention below 1% can be achieved. Extrapolation to ITER shows that removing the carbon from the plasma-facing components would increase the number of discharges to 2500 before reaching the maximum tritium limit of 700 g.

Loarer, T.

2009-06-01

426

Fuel cell system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

Early, Jack (Perth Amboy, NJ); Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Stawsky, Alfred (Teaneck, NJ)

1982-01-01

427

Development of fuel service technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Related PWR nuclear fuel, strategy and scope of work of the nuclear fuel service technology should be established to develope nuclear fuel service technology and related equipments and tools so as to provide sound PWR nuclear fuel and increase nuclear power plants safety and operability. At present situation, our own PWR nuclear fuel service technology should be established through understanding induced foreign technology transferred along with PWR Fuel Technology Transfer. As a basic research project to establish the strategy and scope of work for the PWR Fuel Service Technology Development, technical informations of foreign technology have been reviewed and strategy and scope of work of the fuel performance inspection and measuring technology and repair equipment design and manufacturing have been studied. In order to preserve safe and economical operation of power plants, mechanical integrity of the nuclear fuel should be insured. Therefore, establishment of nuclear fuel service technology and equipment engineering is the most important supplementary technology. In order to delineate the strategy of nuclear fuel service technology development and clarity our technical position in this special field, related technologies of foreign nuclear fuel technology partners and that of in Korea have been analyzed and compared. Design characteristics of various fuel in operation has neen studied to provide the direction of conceptional design of poolside inspection and measurement equipments as well as damaged fuel repair equipments. Fuel failure mechanisms which have occured in several nuclear power plants have been studied to provide valuable information to improve fuel design, fabrication technology and plant operation condition. Status of reactor coolant activity analysis technique on operating reactors was evaluated for the development of inpile fuel integrity analysis technology. Conceptional design of poolside inspection/measurement equipment and damaged fuel repair equipments was performed to establish strategy in equipment localization. (Author)

1986-01-01

428

Stark State Fuel Cell Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fuel Cell Prototyping Center is designed for use by emerging and fuel cell-related technology companies to assist them in pre-commercialization prototyping and demonstration stages of the development of fuel cell-based power generation systems. There is a good animation and video about fuel cells provided by the Fuel Cell Prototyping Center. Links to the animation and video are about two thirds of the way down the page. There is also curriculum and information about a one-year technology certificate program in fuel cell technology.

2009-10-02

429

Fuel-air mixing apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus for mixing fuel and air for combustion in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. Various construction details capable of reducing pollutant emissions in the engine exhaust are discussed. In detailed form scoops at the upstream end of the combustion chamber provide uniform flow about the fuel nozzles. Deflectors downstream of the fuel nozzles collimate the scooped air to aerodynamically confine the mixing fuel and air. Premature spreading of the fuel and air before nearly homogeneous fuel-air ratios are achieved is inhibited.

Dvorak, H.G.; Klapatch, R.D.; Russell, S.; Spadaccini, L.J.

1983-12-13

430

Sound bets or fantasy fuels?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite many attempts to wean the automotive industry from traditional fuels, it seems likely that petrol and diesel will continue to be the fuels of choice for years to come. Research programs into alternative fuels have included trials of natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and fuel cells and tests continue. Vehicle fuel manufacturers have invested heavily in these research programs, but the successful uptake of alternative, automotive fuels depends not on them, but on the automobile manufacturers themselves. Environmental concerns about vehicle emissions need to be included in national legislation and international agreements in order to be an effective reign on exhaust fume pollution. (UK)

Chase, A.

1997-08-01

431

Fuel assembly configuration image analyzer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron irradiation inside an operating nuclear reactor changes the dimensions of the reactor fuel assembly and its components. For example, irradiation can lengthen the fuel assembly and fuel rods, and change the gap between fuel rods. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. have jointly developed a new, computer-assisted system to measure such changes. Using this system, a fuel assembly can be videotaped with underwater cameras and its dimensions precisely analyzed through efficient processing and automatic measurement of the video images. (author)

1998-11-01

432

The fuel cycle scoping system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel<