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1

Corrosion Evaluation of RERTR Uranium Molybdenum Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) mandate to replace the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, research into the development of LEU fuel for research reactors has been active since the late 1970’s. Originally referred to as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program the new effort named Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is nearing the goal of replacing the standard aluminum clad dispersion highly enriched uranium aluminide fuel with a new LEU fuel. The five domestic high performance research reactors undergoing this conversion are High Flux Isotope reactor (HFIR), Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reactor, Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor II (MITR-II). The design of these reactors requires a higher neutron flux than other international research reactors, which to this point has posed unique challenges in the design and development of the new mandated LEU fuel. The new design utilizes a monolithic fuel configuration in order to obtain sufficient 235U within the LEU stoichoimetry to maintain the fission reaction within the domestic test reactors. The change from uranium aluminide dispersion fuel type to uranium molybdenum (UMo) monolithic configuration requires examination of possible corrosion issues associated with the new fuel meat. A focused analysis of the UMo fuel under potential corrosion conditions, within the ATR and under aqueous storage indicates a slow and predictable corrosion rate. Additional corrosion testing is recommended for the highest burn-up fuels to confirm observed corrosion rate trends. This corrosion analysis will focus only on the UMo fuel and will address corrosion of ancillary components such as cladding only in terms of how it affects the fuel. The calculations and corrosion scenarios are weighted with a conservative bias to provide additional confidence with the results. The actual corrosion rates of UMo fuel is very likely to be lower than assumed within this report which can be confirmed with additional testing.

A K Wertsching

2012-09-01

2

Fabrication results of gamma uranium-molybdenum alloys fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the results on the development of the technology of the fabrication of the gamma uranium molybdenum alloys in IPEN-CNEN-SP, and presents some of their more recent experimental results. The importance of this class of fuels relies on the fact that they are the fuels considered to be loaded in the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, RMB, stated as one of the tasks in the Nuclear Brazilian Plan, PNB. The study of {gamma} UMo fuels started with their preparation by the arc and induction melting technique, followed by thermal treatment to the obtention of a better degree of homogenization, under argon atmosphere at 1000 deg C. Additions of Mo varied from 5 to 10% weight. Samples of both classes of fuels were characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction, density, SEM and optical microscopy with image analysis, The main results of the alloy's production and an emphasis of the use of XRD data in the gamma-UMo powder obtention process are presented and emphasized here. The results enabled us to study future methodologies to avoid most of the problems encountered in the recent technological approach to the fabrication of the alloys of UMo, which will lead to the production of materials with best efficiency and quality. (author)

Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de; Carvalho, Elita F. Urano de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Combustivel Nuclear], e-mail: fabio@ipen.br; Riella, Humberto Gracher [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: riella@enq.ufsc.br

2009-07-01

3

Fabrication results of gamma uranium-molybdenum alloys fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the results on the development of the technology of the fabrication of the gamma uranium molybdenum alloys in IPEN-CNEN-SP, and presents some of their more recent experimental results. The importance of this class of fuels relies on the fact that they are the fuels considered to be loaded in the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, RMB, stated as one of the tasks in the Nuclear Brazilian Plan, PNB. The study of ? UMo fuels started with their preparation by the arc and induction melting technique, followed by thermal treatment to the obtention of a better degree of homogenization, under argon atmosphere at 1000 deg C. Additions of Mo varied from 5 to 10% weight. Samples of both classes of fuels were characterized mainly by X-ray diffraction, density, SEM and optical microscopy with image analysis, The main results of the alloy's production and an emphasis of the use of XRD data in the gamma-UMo powder obtention process are presented and emphasized here. The results enabled us to study future methodologies to avoid most of the problems encountered in the recent technological approach to the fabrication of the alloys of UMo, which will lead to the production of materials with best efficiency and quality. (author)

2009-10-02

4

Irradiation performance of uranium-molybdenum alloy dispersion fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels of Material Test Reactors (MTR) are analyzed in terms of their irradiation performance. The irradiation performance aspects are associated to the neutronic and thermal hydraulics aspects to propose a new core configuration to the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP using U-Mo-Al fuels. Core configurations using U-10Mo-Al fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 8 gU/cm3 were analyzed with the computational programs Citation and MTRCR-IEA R1. Core configurations for fuels with uranium densities variable from 3 to 5 gU/cm3 showed to be adequate to use in IEA-R1 reactor e should present a stable in reactor performance even at high burn-up. (author)

2005-01-01

5

Progress in irradiation performance of experimental uranium - Molybdenum dispersion fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-density dispersion fuel experiment, RERTR-4, was removed from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) after reaching a peak U-235 burnup of ?80% and is presently undergoing postirradiation examination at the ANL alpha-gamma hot cells. This test consists of 32 mini fuel plates of which 27 were fabricated with nominally 6 and 8 g cm-3 atomized and machined uranium alloy powders containing 7 wt% and 10 wt% molybdenum. In addition, two miniplates containing solid U-10 wt% Mo foils and three containing 6 g cm-3 U3Si2 are part of the test. The results of the postirradiation examination and analysis of RERTR-4 in conjunction with data from previous tests performed to lower burnup will be presented. (author)

2002-01-01

6

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel - conclusions of an international workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-Mo alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17-18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the U.S. RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper. (author)

2000-01-01

7

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel -- conclusions of an international workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-MO alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17--18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the US RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper.

Snelgrove, J. L.; Languilee, A.

2000-02-14

8

Qualification of uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel - conclusions of an international workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-one participants representing 21 reactors, fuel developers, fuel fabricators, and fuel reprocessors in 11 countries discussed the requirements for qualification of U-Mo alloy fuel at a workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory on January 17-18, 2000. Consensus was reached that the qualification plans of the U.S. RERTR program and the French U-Mo fuel development program are valid. The items to be addressed during qualification are summarized in the paper. (author)

Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States); Languille, A. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

2000-07-01

9

Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature, time and pre-treatment to stabilize the gamma structure. The addition of a bit low ternary excess and formation of an intergranular phase, the increase in stability, it was demonstrated that there is not a damage in the formation of their powders.(author)

2008-01-01

10

Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process ? 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce ?16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually (?10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M

2007-01-01

11

Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the bounds of known technology and are adaptable to the high-volume production required to process {approx} 2.5 to 4 tons of U/Mo and produce {approx}16,000 flat plates for U.S. reactors annually ({approx}10,000 of which are needed for HFIR operations). The reference flow sheet is not intended to necessarily represent the best or the most economical way to manufacture a LEU foil fuel for HFIR but simply represents a 'snapshot' in time of technology and is intended to identify the process steps that will likely be required to manufacture a foil fuel. Changes in some of the process steps selected for the reference flow sheet are inevitable; however, no one step or series of steps dominates the overall flow sheet requirements. A result of conceptualizing a reference flow sheet was the identification of the greater number of steps required for a foil process when compared to the dispersion fuel process. Additionally, in most of the foil processing steps, bare uranium must be handled, increasing the complexity of these processing areas relative to current operations. Based on a likely total cost of a few hundred million dollars for a new facility, it is apparent that line item funding will be necessary and could take as much as 8 to 10 years to complete. The infrastructure cost could exceed $100M.

Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

2007-09-30

12

Analysis of intergranular fission-gas bubble-size distributions in irradiated uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical model for the nucleation and growth of intra and intergranular fission-gas bubbles is used to characterize fission-gas bubble development in low-enriched U-Mo alloy fuel irradiated in the advanced test reactor in Idaho as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) program. Fuel burnup was limited to less than ?7.8 at.% U in order to capture the fuel-swelling stage prior to irradiation-induced recrystallization. The model couples the calculation of the time evolution of the average intergranular bubble radius and number density to the calculation of the intergranular bubble-size distribution based on differential growth rate and sputtering coalescence processes. Recent results on TEM analysis of intragranular bubbles in U-Mo were used to set the irradiation-induced diffusivity and re-solution rate in the bubble-swelling model. Using these values, good agreement was obtained for intergranular bubble distribution compared against measured post-irradiation examination (PIE) data using grain-boundary diffusion enhancement factors of 15-125, depending on the Mo concentration. This range of enhancement factors is consistent with values obtained in the literature.

2009-04-15

13

Spectrographic analysis of uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A spectrographic method of analysis has been developed for uranium-molybdenum alloys containing up to 10 % Mo. The carrier distillation technique, with gallium oxide and graphite as carriers, is used for the semiquantitative determination of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni and Si, involving the conversion of the samples into oxides. As a consequence of the study of the influence of the molybdenum on the line intensities, it is useful to prepare only one set of standards with 0,6 % MoO3. Total burning excitation is used for calcium, employing two sets of standards with 0,6 and 7.5 MoO3. (Author) 5 refs.

1967-01-01

14

Development of a high density fuel based on uranium-molybdenum alloys with high compatibility in high temperatures; Desenvolvimento de um combustivel de alta densidade a base das ligas uranio-molibdenio com alta compatibilidade em altas temperaturas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work has as its objective the development of a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on the gamma-UMo alloys, for utilization where it is necessary satisfactory behavior in high temperatures, considering its utilization as dispersion. For its accomplishment, it was started from the analysis of the RERTR ('Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors') results and some theoretical works involving the fabrication of gamma-uranium metastable alloys. A ternary addition is proposed, supported by the properties of binary and ternary uranium alloys studied, having the objectives of the gamma stability enhancement and an ease to its powder fabrication. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum were prepared with 5 to 10% Mo addition, and 1 and 3% of ternary, over a gamma U7Mo binary base alloy. In all the steps of its preparation, the alloys were characterized with the traditional techniques, to the determination of its mechanical and structural properties. To provide a process for the alloys powder obtention, its behavior under hydrogen atmosphere were studied, in thermo analyser-thermo gravimeter equipment. Temperatures varied from the ambient up to 1000 deg C, and times from 15 minutes to 16 hours. The results validation were made in a semi-pilot scale, where 10 to 50 g of powders of some of the alloys studied were prepared, under static hydrogen atmosphere. Compatibility studies were conducted by the exposure of the alloys under oxygen and aluminum, to the verification of possible reactions by means of differential thermal analysis. The alloys were exposed to a constant heat up to 1000 deg C, and their performances were evaluated in terms of their reaction resistance. On the basis of the results, it was observed that ternary additions increases the temperatures of the reaction with aluminum and oxidation, in comparison with the gamma UMo binaries. A set of conditions to the hydration of the alloys were defined, more restrictive in terms of temperature, time and pre-treatment to stabilize the gamma structure. The addition of a bit low ternary excess and formation of an intergranular phase, the increase in stability, it was demonstrated that there is not a damage in the formation of their powders.(author)

Oliveira, Fabio Branco Vaz de

2008-07-01

15

Surface engineering of low enriched uranium-molybdenum  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent attempts to qualify the LEU(Mo) dispersion plate fuel with Si addition to the Al matrix up to high power and burn-up have not yet been successful due to unacceptable fuel plate swelling at a local burn-up above 60% 235U. The root cause of the failures is clearly related directly to the formation of the U(Mo)-Al(Si) interaction layer. Excessive formation of these layers around the fuel kernels severely weakens the local mechanical integrity and eventually leads to pillowing of the plate. In 2008, SCK·CEN has launched the SELENIUM U(Mo) dispersion fuel development project in an attempt to find an alternative way to reduce the interaction between U(Mo) fuel kernels and the Al matrix to a significantly low level: by applying a coating on the U(Mo) kernels. Two fuel plates containing 8gU/cc U(Mo) coated with respectively 600 nm Si and 1000 nm ZrN in a pure Al matrix were manufactured. These plates were irradiated in the BR2 reactor up to a maximum heat flux of 470 W/cm2 until a maximum local burn-up of approximately 70% 235U (˜50% plate average) was reached. Awaiting the PIE results, the advantages of applying a coating are discussed in this paper through annealing experiments and TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) calculations.

Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

2013-09-01

16

PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FROM URANIUM/MOLYBDENUM ALLOY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site will recycle a nuclear fuel comprised of 90% uranium-10% molybdenum by weight. The process flowsheet calls for dissolution of the material in nitric acid to a uranium concentration of 15-20 g/L without the formation of precipitates. The dissolution will be followed by separation of uranium from molybdenum using solvent extraction with 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin. Testing with the fuel validated dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature. Batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed for the extraction, strip and wash stages with particular focus on the distribution of molybdenum.

Pierce, R; Ann Visser, A; James Laurinat, J

2007-10-15

17

PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FROM URANIUM/MOLYBDENUM ALLOY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site will recycle a nuclear fuel comprised of 90% uranium-10% molybdenum by weight. The process flowsheet calls for dissolution of the material in nitric acid to a uranium concentration of 15-20 g/L without the formation of precipitates. The dissolution will be followed by separation of uranium from molybdenum using solvent extraction with 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin. Testing with the fuel validated dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature. Batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed for the extraction, strip and wash stages with particular focus on the distribution of molybdenum

2007-10-15

18

SASSE MODELING OF A URANIUM MOLYBDENUM SEPARATION FLOWSHEET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) is evaluating the feasibility of processing material from the Super Kukla Prompt Burst Reactor, which operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. This material is comprised of 90 wt % uranium (U) (at approximately 20% 235U enrichment) alloyed with 10 wt % molybdenum (Mo). The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) in the H-Canyon dissolvers and then to process the dissolved material through H-Canyon First and Second Cycle solvent extraction. The U product from Second Cycle will be sent to the highly enriched uranium (HEU) blend down program. In the blend down program, enriched U from the 1EU product stream will be blended with natural U at a ratio of 1 part enriched U per 3.5 parts natural U to meet a reactor fuel specification of 4.95% 235U before being shipped for use by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its nuclear plants. The TVA specification calls for <200 mg Mo/g U (200 ppm). Since natural U has about 10 mg Mo/g U, the required purity of the 1EU product prior to blending is about 800 mg Mo/g U, allowing for uncertainties. HCE requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) define a flowsheet for the safe and efficient processing of the U-10Mo material. This report presents a computational model of the solvent extraction portion of the proposed flowsheet. The two main objectives of the computational model are to demonstrate that the Mo impurity requirement can be met and to show that the solvent feed rates in the proposed flowsheet, in particular to 1A and 1D Banks, are adequate to prevent refluxing of U and thereby ensure nuclear criticality safety. SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction), a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that supports Argonne National Laboratory's proprietary AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) code, was selected to model the U/Mo separation flowsheet. SASSE spreadsheet models of H-Canyon First and Second Cycle solvent extraction show that a standard unirradiated fuel flowsheet is capable of separating U from Mo in dissolved solutions of a U/Mo alloy. The standard unirradiated fuel flowsheet is used, except for increases in solvent feed rates to prevent U refluxing and thereby ensure nuclear criticality safety and substitution of higher HNO{sub 3} concentrations for aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3})){sub 3} in the feed to 1A Bank. (Unlike Savanah River Site (SRS) fuels, the U/Mo material contains no aluminum (Al). As a result, higher HNO3 concentrations are required in the 1AF to provide the necessary salting.) The TVA limit for the final blended product is 200 {micro}g Mo/g U, which translates to approximately 800 mg Mo/g U for the Second Cycle product solution. SASSE calculations give a Mo impurity level of 4 {micro}g Mo/g U in the Second Cycle product solution, conservatively based on Mo organic-to-aqueous distributions measured during minibank testing for previous processing of Piqua reactor fuel. The calculated impurity level is slightly more than two orders of magnitude lower than the required level. The Piqua feed solution contained a significant concentration of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, which is not present in the feed solution for the proposed flowsheet. Measured distribution data indicate that, without Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} or other salting agents present, Mo extracts into the organic phase to a much lesser extent, so that the overall U/Mo separation is better and the Mo impurities in the Second Cycle product drop to negligible concentrations. The 1DF U concentration of 20 g/L specified by the proposed flowsheet requires an increased 1DX organic feed rate to satisfy H-Canyon Double Contingency Analysis (DCA) guidelines for the prevention of U refluxing. The ranges for the 1AX, 1BS, and 1DX organic flow rates in the proposed flowsheet are set so that the limiting ratios of organic/aqueous flow rates exactly meet the minimum values specified by the DCA.

Laurinat, J

2007-05-31

19

SASSE MODELING OF A URANIUM MOLYBDENUM SEPARATION FLOWSHEET  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) is evaluating the feasibility of processing material from the Super Kukla Prompt Burst Reactor, which operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. This material is comprised of 90 wt % uranium (U) (at approximately 20% 235U enrichment) alloyed with 10 wt % molybdenum (Mo). The objective is to dissolve the material in nitric acid (HNO3) in the H-Canyon dissolvers and then to process the dissolved material through H-Canyon First and Second Cycle solvent extraction. The U product from Second Cycle will be sent to the highly enriched uranium (HEU) blend down program. In the blend down program, enriched U from the 1EU product stream will be blended with natural U at a ratio of 1 part enriched U per 3.5 parts natural U to meet a reactor fuel specification of 4.95% 235U before being shipped for use by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its nuclear plants. The TVA specification calls for 3 concentrations for aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3))3 in the feed to 1A Bank. (Unlike Savanah River Site (SRS) fuels, the U/Mo material contains no aluminum (Al). As a result, higher HNO3 concentrations are required in the 1AF to provide the necessary salting.) The TVA limit for the final blended product is 200 (micro)g Mo/g U, which translates to approximately 800 mg Mo/g U for the Second Cycle product solution. SASSE calculations give a Mo impurity level of 4 (micro)g Mo/g U in the Second Cycle product solution, conservatively based on Mo organic-to-aqueous distributions measured during minibank testing for previous processing of Piqua reactor fuel. The calculated impurity level is slightly more than two orders of magnitude lower than the required level. The Piqua feed solution contained a significant concentration of Al(NO3)3, which is not present in the feed solution for the proposed flowsheet. Measured distribution data indicate that, without Al(NO3)3 or other salting agents present, Mo extracts into the organic phase to a much lesser extent, so that the overall U/Mo separation is better and the Mo impurities in the Second Cycle product drop to negligible concentrations. The 1DF U concentration of 20 g/L specified by the proposed flowsheet requires an increased 1DX organic feed rate to satisfy H-Canyon Double Contingency Analysis (DCA) guidelines for the prevention of U refluxing. The ranges for the 1AX, 1BS, and 1DX organic flow rates in the proposed flowsheet are set so that the limiting ratios of organic/aqueous flow rates exactly meet the minimum values specified by the DCA

2007-01-01

20

Basic design of a rotating disk centrifugal atomizer for uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] One of the most used techniques to produce metallic powders is the centrifugal atomization with a rotating disk. This process is employ to fabricate ductile metallic particles of uranium-molybdenum alloys (typically U- 7 % Mo, by weight) for nuclear fuel elements for research and testing reactors. These alloys exhibit a face-centered cubic structure (? phase) which is stable above 700 C degrees and can be retained at room temperature. The rotating disk centrifugal atomization allows a rapid solidification of spherical metallic droplets of about 40 to 100 ?m, considered adequate to manufacture nuclear fuel elements. Besides the thermo-physical properties of both the alloy and the cooling gas, the main parameters of the process are the radius of the disk (R), the diameter of the atomization chamber (D), the disk rotation speed (?), the liquid volume flow rate (Q) and the superheating of the liquid (?T). In this work, they were applied approximate analytical models to estimate the optimal geometrical and operative parameters to obtain spherical metallic powder of U- 7 % Mo alloy. Three physical phenomena were considerate: the liquid metal flow along the surface of the disk, the fragmentation and spheroidization of the droplets and the cooling and solidification of the droplets. The principal results are the more suitable gas is helium; R ? 20 mm; D ? 1 m; ? 20,000 - 50,000 rpm; Q ? 4 - 10 cm3/s; ?T ? 100 - 200 C degrees. By applying the relevant non-dimensional parameters governing the main physical phenomena, the conclusion is that the more appropriate non-radioactive metal to simulate the atomization of U- 7 % Mo is gold[es] Una de las tecnicas utilizadas para la produccion de polvos metalicos es la atomizacion centrifuga con el metodo de disco rotatorio. En este proceso un metal fundido, que escurre por un delgado orificio practicado en el fondo de un recipiente (embudo), incide sobre un disco que gira a altas velocidades. En la periferia del disco, el liquido metalico es eyectado centrifugamente y fragmentado en pequenias gotas. Durante el vuelo, las pequenias gotas (diametro medio (d) entre 10-1000?m) tienden a esferoidizarse por efecto de la tension superficial y solidifican por enfriamiento convectivo y, en menor medida, radiactivo. Una de las aplicaciones de la atomizacion centrifuga es la obtencion de polvos de aleaciones ductiles de uranio-molibdeno (tipicamente U-7 % Mo, en peso) para combustibles nucleares de reactores de investigacion y produccion de radioisotopos. Estas aleaciones presentan una estructura cubica de cuerpo centrado (fase ? ), estable por encima de los 700 grados centigrados, que puede ser retenida a temperatura ambiente y a las temperaturas tanto de fabricacion de los combustibles como de operacion del reactor. La atomizacion por el metodo del disco giratorio a partir del estado liquido, permite una solidificacion rapida (retencion de la fase ? y a bajas temperaturas), y la obtencion de particulas con forma esferica y tamanios adecuados (40-100?m) para la fabricacion de combustibles nucleares. Las principales variables en este proceso son: geometricas (radio del disco (R) y diametro de la camara de atomizacion (D), operativas (velocidad angular (?), caudal de colada (Q) y sobrecalentamiento del liquido (?Tsc)). El objetivo del trabajo es estimar los valores optimos de las variables geometricas y operativas, y seleccionar el gas de enfriamiento, el material para la fabricacion del disco, y la seleccion, en base a la teoria de la semejanza, de un metal o aleacion no-contaminante que simule, adecuadamente, el proceso de atomizacion centrifuga de uranio y posibilite la puesta a punto de un atomizador. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que los rangos de valores mas convenientes para los parametros de operacion son: a-) Para Q, 4-10cm3/s (tiempo de proceso entre 10 y 60s; b-) Para ?, 20000-50000rpm. El disco debe tener un radio R?20mm, y el gas de enfriamiento debe ser He. El oro es el unico metal sustituto que permite simular simultanea y satisfactoria

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

A study of phase transformations processes in 0,5 to 4% mo uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Isothermal and continuous cooling transformations process have been established on uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 4 w% Mo. Transformations process of the ? and ? solid solutions are described. These processes depend upon molybdenum concentration. Out of the ? solid solution phase appears an eutectoid decomposition of ? to (? + ?) or the formation of a martensitic phase ?''. The ? solid solution shows a decomposition of ? to (? + ?) or (? + ?'), or a formation of martensitic phases a' or a'b. The U-Mo equilibrium diagram is discussed, particularly in low concentrations zones. Limits between domains (? + ?) and (? + ?), (? + ?) and ?, (? + ?) and ?, have been determined. (author)[fr] Les processus des transformations isothermes, et au cours de refroidissements continus ont ete etablis sur les alliages uranium-molybdene de 0,5 a 4 % en poids de Mo. Ceci a permis de mettre en evidence les processus des transformations de solutions solides ? et ?, differents suivant la teneur en molybdene de l'alliage. Dans le premier cas il y a decomposition eutectoide de ? en (? + ?) ou formations d'une phase martensitique ?''. Dans le second cas il y a decomposition de ? soit en (? + ?) soit en (? + ?') suivant la temperature, ou bien formation des phases martensitiques ?' ou ?'b. Le diagramme d'equilibre, uranium-molybdene est sujet a de nombreuses controverses, en particulier dans la zone des faibles concentrations. Les limites entre les domaines (? + ?) et (? + ?), (? + ?) et ?, (? + ?) et ?, ont ete determinees. (auteur)

1959-01-01

22

Obtention of uranium-molybdenum alloy ingots microstructure and phase characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The replacement of high enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} > 85 wt%) by low enriched uranium (U-{sup 235} < 20 wt%) nuclear fuels in research and test reactors is being implemented as an initiative of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, conceived in the USA since mid-70s, in order to avoid nuclear weapons proliferation. Such replacement implies in the use of compounds or alloys with higher uranium densities. Several uranium alloys that fill this requirement has been investigated since then. Among these alloys, U-Mo presents great application potential due to its physical properties and good behavior during irradiation, which makes it an important option as a nuclear fuel material for the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. The development of the plate-type nuclear fuel based on U-Mo alloys is being performed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) and also at the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN. U-{sup 10}Mo ingots were melted in an induction furnace with protective argon atmosphere. The microstructure of the ingots were characterized through optical and scanning electronic microscopy in the as cast and heat treated conditions. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction were used as characterization techniques for elemental analysis and phases determination. It was confirmed the presence of metastable gamma-phase in the as cast condition, surrounded by hypereutectoid alpha-phase (uranium-rich phase), as well as a pearlite-like constituent, composed by alternated lamellas of U{sub 2}Mo compound and alpha-phase, in the heat treated condition. (author)

Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Braga, Daniel M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.b, E-mail: bragadm@cdtn.b, E-mail: jbp@cdtn.b, E-mail: jgmb@cdtn.b, E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2011-07-01

23

Study of the quenching and subsequent return to room temperature of uranium-chromium, uranium-iron, and uranium-molybdenum alloys containing only small amounts of the alloying element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of an apparatus which makes possible thermal pre-treatments in vacuo, quenching carried out in a high purity argon atmosphere, and simultaneous recording of time temperature cooling and thermal contraction curves, the author has examined the transformations which occur in uranium-chromium, uranium-iron and uranium-molybdenum alloys during their quenching and subsequent return to room temperature. For uranium-chromium and uranium-iron alloys, the temperature at which the ? ? ? transformation starts varies very little with the rate of cooling. For uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 atom per cent of Mo, this temperature is lowered by 120 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn. The temperature at which the ? ? ? transformation starts is lowered by 170 deg. C for a cooling rate of 500 deg. C/mn in the case of uranium-chromium alloy containing 0,37 atom per cent of Cr. The temperature is little affected in the case of uranium-iron alloys. The addition of chromium or iron makes it possible to conserve the form ? at ordinary temperatures after quenching from the ? and ? regions. The ? phase is particularly unstable and changes into needles of the ? form even at room temperatures according to an autocatalytic transformation law similar to the austenitic-martensitic transformation law in the case of iron. The ? phase obtained by quenching from the ? ph? region. Chromium is a more effective stabiliser of the ? phase than is iron. Unfortunately it causes serious surface cracking. The ? ? ? transformation in uranium-chromium alloys has been followed at room temperature by means of micro-cinematography. The author has not observed the direct ? ? ? transformation in uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 2,8 per cent of molybdenum even for cooling rates of up to 2000 deg. C/s. He has however observed the formation of several martensitic structures. (author)

1960-01-01

24

UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

2006-10-01

25

Contribution to the study of remedy solutions to uranium(molybdenum)/aluminium interactions: role of silicon addition to aluminium, study of coupled effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the project development and qualification program of a nuclear fuel with Low Enriched Uranium for Materials Testing Reactors, the dispersed U(Mo)/Al fuel is being developed due to its excellent stability during irradiation. However, in pile experiments showed that depending on the irradiation conditions (e.g. high burnup or high heat flux), an extensive interaction occurs between the fissile element U(Mo) and the Al based matrix resulting in swelling, which could eventually lead to a fuel plate failure. Among the ways to improve the behavior of the dispersed U(Mo) fuel, the solution now seen as the reference remedy by the entire scientific community is the addition of silicon into the aluminum matrix. In order to provide some understanding and optimizing the solution 'Si additions into Al matrix' under neutron irradiation, an out of pile study is performed on (i) the interaction mechanisms involved in the U(Mo)/Al (Si) system and (ii) the impact of the Si additions into the Al matrix on alternative solutions to the U(Mo)/Al interactions, namely the modification of the ?-U(Mo) fissile compound by adding a third element and/or modifying the interface between the ?-U(Mo) fissile compound and the matrix. This document provides a mechanistic description of the U(7Mo)/Al(Si) interaction for a range of Si content in Al between 2 and 10 wt.%, based on the multi-scale characterization of diffusion couples. The location of the Mo and its role in the reaction mechanisms are demonstrated. The influence of elements X = Y, Cu, Zr, Ti, Cr, on the U (Mo)/Al and U (Mo)/Al (Si) interactions mechanisms was then studied. It is shown that adding a third element to the U(Mo) alloy acts on the second order on diffusion kinetics and (micro)structure of the interaction layer compared to the addition of Si into Al. Finally, an alumina coating which shows a potential interest to improve the performance of the fuel has been developed. (author)

2011-01-01

26

Update on fuel fabrication development and testing at Argonne National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In its effort to develop research reactor fuel with a high fissile loading, Argonne National Laboratory has continued its advanced fuel development efforts. Monolithic fuel, where the fuel is in the form of a single fuel foil, is being developed as the ultimate in fuel loading capacity. Work has been done on different monolithic fabrication methods that have resulted in process refinements. Effort is also underway to develop a uranium-molybdenum dispersion fuel plate that will be resistant to the irradiation shortcomings noted in previous tests. Alloying additions to the aluminum matrix are being investigated. These fuels are being fabricated for use in irradiation experiments scheduled for insertion in 2005. (author)

2005-01-01

27

Uranium-Molybdenum particles produced by electro-erosion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have produced spheroidal U-Mo particles by the electro-erosion method using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterised by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS-EDAX) and X-ray diffraction. Spheroidal UO2 particles with a peculiar distribution size were obtained with two distribution centred at 10 and 70 ?m. The obtained particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds. (author)

2003-01-01

28

SASSE Modeling of a Uranium/Molybdenum Separation Flowsheet.  

Science.gov (United States)

H-Canyon Engineering (HCE) is evaluating the feasibility of processing material from the Super Kukla Prompt Burst Reactor, which operated at the Nevada Test Site from 1964 to 1978. This material is comprised of 90 wt % uranium (U) (at approximately 20% 23...

J. E. Laurinat

2007-01-01

29

SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), using 4 M HNO{sub 3}-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and 5 M HNO{sub 3}. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 {micro}g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 {micro}g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic.

Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R

2007-06-07

30

Progress in the development of very high density research and test reactor fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New nuclear fuels are being developed to enable many of the most important research and test reactors worldwide to convert from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuels to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels without significant loss in performance. The last decade of work has focused on the development of uranium-molybdenum alloy (U-Mo) based fuels and is an international effort that includes the active participation of more than ten national programs. The US RERTR program, under the NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is in the process of developing both dispersion and monolithic U-Mo fuel designs. While the U-Mo fuel alloy has behaved extremely well under irradiation, initial testing (circa 2003) revealed that the U-Mo fuels dispersed in aluminum had an unexpected tendency toward unstable swelling (pillowing) under high-power conditions. Technical investigations were initiated worldwide at this time by the partner programs to understand this behavior as well as to develop and test remedies. The behavior was corrected by modifying the chemistry of the U-Mo/Al interfaces in both fuel designs. In the dispersion fuel design, this was accomplished by the addition of small amounts of silicon to the aluminum matrix material. Two methods are under development for the monolithic fuel design, which include the application of a thin layer of silicon or a thin zirconium based diffusion barrier at the fuel/clad interface. This paper gives an overview of the current status of U-Mo fuel development, including basic research results, manufacturing aspects, results of the latest irradiations and post irradiation examinations, the approach to fuel performance qualification, and the scale-up and commercialization of fabrication technology. (authors)

2009-01-01

31

Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two fuels are described and residual oils are used as stabilizers. The first fuel consist of an emulsion of 20% water, 50% coal particles of about 200 mesh, 25% distillation oil No. 2 and residual oil No. 4 in 5%. The second alternative is an emulsion of 80% fuel oil No. 2, 5% residual oil No. 6 and 15% water. The claims concern the compositions and the oil types used.

Cottell, E.C.

1984-04-02

32

Dispersed and monolithic plate type U-Mo nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The conversion of high flux reactors to LEU requires the development of monolithic high density fuels. The radiation performance of uranium-molybdenum (UMo) high density fuel has shown excellent behaviour of fission gas products retention and reasonable swelling. The development of monolithic UMo is usually approached from the point of view of an aluminium cladding. Interface interactions between these two materials could be an issue and fabrication procedures have to be radically changed because of the big difference in mechanical properties of core and clad. An alternative way of looking at these scenario is using zircalloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding for the U-Mo monolithic fuel. The basic idea was to study the possibility of colamination of both materials to fabricate plates. A series of preliminary studies where performed to look at the feasibility of this alternative. Calculations where done to analyze stress generation because of the different coefficient of thermal expansion of both materials. Diffusion couples where studied for evaluation of the interface growth. Zry-4 plates where colaminated for selecting ranges of colamination temperatures and deformation steps. Several miniplates where elaborated with depleted uranium and 20% enriched uranium (LEU) for irradiation purposes in the RERTR experiments in the Advanced Testing Reactor (ATR, INL). All miniplates where elaborated looking at scale production of full size plates for irradiation purposes and fuel fabrication. The fabrication steps are the casting of the alloy, machining to core dimensions, cutting of frame and lids, welding (TIG) of boundaries, hot colamination, straightening of plates, abrasive finishing of plate surfaces and cutting to final dimensions. Characterization results will also be shown: metallography, ultrasonic scanning (scan-C), radiography, etc. The elaboration of U-Mo monolithic plates with Zry-4 cladding, as achieved, is a possible flexible technological alternative for fuel fabrication and conversion purposes that does not involve big changes in the usual equipment of production plants of plate fuels. (author)

2006-05-03

33

Cross section generation and physics modeling in a feasibility study of the conversion of the high flux isotope reactor core to use low-enriched uranium fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational study has been initiated at ORNL to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The current study is limited to steady-state, nominal operation and are focused on the determination of the fuel requirements, primarily density, that are required to maintain the performance of the reactor. Reactor physics analyses are reported for a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel - U3O8 mixed with aluminum. An LEU core design has been obtained and requires an increase in 235U loading of a factor of 1.9 over the current HEU fuel. These initial results indicate that the conversion from HEU to LEU results in a reduction of the thermal fluxes in the central flux trap region of approximately 9 % and in the outer beryllium reflector region of approximately 15%. Ongoing work is being performed to improve upon this initial design to further minimize the impact of conversion to LEU fuel. (authors)

2008-01-00

34

Study of transformations by annealing of the body. Centred cubic ? phase of uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By annealing at different temperatures, we have studied the transformations of the body centred cubic ? phase for two alloys containing 6 and 10 per cent molybdenum by weight respectively. There is a return to the equilibrium state by formation of the stable ? orthorhombic and ? ordered tetragonal phases, following two types of reaction: - pearlite transformation by nucleation and growth from the grain boundaries, preponderant when the annealing takes place at temperature above 400 deg. C, and identical for the two types of alloys. This reaction has already been studied by numerous authors, who have constructed the corresponding TTT curves, - transformation inside the grains of the quenched solid solution when annealing takes place at 400 deg. C or below: 6 per cent alloy - precipitation of fine a phase particles, followed by progressive ordering of the solid solution enriched in molybdenum, 10 per cent alloy - formation of small ordered regions and then a fine a phase precipitate. In the course of this work we have paid particular attention to the study of intragranular reactions after low-temperature annealing, the reactions involved in this case not having been explained up to the present. The ? phase transformation has been studied by means of three techniques: micrography - microhardness tests - X-ray diffraction. (author)

1959-01-01

35

Coulometric determination of carbon in plutonium and in uranium-molybdenum alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present report described a coulometric method to determine the carbon. This method is speedy and sensible. One determination is executed in 10 mn for uranium or alloys and in 45 mn for plutonium and alloys. The limit of sensibility is about 5 ppm for a sample of 1 g. (authors)[fr] Le present rapport decrit une methode de dosage coulomometrique du carbone. Cette methode est la fois rapide et sensible. Une analyse est executee en 10 mn pour l'uranium ou ses alliages et en 45 mn pour le plutonium et ses alliages. La limite de sensibilite est de 5 ppm pour une prise d'echantillon de 1 g. (auteurs)

1966-01-01

36

Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2010-02-01

37

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01

38

Fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrode reactions, characteristic properties, types of cell constructions, advantages and disadvantages and application areas of various types of fuel cell systems such as alkaline fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, solid polymer electrolyte or ion exchange membrane fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell will be presented. 5 figs., 12 refs.

Yildiz, A.; Pekmez, K. [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

1995-12-31

39

Fuel processing for fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book covers all aspects of fuel processing: catalysts, reactors, chemical plant components and integrated system design. It contains the following chapters: 1. Fundamentals; 2. The chemistry of fuel processing; 3. Catalyst technology for distributed fuel processing applications; 4. Fuel processor design concepts; 5. Types of fuel processing reactors; 6. Application auf fuel processing reactors; 7. Balance-of-Plant Components; 8. Complete fuel processor systems; 9. Introduction of fuel processors into the market place - cost and production issues.

Kolb, G. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik GmbH (IMM), Mainz (Germany)

2008-07-01

40

Fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lead role in the US DOE fuel cell research and development program has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). A description of the history, operation, types, and performance of fuel cells is given. Fuel cell programs being implemented by METC are discussed including the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Program, the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program, and the Fuel Cell Advanced Research and Technology Development Program. (WHK)

1983-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Study of equilibrium complexing reactions of 3d-elements with uranium-molybdenum heteropolyanions in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of mathematical simulation was used for quantitative description of equilibria in systems H+-M2+-(UMo12O42)8- (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) studied by pH-metric titration. It is shown that the system studied is described best of all by the model containing complexes (M2UMA)4- (1) and (MHUMA)5-(2) (UMA-uranomolybdenum anion). Distribution diagram of complex forms depending on pH are presented and it is shown that with an increase in the ratio of components M:UMa ? 2 the equilibrium shifts to the side of direct reactions of metal ion substitution for heteropolyacid protons. Stability of complexes 1 is practically similar for all metals and exceeds stability of protonated complexes 2. Conditions of isolation of the complexes studied in solid form are described.

1989-01-01

42

Complexes of osmium, uranium, molybdenum, and tungsten with the catechol amines adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, dopa, and isoproterenol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New complexes of the form trans-(OsO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/ and UO/sub 2/Lcenter dotnH/sub 2/O (H/sub 2/L = adrenaline (H/sub 2/ad), noradrenaline (H/sub 2/nad), dopamine (H/sub 2/dpm), dopa (H/sub 2/dp), and isoproterenol (H/sub 2/prot)) are reported, as are cis(MO/sub 2/L/sub 2/)/sup 2-/(L = nad, dp, prot for M = Mo or W, and ad for M = W), (MO/sub 2/(Hdpm)/sub 2/) (M = Mo or W), and (Mo/sub 2/O/sub 5/(Had)/sub 2/). The structures of these species are discussed on the basis of their Raman, infrared, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C n.m.r. spectra.

El-Hendawy, A.M.; Griffith, W.P.; Pumphrey, C.A.

1988-07-01

43

Fuel cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the Fuel Cell program at the Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through mid-1990. A brief history of the Fuel Cell program is given. Options for fuel cell commercialization are reviewed. In particular, molten carbonate fuel cells, phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells are discussed.

George, T. J.; Mayfield, M. J.

1990-11-01

44

Alcohol fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

1980-01-01

45

Fuel pin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01

46

Fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

Hooie, D.T.; Harrington, B.C. III; Mayfield, M.J.; Parsons, E.L.

1992-07-01

47

Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

1998-01-01

48

Fuel unto fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An organic compound reported three decades ago has now been found to have this interesting property of fanning its own combustion. This rare polymer gets oxidized during combustion releasing two major products, benzaldehyde and formaldehyde, which are themselves combustible. This unusual property of poly (styrene peroxide) was discovered by two scientists working in the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Such a fast burning autocombustible fuel was hitherto known. According to the researchers, once ignited, the fuel no only sustains its own degradation, but also supports a flame in air, with a burning rate comparable to that of solid propellants. The rate of burning, however, can be controlled by proper additives. This polymer is being eyed as the fuel of the future.

1987-01-01

49

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a fuel assembly comprising a large number of fuel rods in a square lattice-like configuration and at least one neutron moderating rod having a cross sectional area of the moderator being greater than the cross sectional area of a unit fuel lattice in a BWR type reactor, (a) the fuel assembly contains first fuel rods and a plurality of second fuel rods having a fuel effective length shorter than that of the first fuel rods, (b) the second fuel rods are disposed at least to the outermost layer of fuel rod arrangement in a square lattice-like configuration, (c) two second fuel rods are disposed to the outermost layer for each of the sides other than the corner portions, (d) among fuel rods disposed to one layer in adjacent with the outermost layer at a portion inner than the outermost layer of the fuel rod arrangement of regular lattice configuration, fuel rods in adjacent with the second fuel rods disposed to the outermost layer are determined to the first fuel rods. Then, void coefficient can be reduced, reactivity control and the control rod worth can be improved. (N.H.)

1992-08-06

50

Fuel assembly and fuel rod  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel assemblies comprising only UO{sub 2} fuel rods can be assembled and tested by direct contact with the UO{sub 2} fuel rods and the fuel assembly. However, since fuel assemblies containing MOX fuel rods have high irradiation dose caused by {beta} decay of Pu-241 having short half-life, operator`s access is impossible, and the fuel assemblies are assembled automatically or by remote operation. Inspections after assembling the fuel assemblies are also performed automatically or by remote handling. Then, the shape of the upper end plug of the UO{sub 2} fuel rods and that of MOX fuel rods are made optically different such that the UO{sub 2} fuel rods and the MOX fuel rods can be distinguished by measuring or analyzing reflected light reflected from the upper end plug of the fuel rod when light is irradiated from a position above the fuel assembly. Inspection for the fuel assembly comprising mixed UO{sub 2} MOX fuel rods which has to be done automatically or by remote operation after assembling the fuel assemblies can be facilitated. (N.H.)

Ishii, Yoshihiko

1997-06-24

51

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel rod containing burnable poisons and disposed at inner side of the second layer of a fuel assembly is defined as a first fuel rod, a fuel not containing burnable poisons is defined as a second fuel rod, the ratio of nuclear fission plutonium enrichment degree between the first fuel rod and the second fuel rod is determined 1 to 2times, or the enrichment degree of the fission plutonium of the first fuel rod is determined equal with or higher than the enrichment degree of all of the second fuel rods, or burnable poisons are added to the fuel rod having the highest enrichment degree among the assembly. As a result, the ratio of the power of the first fuel rod relative to the power of the second fuel rod can be determined within {+-} 30%, and when margin is provided in a linear power density from the intermediate stage to the final stage of the burning, burnable poisons are charged to fuel rods of high enrichment degree to enable flattening of power distribution at an initial stage of the burning. In addition, an effect of controlling excess reactivity can be enhanced compared with a case of adopting the method of adding the burnable poisons to the uranium fuel rods of low enrichment degree for MOX fuels. (N.H.).

Shimada, Hidemitsu; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo

1994-09-22

52

DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

2011-02-01

53

Fuel assembly and fuel spacer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spacer of the present invention ensures the inherent function of holding fuel rods at an exact position, as well as promotes heat transfer from fuel rods as a heat source to coolants thereby improving the thermal margin of the fuel assembly and reducing the void coefficient to increase the reactivitiy. That is, a notch is formed to a portion of aside wall for each cell of a fuel spacer. Then, the notch is bent so as to protrude obliquely to space between fuel rods to form vane. The vane forms a swirling stream, toward the fuel rods to coolants flowing in a two-phase flow in the space between the fuel rods. Accordingly, heat transfer from the fuel rod as the heat source to the coolants is promoted, by which the thermal margin of the fuel assembly is improved and the void coefficient is reduced to increase the reactivity. (I.S.).

Orii, Akihito; Yokomizo, Osamu; Masuhara, Yasuhiro; Nishida, Koji; Murata, Shigeto; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Inoue, Kotaro; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro.

1990-11-22

54

Fuel gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.).

1996-01-01

55

Fuel cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

1983-01-01

56

Fuel control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An adjustable bellows mechanism in a fuel control apparatus for balancing the internal forces of a valve arrangement to establish a fuel flow from the control apparatus to an engine corresponding to the optimum operational parameter of the engine.

Haase, E.A.

1980-10-21

57

Fuel conditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The composition of an additive is disclosed containing organic magnesium and organic manganese compounds as a fuel conditioner to reduce fuel requirements and sulfur trioxide emissions. Also disclosed is the method of using same.

Diehl, R.C.; Walker, J.L.

1980-05-13

58

Nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation-induced damages in structural materials, fuels and targets for the transmutation in FBR; 4 - the fuel of gas-cooled reactors: fuel particulates, behaviour under irradiation, mechanical modeling, the fuel for very high temperature reactors, the fuel for gas-cooled fast reactors; 5 - the fuel for research reactors; 6 - the Jules Horowitz reactor: a tool for the future fuel studies. (J.S.)

2008-01-01

59

Nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation, Bubbles and precipitates, Modeling fuel behavior); Modeling defects and fission products in UO2 ceramic by ab initio computation (Ab initio computation, Point defects in uranium dioxide, Fission products in uranium dioxide, The indispensable coupling of modeling and experiment); Cladding and assembly materials (What is the purpose of cladding?, Zirconium alloys, Claddings: required to exhibit good mechanical strength, Mechanical behavior of irradiated Zr alloys, Claddings: required to prove corrosion resistant); Pellet-cladding interaction (The phenomena involved in pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), Experimental simulation of PCI and the lessons to be drawn from it, The requirement for an experimental basis, Numerical simulation of PCI, Towards a lifting of PCI-related operating constraints); Advanced UO2 and MOX ceramics (Chromium oxide-doped UO2 fuel, Novel MOX microstructures); Mechanical behavior of fuel assemblies (Assembly mechanical behavior in normal operating conditions, Assembly mechanical behavior in accident situations, Fuel in a loss of primary coolant accident (LOCA)); Introduction to LOCA-type accident transients (Overview of thermal-hydraulic and fuel-related aspects, Incidence of LOCA transients on the thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior of zirconium-base alloy cladding); Fuel in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) (Safety criteria); Fuel in a severe accident (The VERCORS analytical program, The Phebus-FP global tests, Control of severe accidents in the EPR reactor); In-core fuel management (Relationships between cycle length, maximum burnup, and batch fraction Enrichment and burnable poisons, The impact of the nature of the fuel used, and its evolution, on the major parameters of core physics, and management Prospects for future trends in core management); Fuel cycle material balances (In-core evolution of materials, Decay heat and potential radiotoxicity, Plutonium management); Long-term behavior of spent fuel (The nature of spent nuclear fuel, Anticipated evolution of fuel in dry storage, Anticipated evolution of fuel in deep geological d

2009-01-01

60

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly comprising an arrangement of fuel rods incorporating nuclear fuel pellets charged with burnable poisons, and fuel rods incorporating nuclear fuel pellets not charged with burnable poisons, a material of high thermal conductivity is added to the nuclear fuel pellets charged with burnable poisons, to make the thermal conductivity thereof equal to or greater than the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets not charged with the burnable poisons. Alternatively, the material of high thermal conductivity is added to both of the fuel pellets charged with the burnable poisons and the fuel pellets not charged with burnable poisons, in which the amount of the material of high thermal conductivity added to both of the pellets is controlled to make the thermal conductivity of both of the pellet substantially equal with each other. Since the effective thermal conductivity of all of the fuel rods can be improved while making the same equal, thermal performance for the entire fuel assemblies can be improved, thereby enabling to overcome various problems caused by temperature elevation at the center of the fuel rod. (N.H.).

Shinpo, Katsutoshi; Ishimoto, Shinji.

1992-10-08

 
 
 
 
61

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present invention provides a fuel assembly in which stresses exerted on the lower end plug welded portion of a uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rod is reduced. Namely, the fuel assembly of the present invention has a heat insulation member disposed at least partially, specifically, between fuel pellets and a fuel rod lower end plug. With such a constitution, stresses exerted on the lower end plug welded portion caused by the difference of the thermal expansion between the lower end portion of the fuel cladding tube and a lower end plug of a fuel rod. If fuel pellets of a fuel rod having the heat insulation member are formed by using mixed oxides prepared by molding while mixing uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide, stresses exerted on the lower end plug welded portion caused by the above-mentioned difference of the heat expansion in MOX fuel rods having high heat generation amount of fuel pellets can be reduced especially at the lower portion of the fuel rod. If aluminum dioxide having properties less changeable even at high temperature is used as the heat insulation material, the heat insulation effect is further improved. (N.H.)

1996-10-03

62

Nuclear fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation, Bubbles and precipitates, Modeling fuel behavior); Modeling defects and fission products in UO{sub 2} ceramic by ab initio computation (Ab initio computation, Point defects in uranium dioxide, Fission products in uranium dioxide, The indispensable coupling of modeling and experiment); Cladding and assembly materials (What is the purpose of cladding?, Zirconium alloys, Claddings: required to exhibit good mechanical strength, Mechanical behavior of irradiated Zr alloys, Claddings: required to prove corrosion resistant); Pellet-cladding interaction (The phenomena involved in pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), Experimental simulation of PCI and the lessons to be drawn from it, The requirement for an experimental basis, Numerical simulation of PCI, Towards a lifting of PCI-related operating constraints); Advanced UO{sub 2} and MOX ceramics (Chromium oxide-doped UO{sub 2} fuel, Novel MOX microstructures); Mechanical behavior of fuel assemblies (Assembly mechanical behavior in normal operating conditions, Assembly mechanical behavior in accident situations, Fuel in a loss of primary coolant accident (LOCA)); Introduction to LOCA-type accident transients (Overview of thermal-hydraulic and fuel-related aspects, Incidence of LOCA transients on the thermal-metallurgical-mechanical behavior of zirconium-base alloy cladding); Fuel in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA) (Safety criteria); Fuel in a severe accident (The VERCORS analytical program, The Phebus-FP global tests, Control of severe accidents in the EPR reactor); In-core fuel management (Relationships between cycle length, maximum burnup, and batch fraction Enrichment and burnable poisons, The impact of the nature of the fuel used, and its evolution, on the major parameters of core physics, and management Prospects for future trends in core management); Fuel cycle material balances (In-core evolution of materials, Decay heat and potential radiotoxicity, Plutonium management); Long-term behavior of spent fuel (The nature of spent nuclear fuel, Anticipated evolution of fuel in dry storage, Anticipated evolutio

Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

2009-07-01

63

LPG fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference

2005-01-01

64

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the fuel economy by increasing the reactivity at the latter burning stage of fuel assemblies and thereby increasing the burn-up degree. Constitution: At the later stage of the burning where the infinite multiplication factor of a fuel assembly is lowered, fuel rods are partially discharged to increase the fuel-moderator volume ratio in the fuel assembly. Then, plutonium is positively burnt by bringing the ratio near to an optimum point where the infinite multiplication factor becomes maximum and the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased by utilizing the spectral shift effect. The number of the fuel rods to be removed is selected so as to approach the fuel-moderator atom number ratio where the infinite multiplication factor is maximum. Further, the positions where the thermal neutron fluxes are low are most effective for removing the rods and those positions between which no fuel rods are present and which are adjacent with neither the channel box nor the water rods are preferred. The rods should be removed at the time when the burning is proceeded at lest for one cycle. The reactivity is thus increased and the burn-up degree of fuels upon taking-out can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

1985-05-17

65

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly comprising an orderly arrangement of fuel rods of a first group containing burnable poisons and fuel rods of a second group not containing burnable poisons, mixed fuels of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides are incorporated to at least a part of the fuel rods in the second fuel rods. The burnable poisons incorporated in the fuel rods of the first group are a mixture of gadolinia (Gd[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and europia (Eu[sub 2]O[sub 3]). With such a constitution, the reaction rate of MOX fuel rods incorporating the mixed fuels of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides in a thermal neutron region is controlled mainly by Gd, while the reaction rate in an epithermal neutron region is controlled by resonance absorption of Eu in a resonance neutron region. Then, the multiplication factor of the MOX fuel rods can be reduced greatly, thereby enabling to operate and shut down a reactor safely and reliably even if a greater amount of Pu is added to fuel assemblies than usual case. (T.M.).

Ando, Ryohei.

1992-09-22

66

Fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To improve the economy of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels for use in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The fuel assembly, in general, comprises fuel rods having several kinds of density distributions, one or two water-rods and several fuel rods incorporated with burnable poisons arranged in a 8 x 8 matrix, which is surrounded with a channel box and disposed at the outer side thereof with a control rod. Among the fuel assembly, all or most of fuel rods at the periphery contain uranium-plutonium mixed oxides in the unburnt state, and the other fuel rods at the central region contain only uranium oxides in the unburnt state. (Seki, T.)

1984-05-16

67

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a cluster type fuel assembly for a pressure tube type reactor, a great number of fuel rods are disposed coaxially, in which several fuel rods among those situated at an intermediate layer and an inner layer are incorporated with poisons. With such a constitution, since the fuel rods containing the burnable poisons show great neutron absorption, change of the reactivity due to the presence or the absence of light water (void ratio) is reduced. Accordingly, compared with the fuels not containing the burnable poisons, the void reactivity of the coolants is shifted to the negative side. Although the reactivity is increased along with burning due to increase of the enrichment degree for the fuel rods in the inner layer and the intermediate layer, the reactivity is improved since the burnable poisons are contained also in the inner layer fuel rods. (I.S.).

Kawata, Norio; Fukumura, Nobuo.

1990-04-04

68

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-half or more of entire fuel rods in a fuel assembly comprises MOX fuel rods containing less than 1wt% of burnable poisons, and at least a portion of the burnable poisons comprises gadolinium. Then, surplus reactivity at an initial stage of operation cycle is controlled to eliminate burnable poisons remained unburnt at a final stage, as well as increase thermal reactivity. In addition, the content of fission plutonium is determined to greater than the content of uranium 235, and fuel rods at corner portions are made not to incorporate burnable poisons. Fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed at positions in adjacent with fuel rods facing to a water rod at one or two directions. Local power at radial center of the fuel assembly is increased to flatten the distortion of radial power distribution. (N.H.)

Watanabe, Shoichi; Hirano, Yasushi

1998-01-27

69

Fuel Services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

1982-01-01

70

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel assembly is composed of a fuel bundle surrounded by a channel box. The fuel bundle comprises a large number of fuel rods and a water rod secured to upper and lower tie plate by way of a plurality of fuel spacers. Grooves (libretti) are formed in the direction along the flowing direction of coolants to at least one of the surface of the fuel rods, the inner surface of the channel box, the surface of the water rod and spacer constituting components. In this case, the lateral width of the libretto in the flowing direction is determined as the minimum thickness of the bottom layer of a layered flow determined by a coolant flow rate. With such a constitution, abrasion resistance relative to coolants is reduced to reduce the pressure loss of fuel assemblies. (I.N.).

Morooka, Shin-ichi

1995-04-07

71

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fuel assembly is composed of a fuel bundle surrounded by a channel box. The fuel bundle comprises a large number of fuel rods and a water rod secured to upper and lower tie plate by way of a plurality of fuel spacers. Grooves (libretti) are formed in the direction along the flowing direction of coolants to at least one of the surface of the fuel rods, the inner surface of the channel box, the surface of the water rod and spacer constituting components. In this case, the lateral width of the libretto in the flowing direction is determined as the minimum thickness of the bottom layer of a layered flow determined by a coolant flow rate. With such a constitution, abrasion resistance relative to coolants is reduced to reduce the pressure loss of fuel assemblies. (I.N.).

1993-09-27

72

Fuel reformer of fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concerning a fuel cell consisting of a reformer which reforms fuel to hydrogen gas and the main body which transforms hydrogen gas generated from the above reformer to the water and electric energy through the reaction with the air(oxygen), development of smaller sized fuel cells which can easily be transported by automobiles, etc. has recently been demanded. With regard to such small sized fuel cells, there is generally a case to use the mixed liquid of methanol and the water as fuel. In order to generate reform gas mainly consisting of hydrogen gas from the mixed liquid above, it is necessary to heat the fuel at two places, firstly at a high temperature heat source to evaporate the liquid fuel and then at another high temperature heat source to make the evaporated fuel react (endothermic reaction). In order to make the whole equipment smaller by making the above evaporation and endothermic reaction of the fuel with high thermal efficiency from a single heat source, this invention arranges a fuel evaporator right above a burner, connects reaction tubes filled with catalyst in a standing manner on this fuel evaporator and connects an assembling part which assembles the reform gas to the upper ends of these reaction tubes. (3 figs)

Yonezawa, Shigeki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuo

1987-06-22

73

Fuel spacer and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly for use in a BWR type reactor, a plurality of fuel spacers are disposed in an axial direction for supporting a plurality of fuel rods. The fuel spacer has a twisted blade suspended from the lower end of a circular ferule to the downstream of the circular ferule disposed in a support band for supporting fuel rods. Coolants flow into fuel spacers in an uneven state of liquid membranes in a circumferential direction of the fuel rods by swirling flows caused by the twisting blades at the upstream of the fuel spacers. Since steams and liquid are collided at high speed against the members of the fuel spacers, disturbance is increased to promote the mixture of coolants in the inside of the fuel spacers. This can substantially overcome the unevenness of the liquid membranes at an exit (downstream) of the fuel spacer. Places where thermal margin is locally lowered are eliminated, and as a result, limit power is increased. (I.N.)

Niidome, Tokuji; Morooka, Shin-ichi

1996-10-11

74

Fuel assemblies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To maintain a satisfactory integrity by preventing the increase of corrosion at the outer surface of a fuel can near the point of contact between the fuel can and the spacer due to the use of fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons. Constitution: Since reactor coolants are at high temperature and high pressure, zirconium and water are brought into reaction to proceed oxidation at the outer surface of a fuel can to form uniform oxidation layers. However, abrasion corrosion is additionally formed at the contact portion between the spacer and the fuel can, by which the corrosion is increased by about 25 %. For preventing such nodular corrosion, fuel pellets not incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at a portion of the fuel rod where the spacer is supported and fuel pellets incorporated with burnable poisons are charged at the positions other than about to thereby suppress the amount of the corrosion at the portion where the corrosion of the fuel can is most liable to be increased to thereby improve the fuel integrity. That is, radiolysis of coolants due to gamma-rays produced from gadolinium is lowered to reduce the oxygen concentration near the outer surface thereby preventing the corrosion. (Kawakami, Y.).

Sadaoka, Noriyuki

1986-12-17

75

Fuel elements and fuel services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Over a development period of twenty years the change was made from 8 x 8 fuel elements to a 10 x 10 configuration offering wider design margins in every respect as a precondition for future power increases, also in BWR plants with high power densities, and entailing advantages in the design of Mox fuel elements (SVEA-96/100 concept). Mean discharge burnups of more than 50 MWd/kg of U can be attained, which results in considerable cost reductions. The lower thermal load per unit area of the heating surface means slower corrosion and some 40% less crud buildup. Fuel element inspections cover the fuel element boxes, measurements of oxide layers, parts of fuel bundles, spacers, and measurements of fuel rod lengths. Fuel element leakages are analyzed by in-core, elevate, telescope, and in-mast sipping techniques, respectively. (orig./HP)

1994-01-01

76

Fuel oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the price of petroleum has increased, the US power industry has displaced a great deal of expensive petroleum and natural gas with coal and nuclear power. The petroleum industry has installed processing facilities to upgrade its heavy fuel to make lighter products. The nett effect has been to substantially reduce demand for crude oil and natural gas. Demand for natural gas has reduced in all sectors, especially in the industrial and electrical power generation sectors. However, the USA still imports natural gas. Coal consumption has increased by 30% since 1973, primarily for use in electricity generation. This displacement of fuels has created downward price pressures on both crude oil and products. However, fuel oil prices have remained relatively stable because the industry has installed sufficient capability to upgrade fuel oil. Since there are many consumers who can use either natural gas or fuel oil, the future prices of these fuels will remain tied to each other.

Dickinson, R.R.

1986-01-01

77

Fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.)

1989-01-01

78

Fuel cells 101  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

Hirschenhofer, J.H.

1999-07-01

79

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mixed oxide fuel rods containing plutonium, uranium fuel rods containing burnable poison (Gd) and large diameter water rods are disposed in a square lattice. The central square region A comprises fuel rods, water rods and a part of water rods, in which more than 80% of the fuel rods is Gd-incorporated uranium fuel rods. The region B surrounding the region A comprises fuel rods, water rods and a part of water rods, and most of the fuel rods is fuel rods not incorporated with Gd. The region A is disposed so as to be apart from the outer circumference of a fuel assembly by more than three layers. With such a constitution, an average thermal neutron flux in the region B is increased compared with that in the region A. Since the region B can be situated at a region nearer to the control rods than the region A in the reactor core, the amount of thermal neutrons controllable by the control rod is increased. As a result, control rod worth sufficient to satisfy a reactor shut down margin can be attained. (I.N.)

1991-03-19

80

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel rods enriched with plutonium and fuel rods formed by incorporating combustible poisons in enriched uranium are arranged in square lattice like structure. MOX fuel pellets comprise PuO2 as a fuel material and contain 239Pu, 241Pu as fission products. The gadolinia-incorporated uranium fuel pellets comprise UO2 as a fuel material and gadolinia as a burnable poison incorporated therein and contains 235U as a fuel material. The axial distribution of the concentration of gadolinia contained in the uranium fuel rods is axially divided into three regions in a region less than 1/2 of a fuel effective length, and the concentration of gadolinia is highest at the lowest region, and the concentration of gadolinia is made lower toward the upper regions. With such a constitution, the degree of downward distortion of the axial power distribution is suppressed in a reactor core of a BWR type reactor having a large MOX loading rate. (I.N.)

1996-02-29

 
 
 
 
81

Fuel fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear fuels uranium and plutonium must be clad to protect them and to prevent the escape of fission products. Design considerations are discussed with reference to metal and oxide based fuels. The purification of uranium and the production of uranium dioxide are described with emphasis on pellet production. The detailed operations involved at the oxide fuel assembly stage depend on the reactor type. The fuel assemblies for AGR, PWR, and BWR type reactors are described in detail. It is concluded that improvements to design, manufacturing processes and in-service performance will be influenced by economic and safety considerations. (UK).

Marsh, G.; Eccles, H. [BNFL, Springfields (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

82

Nuclear fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.).

1980-01-01

83

Motor fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

Burns, L.D.

1982-07-13

84

Fuel dehazers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

Lyons, W.R.

1986-03-01

85

Fuel cells and hydrogen fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel cells operate in an effective manner today only on hydrogen fuel. The most probable fuels for future use will be hydrogen itself, when it will be available in quantity from renewable sources, natural gas and coal. Both the latter must be converted into hydrogen-rich gases, the first by steam-reforming followed by water-gas shift, the second by steam-oxygen (or air) gasification. Hydrogen fuel cell system for automobiles are examined and their economic feasibility is compared with IC engines. Hydrogen storage problems are also investigated. 9 refs

1993-01-01

86

Consider fuels conversion. [USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following resources in the USA are assessed: natural gas, petroleum, coal, oil-bearing shale, peat and biomass. It is possible to promote conversions of these fuels to produce synthetic fuels, or perform physical treatment such as drying or distillation. Synthetic fuels which can be produced are boiler fuels, process heater fuels, fuels for space heating, turbine fuels, transportation fuels, and for fuel cells. The suitability of each primary fuel for conversion to these synthetic fuels is discussed. (18 refs.)

Kasper, S.

1983-07-01

87

Fuel injector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

2001-02-27

88

Forest fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is based on Swedish conditions. Since the oil crisis in the early 70-ties there has been a great deal of research concerning the possibilities to replace fossil fuels and even nuclear power with biological fuels. The government has also from time to time made some effort to support the use of bio-fuels, but the energy policy has been rather unsteady which has made the market uncertain. This has brought about that no real break-through regarding the use of bio-fuels has yet been attained. Now some new measures are being taken in order to favor the use of bio-fuels. In order to reduce the `greenhouse effect` the production of carbon dioxide must be decreased. Therefore a special charge has been lade upon burning of fossil fuels. This strengthens the competition capability of the bio-fuels on the market and today there is an increase in the use of especially forest fuel instead of oil

Sennblad, G. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden). SLU Info/Skog

1994-12-31

89

Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This humorous video segment includes prominent roles for NPR's Robert Krulwhich and the Car Talk hosts. It highlights the electrochemical reaction that takes place within a hydrogen fuel cell and explores the challenges of producing the pure hydrogen that fuels it.

Sciencenow, Nova; Domain, Teachers'

90

Novel fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel fuel composition is described comprising the alcohol soluble product obtained as the result of the mild reaction of a lignin-containing material with nitric acid. The novel fuel composition is described wherein the lignin-containing material is lignin.

Schulz, J.G.

1987-05-26

91

Fuel management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Description of the operation of power plants and the respective procurement of fuel to fulfil the needs of the grid. The operation of the plants shall be optimised with respect to the fuel cost. (orig./RW)[de] Beschreibung des Kernkraftwerksbetriebes und der entsprechenden Brennstoffbeschaffung fuer das Netz. Der Betrieb der Anlagen soll hinsichtlich der Brennstoffkosten optimal gestaltet werden. (orig./RW)

1975-09-08

92

Fuel briquets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is concerned with briquets on the basis of fuels like bituminous coal, brown coal or charcoal. The briquets are obtained in the presence of a binding agent and by the use of a further additive by briquetting. The binding agent may be present in the fuel naturally or it may be added together with the further additive. (KHH).

Schaefer, H.G.; Vogts, A.; Poppel, G.; Schuermann, H.

1982-04-01

93

Fossil fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recovery, handling and combustion of fossil fuels is damaging the environment. This damage may ultimately cause many plant and animal species to become extinct. If we continue to increase our use of fossil fuels for energy production, humanity may ultimately become one of the species that perish. This is an overwhelming reason to stop the use of fossil fuels as our main energy source. If long-range survival is deemed inadequate to make profound near-term changes in the energy infrastructure, then a second powerful justification come sform the need to conserve the unique substaces in fossil fuels for future higher-value use as chemical feedstocks. These two drives, one to stop using fossil fuels because they cause damage, and the second to save the fossil materials for higher-value use, constitute a powerful motivation to terminate the burning of fossil fuels. We must find new sources of energy. It is shown here that a large part of current environmental damage is a direct result of the use of fossil fuels as our main energy source, and that the materials found in fossil fuels are much more valuable as chemical feedstocks, from which high value products are made. 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Williams, L.O.

1994-04-01

94

Abstracts and papers of the 1999 International RERTR Meeting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers presented at the 22nd International RERTR Meeting dealt with the following topics: development and testing of new fuel elements (uranium-molybdenum alloys); research reactors core conversion studies (change from highly to moderately or slightly enriched uranium), including both measurements and calculations: spent fuel storage and transportation; production of 99Mo from low enriched uranium. A number of papers were devoted to the status and future of national RERTR programs

1999-01-01

95

Fuel rod and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a gadolinium-incorporated fuel assembly, as gadolinium is burnt, peaking of the gadolinium-incorporated fuels tends to be caused, to sometimes cause a difficulty in forming a fuel loading pattern. Then, in a fuel assembly incorporated with gadolinia as a burnable poison, burnable poison-containing pellets are disposed dispersively in an axial direction of a fuel rod. Alternatively, a plurality of fuel rods having burnable poison-containing pellets disposed at different axial positions are arranged in the bundle of the fuel assemblies so as to disperse them in the axial direction. That is, burnable poison-containing fuel rods of free reactivity characteristics can be obtained by only preparing at least one kind of burnable poison-containing pellets and loading an appropriate number of the burnable poison-containing pellets in axial direction. Then, a local peaking can be suppressed and a burning characteristic can be improved by arranging the burnable poison-containing pellets at different axial positions. (N.H.).

Takekawa, Tetsuya.

1993-08-06

96

Fuel reformer for fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concerning a fuel cell consisting of a reformer which reforms fuel into hydrogen gas and the main body which transforms hydrogen gas generated from the above reformer into the water and electric energy through the reaction between the gas and the air (oxygen), it is recently desired to develop a small fuel cell of this kind easy to carry in automobiles, etc.. With regard to such a small-sized fuel cell, the mixture of methanol and the water is generally used as fuel and after vaporizing the above mixed fuel, reformed gas which is mainly hydrogen gas is generated through the endothermic reaction in a reactor. In order to facilitate miniaturization of a fuel reformer of fuel cell, this invention proposes that reactors are installed in a heating chamber, a gas passage layer of porous ceramics is installed in exhaust holes which are provided in the above heating chamber so that the thermal efficiency against the reactor in the heating chamber may be improved. (3 figs)

Yonezawa, Shigeki; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasuo

1987-06-22

97

Fuel pellets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high heating value, fuel pellet comprises from about 50 to about 99% by weight natural cellulosic material and from about 1 to about 50% by weight synthetic polymeric thermoplastic material. The synthetic thermoplastic material is uniformly distributed throughout the fuel pellet. The thermoplastic material is solid at room temperature and has an injection molding temperature of at least 200/sup 0/F. Such a fuel pellet can be prepared in a pelletizer where the temperature of the pellet as it emerges from the die is from about 150 to about 250/sup 0/F.

Johnston, I.F.

1980-12-02

98

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a first group are disposed in a region in adjacent with a water rod having a large diameter (neutron moderator rod) disposed to the central portion of a fuel assembly. Burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of a second group are disposed to a region other than peripheral zone in adjacent with a channel box and corners positioned at an inner zone, in adjacent with the channel box. The average concentration of burnable poisons of the burnable poison-incorporating fuel rods of the first group is made greater than that of the second group. With such a constitution, when the burnable poisons of the first group are burnt out, the burnable poisons of the second group are also burnt out at the same time. Accordingly, an amount of burnable poisons left unburnt at the final stage of the operation cycle is reduced, to improve the reactivity. This can improve the economical property. (I.N.).

Ishibashi, Yoko; Aoyama, Motoo; Oyama, Jun-ichi

1995-05-12

99

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly for high burnup degree in which large-diameter water rods are disposed at the central portion for flattening the power distribution at a cross section, the distribution of burnable poisons is made optimal while considering an axial void coefficient distribution. That is, since the power in the vicinity of the large-diameter water rod is lowered at a high void coefficient in the upper portion of the reactor core, compared with that in other fuel regions, the concentration of the burnable poisons is made lower than that in other fuel regions. Since the homogenity of the assembly is improved at a low void coefficient in the lower portion of the reactor core, the difference of the concentration of the burnable poisons is reduced. Thus, the axial distribution of the fuel assembly is flattened after the middle stage of the operation cycle and a sufficient scram reactivity can be ensured, to improve the reactor safety. (N.H.).

Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Aoyama, Motoo; Yamashita, Jun-ichi.

1991-12-04

100

Fuel behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short summary of the main critical points in fuel performance of nuclear power reactors from chemical and mechanical point of view is given. A schedule for a limited research program is included. (author) 17 refs

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Alternative fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is provided of demonstration projects conducted in Newfoundland on the use of alternative fuels. The projects include the heating of a greenhouse with wastes (wood, paper, and certain types of garbage); a specially designed wood-burning fireplace incorporating heat storage in its masonry structure; heating of a poultry operation by burning chicken litter; adapting a boiler at a fish plant to burn a mixture of fish oil and fuel oil; and demonstration of a propane powered car. 5 figs.

1989-01-01

102

Fuel composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition useful, inter alia, as a fuel, is based on ethyl alcohol denatured with methylisobutyl alcohol and kerosene, which is mixed with xylenes and isopropyl alcohol. The xylenes and isopropyl alcohol act with the denaturizing agents to raise the flash point above that of ethyl alcohol alone and also to mask the odor and color the flame, thus making the composition safer for use as a charcoal lighter or as a fuel for e.g. patio lamps.

Badger, S.L.

1983-09-20

103

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To reconstruct a BWR type reactor into a high conversion reactor with no substantial changes for the reactor inner structure such as control rod structure. Constitution: The horizontal cross sectional shape of a channel box is reformed into a square configuration and the arrangement of fuel rods is formed as a trigonal lattice-like configuration. As a method of improving the conversion ratio, there is considered to use a dense lattice by narrowing the distance between fuel rods and trigonal lattice arrangement for fuel rod is advantageous therefor. A square shape cross sectional configuration having equal length both in the lateral and longitudinal directions is suitable for the channel box as a guide upon movement of the control rod. Fuel rods can be arranged with no loss by the trigonal lattice configuration, by which it is possible to improve the neutron moderation, increase the reactor core reactivity and conduct effective fuel combustion. In this way, it is possible to attain the object by inserting the follower portion of the control rod at the earier half and extracting the same at the latter half during the operation period in the reactor core comprising fuel assemblies suitable to a high conversion BWR type reactor having average conversion ratio of about 0.8. (Kamimura, M.)

1986-05-06

104

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a fuel assembly applied to a BWR type reactor. The fuel assembly comprises a plurality of fuel rods and a water rod which is disposed between the fuel rods and in which the liquid level formed by the flow of a portion of the coolants can be changed. At least 50% of the fuel rods in adjacent with the water rod contain burnable poisons. Upon occurrence of abnormality in which the pressure in the reactor or the flow rate of reactor core coolants should increase abruptly, the water level of the coolants in the water rod rises abruptly to increase thermal neutrons. In this case, poisons in the burnable poison-incorporated fuels in adjacent with the water rod absorb more thermal neutrons than increased thermal neutrons to make the reactivity variation amount negative. Since this can suppress the reactivity increase upon transient stage in which the pressure or the flow rate in the reactor core increases abruptly, reactor thermal margin upon transient stage can be improved. (I.N.).

1989-03-24

105

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future development of fuel cells is expected due to its high thermal efficiency of power generation, but achieving the maintenance of high power output for a long period and long durability of fuel cells themselves by enlarging the unit capacity of fuel cell, bringing the cost down, and upgrading a clamping structure of cell elements which composes a cell stack, is the key for the practical utilization of a large capacity fuel cell power generation plant. However, the conventional fuel cells have had problems including that when the unit capacity became larger, electrode plates were collapsed or the power generation efficiency was declined due to the fluctuation of the clamping force of a cell stack associated with thermal fluctuation. In order to solve these problems, this invention proposes a cell with the arrangement between a clamping plate and a keep plate of a shape memory alloy which is reformed in accordance with the assembling temperature and the operation temperature of the cell, with regard to the fuel cell with a tank containing a cell stack that was formed in a shape of column by laminating two or more element cells of a shape of rectangular plate and fixed by being clamped with clamping rods and keep plates which were provided on the outer surfaces of clamping plates provided on the upper and lower surfaces of the stack. (6 figs)

Michihata, Soji; Tanaka, Hideki

1987-09-25

106

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a conventional fuel assembly for a BWR type nuclear reactor, since the periphery of a water rod as a not heat generating body has the same extent of coolant flow channel as that at the periphery of the fuel rod, more coolants flow concentrically to the coolant flow channel between water rods where less void is generated than in the coolant flow channel surrounded with fuel rods where voids are generated more. Then, in the present invention, fuel rods of greater diameter are disposed around the water rod. As a result, since the area of the coolant flow channel is decreased and the neutron moderating effect is increased near the water rod to soften the neutron spectrum,, thermal neutrons can effectively by utilized and the amount of heat applied to the coolants is increased. Thus, the coolants flowing so far concentrically to the periphery of the water rod now flow homogeneously in a channel box, thereby enabling to increase the thermal margin. Further, it is also possible to improve the fuel economy due to the increase in the fuel loading amount. (K.M.).

1987-12-23

107

Fuel mix and fuel management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the German mining industry on the decline, imported coal now accounts for more than 50% of the steam coal market and this has meant a significant increase in fuel quality requirements. Ideally, power station engineers, purchasing agents and waste management services should be working with the fuel suppliers right from the word go - beginning at the power station design phase. Only by adopting an overall plan for the provision of a homogenous fuel blend, which takes account of changes in sourcing structures, it will be possible to ensure a quality-compatible supply of coal in the long term. (orig.)

Nadolny, K.; Boers, M. [RAG Verkauf GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2006-07-01

108

Unconventional fuel: Tire derived fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Material recovery of scrap tires for their fuel value has moved from a pioneering concept in the early 1980`s to a proven and continuous use in the United States` pulp and paper, utility, industrial, and cement industry. Pulp and paper`s use of tire derived fuel (TDF) is currently consuming tires at the rate of 35 million passenger tire equivalents (PTEs) per year. Twenty mills are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The utility industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 48 million PTEs per year. Thirteen utilities are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. The cement industry is currently consuming tires at the rate of 28 million PTEs per year. Twenty two cement plants are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. Other industrial boilers are currently consuming tires at the rate of 6.5 million PTEs per year. Four industrial boilers are known to be burning TDF on a continuous basis. In total, 59 facilities are currently burning over 117 million PTEs per year. Although 93% of these facilities were not engineered to burn TDF, it has become clear that TDF has found acceptance as a supplemental fuel when blending with conventional fuels in existing combustion devices designed for normal operating conditions. The issues of TDF as a supplemental fuel and its proper specifications are critical to the successful development of this fuel alternative. This paper will focus primarily on TDF`s use in a boiler type unit.

Hope, M.W. [Waste Recovery, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

1995-09-01

109

Fuel rods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To provide a structure capable of measuring, in a non-destructive manner, the releasing amount of nuclear gaseous fission products from spent fuels easily and at a high accuracy. Constitution: In order to confirm the integrity and the design feasibility of a nuclear fuel rod, it is important to accurately determine the amount of gaseous nuclear fission products released from nuclear pellets. In a structure where a plurality of fuel pellets are charged in a fuel cladding tube and retained by an inconel spring, a hollow and no-sealed type spacer tube made of zirconium or the alloy thereof, for example, not containing iron, cobalt, nickel or manganese is formed between the spring and the upper end plug. In the fuel rod of such a structure, by disposing a gamma ray collimator and a gamma ray detector on the extension of the spacer pipe, the gamma rays from the gaseous nuclear fission products accumulated in the spacer pipe can be detected while avoiding the interference with the induction radioactivity from inconel. (Kamimura, M.).

1984-01-12

110

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a BWR type reactor, the power distribution in the axial direction of a reactor core is low at an upper portion and high at a lower portion, and burnable poisons are used not only for the control of excess reactivity but also for the control of power distribution in axial direction of the reactor core. That is, it is necessary to lower the axial power peaking at the initial stage of operation cycle in order to further improve the thermal characteristics such as linear power density and nuclear thermohydrodynamic stability. In view of the above, in a fuel assembly, fuel rods having the lowest burnable poison concentration at the lower region are spaced apart from other burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods, and fuel rods not containing burnable poisons are disposed between them. Thus, the degree of downwardly convexed neutron multiplication factor upon their rise caused by the effect of the burnable poisons in the lower region of the burnable poison-incorporated fuel rods can be sufficiently compensated by the poisons at the lowest concentration. The axial power peaking at the initial stage of the operation cycle can be effectively suppressed. (N.H.).

Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Bessho, Yasunori; Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Maruyama, Hiromi; Ozawa, Michihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuya.

1990-10-01

111

Fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present CANDU fuel cycle is based on once-through natural uranium fuelling. Canadian uranium reserves will be more than adequate until the end of the century. Work is being carried out on advanced fuel cycles with two objectives: to provide a CANDU system capable of meeting energy needs safely, cleanly, at acceptable cost, and from available resources; and to provide utilities with the necessary assurance that long-term fuel supplies will be available when needed. The self-sufficient thorium-U233 cycle would require no continuing uranium supply. A successful demonstration of this cycle would put a ceiling on energy costs at a level no more than 25 % above present ones. The thorium cycle is no more complex than that for fast reactors. Technology required for the three components of the thorium cycle (fuel reprocessing, active fuel fabrication, and waste management) is already available. The development program should be roughly equivalent to the cost of one year's uranium consumption at the end of the century. (L.L.)

1976-11-10

112

Fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This collection is the XXXVII edition of scientific works of the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Petroleum Refining (VNIINP). It includes research done at the institute on the development of fuel supplements. The purpose of the research is to raise fuel quality. It also includes results of research done on the physical-chemical and in-use properties of new supplements, a study of their behavior, development of a scientific basis specifically for supplement synthesis, as well as the creation of new laboratory methods for evaluating the effectivesness of the supplements. The collection is of potential interest to a wide range of scientists and engineers engaged in the development and application of fuels in different areas of the economy, and also to university students.

Korsakova, I.S.

1980-01-01

113

Fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of fuel element for nuclear reactors is described. To increase critical power at the expense of coolant turbulent flux rise, corrugations are made on the internal fuel can with the depth of the hollow being equal to 0.8 h and the width ranged from 2 h to ?r/2, where h is the corrugation heigth, r is the internal can radius. Formation of eddy zones occurs in the corrugation region, that leads to coolant turbulent flux rise and prevents the initiation of departure nucleate boiling.

1979-01-01

114

CANDU fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direction of CANDU fuel development was set in 1957 with the decision to build pressure tube reactors. Short - 50 cm long - rodded bundles of natural UO2 clad in Zircaloy were adopted to facilitate on-power fuelling to improve uranium utilization. Progressive improvements were made during 25 years of development, involving 650 man years and 180 million dollars. Today's CANDU bundle is based on the knowledge gained from extensive irradiation testing and experience in power reactors. The main thrust of future development is to demonstrate that the present bundle is suitable, with minor modifications, for thorium fuels

1982-09-17

115

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a unit cell wherein an air electrode and a fuel electrode are not of same concentration, the exchanging operation of the reaction gas into the two electrodes will cause degradation of the unit cell performance. In this invention, by operating the symmetrically constructed electrodes, with a matrix layer in the center, respectively as an air cell and a fuel cell, the unit cell characteristics do not change. The symmetrical electrodes, while they have the identical construction, must use the same electrode material and the same catalyst. (3 figs)

Segawa, Noboru; Ueno, Mitsuji

1988-05-20

116

Oxygenated fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advantage of adding oxygenated compounds to gasoline lies in their high octane number and their anti-pollution properties. Their use is already widespread in the United States and Europe and it will continue to grow in view of the anti-pollution regulations that are in effect on both sides of the Atlantic and the global trend to phase out lead in gasoline. It is this situation together with fiscal incentives, that has led to the development of bio-fuels, which are blended with both gasoline and diesel fuel. (authors)

Torck, B. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France). Strategy and Corporate Planning Division

1999-03-01

117

Fuels processing for transportation fuel cell systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel cells primarily use hydrogen as the fuel. This hydrogen must be produced from other fuels such as natural gas or methanol. The fuel processor requirements are affected by the fuel to be converted, the type of fuel cell to be supplied, and the fuel cell application. The conventional fuel processing technology has been reexamined to determine how it must be adapted for use in demanding applications such as transportation. The two major fuel conversion processes are steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming. The former is established practice for stationary applications; the latter offers certain advantages for mobile systems and is presently in various stages of development. This paper discusses these fuel processing technologies and the more recent developments for fuel cell systems used in transportation. The need for new materials in fuels processing, particularly in the area of reforming catalysis and hydrogen purification, is discussed.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

1995-07-01

118

Fuel oil poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in (inhales), or touches fuel oil. This is for information only and not ... Fuel oil Kerosene Note: This list may not include all sources of fuel oil.

119

Hydrocarbon fuel composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel composition having enhanced tolerance for water comprises a hydrocarbon base fuel, a polyether more soluble in the hydrocarbon base fuel than in water, and, optionally, a supplemental fuel component such as, for example, an alcohol.

Parkinson, H.B.

1983-10-18

120

Fuel element and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel assembly power and the local power have been flattened by a complicate structure so far and, when the flattening for the axial power is taken into consideration, the problem is further complicated. Then, a disk-like material containing burnable poison but incorporated with nuclear fuel material is disposed between each of laminated fuel pellets. The utilization range for the neutron absorbing material as the burnable poison in the nuclear element can be extended to provide relatively optional neutron absorbing effect and burning property. Further, the axial power distribution can easily be flattened by changing thickness of the disc or concentration of the burnable poison. Since the arrangement and the concentration of the burnable poison can freely be controlled, it is possible to flatten the power distribution both in the radia and the axial directions, increase the heat conductivity and lower the temperature. (N.H.).

Ohashi, Masahisa; Sawada, Shusaku; Omasa, Yoshiaki; Sogame, Motomu; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

1989-09-18

 
 
 
 
121

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To reduce the pressure loss and improve the fuel cooling performance upon making the burnup degree higher in fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactor. Constitution: The outer width size for the channel box is made identical from the upper to the lower portions, as well as the inner width size is made greater in the upper portion than in the lower portion. That is, the wall thickness of the channel box is made thinner in the upper portion than in the lower portion. The fuel assembly of such a constitution has the following merits: (1) since the outer width of the channel box is uniform, there is no trouble upon insertion and withdrawal of control rods, (2) since the wall thickness in increased in the lower portion, creep deformation is reduced, (3) the neutron absorption is reduced, (4) the reactor shutdown margin can be reduced, (5) frictional pressure loss can be reduced and (6) fuel cooling performance can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

1987-04-17

122

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel cell comprising an electrolyte-retaining matrix interposed between a pair of gas-diffusion electrodes, the matrix comprises particles or fibers of a substance unreactive with phosphoric acid and having electron-insulating properties and an inorganic binder.

Kahara, T.; Honji, A.; Imahashi, J.; Ishii, K.; Matsuda, Sh.; Takeuchi, S.

1985-07-16

123

Fuels; Carburants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3 articles are gathered in this data sheet. They concern (1)the Auto-Oil II program (2)the future of the oxygenated fuels (3)the new NGV station in Creteil. They are summarized below: (1)In order to prepare the future release standards for vehicles and the new fuel specifications for the year 2005, a second Auto-Oil program has begun in 1997. Its aim is to define and satisfy air quality levels with low costs (2)In order to improve the octane numbers and the anti-pollution properties of gasoline, oxygenated products are added. Their use should be still increased on account of the pollution regulations and of the suppression of lead in gasolines. Bio-fuels added both in gasolines and in gas oils have thus been developed. (3)On the occasion of the construction of a NGV station in Creteil, Gaz de France and its partners have summed up the situation concerning the NGV in France. This fuel, still not very used, could be developed in the future. (O.M.)

Anon.

1999-06-01

124

CANDU fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If Zircaloy-clad UO2 fuel is power ramped after operating at low power, there is a risk of cladding cracking and fission product release. The mechanism has been shown to be stress corrosion cracking from pellet-clad interaction (PCI). The phenomenon is more generally known as PCI failure. Since the early 1970's CANDU fuel has been protected from PCI failure by CANLUB graphite layers on the cladding inside surface, and by modified fuel management schemes. However, proposed higher burnup fuel cycles involving the use of slightly enriched uranium or recovered enriched uranium envisage burnups of at least 500 MW.h/kgU. At these burnups we have little experience with CANLUB graphite performance, and while we are mounting a high burnup power-ramp test to demonstrate CANLUB performance, it is prudent to look at zirconium barrier cladding as an alternative. This paper describes the current state of the art with CANLUB coatings and ramp testing, an initial power ramp test of BWR cladding with the barrier layer and the final post-irradiation examination. It also describes the fabrication and upcoming NRU irradiation of the DME-213 demountable elements with standard wall-thickness CANDU cladding and a zirconium barrier layer. (Author) 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

1990-01-01

125

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A molten carbonate fuel cell is normally operated at a temperature of about 650{sup 0}C. Its electrolytic plate is a ceramic tile and due to the difference of thermal expansion between the plate and a metallic member encircling the outer periphery, the plate tends to crack, thereby leakage of the fuel to the oxidizing agent side occurs causing danger of combustion and explosion, etc.. Because of this, a BPB (bubble pressure barrier) is installed between the electrolytic plate and the anode in order to minimize cross-leakage of the fuel gas, but it is not sufficient. In order to prevent the occurrence of big gas leakage even when a crack is formed at any part of the electrolytic plate, this invention proposes with regard to the above fuel cell that a thick sheet which is arranged on the cathode side, a thin sheet on the anode side, each of the sheets having a shape larger than the anode and cathode, and an electrolytic plate consisting of a metallic powder sintered plate of the same size as the two sheets above between which this plate is placed are installed between the anode contained in the metallic member on the reduction side and the cathode contained in the metallic member on the oxidation side. 2 figs.

Hosaka, Minoru.

1989-07-26

126

Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

Hawkins, M. D.

1973-01-01

127

Fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The four types of fuel cells currently under various stages of development are described. Differences between them are mainly in the type of electrolyte carrying the electric current in the cell. The electrolyte may be acidic (phosphoric acid), alkaline (potassium hydroxide), molten carbonate or solid oxide. The latter two cell types require high operating temperatures.

Larsson, R.

1987-01-01

128

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention concerns the fuel cell of the following composition: unit cells, each consisting of a fuel electrode with a fuel gas passage, an oxidant electrode with an oxidant gas passage and an electrolytic layer arranged between these electrodes, are laminated with separators in between, than a cell is formed by installing a cooling plate in which cooling pipes are buried in every predetermined number of unit cells, and manifolds of supplying and discharging fuel gas as well as oxidant gas are attached to the sides of the above cell. Heretofore, the above cooling pipes receive an anticorrosion treatment, but the anticorrosion treated layers have increased resistance of heat transfer and lowered thermal efficiency of the cooling plate. In order to improve this situation, this invention proposes a cooling plate consisting of cooling pipes whose outer peripheries are covered with antiadhesion layers, the first plate mainly made of graphite, an electrically conductive adhesive which is used for filling in order to fix the cooling pipes after its installation in the grooves of the first plate in such a way that its inlets and outlets are not exposed to the gas flowing through the manifolds, and the second plate which is attached to the first plate from the side of filling the adhesive. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Seki, Toshiaki.

1989-02-22

129

Alcohol fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

1981-07-01

130

Fuel issues for fuel cell vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the near-term, infrastructure and energy density concerns dictate that the most appropriate fuel for a light-duty fuel cell vehicle is probably not hydrogen; there are also several concerns with using methanol, the generally accepted most convenient fuel. In order to accelerate fuel cell commercialization it may be necessary to use petroleum-based fuels and on-board fuel processors. In the near-term, this approach may reduce fuel cell system efficiency to a level comparable with advanced diesel engines but in the long-term fuel cells powered by hydrogen should be the most efficient and cleanest of all automotive powertrains.

Borroni-Bird, C.E. [Chrysler Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

131

Fuel spacer and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel spacer of a BWR-type reactor, pressure loss of coolants is decreased. The direction of the central axis of a loop spring is corrected to make the direction of the central axis of the loop spring member equal with the direction of the flow of coolants. At the same time, this state is kept stably. With such constitution, the inclination of the spring relative to the direction of the flow of coolants can be effectively prevented to sufficiently reduce pressure loss of coolants and improve assembling performance of the fuel assembly. (T.M.)

Tokunaga, Kensuke; Aizawa, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Junjiro [Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Masana; Yasujima, Masayoshi; Imai, Masafumi

1996-05-07

132

Fuel cells and hydrogen fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Present fuel cell designs require more development before they can make a large impact on future energy conversion markets. Today, they must use common fuels such as natural gas, but they in fact operate on hydrogen. They must therefore be integrated with chemical plants which may be regarded as dispersed refineries. If they are liberated from this requirement by the direct availability of hydrogen, first from natural gas, then from renewables, they can have a major impact, particularly for the automobile energy conversion market. (author)

Appleby, A.J. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research)

1994-01-01

133

RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

2012-09-01

134

Unconventional fuels panel discussion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An unconventional fuels panel discussion is outlined that deals with plastics and non-recyclable papers. The following topics are discussed: sources of feedstock, plastics role in energy recovery, plastics derived fuels, process and combustion technology, plastics in fuel pellets, pellet fuels in the US, pellet fuels combustion, agenda for the development of a pellet fuel industry, and plastics role in energy recovery.

Fisher, M.M. [American Plastics Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-09-01

135

Fuel processing for fuel cells  

CERN Multimedia

Adopting a unique integrated engineering approach, this text covers all aspects of fuel processing: catalysts, reactors, chemical plant components and integrated system design. While providing an introduction to the subject, it also contains recent research developments, making this an invaluable handbook for chemical, power and process engineers, electrochemists, catalytic chemists, materials scientists and engineers in power technology.

Kolb, Gunther

2008-01-01

136

Toxicity of uranium, molybdenum, nickel, and arsenic to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in water-only and spiked-sediment toxicity tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of laboratory spiked-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus were undertaken to determine acute and chronic toxicity thresholds for uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) based on both whole-sediment (total) and pore water exposure concentrations. Water-only toxicity data were also generated from separate experiments to determine the toxicities of these metals/metalloids under our test conditions and to help evaluate the hypothesis that pore water metal concentrations are better correlated with sediment toxicity to benthic organisms than whole-sediment metal concentrations. The relative toxicity of the four elements tested differed depending on which test species was used and whether whole-sediment or pore water metal concentrations were correlated with effects. Based on measured whole-sediment concentrations, Ni and As were the two most acutely toxic elements to H. azteca with 10-d LC50s of 521 and 532 mg/kg d.w., respectively. Measured pore water concentrations indicated that U and Ni were the two most acutely toxic elements, with 10-d LC50s to H. azteca of 2.15 and 2.05 mg/L, respectively. Based on pore water metal concentrations, the no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) for growth were (H. azteca and C. dilutus, respectively) 0.67 and 0.21 mg/L for U, <0.37 and 0.60 mg/L for Ni, and 16.43 and <0.42 mg/L for As. Pore-water lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOECs) for growth were (H. azteca and C. dilutus, respectively) 2.99 and 0.48 mg/L for U, 0.37 and 2.33 mg/L for Ni, and 58.99 and 0.42 mg/L for As. For U and Ni, results from 96-h water-only acute toxicity tests correlated well with pore water metal concentrations in acutely toxic metal-spiked sediment. This was not true for As where metalloid concentrations in overlying water (diffusion from sediment) may have contributed to toxicity. The lowest whole-sediment LOEC reported here for As was 6.6- and 4-fold higher than the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment interim sediment quality guideline and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) lowest effect level (LEL), respectively. The lowest whole-sediment LOECs reported here for Ni, U and Mo were 4-, 17.5-, and >260-fold higher, respectively, than the CNSC LELs for these metals/metalloids. Data on pore water metal concentrations in toxic sediment would be a useful addition to future Guidelines documents.

Liber K; Doig LE; White-Sobey SL

2011-07-01

137

Toxicity of uranium, molybdenum, nickel, and arsenic to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in water-only and spiked-sediment toxicity tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of laboratory spiked-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus were undertaken to determine acute and chronic toxicity thresholds for uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) based on both whole-sediment (total) and pore water exposure concentrations. Water-only toxicity data were also generated from separate experiments to determine the toxicities of these metals/metalloids under our test conditions and to help evaluate the hypothesis that pore water metal concentrations are better correlated with sediment toxicity to benthic organisms than whole-sediment metal concentrations. The relative toxicity of the four elements tested differed depending on which test species was used and whether whole-sediment or pore water metal concentrations were correlated with effects. Based on measured whole-sediment concentrations, Ni and As were the two most acutely toxic elements to H. azteca with 10-d LC50s of 521 and 532 mg/kg d.w., respectively. Measured pore water concentrations indicated that U and Ni were the two most acutely toxic elements, with 10-d LC50s to H. azteca of 2.15 and 2.05 mg/L, respectively. Based on pore water metal concentrations, the no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) for growth were (H. azteca and C. dilutus, respectively) 0.67 and 0.21 mg/L for U, 260-fold higher, respectively, than the CNSC LELs for these metals/metalloids. Data on pore water metal concentrations in toxic sediment would be a useful addition to future Guidelines documents. PMID:21529943

Liber, Karsten; Doig, Lorne E; White-Sobey, Suzanne L

2011-05-06

138

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To ensure the reactor shutdown margin upon reactor shutdown by optimizing the arrangement for fuel rods incorporated with burnable poisons. Constitution: All of fuel rods incorporated with burnable poisons are arranged from the outermost periphery to the second layer in the lower portion of an assembly and several of them are disposed at the central portion of the assembly in the upper portion of the assembly. Such an arrangement can increase the neutron moderating effect due to reactor shutdown in the central region in the upper portion of the assembly to increase the neutron absorption by burnable poisons, by which the reactivity in the upper portion of the reactor core is suppressed to improve the reactor shutdown margin. (Kamimura, M.).

Morimoto, Yuichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

1987-12-26

139

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

Struthers, R.C.

1983-06-28

140

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell is disclosed with improved and stabilized electrode performance having at least one gas diffusion electrode, where the gas diffusion electrode comprises an electronconductive, gas-permeable substrate and an electrode catalyst uniformly distributed on the substrate, the electrode catalyst comprising colonies each consisting of not more than 20 primary particles of noble metal each having a size of 10-30 A and being uniformly distributed and deposited on carrier powder.

Takeuchi, S.; Imahashi, J.; Ishii, K.; Kahara, T.; Matsuda, S.; Nakajima, F.; Okabe, S.; Okada, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Tamura, K.

1983-10-04

 
 
 
 
141

Fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a composition for the improvement of hydrocarbon fuels exhibiting a boiling range of gasoline being suitable for use in spark ignition-type engines. It comprises an aromatic amine; a polyaminated detergent; a catalyst comprising a colloidal suspension or amine salt of transition/alkali/alkaline earth metal organic coordinations having at least one metal oxidehydroxide linked to an alkyl chain via a carboxyl group; and a solvent comprising an alkanol-aliphatic ether oxygenated hydrocarbon.

Gheysens, J.L.G.

1990-11-27

142

Fuel ethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a review of fuel ethanol imports from Caribbean Basin Initiative countries which was made in response to a requirement in the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. The authors' review showed that given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for CBI ethanol producers to meet the 75-percent local feedstock requirement. At current prices, CBI companies can be competitive with no more than a 10- to 30-percent local feedstock requirement.

1989-01-01

143

Fuel conditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel conditioner is described comprising 10 to 80% of a polar oxygenated hydrocarbon having an average molecular weight from about 250 to about 500, an acid acid number from about 25 to about 125, and a saponification number from about 30 to about 250; and 5 to 50% of an oxygenated compatibilizing agent having a solubility parameter of from about 8.8 to about 11.5 and moderate to strong hydrogen-bonding capacity.

Nelson, M.L.; Nelson, O.L. Jr.

1988-06-28

144

Fuel densifier converts biomass into fuel cubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new cost-effective means to produce clean-burning and low cost commercial and industrial fuel is being introduced by Columbia Fuel Densification Corp., Phoenix. The Columbia Commercial Hydraulic Fuel Densifier converts raw biomass materials such as wood chips, paper, peat moss and rice hulls into densified fuel cubes. The densifier is mobile and its operation is briefly outlined.

1982-02-01

145

Methanol fuel and methanol fuel additives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methanol fuels are modified by the addition of materials which provide required lubricity and protection for engine parts while retaining compatability with the methanol fuel. Methanol fuel is methanol itself or any fuel containing a majority of methanol by volume. In addition, these additives help lubricate cylinder walls and decrease wear and corrosion.

Kennedy, E.; Liu, A.T.; Washecheck, P.H.

1983-03-01

146

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cross section of a fuel assembly is divided to a first region containing corner portions at which channel fasteners are situated and a second region not containing corner portions. The average enrichment degree of plutonium in the first region is decreased than that of the second region, and the number of fuel rods containing burnable poisons is increased at the first region than that of the second region. In the first region of the fuel assembly, the effect of moderating neutrons is enhanced since the cross section of a moderator flow channel at the outer side of the channel box is large. Therefore, local power peaking is increased in the first region while it is decreased in the second region that opposes to a narrow gap. The average enrichment degree of plutonium in the first region is decreased and that in the second region is increased by so much, to flatten the power distribution. Then, the reduction of the reactivity worth of gadolinia, as burnable poisons, can be suppressed. (N.H.)

1990-08-29

147

Fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With regard to the fuel cell in which a matrix with phosphoric acid as electrolyte is sandwiched between a pair of electrodes consisting of a fuel electrode and an oxidizing agent electrode, even the surface of holding the electrolyte is made bigger in order to cope with the recent situation of requiring a longer starting time, dissipation and disappearance of the electrolyte cannot be prevented and a problem of time-lapsing decline of the cell's performance occurs. Hence, appearance of a simple and highly reliable phosphoric acid electrolyte supplementary feeder has been aspired. In order to realize this aspiration, this invention aims at restraining the decline of the cell performance by recovering and using the phosphoric acid electrolyte which is discharged together with the fuel gas and the oxidizing agent gas, makes the line of supply gas as well as the line of discharged gas of the cell main body communicate with a connecting tube through which the phosphoric acid electrolyte discharged with the exhaust gas is made misty or vaporized and circulated to the cell main body together with the supply gas. 3 figs.

Segawa, Noboru; Ueno, Sanji.

1989-07-27

148

Alcohol fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

1990-07-01

149

Fuel cell generating plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses a fuel cell generating plant. It comprises a compressed fuel supply; a fuel cell system including fuel conditioning apparatus and fuel cells; a main fuel conduit for conveying fuel from the fuel supply to the fuel cell system; a turbo compressor having a turbine receiving exhaust products from the fuel cell system and a compressor for compressing air; a main air conduit for conveying air from the compressor to the fuel cell system; an auxiliary burner having a primary burner and a pilot; an auxiliary air conduit for conveying air from the compressed fuel supply to the auxiliary burner; an auxiliary exhaust conduit for conveying exhaust products from the auxiliary burner to the turbine; a check valve located between the fuel supply and the pilot; and a gas accumulator in the auxiliary fuel conduit located between the check valve and the pilot.

Sanderson, R.A.

1990-11-27

150

Reactor fueling method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To shorten fuel exchange times by simultaneously taking out more than one fuel assemblies. Method: Fuel assemblies are charged such that four fuel assemblies not surrounding a control rod are at the same staying cycle number in the reactor and four fuel assemblies to be changed at the final stage of the cycle are always in adjacent with each other. This facilitates to exchange more than one fuel assemblies simultaneously to shorten the fuel exchange time. (Yoshino, Y.)

1981-09-21

151

Fuel cell electrolyte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to a novel intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolyte, fuel cells containing this electrolyte and a process for operating these fuel cells. The fuel cell electrolyte composition comprises one or more phosphonic acids. The fuel cell electrolyte composition can include a gelling agent and can be effectively used in fuel cells wherein the fuel is hydrogen, the oxidizer is oxygen and the operating temperature is between about 100/sup 0/C and 250/sup 0/C.

Walsh, E.N.

1986-11-11

152

Fuel element loading system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

1978-01-01

153

Fuel spacer and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To improve the corrosion resistance, to decrease the hydrogen absorption amount and to improve the plastic workability of fuel assembly spacers for use in BWR type reactors. Constitution: For increasing the design life to obtain high burnup degree of a fuel assembly, it is necessary for the improvement of the corrosion resistance and the reduction of the hydrogen absorption amount to suppress hydrogen embrittlement of fuel spacer constituent materials. The corrosion resistance of zirconium based alloys has been improved by hardening treatment. Taking notice of the fact that the corrosion resistance can be improved by the difference in the alloy composition by applying several times of cold rolling and several times of annealing after the hardening, spacers are prepared in the present invention by zircalloy-2 applied with hardening treatment from ..cap alpha.. + ..beta.. phase or ..beta.. phase temperature region and applied with several times of cols rolling and annealing after the final hot rolling. Thus, spacers endurable for high burnup degree and with less corrosion can be obtained. (Kamimura, M.).

Nakajima, Junjiro; Tada, Nobuo; Kawada, Yoshishige and others

1988-01-12

154

Fuel rod and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burnable poisons are contained in a portion of a pellet constituting a fuel rod. A distribution density of the burnable poison-containing pellets and a concentration of the burnable poisons in the pellet are varied depending on the axial position of the fuel rod. That is, the distribution density of the burnable poison containing-pellets is increased at the central portion of the fuel rod and it is decreased at both ends thereof, and a concentration of the burnable poisons of the burnable poison containing-pellet disposed at the end portions thereof is decreased to less than a concentration of the burnable poison-containing pellet at the central portion. With such a constitution, a central peaking at an early stage of the combustion cycle is decreased. Accordingly, power at the central portion is increased than that in the end portions at the latter half of the cycle, to flatten the power distribution. Further, a burnable poison concentration of the pellets at the end portions is decreased to promote burning of burnable poisons at the end portions which are less burnable relatively, thereby enabling to prevent worsening of neutron economy. (T.M.).

Takekawa, Tetsuya.

1993-10-22

155

Fuel feed system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel feed system for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine is described the engine including a first fuel pump including an inlet adapted to be connected to a fuel tank, and an outlet, a fuel vapor separator including an inlet communicating with the first fuel pump outlet, and an outlet. A second fuel pump communicates with the fuel vapor separator outlet, and a priming system communicates between the first fuel pump outlet and the second fuel pump inlet, the priming system including a conduit extending between the first fuel pump outlet and the second fuel pump inlet, and a valve which is located in the conduit and selectively operable to allow fuel passage through the conduit.

Baltz, G.F.

1989-03-07

156

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly of an LMFBR type reactor, a discharge ports for coolants are disposed at the periphery of a central core of a handling head. This can downwardly extend a mixed region with low temperature coolants flowing out in adjacent, to suppress the temperature fluctuation of coolants at the portion in the upper portion of the reactor core. Therefore, thermal shocks on the upper structures of the reactor core are moderated, thereby enabling to decrease ruptures due to fatigue. (T.M.).

Abe, Hideaki.

1993-06-25

157

Fuel additive injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A diesel engine fuel supply system wherein additives for improving the cetane number of diesel fuel are mixed with the diesel fuel and wherein return fuel containing such additives are recirculated to the engine without being passed to the fresh fuel tank.

Kamel, M. M.; Buchanan, J. C.; Wells, L. D.

1985-12-10

158

Fuel processing for fuel cell powered vehicles.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of auto companies have announced plans to have fuel cell powered vehicles on the road by the year 2004. The low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells to be used in these vehicles require high quality hydrogen. Without a hydrogen-refueling infrastructure, these vehicles need to convert the available hydrocarbon fuels into a hydrogen-rich gas on-board the vehicle. Earlier analysis has shown that fuel processors based on partial oxidation reforming are well suited to meet the size and weight targets and the other performance-related needs of on-board fuel processors for light-duty fuel cell vehicles (1).

Ahmed, S.; Wilkenhoener, R.; Lee, S. H. D.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-01-22

159

Fuel-cycle costs for alternative fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares the fuel cycle cost and fresh fuel requirements for a range of nuclear reactor systems including the present day LWR without fuel recycle, an LWR modified to obtain a higher fuel burnup, an LWR using recycle uranium and plutonium fuel, an LWR using a proliferation resistant /sup 233/U-Th cycle, a heavy water reactor, a couple of HTGRs, a GCFR, and several LMFBRs. These reactor systems were selected from a set of 26 developed for the NASAP study and represent a wide range of fuel cycle requirements.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01

160

Fuel extender  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient and cost competitive fuel extender liquid is described for blending with lead-free gasoline as an additive thereto in a maximum amount of up to about 35% thereof with 65% by volume of the gasoline in a blended mixture wherein. The content of the extender in the resultant fuel as proportioned on the basis of its thus representative maximum content consists essentially of: naphtha X as represented by C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons having a Reid vapor pressure of about 8.5 to 9.6 per ASTM, D323 test procedure and an initial distillation point of about 101/sup 0/F. and an end point of about 280/sup 0/F. within a range of about 10 to 25% by volume, about 3.8 to 6.0% by volume of anhydrous ethanol, a stabilizing amount of a water repellent of the class consisting of ethyl acetate and methyl isotubyl ketone; and about 4 to 10.5% by volume of aromatics benzene and toluene, of benzene and xylene or of benzene with toluene and xylene; the extender having a specific gravity substantially comparable with that of the lead-free gasoline to which it is to be added and having phase stability in the presence of water when mixed with the gasoline.

Dorn, G.K.; Gilbert, H.A.

1989-02-21

 
 
 
 
161

Nuclear fuel fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data is presented on nuclear fuels, based on questionnaires completed by the suppliers. The information is compiled under the headings: types of fuel, performance, materials, cladding and extent of fuel cycle covered.

1983-12-01

162

DIESEL FUEL ADDITIVE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A diesel fuel additive and synthesis method therefore is disclosed herein. The diesel fuel additive may be used in internal combustion engines including those present in cars and trucks, and reduces fuel consumption and pollutant emissions while increasing power.

SHASTRI P N

163

Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50ppm, better 20ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts. (author)

Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U. [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L. [Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A., I-16152 Genova (Italy)

2006-03-21

164

CANDU fuel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANDU fuel has operated successfully in Ontario Hydro's power reactors since 1962. In the 19 years of experience, about 99.9% of all fuel bundles have performed as designed. Most defects occurred before 1979 and subsequent changes in fuel design, fuel management, reactor control, and manufacturing quality control have reduced the current defect rate to near zero. Loss of power production due to defective fuel has been negligible. The outstanding performance continues while maintaining a low unit energy cost for fuel.

1981-11-05

165

DEHYDRATION OF LIQUID FUEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for dehydrating liquid fuel, the method comprising injecting a supply of dry gas into a liquid fuel via an outlet submerged in the liquid fuel. Also, a system for dehydrating liquid fuel, the system comprising a container for storing a liquid fuel, a line for delivering a supply of dry gas, and an outlet disposed near the bottom of the container and connected to the gas line for injecting dry gas into the liquid fuel.

LAM JOSEPH K-W; LAWSON CRAIG P; WETTERWALD MARC

166

HTGR reactor fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A critical review is given of data on the physical, chemical end other relevant properties of fuel materials and fuel elements for HTGR reactors. Available technologies for coated particles and fuel elements fabrication and appropriate quality control are described. In-core fuel behavior and spent fuel reprocessing are briefly discussed. Basic information about uranium and thorium fuel cycles is included. (author). 17 figs., 21 tabs., 87 refs

1989-01-01

167

Fuel feed system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a vapor separator. It comprises a housing defining a fuel chamber adapted to contain a supply of fuel and having therein an inlet adapted to communicate with a source of fuel, an outlet adapted to communicate with an internal combustion engine, and a fuel vapor outlet communicable with the fuel chamber and including a valve seat located in the fuel vapor outlet.

Olson, J.A.

1992-06-09

168

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

169

Fuel grade methanol. Fuel grade metanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report concerns the production of fuel grade methanol based on the methanol process of Onsager. The production capacity of the plant is designed to be 2500 tons of fuel grade methanol per 24 hours. 3 drawings.

Andersen, M.S.

1988-02-01

170

Alternative fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy awarded the Union Oil Company $400 million in price guarantees for synthetic crude oil produced by Parachute Creek shale oil project in Colorado. In 1985, Synthetic Fuels Corporation awarded an additional $500 million in price and loan guarantees to Union to modify the project's technology with a fluidized bed combustor. In December 1985, the Congress abolished SFC and transferred responsibility for the guarantees to the Treasury. GAO believes that because of the uncertainty of the project's economic and technical viability, it would not be in the government's best interest to expend an additional $500 million in financial assistance to install the combustor. If Union elects to proceed with the combustor, GAO recommends that Treasury use the analysis in this report to critically evaluate Union's proposal and explore the government's options for minimizing additional outlays on the project.

1988-01-01

171

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, a pellet to be loaded comprises an external layer of fissile materials containing burnable poisons and an internal layer of fissile materials not containing burnable poison. For example, there is provided a dual type pellet comprising an external layer made of UO{sub 2} incorporated with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a predetermined concentration as the burnable poisons and an internal layer made of UO{sub 2} not containing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The amount of the burnable poisons required for predetermined places is controlled by the thickness of the ring of the external layer. This can dissipate an unnecessary poisoning effect at the final stage of the combustion cycle. Further, since only one or a few kinds of powder mixture of the burnable poisons and the fissile materials is necessary, production and product control can be facilitated. (I.N.).

Wataumi, Kazutoshi; Tajiri, Hiroshi.

1992-01-27

172

Fuel detection device for fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concerning a fuel cell using liquid as fuel, the fuel concentration in its anolyte must be always controlled precisely since the cell voltage depends heavily on the fuel concentration in case when its load current is maintained constant. In this invention, the fuel vapor, which permeated a diaphragm provided in the liquidus section of the supplying system of the fuel and anolyte, is arranged to be sent to a gas testor with a blower for detection. In other words, since the amount of the fuel vapor permeated the diaphragm is determined principally by the fuel concentration in the anolyte and the fuel vapor partial pressure in the gaseous phase side, the fuel concentration in the anolyte can be detected with high detection precision by detecting the concentration of this fuel vapor. The material which has the function of not allowing the permeation of such kinds of fluid as anolyte and fuel, but allowing the permeation of the gaseous vapor, for instance the porous material made of tetrafluoroethylene resin, etc. can be mentioned as the material for the diaphragm. (3 figs)

Doi, Ryota; Tsukui, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Sankichi; Ehara, Katsuya

1988-03-10

173

Canadian fuel development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CANDU power reactor fuel has an excellent operational record, but nevertheless, in some cases research and development is necessary to resolve problems. Research is also being done to develop advanced fuel cycles for the future. The Candu Owners Group Fuel Technology Working Party has a program summarized under the following headings: Effect of oxygen-to-metal ratio, Fundamental studies, CANLUB development, Extended burnup, Fuel modelling, Crevice corrosion, Fuel element operational limits, All-welded bundles, Follow-up to Darlington fuel damage investigation, Decay heat removal in air, Fuel data documentation. Research on advanced fuel cycles is summarized under the following headings: Uranium recovered from PWR's, CANFLEX fuel, Direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU, Low void reactivity fuel. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

1992-01-01

174

Fuel manufacturing and utilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

2005-01-01

175

European Fuel Group`s fuel performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three companies comprising the European Fuel Group (EFG) are Empresa Nacional del Uranio S.A. of Spain, British Nuclear Fuels plc of the United Kingdom and Westinghouse Electric Corporation of the USA. EFG provides nuclear fuel and services, developed by the individual companies and jointly, to European utilities. A summary is given of the performance of EFG fuel and the background experience of the individual companies. Specific fuel issues discussed are: reliability; debris-induced fretting; grid-to-rod fretting; corrosion; incomplete insertions of Rod Control Cluster Assemblies. (12 figures, 6 references). (UK).

DeMatias, E. [Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A. (ENUSA), Madrid (Spain); Grimoldby, R. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Springfields (United Kingdom); Knott, R.; Sabol, G.; Wilson, H. [Westinghouse Electric Corp. (United States)

1997-12-31

176

Fuel injector and fuel injection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injector comprising; a housing having formed therein a fuel pressure control chamber and an accumulator, which temporarily retain fuel, a path leading into the fuel pressure control chamber and accumulator, so that they receive which is intermitently fed under pressure from a fuel source through the path, and formed with a nozzle hold through which fuel in the accumulator is injected; a piezo actuator accommodated in the housing, defining the fuel pressure control chamber and expanding and contracting in accordance with a voltage applied thereto to change the volume of the fuel pressure control chamber; needle valve, of a type which opens and closes a responsive to an applied pressure, provided reciprocally movable within the housing between the accumulator and the nozzle hold and which, responsive to a pressure from the fuel pressure control chamber an accumulator, opens and closes communication between the accumulator and the nozzle hold; check valve means for normally closing communication between the path and the fuel pressure control chamber and between the path and the accumulator and for opening the communication according to pressure in the path and/or in the fuel pressure control chamber; and an electric circuit which controls a voltage applied to the piezo-actuator.

Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Watanabe, K.; Takigawa, M.; Natsuyama, Y.; Daido, S.

1988-11-15

177

Production and characterization of atomized U-Mo powder by the rotating electrode process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to produce feedstock fuel powder for irradiation testing, the Idaho National Laboratory has produced a rotating electrode type atomizer to fabricate uranium-molybdenum alloy fuel. Operating with the appropriate parameters, this laboratory-scale atomizer produces fuel in the desired size range for the RERTR dispersion experiments. Analysis of the powder shows a homogenous, rapidly solidified microstructure with fine equiaxed grains. This powder has been used to produce irradiation experiments to further test adjusted matrix U-Mo dispersion fuel. (author)

2008-01-01

178

Nuclear fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improvement for the construction of a fuel rod for water cooled nuclear reactors is proposed, which should prevent the fuel cans made of zirconium or niobium alloys from reacting even if water enters (due to a fuel can fracture). It is proposed that the internal surface of the fuel can should be covered with an oxide layer at least 2 ?m thick. (UWI)

1976-01-01

179

Fuel Cells Fact Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides a basic introduction to fuel cells: how they work, the different types of fuel cells (PEM, AFC, PAFC, DMFC, MCFC and SOFC) and the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cells. Two useful graphic representations of fuel cells are also included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-09-18

180

Nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems of the full fuel cycle, like uranium exploration, enrichment, conversion into nuclear fuel and spent fuel management are discussed. Forecasting uranium supply and demand until 2010 and factors affecting the uranium market are considered. Partitioning/transmutation and spent fuel management programs of the IAEA are highlighted.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fuel element development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The studies concerning breeders for the development of fuel elements carried out in Karlsruhe aim at: - optimization of fuel, - support of fuel rod and fuel element concepts from steady-state and field irradiation experiments and their evaluation, and - developing appropriate cladding and structural material and its adaptation to the requirements of high-output breeder reactors.

Muehling, G.

1983-01-01

182

Fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burnable poisons are disposed in the lower portions of a water rod, a channel box and a control rod guide pipe in a fuel assembly, and the amount for each of them is set to burn out in one operation cycle. Since the inner side of the water rod and the control rod guide pipe and gaps are filled with steams at the initial and the intermediate stages of the operation cycle, moderation of neutrons is delayed to harden the spectrum. On the other hand, since the burnable poisons are burnt out in the final stage of the operation cycle, {gamma}-ray heating is not expected and since the insides of the water rod and the control rod guide pipe and the gaps are filled with water of great moderation effect, the neutron spectrum arae softened. In view of the above, void coefficient is increased to promote conversion from U-235 to Pu-239 by utilizing exothermic reaction of burnable poisons at the initial and the intermediate stages in the operation cycle and generation of voids are eliminated at the final stage where the burnable poisons are burnt out, thereby enabling effective burning of Pu-239. (N.H.).

Bessho, Yasunori; Ishii, Yoshihiko; Sadaoka, Noriyuki.

1990-06-06

183

Fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Burnable poisons are disposed in the lower portions of a water rod, a channel box and a control rod guide pipe in a fuel assembly, and the amount for each of them is set to burn out in one operation cycle. Since the inner side of the water rod and the control rod guide pipe and gaps are filled with steams at the initial and the intermediate stages of the operation cycle, moderation of neutrons is delayed to harden the spectrum. On the other hand, since the burnable poisons are burnt out in the final stage of the operation cycle, ?-ray heating is not expected and since the insides of the water rod and the control rod guide pipe and the gaps are filled with water of great moderation effect, the neutron spectrum arae softened. In view of the above, void coefficient is increased to promote conversion from U-235 to Pu-239 by utilizing exothermic reaction of burnable poisons at the initial and the intermediate stages in the operation cycle and generation of voids are eliminated at the final stage where the burnable poisons are burnt out, thereby enabling effective burning of Pu-239. (N.H.).

1988-11-30

184

Fueling opportunities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The newly restructured natural gas industry is providing greater opportunities for independent energy producers searching to match fuel supply contracts with project needs. Order No. 636's unbundling of the services offered by pipelines completed the deregulation of the gas industry started by the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, which began a phased deregulation of wellhead natural gas prices. Traditionally, the pipelines aggregated gas from numerous producers, transported it, stored it if necessary and sold it to a local distribution company or major customer, such as an electric generator. Order No. 636 separates pipeline transportation, sales and storage services and provides open access to pipelines. Customers are now subject to balancing requirements, scheduling penalties and operational flow orders, but there are new flexibilities in purchase and receipt of gas. The capacity release provisions allow those with excess transportation capacity entitlements to market that capacity. The order also favors the straight fixed-variable rate design which increases demand charges by including all fixed charges, including a pipeline's return and taxes, in the demand component of the rate. Under the previous modified fixed-variable methodology, a pipeline's fixed-cost recovery and earnings depended at least in part on maintaining throughput. Critics say the change will reduce the pipelines' incentive to operate efficiently and to market gas aggressively to power generators.

Williams, P.L.

1994-02-01

185

MOX fuel assembly design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes improvement in a boiling water reactor core having a plurality of vertically upstanding fuel bundles; each fuel bundle containing longitudinally extending sealed rods with fissile material therein; the improvement comprises the fissile material including a mixture of uranium and recovered plutonium in rods of the fuel bundle at locations other than the corners of the fuel bundle; and, neutron absorbing material being located in rods of the fuel bundle at rod locations adjacent the corners of the fuel bundles whereby the neutron absorbing material has decreased shielding from the plutonium and maximum exposure to thermal neutrons for shaping the cold reactivity shutdown zone in the fuel bundle.

Reese, A.P.; Crowther, R.L. Jr.

1992-02-18

186

Fuel tank. Brennstoffvorratsbehaelter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is the goal of this invention to design a fuel tank for an internal combustion engine in such a form that the fuel niveau in the tank is guaranteed, independently of the temperature load of the engine. The temperature of the fuel in the tank must be lower than the boiling temperature of the fuel component with the lowest boiling temperature. This problem has been resolved by a swimmer inside the fuel tank, which activates a fuel backfeed valve. This back feeding process is influenced by the height difference of the fuel niveau. A heat exchanger is mounted on the upper side of the tank. A thermo switch controls the electric pump.

Schwander, D.

1982-07-08

187

Fuel cells seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

NONE

1996-12-01

188

Fuel transfer system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA); Barbanti, Giancarlo (Cupertino, CA)

1994-01-01

189

Fuel research in Halden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Institute for Energy Technology is an international research institute for energy and nuclear technology in Norway. This institute operates the Halden research reactor which is used for fuel research and development in all nuclear fields. This report is a short review of executed experiments of advanced fuels like inert matrix fuel, thorium fuel and Mixed OXides (MOX) fuel which have been conducted in the last three years (Authors)

2006-01-01

190

Introduction to Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from the Great Lakes Fuel Cell Education Partnership will introduce students to the basics of fuel cells. In addition to describing fuel cells and their operation, the presentation includes diagrams and compares fuel cells to other sources of power such as traditional batteries and internal combustion engines. Several applications of fuel cell technology are also discussed. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

2012-08-31

191

Alcohol-fuel symposium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A symposium was conducted on the state-of-the-art of ethanol production and use. The following topics were discussed: ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines; ethanol production system design; the economics of producing fuel alcohol in form size plants; alternate feedstocks for ethanol stillage as a cattle feed; high energy sorghum, ethanol versus other alternative fuels; alcohol-fuel; legal and policy issues in ethanol production; and small scale fuel alcohol production. (DMC)

1980-01-01

192

Nuclear fuel structure and fuel behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the research has been to produce information on structural properties of nuclear fuel and their effects on the fuel behaviour. The research subjects were new fuel fabrication and quality control methods, the effects of as-fabricated pellets properties on the behaviour of fuel rods, behaviour of cladding materials and irradiated cladding and structural materials. At the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) the nuclear fuel structure and behaviour programme has produced data which have been utilized in procurement, behavioural analysis and surveillance of the fuel used in the Finnish nuclear power stations. In addition to our own research, data on fuel behaviour have been received by participating in the international cooperation projects, such as OECD/Halden, Studsvik-Ramp-programmes, IAEA/BEFAST II and VVER-fuel research projects. The volume of the research work financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the years 1987-1989 has been about 8 man years. The report is the summary report of the research work conducted in the KTM-financed nuclear fuel structure and fuel behaviour programme in the years 1987-1989

1990-01-01

193

Fuel and electrical distribution system for fuel injected engines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fuel injection system for use with internal combustion engines. It comprises: a module adapted to be remotely positioned away from the internal combustion engines in an engine compartment, the module including: fuel inlet and return means adapted for connecting with a fuel source and return such that fuel is pumped to the module fuel inlet means from the source and fuel is returned from the module fuel return means to the fuel return; fuel outlet means associated with the fuel inlet means. The fuel outlet means adapted to enable fuel to pass from the module to fuel injectors of the internal combustion engines; second fuel return means associated with the first fuel return means. The second fuel return means adapted to enable fuel to enter the module from the fuel injectors of the internal combustion engines; electronic means for controlling fuel distribution to and from the fuel injectors. The electronic means adapted to be associated with the fuel injectors for controlling fuel entering into the internal combustion engines; and harness means adapted for distributing fuel to and from the module to and from the fuel injectors such that the harness means is adapted to couple with the fuel outlet means and the second fuel return means and for coupling the electrical means with the fuel injectors. The harness means is of a unitary construction.

Bartholomew, D.D.

1990-01-23

194

PHWR fuel fabrication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the decision of the Indian Department of Atomic Energy to opt for a Heavy Water Reactor system for nuclear power generation work was taken up in the early sixties on development of technology on Zircaloy-clad U02 fuels. Pilot scale production facilities were set up at Trombay to evolve the technology of U02 powder production and fuel element fabrication. Half the initial charge of fuel was made in India and the other half was provided by Canada. The fuel Zircaloy-clad natural U02 was made with imported zircaloy tubes and hardware for the first half charge fuel. The experience thus gained was used to design and build a large-scale fuel fabrication facility. The Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) thus came into existence in early 70's to manufacture PHWR fuel. Facilities were also established at NFC for production of BWR fuel, zircaloy tubing and hardware required for the fuel; and Zircaloy coolant and calandria tubes required for the reactors. NFC produces Zircaloy-clad natural U02 fuel for PHWRs at Kota (Rajasthan), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu) and Narora (Uttar Pradesh) starting from indigenous magnesium diuranate concentrates from (Uranium Corporation of India Limited ) for production of U02 pellets, and zircon beach sands from IRE (Indian Rare Earths Limited ) for production of Zircaloy fuel and hardware. The fuel production plants are being expanded to meet the increased fuel requirements of the planned nuclear power programme. The fuel produced so far has shown an excellent in-reactor behaviour as judged by the very low failure rates. With the development of computer codes for fuel design and management and with the establishment of fuel design and testing capabilites, 'total fuel' capability has been established leading to self-sufficiency in this vital area of nuclear technology. This paper primarily details our experience in fuel manufacture and inspection and highlights operational experience.

1986-01-01

195

Fuel injector system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Leonard, Gary L. (Schenctady, NY)

1988-01-01

196

Dual Tank Fuel System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)

1999-11-16

197

BWR fuel performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The General Electric experience base on BWR fuel includes over 29,000 fuel assemblies which contain 1,600,000 fuel rods. Over the last five years, design, process and operating changes have been introduced which have had major effects in improving fuel performance. Monitoring this fuel performance in BWRs has been accomplished through cooperative programs between GE and utilities. Activities such as plant fission product monitoring, fuel sipping and fuel and channel surveillance programs have jointly contributed to the value of this extensive experience base. The systematic evaluation of this data has established well-defined fuel performance trends which provide the assurance and confidence in fuel reliability that only actual operating experience can provide

1979-05-02

198

MOX fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel assembly of the present invention comprises at least one water rod, first fuel rods filled with uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels, second fuel rods having axial length shorter than that of the first fuel rods and third fuel rods containing burnable poisons. If the third fuel rods are arranged on the same row and adjacent columns or on the same column and adjacent row relative to the positions where the second fuel rods are arranged or the position of the water rod replacing fuel rods, in other words, at a position extremely close to them, neutron spectrum is made softer and the neutron flux distribution is made higher. As a result, negative reactivity worth of the burnable poisons contained in the third fuel rods is enhanced, accordingly, a reactivity suppression effect comparable with that in conventional cases can be obtained by so much even if the number of the third fuel rods is reduced. The number of the MOX fuel rods is increased than a conventional case by so much as replacing the third fuel rods with the MOX fuel rods by the reduced amount thereby enabling to improve the efficiency using plutonium. (N.H.)

1995-12-15

199

DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The Phase II study of this project includes the analysis of impact on the reactor safety, the development of core design technology, the development of fuel supply technology of optimal composition, and feasibility analysis on localization and license of DUPIC fuel. From the reactor safety analysis results, it is known that DUPIC fuel satisfies the safety limit of reactor containment and public dose for single failure. But, the safety limit may be exceeded for dual failure. Therefore, more analysis is needed for the removal of excessive conservatism in accident analysis methodology and modification of transient fuel behavior analysis methodology. The results of the validation calculations of core design methodology have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of compatibility and fuel fabrication have shown that DUPIC fuel is technically feasible. For practical use and licensing, however, more research items required in the practical use, fuel rod and bundle design and fuel loading are should be performed. When these items are performed and resolved, the compatibility of the DUPIC fuel is achieved, and, eventually, the possibility of DUPIC fuel licensing can be confirmed.

2002-01-01

200

Fuel injection valve. Kraftstoffeinspritzventil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For known fuel injection valves with several openings to supply inlet valves of internal combustion engines, the fuel jets are string jets which do not guarantee sufficiently good fuel preparation. The fuel injection valve according to the invention makes an improvement of fuel preparation and therefore a more even fuel/air mixture possible, with simultaneous fuel supply of different inlet valves of an internal combustion engine by a fuel injection valve. Downstream of the valve seat surface (12) of the fuel injection valve (1), the fuel reaches a central opening (13), from which tangential ducts (28) go to at least two spaced swirl areas (27) and open tangentially into these. From the centre of each swirl area (27), which may be included in a front body (18), a dosing opening (29) leads to the outside, via which the fuel, which is well prepared, can be injected in the form of conical fuel jets. The fuel injection valve is suitable for supplying individual inlet valves (32) with several fuel jets or for the simultaneous supply of different inlet valves of an internal combustion engine.

Ziegler, E.; Widera, J.; Arndt, S.; Simon, N.

1989-09-21

 
 
 
 
201

Fuel cells technologies for fuel processing  

CERN Multimedia

This book covers all aspects of fuel processing: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, recent research and development, etc., which makes it one single source of information for scientists and engineers. It serves as an excellent self-instruction book for those new to fuel cells, and as a comprehensive resource for experts in the area of fuel processing. It can be used as a reference book for advanced level universi

Shekhawat, Dushyant, II; Berry, David A, I

2011-01-01

202

Micro fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1998-12-31

203

Fuel inspection techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Poolside fuel inspections are performed to measure fuel performance characteristics such as corrosion, rod growth, assembly growth, rod bow, and cladding creep. These inspections address the performance of intact fuel assemblies and individual removed fuel rods. Poolside inspections are also used to identify the cause of leaking fuel rods once they have been identified as leaking by sipping, ultrasonic or eddy current testing. Various inspections, such as fuel rod visuals, fiberscope of grid cells, profilometry, and cell sizing can be performed to identify the root cause of leaking rods. These examinations provide high quality data safely and reliably with minimal plant impact. (author)

1995-01-01

204

Multiple fuel rod gripper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The multiple fuel rod gripper comprises a plurality of split tube collets arranged to be inserted into corresponding tapered holes in a locking plate. When the gripper has been positioned to have a plurality of fuel rods disposed in the holes of locking plate, an actuating mechanism causes the collets to be inserted into the tapered holes thereby causing the fuel rods to be inserted in the collets. The taper of the holes forces the collets into locking engagement with the fuel rods so that the fuel rods may be extracted from the fuel assembly

1985-01-01

205

Multiple fuel rod gripper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The multiple fuel rod gripper comprises a plurality of split tube collets arranged to be inserted into corresponding tapered holes in a locking plate. When the gripper has been positioned to have a plurality of fuel rods disposed in the holes of locking plate, an actuating mechanism causes the collets to be inserted into the tapered holes thereby causing the fuel rods to be inserted in the collets. The taper of the holes forces the collets into locking engagement with the fuel rods so that the fuel rods may be extracted from the fuel assembly.

Shields, E. P.

1985-11-05

206

Fuel Cells: Green Power  

Science.gov (United States)

This online report, written in 2006, provides a comprehensive overview of fuel cell technology. In layman's terms, it gives a brief history, compares various types of fuel cells, and discusses environmental implications of using hydrogen as a fuel. For teachers and learners of physics, this publication explains the process by which fuel cells convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy, resulting in greater fuel efficiency and reduction of emissions. One chapter is devoted to an in-depth exploration of the PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell, which is being widely studied for use in automobiles.

Thomas, Sharon; Zalbowitz, Marcia; Gill, Dennis

2007-11-29

207

Composite fuel article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composite fuel article is described, comprising: (a) a fuel element; (b) an outer covering layer of a solid phase igniter material on the fuel element; and (c) a spacing zone between the fuel element and the covering layer, the spacing zone being effective to promote generation of heat sufficient to sustain burning in the covering layer upon ignition of the covering layer, without immediate dissipation of the heat into the fuel element, followed by a transfer of heat, which is in excess of that required to sustain burning in the covering layer, from the covering layer to the fuel element.

Fay, J.E. III; Olszewski, J.

1989-03-07

208

HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel and fuel cycles for the HTGR that permit a wide choice of fuel designs, reactor concepts and applications have been developed. Fuels capable of providing a helium outlet temperature of 9500C are available, and a 10000C outlet temperature may be expected from extension of present technology. Two basic HTGR designs are being considered for commercial application, one using a spherical (pebble-bed) element and the other a prismatic element. Within each concept a number of variations of geometry, fuel composition and structural materials are permitted. Potential fuel cycles include both low-enriched and high-enriched U-Th cycles, also Th-Pu and U-Pu cycles. This flexibility is of great practical benefit in view of the rapidly changing economics of power production. Inflation of ore prices has increased optimum conversion ratios and increased the necessity of fuel recycle at an early date. Fuel element make-up is similar for prismatic and pebble-bed designs. Both use spherical fuel particles coated with combinations of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Both use carbonaceous binder materials and graphite as the structural material. Dense UC2 fissile kernels have been selected for the Th-235U initial and make-up fuel for the prismatic design. Kernels of UO2-UC2 derived from weak-acid resin (WAR) will be used for Th-233U recycle. Sol-gel ThO2 fertile kernels will be used in both applications. Sol-gel UO2-ThO2 is the reference fuel for the thorium cycle pebble-bed design. (author)

1977-05-13

209

DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

2000-01-01

210

DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

2000-03-01

211

Plasma fuel ignitors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved ignitor and ignition method for igniting a wide variety of fuels that may be used to power various types of engines, or for use with other applications requiring the efficient combustion of fuel. The fuel to be burned is mixed with air to form a relatively lean first fuel/air mixture. This first fuel/air mixture is then injected into the primary combustion chamber, such as the combustion zone of a cylinder of an internal combustion engine, or similar combustion chamber of other types of fuel-burning apparatus. The first fuel/air mixture is ignited with a stream of hot ionized gas that is jetted into the primary combustion chamber from a precombustion or plasma-generating chamber. The plasma-generating chamber is in close proximity to the primary combustion chamber, with a plasma guide or discharge tunnel connecting the two. A fuel line connects a source of pressurized fuel to the plasma-generating chamber. Interposed in this fuel line are a backflow restrictor and a fuel vaporizor, thereby ensuring that only vaporized fuel passes into (and not out of) the plasma-generating chamber through the fuel line.

Dalton, J.M.

1982-06-01

212

Romanian nuclear fuel program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle of January 1997 with fuel produced by the Romanian fuel plant. The quality evaluation of the 'pre-1990' fuel started in April 1996 and was performed by the Nuclear Fuel Plant (FCN) Pitesti, under the supervision of the Nuclear Power Group (GEN) - a distinct department of RENEL. The paper presents the involvement of Romania in the activities related to the Advanced CANDU Fuel Cycle. The future prospect and trend of the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program are also presented in this paper. (author)

1990-01-00

213

EOS Reactor Fuel  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of the Equations of State for Fuel Compositions, which Take into Account the Microstructure Accumulation Kinetics its Use for Simulation of the Fuel Failure Consequences in Nuclear Reactors of VariousType. (Continuation of the project 003)

214

Fuel Removal-Weddell  

Science.gov (United States)

... Environmental Action Memorandum (Fuel Removal from the Ice Station Weddell) To: Files (S.7 - ... understanding. This fuel may have some residual value if returned to ANCAP, but any such value is ...

215

Core and fuel development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toshiba has worked on the step-by-step development of cores and fuels for boiling-water reactors (BWRs), introducing them into operating plants to improve core performance. The most significant development in this area has been zirconium liner fuel, which was introduced in 1987 in order to eliminate PCIOMR and to improve fuel economy. Following the introduction of zirconium liner fuel, we are now at the stage of promoting the commercial application of high-burnup STEP-II fuel, which incorporates many design improvements over previous fuels to provide its high-burnup characteristics. In addition to the above, this paper also describes the high technology supporting core and fuel development, such as fuel bundle nuclear design techniques, core operation management systems, three-dimensional core dynamics analysis techniques, and thermal-hydraulics analysis techniques. The results of high-performance core management are also described. (author).

1989-01-01

216

Future automotive fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au).

1993-01-01

217

Biomass for bio fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

You will find the justifications, potentialities and problems connected for bio fuels production. It follows a description of research activities of new generation bio fuels developed in Eni Donegani Research Centre for non conventional energies.

2009-01-01

218

Nuclear fuel element  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

Zocher, Roy W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

219

Fuel cell reliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 'Full text:' The Green Energy and Fuel Cell Materials Research in Chemical Engineering at the University of Waterloo focuses on the design and performance of hydrogen fuel cell stacks and systems, including the modeling of fuel cell system reliability, and research into potential failure modes and causes experienced in hydrogen power systems. In order to adequately model fuel cell performance and reliability, an interest in both fuel cell modeling, as well reliability analysis and simulation is part of the research program. Control systems and maintenance planning over the life of a fuel cells stack must account for degradation and changes in the performance characteristics. Research includes these adaptive control systems for fuel cell and fuel cell/battery hybrid systems. Completed projects include the design of hydrogen retail stations, and hydrogen based off grid community power systems. (author)

2006-01-01

220

???????????? ?????? Alcohol fuels C??????????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ??????, ???????, ???????? (??????????, ?????????,??????????) ?? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ????????????????? ????????????? ??????. The existing motor fuel alternative, namely alcohol - biomethanol, bioethanol and biobutanol, the possibility of using them in different concentrations of gasoline were consider. From the most perspective of considered alternative fuels for were shows. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ? ?????????, ????????? (??????????, ?????????, ??????????) ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????????. ???????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????.

?.?. ????????; ?.?. ???????; ?.?. ??????; ?.?. ?????????

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fuel cells: Project Volta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses research and development in the field of fuel cell power plants. Reference is made to the Italian research Project Volta. Problems related to research program financing and fuel cell power plant marketing are discussed.

Vellone, R.; Di Mario, F.

1987-09-01

222

Fuel Pressure Increase Limiter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention belongs to the field of the automatic control of turbojet engines, in particular, to fuel pressure increase limiters. Known are fuel pressure increase limiters, predominantly for a turbojet engine, which contain a spring-opposed servopistion...

Y. M. Akhmetov V. I. Bolshagin A. A. Ryzhov V. S. Dyakonov M. A. Medvedeva

1977-01-01

223

Fuel cycle data survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the fuel cycle cost data published during 1977 and 1978 is presented in tabular and graphical form. Cost trends for the period 1965 onwards are presented for yellow cake, conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing

1978-01-01

224

Fuel cells - A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel cells have several attractive features which make them amenable for exploitation for terrestrial and space applications. This paper reviews various configurations of fuel cells and compares their performances. Essential theoretical aspects are discussed and future trends projected. 22 refs.

Subrahmanyam, A.; Agarwal, B.L. (ISRO, Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India))

1993-07-01

225

Reformulated diesel fuel  

Science.gov (United States)

Reformulated diesel fuels for automotive diesel engines which meet the requirements of ASTM 975-02 and provide significantly reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) and particulate matter (PM) relative to commercially available diesel fuels.

McAdams, Hiramie T [Carrollton, IL; Crawford, Robert W [Tucson, AZ; Hadder, Gerald R [Oak Ridge, TN; McNutt, Barry D [Arlington, VA

2006-03-28

226

Aviation fueling hose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This standard provides comprehensive specifications and identifies appropriate test procedures for aircraft fueling hose, hose couplings, and coupled hose assemblies suitable for use on aviation fuel servicing equipment (fuelers/hydrant dispensers).

1989-01-01

227

BWT Fuel Recovery Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study is to gain insight into the incentives for recovery of the fissile values in spent LWR fuel. The plutonium ''indifference value,'' associated ''breakeven'' reprocessing cost, and overall fuel cycle costs have been estimated as fun...

S. G. Ledford E. H. Gift

1976-01-01

228

Miniature ceramic fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-06-24

229

Sulfur in fuel tester  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A portable diesel fuel tester and a method of its use are provided. A sample of diesel fuel is placed in a sample tray of the tester. The diesel fuel is heated to a gas state and circulated to a SO2 sensor by an air pump. The SO2 sensor determines the level of sulfur in the diesel fuel based on the SO2 levels. The sulfur level is displayed on an LCD screen for viewing by the user.

KINKADE JR. CHARLES E

230

Fuel cell electronics packaging  

CERN Document Server

Today's commercial, medical and military electronics are becoming smaller and smaller. At the same time these devices demand more power and currently this power requirement is met almost exclusively by battery power. This book includes coverage of ceramic hybrid separators for micro fuel cells and miniature fuel cells built with LTCC technology. It also covers novel fuel cells and discusses the application of fuel cell in microelectronics.

Kuang, Ken

2007-01-01

231

Stable emulsion fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stable emulsion fuel with good combustion characteristics is produced by adding less than or equal to 10 vol.% MeOH, alcohol or PrOH with subsequent emulsification, to an emulsion containing liquid fuel, water and emulsifier. This fuel has a low-dispersion structure and requires about 2 times less emulsifier to produce it than emulsion fuels to which no alcohol is added.

Otsubo, K.; Kato, M.

1982-03-30

232

Nuclear reactor fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rotating parts should be avoided on the holding rods of the fuel elements for the fitting and removal and mounting in fuel elements of fuel rods under water by remote control. This is achieved by the radial holding element being a radially spread spring. (HP)

1982-07-29

233

Fuel crops unlikely  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the National Agricultural Centre conference, a team for Reading University concluded that fuel cropping is best suited to countries with food surplus and energy deficits. The price of fossil fuels would have to increase substantially before fuel cropping would become an attractive proposition in the U.K.

1981-03-01

234

Canadian Renewable Fuels Association  

Science.gov (United States)

The CRFA promotes the use of renewable bio-fuels (ethanol, biodiesel). Membership includes representatives from fuel marketing, fuel production agriculture, forestry, engineering and environmental organizations, and researchers and individuals. Visitors can find policy papers, industry statistics, plant locations, and FAQs and fact sheets about biodiesel and ethanol.

2007-08-24

235

DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, analysis results for the CANDU 6 reactor with DUPIC fuel have been described. Various problems are assessed against the standard natural uranium fuel core such as fuel fabrication, fuel rod and bundle design, in-core loading, in-core fuel management, spent fuel treatment and overall fuel cycle. Some of the results are related to the license and demonstration. From the up to date results, it is known that the DUPIC fuel fabrication is technically feasible and the anticipated in-core problems can be resolved by current technique. Also, the benefit is expected in power distribution and fuel burnup. However, because the CANDU 6 reactor is originally designed for natural uranium fuel, some demerits are found in some field such as radiation damage of the reactor structural material, operational margin decrease by composition heterogeneity, increase in fission product release of accident condition, deterioration of fuel pellet material property. These problems should be resolved technically including design improvement of DUPIC fuel and CANDU 6 reactor. Furthermore, experimental verifications should be performed for reactor physics and thermal hydraulics. This report describes the compatibility with the CANDU 6 reactor, and it should be noted that detail and wide work should be performed for more reliable results.

2002-01-01

236

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This reference sheet provides some basic information on solid oxide fuel cells. This document includes information on the basic operation of these fuel cells and some useful graphics. This document would probably be more useful for students who already have a basic understanding of fuel cells.This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2012-07-20

237

Reactor fuel assemblies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of an improved spacer grid for a nuclear fuel assembly comprising fuel rods in a matrix wherein each rod is adapted to be enclosed by a spacer ''cell'' for positioning thereof relative to adjacent rods in the fuel assembly. 7 claims, 12 drawing figures

1976-01-01

238

Plaque fuel cell stack  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a fuel cell stack. It comprises: cell plaques, each plaque having individual fuel cells electrically isolated from each other, the cells interconnected fluidly to provide a fuel and an oxidizer to each cell, adjacent cells disposed in a plaque-to-plaque relationship forming a substack, each substack serially connected electrically to another substack to increase the stack voltage.

Cohen, R.; Hall, E.W.

1991-12-03

239

Oilseed fuels: their future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ASAE is sponsoring the first International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuel. That conference will be in Fargo, ND, 2-4 Aug 1982. The conference will explore the use of renewable plant and vegetable oils directly as fuels with minimum on-site processing and filtering, as feedstocks for factories now producing plastics from petroleum, and as feedstocks for fuel refineries.

Buckingham, F.

1981-04-01

240

Plutonium fuel program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of the development of the (UPu)C sphere-pac fuel project during 1978. In particular, the problems encountered in obtaining good fuel quality in the fabrication process and their solution is discussed. The development of a fabrication pilot plant is considered, and the post-irradiation examination of fuel pins is presented. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Gelled FAE fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composition of matter consisting essentially of a polar fuel, a particulate gelling agent and a mixture of two polyfunctional alcohols, one having an ether linkage and the other having no ether linkage is disclosed. The composition is useful as a fuel for a fuel air explosive device.

Stull, B.O.; Wood, S.E.

1981-11-24

242

Plutonium fuel program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1975 was the first of two years planned to allow the fuel development project to move from lab-scale fuel production and scouting irradiation tests to larger scale production supplying fuel for parameter testing. The first stages of this re-direction are reported. (Auth.)

1976-01-01

243

Control of Fuel Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells are devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen, methanol or other chemical compounds directly into electricity, without combustion or thermal cycles. They are efficien...

Zenith, Federico

244

Neutronic fuel element fabrication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure by encompassing the sides of the fuel element between the header plates.

Korton, George (Cincinnati, OH)

2004-02-24

245

Reactor fuel element and fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mixture of fission products and burnable poisons is disposed at least to a portion between MOX pellets to form a burnable poison-incorporated fuel element without mixing burnable poisons to the MOX pellets. Alternatively, a mixture of materials other than the fission products and burnable poisons is formed into disks, a fuel lamination portion is divided into at least to two regions, and the ratio of number of the disks of the mixture relative to the volume of the region is increased toward the lower portion of the fuel lamination portion. With such a constitution, the axial power distribution of fuels can be made flat easily. Alternatively, the thickness of the disk of the mixture is increased toward the lower region of the fuel lamination portion to flatten the axial power distribution of the fuels in the same manner easily. The time and the cost required for the manufacture are reduced, and MOX fuels filled with burnable poisons with easy maintenance and control can be realized. (N.H.)

Okada, Seiji; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Atsuko

1997-11-28

246

Wood - fuel for thought  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sixteen papers were presented at the conference which covered a range of issues including: wood in the UK fuel strategy; fuel wood production; environmental issues of wood; wood fuel and its effect on global warming; the Swedish experience; thermochemical biomass conversion technologies; installing wood combustion plant; interaction between the forestry industry and the emerging wood fuel industry; the size and location of the resource; alternative farm land use and diversification; production of wood fuel crops from energy forestry and supply strategies. Currently, wood is not a significant part of the UK energy balance.

1991-01-01

247

Fuel pump. Brennstoffpumpe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Well-known fuel pumps are disturbed by the formation of fuel vapour due to high temperatures because they are fixed directly to the engine. One tries to remedy this by using expensive additional gas separators between the fuel pump and the former of the mixture. The new fuel pump is distinguished by the fact that the housing is held by a foot made as a circular flange in an opening of an engine housing with the aid of a holder gripping over the flange. Such fuel pumps are used in engine construction, particularly in car construction.

Kuhlen, E.

1990-01-11

248

Fuel Cells Presentation  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation from Thomas G. Benjamin and J. David Carter of Argonne National Laboratory introduces the topic of fuel cells. The presentation examines the history and basic operation of fuel cells, types of fuel cells, PEM fuel cells, hydrogen storage and more. The presentation includes fifty slides, many of which include graphics to support the text. This presentation would be a good general starting point for a casual learner curious about fuel cells, or could be used to support energy curriculum. This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

Benjamin, Thomas G.; Carter, J. D.

2012-07-25

249

Fuel cells for transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 150th anniversary of the Grove Fuel Cell provided an excellent opportunity to review the status of fuel cell technology and its potential applications. One of the most exciting and most challenging of these applications is in transportation. A fuel cell powered vehicle is conceptually simple. The fuel cell provides an efficient means of converting chemical energy to electricity. If a fuel cell with adequate power capacity could be housed within the engine compartment of a vehicle, its electrical output could be used to drive an electric motor for propulsion as well as all of the electrical ancillary equipment of a modern vehicle. (author).

Lemons, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-12-01

250

Fuel recycle in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been the policy of the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission that all spent fuel from the Japanese nuclear power program should be recycled in order to make effective use of limited uranium resources. Japan can carry on most of the steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium enrichment, reactor fuel element fabrication, reprocessing, and MOX fuel element fabrication. This paper reviews some problems to be solved in regard to the development of advanced power reactors, plutonium MOX fuel development, plutonium recycling, and the fate of depleted uranium recovered from reprocessing

1983-01-01

251

Fuel Cell Handbook update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work was to update the 1988 version of DOE`s Fuel Cell Handbook. Significant developments in the various fuel cell technologies required revisions to reflect state-of-the-art configurations and performance. The theoretical presentation was refined in order to make the handbook more useful to both the casual reader and fuel cell or systems analyst. In order to further emphasize the practical application of fuel cell technologies, the system integration information was expanded. In addition, practical elements, such as suggestions and guidelines to approximate fuel cell performance, were provided.

Owens, W.R.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Engleman, R.R. Jr.; Stauffer, D.B.

1993-11-01

252

Nuclear fuel lease accounting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

1986-01-01

253

Fuel cells in transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel cells have been considered for use in transportation applications for a number of years. They are attractive because they offer a mode of reducing US dependency on petroleum. Fuel cell performance at present has been assessed for applicability to vehicle power plants. Types of fuels that might be used and their effect on selection of a fuel cell technology have been considered. Simulation of a city bus using a hybrid fuel cell/battery power plant indicates that adequate performance can be obtained with current technology.

Huff, J.R.; Murray, H.S.

1987-01-01

254

Nuclear fuel cartridge. Kaernbraenslepatron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear fuel cartridge consists of a number of vertical fuel pins and possible solitary vertical water fulled pins all confined in a shroud with square section. The cartridge is split in four clusters by a vertical cruciform channel for cooling medium. Each fuel pin consists of a pile of cylindrical fuel pellets arranged in a cladding tube. Each cluster consists of together 25 fuel pins and possible water filled pins arranged in a lattice of 5x5 pins. The wall thickness of the cladding tube is 0.50-0.70 mm and the outside diameter is 8.5-10.3 mm. (L.F.).

Blomstrand, J.; Junkrans, S.; Nylund, O.

1987-06-09

255

Filtering aviation fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An industry-wide review is currently taking place on existing standards for aviation fuel filters, used for handling at airports where speed of operation and safety criteria must be met to exacting quality standards. This article reports on an American Petroleum Industry conference which addressed the importance of fuel cleanliness and dryness to the aviation industry and the need for appropriate standards for fuel filtration. The changes in standards which are needed to keep pace with changes in aviation are outlined and recent research into jet fuel, surfactants and fuel filters is examined. Other papers focused on developments in hydrant leak detection and containment measures. (UK)

Jackson, Kim

1996-01-01

256

Automatic fuel number reader  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Optical and ultrasonic fuel number readers have been developed to realize the efficient and automatic confirmation and verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure of operators who engage in the confirmation and verification task. This task is carried out as a part of the safeguards in spent fuel storage facilities. The optical fuel number imaging device has been designed to illuminate a fuel number which is carved on the top side surface of each PWR fuel assembly and to visualize it with an underwater TV camera. In this research, the prototype periscope of an optical device using a side view mirror has been developed to achieve high speed verification of fuel numbers. An ultrasonic fuel number imaging device has been developed for a supplement of the optical method, when fuel numbers can be hardly recognized due to the deposition of crud and others. The image of a fuel number can be obtained by scanning focused ultrasonic wave on the surface of the fuel number part. In this research, a one-dimensional array type piezoelectric sensor has been developed, which enabled the electronic scanning of focused ultrasonic wave. (K.I.)

1991-01-01

257

Fuel charging machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose: To enable continuous fuel discharging and charging steps in a bwr type reactor by effecting positioning only for once by providing a plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives co-axially on a rotatable surface. Constitution: A plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives are provided co-axially on a rotatable surface. For example, a gripper A, a drive B, a gripper C and a drive D are arranged co-axially in symmetric positions on a disk rotated on rails by wheels and rotational drives. A new fuel in a fuel pool is gripped by the gripper A and transported above the reactor core. Then, the disk is positioned so that the gripper C can grip the spent fuel in the core, and the fuel to be discharged is gripped and raised by the gripper C. Then the disk is rotated by 1800 and the new fuel in the gripper A is charged into the position from which the old fuel has been discharged and, finally, the discharged fuel is sent to the fuel pool for storage. (Seki, T.)

1978-01-01

258

Recycling of fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There are three options presently available for thermal reactor fuel cycles: (1) the once-through mode. (2) reprocessing to recover the uranium but dispose of the plutonium and fission products, and (3) reprocessing to recover both the uranium and plutonium. The recovered plutonium can be used as fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. Attention is drawn to the problems of fabricating and handling plutonium-enriched fuel for use in thermal reactors. As an example, a plant for refabricating mixed uranium oxide- plutonium oxide LWR fuels is described. Mention is made of the problems associated with the transport of plutonium and the impact of the special requirements of plutonium handling on fuel costs. The main difference between plutonium-enriched thermal reactor fuel and plutonium fast reactor fuel is shown to lie in the concentration of plutonium in the fuel and in the complexity of the fuel assemblies. Before adopting a fuel recycle policy, certain basic factors must be considered. Among these are the questions of the basic feasibility, economics, and the availability and utilization of fuel, and attention must also be given to proliferation considerations. (author)

1983-01-01

259

Method and device for feeding fuel in a fuel system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a device for feeding fuel in a fuel system for a liquid fuel engine, with the fuel system having a fuel tank, fuel lines, multiple microscreen fuel filters, a fuel pump, and engine fuel injectors, with the fuel tank having a fill opening having a perimeter, comprising, in combination: a ball having a size for overfitting and abutting with the perimeter of the fill opening of differing sizes, shapes, and constructions; and means for introducing air pressure greater than atmospheric through the ball and through the fill opening and into the fuel tank, with the ball having a solid cross section and being generally impermeable to air passage, with the ball being deformable to conform to the perimeter of the fill opening for sealingly engaging the perimeter of the fill opening and having a firmness for transmitting a force applied to the ball in the direction of the fill opening into a sealing force applied by the ball to the fill opening to balance opposing forces created by the introduction of air pressure into the fuel tank and for increasing the air pressure in the fuel tank acting on the fuel to increase the rate of fuel flow from the fuel tank into the fuel line for assisting the fuel pump in moving the fuel from the fuel tank through the fuel lines and through the microscreen filters to the engine fuel injectors while allowing an excessive air pressure to escape from the fill opening around the ball.

Williamson, E.

1988-07-26

260

Inspection system for fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A typical embodiment of the invention combines a novel cellular end fitting for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly with a new design for a fuel rod end cap and radiation sensing device probe to provide a means for swiftly and accurately distinguishing sound fuel rods from those rods that have developed leaks. For example, a somewhat thinner than usual fuel rod end cap is accessible through the open cellular structure of the end fitting to permit a hollow metal probe to contact the fuel rod end cap. This direct contact excludes most of the water, metal and other shielding materials from the volume between the interior of the fuel and the radiation detector, thereby improving the quality of the fuel rod examination. A bridge and trolley structure for accurately positioning the probe also is described. (Auth.)

1977-11-21

 
 
 
 
261

Fuel pin bundle splitting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent describes the splitting of a bundle of nuclear fuel pins into smaller bundles, during the dismantling of a fuel element, in preparation for the reprocessing of the spent fuel. The size of the small bundles are such that they are suitable for cropping in an easily maintainable shearing machine. The cropping of fuel pins into short sections exposes the irradiated fuel to be reprocessed. The invention involves feeding a number of blades into the exposed end of a fuel pin bundle. The bundle is forced out of the containing sheath by a ram, and the fuel pins are forced to pass either side of theblades, there by the bundle is sorted into a number of smaller bundles. (U.K.).

1986-10-21

262

NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

1961-09-01

263

Fuel Cells 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

264

Failed fuel element detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the failed fuel element detector of this invention, a truck capable of moving on a bridge across a coolant water tank of a pool type reactor has a pipe extending downward to or near the coolant drain port of an arbitrarily selected fuel element. Coolant in the element is drawn by a pump through this pipe and collected in a reservoir located in the truck. The radioactivity of the coolant in the reservoir is measured to determine the content of any radioactive effluent elected from the fuel element, into the coolant. Thus, a failed fuel element can be located using this detector system without extracting fuel elements from the reactor core. Labor required in the locating of failed elements. This detector in the fuel assembly may thus be reduced system may be positioned so as to monitor the radioactivity of the coolant in the tank, sudden increases in radioactivity indicate fuel element failure. (JPN)

1968-01-01

265

Fuel injection. Benzineinspritzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Competition on the carburettor and fuel injection sector has become more fierce as a result of stringent exhaust regulations, high demands on engine performance, and a demand for low-consumption cars. The service manual describes the available mechanical and electronic fuel injection systems, including less well-known and widespread systems. A historical outline of fuel injection is followed by a discussion of its physical fundamentals. Injection methods (direct, with suction channel or with suction pipe) and mechanical fuel injection systems with or without external drives are described. Functional and structural features of electronic fuel injection systems are listed, including Japanese systems and the Bosch-Motronic system. Future trends in fuel injection systems are outlined. Apart from the theoretical explanations and practical hints, the book presents detailed guidelines for engine diagnosis and fuel injection system adjustment for car repair shops.

Kasedorf, J.

1983-01-01

266

Nuclear fuel storage arrangement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A compact nuclear fuel storage arrangement is described and diagrams with explanatory notes and dimensions given. The object of the invention is to provide an arrangement wherein the storage space for spent fuel assemblies is efficiently utilized without accumulation of a critical mass. Elongated nuclear reactor fuel assemblies each with an active and an inactive section along its longitudinal axis are stored. The arrangement comprises a frame structure forming a plurality of elongated cells, one for each fuel assembly, these being positioned radially adjacent to each other without spaces between. The fuel assemblies are axially positioned in staggered relation along the longitudinal axis of the cells so that the active section of each fuel assembly is adjacent to the inactive section of each radially adjacent fuel assembly. This allows a reduction in the storage space required but the radial distance between the closest active sections is at least one cell diameter. (UK)

1977-01-01

267

Fuel nozzle assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC); Lacey, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); York, William David (Greer, SC); Stevenson, Christian Xavier (Inman, SC)

2011-08-30

268

BN-600 fuel elements and fuel assemblies operating experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Consideration is given to the data on fuel burnup of standard fuel assemblies of the BN-600 reactor first core charge and that for modified core; data on operation ability of fuel assemblies of the first charge type are given. Data on main results of primary post-irradiation examination of fuel assemblies and fuel elements and maximal values of fuel burnup, achieved in particular fuel assemblies of BN-600 reactor are presented. 4 figs.; 1 tab

1990-01-01

269

Industrial Challenges of Fuel and Fuel Cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the current fleet of power plants is an important enabler to the nuclear renaissance. Westinghouse products and services continue to support this goal with a clear commitment to operational excellence, technology and growth initiatives. With core management evolution in recent years pushing fuel duties to higher levels, Westinghouse introduced advanced fuel products to meet more demanding operating requirements while maintaining a high level of fuel reliability. The advanced alloy ZIRLOTM has performed consistently and predictably enabling fuel cycle extensions and power up-ratings required by customers worldwide. With Westinghouse AP1000{sup TM} technology uniquely positioned to serve the nuclear renaissance demand, Westinghouse is also investing in people, processes, and facilities to support this growth, while continuing to meet our customers' requirements for their operating plants. (author)

Belechak, Joe [Westinghouse (United States)

2009-06-15

270

Fuel infrastructure costs for fuel cell vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On-board fuel processing of liquid fuels, or on-board storage of gaseous or liquid hydrogen are the two principal paths for hydrogen supply for fuel cell-powered vehicles. On-board hydrogen storage is not considered seriously because of the excessive cost to install massive hydrogen infrastructures analogous to natural gas pipeline systems. Most U.S. research therefore is concentrated on developing on-board partial oxidation chemical plants to convert gasoline to hydrogen. Daimler-Benz and Toyota are reportedly developing on-board steam reformer systems to convert methanol to hydrogen. Thus, instead of a new hydrogen pipeline system, it is proposed that hydrogen be produced at the local gasoline station by steam methane reforming or by electrolysis of water, utilizing existing natural gas pipeline system or the electrical power grid to produce hydrogen when and where it is needed to match the fuel cell vehicle market. It is estimated that the cost of this distributed hydrogen generation system per fuel cell vehicle is less than the cost of an on-board methanol reformer. The gasoline-powered fuel cell vehicle is estimated to be the most complex, as well as the most expensive, option in terms of total on-board and stationary fuel infrastructure. Contrary to some analysts who estimate the cost of a national hydrogen pipeline system at tens and even hundreds of billions of dollar, these authors contend that sales would be feasible if only a minimum of 10 per cent of all gasoline station were able to offer methanol or hydrogen. For the U.S. this would mean a nation-wide methanol or hydrogen fueling capacity of about 18,000 stations converted at a total investment of $ 900 million (methanol, $ 50,000 per station) to $ 4.1 billion (hydrogen, $ 200.000 per station). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Thomas, C. E.; James, B. D.; Lomax Jr, F. D.; Kuhn Jr, I. F. [Directed Technologies Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1999-12-01

271

Automatical fuel inspection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The device of the present invention can inspect fuel rods accurately and in a short period of time. That is, the device of the present invention comprises a device main body for incorporating a fuel assembly at a predetermined position, a camera supported so that it can advance and retreat between the gaps of fuel rods and can slide in the axial direction of the fuel rod, and a device for controlling the sliding movement of the camera and the position of incorporating the fuel assembly. With such a constitution, a fuel assembly can be incorporated while determining its position to the device main body comprising the camera for photographing the fuel rods. Accordingly, the camera can easily move between the gaps in the fuel assembly incorporated at a predetermined position toward the inspection position. Further, with the device of the present invention, scattering for photographing positions can be eliminated and the fuel rods disposed inside of the fuel assembly can also be inspected in a short period of time. (I.S.)

1989-10-06

272

Fuel cell market applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

Williams, M.C.

1995-12-31

273

Transportation of MOX fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to utilize plutonium effectively, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development corporation has advanced the technical development of FBRs and ATRs, and reprocessing technology for the spent fuel from LWRs and the conversion and manufacture technologies for MOX fuel have been developed. Moreover, at present the reprocessing technology for FBR spent fuel and the technologies of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are being researched and developed. Also the containers for transporting new fuel to new power reactors, the fuel for post-irradiation test, oxide powder such as plutonium and so on have been developed so far. At present the containers for transporting FBR spent fuel and radioactive wastes are being developed. In this report, the development of the container for transporting new MOX fuel and also the transportation of new MOX fuel are described. The classification of the substances to be transported, the safety standard, the features of the design of MOX fuel transportation, the container for this purpose, the method of transportation, the procedure for the transportation and the problems for hereafter are reported. (K.I.).

1991-01-01

274

Liquid fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There have been two kinds of conventional liquid fuel cells, namely the anolyte circulation type which circulates anolyte with a pump, etc. and the stationary liquid type that anolyte is sealed in each cell into which fuel is pressed with a pump, etc. Concerning the former, a chemical resistant circulation pump is expensive. Furthermore, the anolyte between each cell keeps flowing even during the time of not generating power and the high voltage during the time of no-loading damages cell parts. With regard to the latter, homogeneous supply of the fuel is difficult and the fuel concentration between the cells as well as within the cell fluctuates. In addition, since the fuel is supplied by detecting a power drop as the fuel is consumed, the power fluctuation during the operation is big. This invention proposes a solution to the aforementioned problematical points by uniformalizing the fuel concentration by circulating the anolyte in a single cell through the lift effect of generated gas, by uniformalizing the fuel concentration between cells through providing in a part of an anolyte circulation path an anolyte storage which is connected with each cell and by supplying the fuel before the cell power output becomes lower through detecting the fuel concentration in the anolyte concerned. (2 figs)

Nomura, Yoichi; Takahori, Yoshikatsu; Konuki, Toshiaki

1987-10-08

275

Fuel safety research 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2000-07-01

276

Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from the interviews was supplemented with examples from the literature

Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

2012-02-15

277

Zero-failure fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ABB's SVEA-96/100 fuel is the only fully proven 10 x 10 fuel in the industry which have attained final burnup in reload quantities. The expected improvements are now seen in detailed inspections, Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examinations (PIEs) of high burnup 10 x 10 fuel, proving very low fission gas release, and PCI free operation. Liner fuel mitigates the risk for PCI failures during power ramp operation at higher burn-up. For protection against severe degradation it is necessary to have a liner that is not only mitigating PCI, but also has good corrosion properties. ABB has therefore developed the Zr-Sn liner, which is the only fully operational proven concept against PCI and long axial splits in the industry. Both steam tests of ABB's Zr-Sn liner and Hot Cell PIE of failed Zr-Sn liner fuel have confirmed a very low cladding rate. Through 1998, ABB has delivered 35 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been more than one cycle in core and 22 reloads of S96/100 Zr-Sn liner fuel which have been 5 cycles or more in core. The operational experience has been as expected, with no PCI failures and only minor degradation of occasional debris failures. To date, all the identified ABB 10 x 10 fuel failures have been due to debris fretting, except one single event of four failed six cycles fuel rods which were affected by ESSC (Enhanced Spacer Shadow Corrosion) during 1996-97. ESSC is now effectively remedied, which leaves only debris fretting as primary failure cause on ABB 10 x 10 fuel. ABB has now a very good understanding of the cause of primary failures and the generic fuel degradation mechanisms. Based on this understanding, ABB has developed effective remedies both against debris fretting and fuel rod degradation. These remedies include fretting resistant cladding, mitigating of debris from the primary system and fuel assemblies, operation guide lines for operation with a primary leaker in core and other efficient remedies against degradation and fuel washout etc. Immediate and accurate fuel failure detection is also very important for the operation of a nuclear power plant, as well as correct evaluation of fuel failure type and severity. ABB has therefore developed an on-line nuclide specific off-gas monitoring system designed to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel by analyzing the activity levels of the reactor off-gas. (authors)

1999-01-01

278

Failed fuel degradation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Failed fuel degradation is the term used to describe the post-defect deterioration of a fuel rod which can occur under continued operation in certain circumstances. Two mechanisms are generally postulated for failed fuel degradation in light water reactors. The first of these attributes degradation susceptibility (axial split formation) to the inherently low fracture toughness of the zircaloy cladding exacerbated by hydrogen embrittlement. The second mechanism attributes the degradation to the reduced relative corrosion resistance of the zirconium liner present in barrier fuel. This leads to a greater fuel rod internal inventory of embrittling hydrogen in conjunction with increased cladding stresses caused by closure of the pellet-cladding gap due to liner corrosion. Key observations relating to these mechanisms are reviewed and the development of mitigating actions to address them described. Commercial irradiation experience gained with subsequently improved fuel designs is discussed. (5 figures; 7 references) (UK).

Montes, J.A. [ENUSA, Madrid (Spain); Potts, G.A. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

279

Bio-fuels; Biocarburants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bio-fuels are fuels produced from non-fossil vegetal or animal matter (biomass). After a general presentation of bio-fuel characteristics, this paper describes successively: the production of bio-fuels from biomass (alcohols and their ethers (ethylic alcohol or ethanol, methanol, ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE), methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE), balance-sheet of fluxes for the production of ETBE and MTBE), vegetal oils and their esters (non-chemically transformed oils, esters of vegetal oils), biogas), the use of bio-fuels (use of alcohols and of their ethers, high concentration of oxygenated compounds, low concentration of oxygenated compounds (criteria for the use of ethanol and ETBE, energy statement, environmental statement), use of vegetal oils and of their derivatives in diesel engines (vegetal oils and esters of vegetal oils), use of biogas, global environmental impact and greenhouse effect), and the development of bio-fuels in Europe. (J.S.)

Poitrat, E. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France). Dir. de l`Agriculture et des Bioenergies

1999-01-01

280

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30

 
 
 
 
281

Hydrogen - the new fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The energy resources of the planet are discussed. It is pointed out that Hydrogen is one of the most valuable alternatives of classical fuels. The opinion of most of the political and technical authorities from all over the world on this point is cited. They have discussed the possible applications of Hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines as well as chemical fuel in the so called 'fuel cells'. It was pointed out that the use of Hydrogen in fuel cells is more prospective alternative for traction purposes, for reserve sources, etc. The most prospective types of fuel cells are considered at the present moment. The methods of Hydrogen production and infrastructure of functioning Hydrogen energetics are also discussed. (authors)

2006-01-01

282

Fuel bundle deformation model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A finite-element model of a 43-element CANFLEX fuel bundle was developed using ANSYS, a commercial finite-element software package. The target application of this bundle deformation model is the prediction of the thermal and mechanical loads a fuel bundle could impart onto its pressure tube under CANDU reactor accident transient conditions. The current version of the bundle model focuses on a small number of key components (fuel, sheath and end plates) and parameters (fuel thermal expansion, fuel/sheath interaction, and end-plate effects). This paper summarizes the current finite element fuel bundle deformation model, the testing done to date on individual components and the plans for future development. (author)

Walters, L.C.; Williams, A.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

2003-07-01

283

Fuel bundle deformation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A finite-element model of a 43-element CANFLEX fuel bundle was developed using ANSYS, a commercial finite-element software package. The target application of this bundle deformation model is the prediction of the thermal and mechanical loads a fuel bundle could impart onto its pressure tube under CANDU reactor accident transient conditions. The current version of the bundle model focuses on a small number of key components (fuel, sheath and end plates) and parameters (fuel thermal expansion, fuel/sheath interaction, and end-plate effects). This paper summarizes the current finite element fuel bundle deformation model, the testing done to date on individual components and the plans for future development. (author)

2003-01-01

284

Spiral cooled fuel nozzle  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuel nozzle for delivery of fuel to a gas turbine engine. The fuel nozzle includes an outer nozzle wall and a center body located centrally within the nozzle wall. A gap is defined between an inner wall surface of the nozzle wall and an outer body surface of the center body for providing fuel flow in a longitudinal direction from an inlet end to an outlet end of the fuel nozzle. A turbulating feature is defined on at least one of the central body and the inner wall for causing at least a portion of the fuel flow in the gap to flow transverse to the longitudinal direction. The gap is effective to provide a substantially uniform temperature distribution along the nozzle wall in the circumferential direction.

Fox, Timothy; Schilp, Reinhard

2012-09-25

285

Fuel burner control circuit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A circuit is described for safely admitting fuel to a burner, igniting the fuel, detecting the presence of flame at the burner, and preventing the escape of unburned fuel from the burner if ignition is not accomplished or the flame is interrupted. An initiation circuit operates a control signal generator during a time delay period and a valve operating circuit opens a fuel valve to admit fuel to a burner. An igniter circuit is operated in response to energization of the valve operating circuit to produce sparks for ignition of the fuel. A flame detector circuit powered by the valve operating circuit detects the presence of flame and, in response, the operation of the control signal generator is maintained and the operation of the ignition circuit is interrupted. The operation is fail-safe, the detection of flame is reliable despite power supply variations, and no power supply transformer or valve operating relay is required.

Brouwer, F.

1981-11-10

286

BWR fuel recovery economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to gain insight into the incentives for recovery of the fissile values in spent LWR fuel. The plutonium ''indifference value,'' associated ''breakeven'' reprocessing cost, and overall fuel cycle costs have been estimated as functions of the price of U3O8, the price of uranium enrichment, and of the cost of fabricating mixed oxide fuel assemblies relative to UO2 fabrication. The effects of spent fuel storage costs on fuel cycle and breakeven reprocessing costs have also been calculated. The plutonium indifference value represents the value at which a reactor operator is indifferent either to recovery and reuse of plutonium (and uranium) or to recovery and sale of plutonium and uranium. The breakeven reprocessing costs represent the price that a reactor operator could afford to pay for reprocessing and waste management (combined), such that his total fuel cycle cost is the same with or without recovery.

1976-01-01

287

Reformer for fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fuel cell, in order to convert an evaporated fuel gas into a reformed gas, it is desirable to maintain a uniform gas flow through a catalyst layer in the reactor. If this flow is not uniform, reaction in the reactor gets ununiform reducing the reaction efficiency and also increasing the by-products. In this invention, in a reformer of a fuel cell wherein a catalyst-containing reactor is placed at the top of an evaporator and an evaporated fuel is passed through a reactor to be converted into a reformed gas mainly consisting of hydrogen gas, an inlet of the reactor is placed at point of symmetry in the horizontal view and a discharge end of the fuel supply pipe is placed at this central point of symmetry; by this a vaporized fuel gas can be uniformly distributed to the reactor which enables an efficient steam reforming reaction which generates less by-products. ( 3 figs )

Nagai, Suetsugu; Mizuno, Yutaka; Goto, Toru

1987-11-24

288

Diesel fuel oils, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of diesel fuels produced during 1980 were submitted for study and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy, Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, Oklahoma and the American Petroleum Institute. Tests of 192 samples of diesel fuel oils from 95 refineries throughout the country were made by 28 petroleum groups according to type of diesel fuel. Each group of analyses is subdivided into five tabulations according to five general regions of the country where the fuels are marketed. The regions, containing a total of 16 districts, are shown on a map in the report. Data from 13 laboratory tests on each individual diesel fuel sample are listed and arranged by geographic marketing districts in decreasing order of sales volumes. Charts are included showing trends of averages of certain properties for the four types of diesel fuels for the years 1960-1980. Summaries of the results of the 1980 survey, compared with similar data for 1979, are shown.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-12-01

289

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources. (author). 21 refs

1994-01-01

290

Food for fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is considered as comprising three related components: feedstock production, ethanol production and application of the ethanol as a transport fuel.

Bell, J.

1982-05-01

291

Hydrocarbon fuel additive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

Ambrogio, S.

1989-02-28

292

Nuclear fuel particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coated nuclear fuel particles are made by first pyrolytically depositing low density carbon onto fuel cores and thereafter depositing a fission-product retentive, higher density exterior coating. In the improvement, cores of uranium, thorium or plutonium oxides are coated by co-depositing silicon carbide or zirconium carbide along with the low density pyrocarbon to create a uniform dispersion. Silicon or zirconium is deposited in an amount equal to at least about one atom for each fission anticipated during the fuel lifetime.

Kaae, J.L.; Reynolds, G.H.; Sterling, S.A.; Yang, L.

1981-05-12

293

High energy fuel compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high density liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition is disclosed, singularly suited for propelling turbojet limited volume missile systems designed for shipborne deployment. The contemplated fuels are basically composed of the saturated analogues of dimers of methyl cyclopentadiene and of dicyclopentadiene and optionally include the saturated analogues of the co-trimers of said dienes or the trimers of cyclopentadiene. The various dimers and trimers are combined in a relative relationship to provide optimal performing fuels for the indicated purpose.

Fisher, D.H.

1983-07-19

294

Fuel Cells for Mobility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The introduction and commercialization of fuel cell technology in the mobile source sector in California is a key component of California's efforts to meet health based air quality standards. California has been home to a number of early demonstration and preparatory efforts for the commercialization of fuel cell passenger cars and is taking steps to demonstrate zero-emitting fuel cell buses in the near term. An overview of these activities and future plans is presented. (author)

DeSaulnier, M.

2002-06-01

295

Plutonium fuel program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project is concerned with developing an advanced method to produce nuclear reactor fuels. Since 1968 EIR has worked successfully on the production of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide using wet gelation chemistry. An important part of the development is irradiating the fuel in materials test reactors and evaluating its performance. During 1979 the programme continued with principal activities of fuel fabrication development, preparation for irradiation testing, performance evaluation, and modelling and plant engineering. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

296

Nuclear fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel assembly comprises a cluster of elongated fuel, retained parallel and at the nodal points of a square network by a bottom supporting plate and by spacing grids. The supporting plate is connected to a top end plate via tie-rods which replace fuel pins at certain of the nodal points of the network. The diameter of the tie-rods is equal to that of the pins and both are slidably received in the grids

1976-01-01

297

BWR fuel cluster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each fuel element cluster contains four fuel channels of square cross-section, each of which encloses a fuel rod cluster. At the bottom and the top the channels are detachably fastened to a common bottom or top element. By this means the channels with their rod clusters may be displaced or revolved about their longitudinal axis. This results in a more uniform power distribution and burnup.

Nylund, O.

1981-01-29

298

Nuclear fuel accounting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a nuclear power plant has started commercial operation the actual nuclear fuel costs have to be demonstrated in the rate making procedure. For this purpose an accounting system has to be developed which comprises the following features: 1) All costs associated with nuclear fuel shall be correctly recorded; 2) it shall be sufficiently flexible to cover also deviations from proposed core loading patterns; 3) it shall be applicable to different fuel cycle schemes. (orig./RW)

1977-11-25

299

Manufacturing nuclear fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 20% of Britain's electricity is now generated in nuclear power stations. The nuclear fuel cycle, in which uranium ore is purified and enriched, ultimately used in a range of nuclear reactors, reprocessed and recovered for future use in the fuel cycle, is explained briefly. The fundamental processes involved in the preparation, refinement and utilization of nuclear fuel used in nuclear power stations are described.

1988-01-01

300

ABB high burnup fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with GuardianTM debris filter proven to meet the 6 rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

ABB high burnup fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with Guardian{sup TM} debris filter proven to meet the <10{sup 6} rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

Andersson, S.; Helmersson, S.; Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Karlsson, L.; Limback, M. [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Garde, A.M. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)

1999-07-01

302

Fuel cell stack arrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-01-01

303

Fissionable nuclear fuel composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a fissionable nuclear composition for service in a nuclear reactor fuel core consisting essentially of a ceramic body of fissionable oxide fuel material selected from the group. It consists of uranium oxides, plutonium oxide and thorium oxides, and mixtures thereof, and containing dispersed throughout the ceramic body of fissionable oxide fuel material at least one boron depletable neutron absorbent selected from the group consisting boron nitride, boron oxide and boron silicide in amounts of from about 0.02 up to about 0.50 percent by weight of the fissionable oxide fuel material.

Proebstle, R.A.; Marlowe, M.O.; Reese, A.P.

1991-03-05

304

A perfect fuel supplier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

2008-01-01

305

Nuclear fuel assemblies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To improve the integrity of nuclear fuels in BWR type reactors, by effectively preventing the increase in the inner pressure of nuclear fuel rods and formation of corrosive atmospheres by suppressing the release of FP gases. Constitution: The nuclear fuel assembly comprises fuel rods each having a plurality of fuel pellets packed in a fuel can, a channel box having the fuel rods disposed regularly to the inside thereof, an upper tie plate, a lower tie plate and a spacer. In this case, the crystal grain size of pellets incorporated with burnable poisons is made larger than that of the pellets not incorporated with the burnable poisons. Accordingly, release of FP gases can significantly be suppressed by using pellets of large crystal grain size with low FP gas release rate for pellets incorporated with the burnable poisons and, further, the possibility of causing locking between the fuel pellets and the fuel can be reduced to greatly decrease the stresses therein by using pellets of small crystal grain size with a high creep rate as the pellets not incorporated with burnable poisons. (Horiuchi, T.).

Hattori, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki.

1986-12-22

306

Monolithic fuel cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new fuel cell technology is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new design concept, called the monolithic fuel cell, has roughly 100 times the power density of conventional fuel cells. The design employs the thin ceramic layer components of existing solid oxide fuel cells in a strong, lightweight honeycomb structure of small cells, and so achieves unequaled power per unit mass or volume. The monolithic fuel cell will convert hydrocarbon fuel to dc power at 50% efficiency, and thus attains considerably higher energy densities than other technologies that use non-exotic fuels. In the monolithic concept, fuel and air are combined electrochemically in a ceramic cell at an operating temperature of 1100 to 1300/sup 0/K. Cell components are fabricated as one piece much like a block of corrugated paperboard. Fuel and oxidant are conducted through alternating passages in the structure. These passages are formed from thin (25 to 100 micrometer) layers of the active cell components: the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and an interconnection material which serves to connect cells in electrical series (bipolar plate). The corrugations also form the gas seal at the edges of the structure.

Fee, D.C.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Claar, T.D.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ackerman, J.P.

1983-11-13

307

Fuel cell arrangement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12

308

ITER fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

1991-01-01

309

Reprocessing RERTR silicide fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is one element of the United States Government's nonproliferation effort. High-density, low-enrichment, aluminum-clad uranium silicide fuels may be substituted for the highly enriched aluminum-clad alloy fuels now in use. Savannah River Laboratory has performed studies which demonstrate reprocessability of spent RERTR silicide fuels at Savannah River Plant. Results of dissolution and feed preparation tests and solvent extraction processing demonstrations with both unirradiated and irradiated uranium silicide fuels are presented

1983-01-01

310

Industrial fuel conference, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains proceedings of 8 papers delivered at the meeting devoted to the selection of fuel for boiler firing, boiler design, and emission control in industrial power plants. Topics covered include: alternative burner designs; fuel selection considerations; use of coal/oil mixtures as an industrial fuel; equipment corrosion in the wastewater/solid waste supplied to power house; testing of stock-fired boilers for emissions and efficiency; the proper application of fluid fuels; new source performance standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers; fluidized-bed boilers for industrial sized power house. Some contributions are accompanied by bibliographic citation. Each paper is abstracted and indexed separately.

1980-01-01

311

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15

312

Spent fuel storage chamber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a dry spent nuclear fuel storage chamber, an atmosphere in a closed loop comprising storage cell/heated air collecting chamber/cooling air circulation path is filled with gases having a high thermal radiation absorbing performance. Heat released from the spent fuels heats a cylindrical vessel, gases in contact with the peripheral surface thereof and metal blocks constituting the storage cell. Since the gases having highly heat absorbing performance are filled, they are heated by absorbing radiation heat of the spent fuels, to improve the heat dissipation efficiency of the spent fuels. Accordingly, even if the heat generation amount of the spent fuels is great, the temperature elevation can be suppressed since the heat dissipation efficiency of the spent fuels is great due to radiation absorption. In addition, a phenomenon that the temperature of the cylindrical vessel is raised can be suppressed. As a result, fuels or mixed oxide fuels of a high burnup degree having greater heat generation amount compared with usual fuels can be stored safely and economically. (N.H.)

1992-11-13

313

Spent fuel storage chamber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a dry spent nuclear fuel storage chamber, an atmosphere in a closed loop comprising storage cell/heated air collecting chamber/cooling air circulation path is filled with gases having a high thermal radiation absorbing performance. Heat released from the spent fuels heats a cylindrical vessel, gases in contact with the peripheral surface thereof and metal blocks constituting the storage cell. Since the gases having highly heat absorbing performance are filled, they are heated by absorbing radiation heat of the spent fuels, to improve the heat dissipation efficiency of the spent fuels. Accordingly, even if the heat generation amount of the spent fuels is great, the temperature elevation can be suppressed since the heat dissipation efficiency of the spent fuels is great due to radiation absorption. In addition, a phenomenon that the temperature of the cylindrical vessel is raised can be suppressed. As a result, fuels or mixed oxide fuels of a high burnup degree having greater heat generation amount compared with usual fuels can be stored safely and economically. (N.H.).

Futami, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yoshio.

1994-05-27

314

HTGR fuel performance basis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 16000C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 26600C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents. The slow release of fission products over hundreds of hours allows for decay of short-lived isotopes. The slow and limited release of fission products under HTGR accident conditions results in very low off-site doses. The slow nature of the accident provides more time for operator action to mitigate the accident and for local and state authorities to respond. These features can be used to take advantage of close-in siting for process applications, flexibility in site selection, and emergency planning

1982-01-01

315

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To reduce the corrosion in a fuel can by bonding, to the top end of end plugs, those metals having a lower corrosion potential than that of metals for a fuel can and both of end plugs. Constitution: Zirconium alloys such as zircaloy-2 or zircaloy-4 are used as covering materials for nuclear fuel elements used in water-cooled nuclear reactors. Although all of these alloys are excellent in the corrosion resistance, corrosion, even locally, is inevitable when they are exposed to water or steams at high temperature and high pressure for a long time at the inside of the nuclear reactor. The present invention provides a method of preventing corrosion of a nuclear fuel element which is economical and highly practical. That is, in a fuel can charged with fuel materials and tightly sealed at both ends with end plugs, metals having lower corrosion potential than that of metals for the fuel can and both of the end plugs are bonded to the top ends of the fuel can. Accordingly, if the total amount of corrosion over the entire nuclear fuel elements is identical, corrosion can be concentrated to those portions causing no problems in view of the structure and the strength. Zirconium can be mentioned as such metals. (Horiuchi, T.).

1987-02-12

316

Nuclear fuel pin scanner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

Bramblett, Richard L. (Friendswood, TX); Preskitt, Charles A. (La Jolla, CA)

1987-03-03

317

NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

1962-04-10

318

Irradiated fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for separately recovering uranium, plutonium and neptunium substantially free of fission products from irradiated nuclear fuel is presented in which the fuel is dissolved in a strong mineral acid forming an aqueous dissolved nuclear fuel solution and treated to separate the uranium, plutonium and neptunium therefrom substantially free of said fission products by the sequential steps of solvent extraction, ion exchange and fluorination. The process has an improvement comprising the addition of a sufficient quantity of an additive of a stable metallic complex to the aqueous dissolved nuclear fuel solution prior to solvent extraction. This achieves improved purity of the separated uranium, plutonium and neptunium

1977-01-01

319

Fuel control apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel control apparatus is described which comprises a fuel supplying means for supplying fuel to an internal combustion engine depending on the operation of a fuel control valve, a hot-wire type intake air quantity sensor disposed in an air-intake passage for the internal combustion engine to detect the quantity of air passing therethrough, means for heating a hot wire at a temperature higher than a temperature in the normal operation so as to burn off a deposition on the hot wire by detecting the output of the sensor indicating that suction of air to the engine is stopped, after the engine has been stopped.

Shimomura, S.; Tada, Y.

1988-07-26

320

Fuel cell generator energy dissipator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

Veyo, Stephen Emery (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey Todd (Valencia, PA); Gordon, John Thomas (Ambridge, PA); Shockling, Larry Anthony (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

|In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

Toay, Leo

2004-01-01

322

Fuel Cells: Reshaping the Future  

Science.gov (United States)

In conjunction with the FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Fuel Initiative, President George W. Bush has pledged nearly two billion dollars for fuel cell research. Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors have unveiled fuel cell demonstration vehicles, and all three of these companies have invested heavily in fuel cell research. Fuel cell…

Toay, Leo

2004-01-01

323

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

1993-11-02

324

Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several questions remain unanswered and more research and pilot plant testing of heat transfer profiles, emission levels, the optimum oxygen excess and inlet oxygen concentration levels, high and low-temperature fire-side corrosion, ash quality, plant operability, and models to predict NOx and SO3 formation is required.

Toftegaard, Maja BØg; Brix, Jacob

2010-01-01

325

Vent type fuel pin and fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An end plug of each of fuel pins is provided with a property of allowing only gases to permeate, and a temperature sensitive valve mechanism which closes at high temperature and opens at low temperature is disposed between the end plug and a gas plenum. Further, in a fuel assembly, a common pas plenum is disposed at the inside of a wrapper tube and each of the fuel pins is closed at one end by the end plug while being opened at the other end so as to be in communication with a common gas plenum. Then, a member allowing only gases to permeate is disposed to the exit of the common gas plenum, and a temperature sensitive valve mechanism which closes at high temperature and open at low temperature is disposed. This inhibits radioactive gases from emitting during reaction operation (high temperature state) and does not hinder the detection of failed fuels although it is a vent type structure. Further, since accumulated radioactive gases are released during shutdown of the reactor (low temperature state), increase of the inner pressure in the fuel pin can be reduced to about 1/3 of that of the existent sealed type pin. (T.M.).

1990-02-06

326

Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

2005-05-01

327

Benefits of barrier fuel on fuel cycle economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barrier fuel rod cladding was developed to eliminate fuel rod failures from pellet/cladding stress/corrosion interaction and to eliminate the associated need to restrict the rate at which fuel rod power can be increased. The performance of barrier cladding has been demonstrated through extensive testing and through production application to many boiling water reactors (BWRs). Power reactor data have shown that barrier fuel rod cladding has a significant beneficial effect on plant capacity factor and plant operating costs and significantly increases fuel reliability. Independent of the fuel reliability benefit, it is less obvious that barrier fuel has a beneficial effect of fuel cycle costs, since barrier cladding is more costly to fabricate. Evaluations, measurements, and development activities, however, have shown that the fuel cycle cost benefits of barrier fuel are large. This paper is a summary of development activities that have shown that application of barrier fuel significantly reduces BWR fuel cycle costs.

1988-01-01

328

Fuel safety research 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

2001-01-01

329

Reprocessing of nuclear fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

1960-01-01

330

Fuel safety research 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a part of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The new laboratory was organized by combining three pre-existing laboratories, Reactivity Accident Laboratory, Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of Severe Accident Research Laboratory. The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory becomes to be in charge of all fuel safety research in JAERI. Various experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). The research activities in year 2000 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, failure of high burnup BWR fuel rod under RIA conditions, data on the behavior of hydrided Zircaloy cladding under LOCA conditions and FP release data from VEGA experiments at very high temperature/pressure condition. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2000 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2001-03-01

331

Fuel heater and fuel contamination detecting apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel heater and fuel contamination detecting apparatus for automotive vehicles, is described consisting of: a casing member in the form of a heating body which comprises a thermoplastic resin and short metal fibers and which forms a fluid reservoir therein; a filter located within the casing member; a pair of terminals embeded in the casing member for selectively heating the casing; a reed switch located proximate to a bottom portion of the casing and being connected to an alarm for activating the alarm upon closing of the reed switch; a float slidably disposed in the fluid reservoir formed in the casing member; and a permanent magnet fixed to the float, the magnet cooperating with the reed switch to automatically close the reed switch due to shifting of the float caused by contamination of the fuel with a liquid.

Kawabata, Y.

1986-04-08

332

Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel for the nuclear fuel cycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nondestructive measurements on spent fuel are being developed to meet safeguards and materials managment requirements at nuclear facilities. Spent-fuel measurement technology and its applications are reviewed.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.

1980-01-01

333

Fuel cycle economical improvement by reaching high fuel burnup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Improvements of fuel utilization in the light water reactors, burnup increase have led to a necessity to revise strategic approaches of the fuel cycle development. Different trends of the fuel cycle development are necessary to consider in accordance with the type of reactors used, the uranium market and other features that correspond to the nuclear and economic aspects of the fuel cycle. The fuel burnup step-by-step extension Program that successfully are being realized by the leading, firms - fuel manufacturers and the research centres allow to say that there are no serious technical obstacles for licensing in the near future of water cooling reactors fuel rod burnup (average) limit to 65-70 MWd/kgU and fuel assembly (average) limit to (60-65) MWd/kgU. The operating experience of Ukrainian NPPs with WWER-1000 is 130 reactor * years. At the beginning of 1999, a total quantity of the fuel FA discharged during all time of operation of 11 reactors was 5819 (110 fuel cycles). Economical improvement is reached by increase of fuel burn-up by using of some FA of 3 fuel cycles design in 4th fuel loading cycle. Fuel reliability is satisfactory. The further improvement of FA is necessary, that will allow to reduce the front-end fuel cycle cost (specific natural uranium expenditure), to reduce spent fuel amount and, respectively, the fuel cycle back end costs, and to increase burn-up of the fuel. (author)

2002-01-01

334

Future trends in aviation fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal could be converted to a kerosene-type aviation fuel or into methane or hydrogen for use as aircraft fuel. The use of liquid hydrogen would be the most efficient of these alternatives. Other possible fuels are discussed.

Goodger, E.M.

1981-04-01

335

Nuclear fuel manufacture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

1980-09-18

336

International fuel bank  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy

337

Oxygenates for diesel fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygenated components of diesel fuel can reduce exhaust emissions in the same way they reduce exhaust emissions with gasoline. This paper reports the results of studies conducted to determine which oxygenated compounds in diesel fuel would provide the greatest reduction in exhaust emissions. The ignition characteristics of diesel fuel affect the choice of oxygenates. A table showing properties of some oxygenates in use or under consideration for diesel fuel components are presented, including their cetane numbers (anti-knock rating). One of the major problems for diesel fuels is the formation of soot. Therefore, the principal objective of this study was to synthesize an oxygenated compound with good diesel fuel properties, but which contains minimal carbon-to-carbon bonds in its chemical structure. In this context, the synthesis of polyacetals from paraformaldehyde using a variety of methods was described. Polyacetals are a group of polymers, where the term `acetal` refers to any aldehyde. Various properties of polyacetals such as molecular weights, boiling points, fuel property measurements by ASTM methods, and properties of the base fuels used in engine tests were provided. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

Moulton, D.S.; Naegeli, D.W. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

338

Nuclear fuel column retainer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a barrier member fixed in the end of a fuel column retaining spring to prevent contact between the retaining spring and the adjacent end plug of the fuel element whereby contamination of the weld between the cladding tube and end plug with retaining spring material is avoided. 12 claims, 5 drawing figures

1976-01-01

339

Aminoamide fuel detergents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detergent additive aminoamide, prepared by reacting a polycarboxylic amino acid with alkylamines, is combined into fuel for an internal combustion engine or lubricating oil as a composition suitable for reducing deposits in an internal combustion engine. In an embodiment of the invention, the aminoamide is further combined with a sulfonic acid to obtain a fuel detergent of improved operability.

Bonazza, B.R.; Holtz, H.D.

1981-02-10

340

Heating fuel oil tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel-oil sellers must quote gross prices. The addition to the net price, plus added value tax, is not enough. Now, the competent authorities control the offers of the fuel-oil traders. Net prices are punished as illegal acts.

1981-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to developing petro-crops as a source of hydrocarbon fuels, indigeneous laticiferous species belonging to the families Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Convolvulaceae have been evaluated for their biocrude potential. Hydrocracking of biocrude, from E. royleana, E. neriifolia, Cryptostegia grandiflora and Calotropis gigantea to hydrocarbon fuels, preferably middle distillates, has been demonstrated. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

Bhatia, V.K.; Mittal, K.G.; Mehrotra, R.P.; Mehrotra, M.

1989-04-01

342

Fuel from municipal refuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Municipal refuse is classified to paper, plastics (polythylene and polypropylene), other plastic, etc., for different subsequent treatments and used as a fuel with or without additives. For example, dried paper pulp was mixed with CaCO/sub 3/ 2% and compacted to a fuel which produced approximately 3200 cal/kg.

Watanabe, T.

1980-05-30

343

Spent fuel storage pool  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.).

Murakami, Naoshi

1996-01-19

344

Chemistry for Fuel Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation provides a basic introduction to the chemistry involved with fuel cell technology. The material covers chemical bonds, some basic atomic properties, the Noble Gas Theory and how the chemistry of fuel cells works.This document may be downloaded in Microsoft PowerPoint file format.

2012-09-13

345

Fuel from waste solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mixture of polyolefin polymer 10-40, cotton waste 60-90, and paraffin wax 5-20 parts is solidified to prepare a fuel. Thus, scrap polypropylene 20, scrap cotton knit 80, and paraffin wax 10 parts was blended, extruded, and expanded to a fluffy fuel material.

1981-02-12

346

Nuclear fuel element  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass: this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Zocher, R.W.

1989-04-06

347

Spent nuclear fuel storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

2005-01-01

348

Cooperation on spent fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incentives for international action on spent fuel storage and the likely limitations are discussed with respect to a study concluded under the aegis of the IAEA by the expert group on International Spent Fuel Management. Public opinion and initiatives which include an information programme to create a better appreciation in society of the concept of risk are also discussed.

Marcus, F. (Nordisk Kontaktorgan for Atomenergispoergsmaal, Risoe (Denmark))

1983-11-01

349

Fuel element stringer construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a fuel element stringer for a gas cooled graphite moderated nuclear reactor, the graphite sleeves of each fuel element are coupled together by spigot and socket formation and bear against one another at mating conical end to afford improved mechanical stiffness and damping when the stringer undergoes raising and lowering movements within the reactor. (author).

1984-09-03

350

Less fuel, more jobs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the economics of fuel in United Kingdom. It describes a research project demonstrating that the UK could create up to 150,000 new jobs and save some $6 billion a year in fuel costs by energy conservation.

Hillman, M.; Bollard, A.

1985-01-01

351

Fuel pin plenum spring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A fuel pin including plenum spring consisting of a material having a temperature dependent spring constant so selected as to substantially reduce the spring force when the spring is at reactor operating temperature is described. With this arrangement, the spring force applied during shipping may be relatively high without overstressing the fuel pellets during reactor operation. (author)

1982-06-29

352

PLATINUM AND FUEL CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Platinum requirements for fuel cell vehicles (FCVS) have been identified as a concern and possible problem with FCV market penetration. Platinum is a necessary component of the electrodes of fuel cell engines that power the vehicles. The platinum is deposited on porous electrodes...

353

WWER nuclear fuel trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses a complex of research and development planned by TVEL Corporation for midterm. These works focus on improved effectiveness of nuclear fuel at WWER-NPPs. The main trend in the solution of this task is to develop and put into operation an advanced nuclear fuel, which provides: - extended service life- not less than five years; - high fuel burnup - up to 60 MWd/kgU; - increased bending rigidity and improved dismantling ability of fuel assemblies; - high level of operational reliability - 10-6/year. In Russia a new fuel assembly for WWER-1000 has been designed, developed, entered plant production and has passed a four-year pilot service at Kalinin NPP. This fuel assembly has a skeleton formed from six zirconium rigidity angles and welded zirconium spacer grids (TVSA). Another fuel assembly with rigid skeleton (TVS-2) has also been developed. LTAs are going to be tested at Balakovo NPP in 2003. For WWER-440 reactor a second-generation nuclear fuel with burnup up to 57 MWd/kgU has been developed and entered industrial production. The first LTAs were installed at Kola NPP (Unit No. 3) in spring 2002. (orig.)

2003-01-01

354

Renewable fuels. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable fuels are an interesting alternative to conventional agriculture. Fuels from flax, rapeseed, salix and miscanthus will not only help save fossil resources but are also on economically acceptable may of using agricultural land that would otherwise be left barren. (orig.).

1992-07-09

355

Fuel storage rack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spline connectors for interconnecting adjacent corners of diagonally adjacent rectangular nuclear fuel cell modules are provided with a novel shape including only two attachment arms to permit assembly of a multiplicity of rows of fuel cells while affording access to the edges of the splines for welding them to the storage modules

1978-01-01

356

Fuels for power generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five papers with the following titles are presented: greenhouse gases - the implications for fuel choice; nuclear power - cost reduction and prospects for privatisation; the coal review and the market for UK coal; fuel locations, generation and grid constraints; and coal generated power for the REC and the alternatives. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

1993-01-01

357

Stabilized fuel slurry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel slurry comprising a mixture of a fuel oil and pulverized coal may be effectively stabilized with a small amount of a condensation product of a sulfonated benzene or naphthalene derivative-formaldehyde, lignin sulfonic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl-starch or a salt thereof.

Hamuro, Y.; Honjo, S.; Naka, A.

1980-04-01

358

Spent fuel storage pool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fences are disposed to a fuel exchange floor surrounding the upper surface of a fuel pool for preventing overflow of pool water. The fences comprise a plurality of flat boards arranged in parallel with each other in the longitudinal direction while being vertically inclined, and slits are disposed between the boards for looking down the pool. Further, the fences comprise wide boards and are constituted so as to be laid horizontally on the fuel exchange floor in a normal state and uprisen by means of the signals from an earthquake sensing device. Even if pool water is overflow from the fuel pool by the vibrations occurred upon earthquake and flown out to the floor of the fuel exchange floor, the overflow from the fuel exchange floor is prevented by the fences. An operator who monitors the fuel pool can observe the inside of the fuel pool through the slits formed to the fences during normal operation. The fences act as resistance against overflowing water upon occurrence of an earthquake thereby capable of reducing the overflowing amount of water due to the vibrations of pool water. The effect of preventing overflowing water can be enhanced. (N.H.)

1994-06-28

359

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear fuel pin is formed of an elongated metallic tube, closed at each end, containing stacked fuel pellets and material including little, or no, fissionable material, and formed into porous, or bubbled, microspheres placed in the annulus between the pellets and the internal wall of the tube

1978-01-01

360

Fuel assembly and reactor core  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention concerns fuel assemblies charged in a BWR type reactor and the reactor core. The fuel assembly comprises fuel rods containing burnable poisons and fuel rods not containing burnable poisons. Both of the highest and the lowest gadolinia concentrations of the fuel rods containing gadolinia as burnable poisons are present in the lower region of the fuel assembly. This can increase the spectral shift effect without increasing the maximum linear power density. (I.N.).

Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Bessho, Yasunori; Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Hiromi; Ozawa, Michihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuya.

1990-03-16

 
 
 
 
361

Used fuel long term management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a presentation on the long term management of used fuel. It discusses the Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) Act and formation of Waste Management Organisation (WMO), and requirements of the ACT and response of the owners of spent CANDU fuel (formation of JWO). Technical work programs include deep geological repository (DGR) technology and performance assessment tools, study options for long term management of the fuel and irradiated fuel studies (fuel behaviour in interim storage and in repository environment.

Villagran, J. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2002-07-01

362

Nuclear fuel transporting method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upon transportation of a plurality of nuclear fuel containing canisters while containing and stacking them in series, neutron absorbing plates containing a neutron absorbing ingredient are disposed between each of the fuel containing canisters, on planes perpendicular to the vertical central axis of a transportation vessel. Alternatively, neutron absorbing plates are disposed on the upper or the lower side of a lid of each of the nuclear fuel containing canisters, or laid on the inner bottom. With such a constitution, greater amount of fuels can be transported than previous cases even in a case where the concentration of nuclear fission uranium is high, for example, in a case of transporting uranium oxide fuels. (T.M.)

Shimazaki, Mitsuaki; Yoshioka, Masatoshi

1997-08-15

363

Nuclear fuel rod  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent damages due to stress corrosion crackings in the end plug welding portions of fuel cladding tubes applied with copper plating on the inner surface thereof. Constitution: The fuel cladding tube coated at the inner surface thereof with copper is formed with copper plating-free areas over 8 - 20 mm length at both ends. An end plug is inserted to the copper plating-free area and welded to the fuel cladding tube for tightly sealing. Since the fuel cladding tube and the end plug are welded at the copper plating-free areas, copper does not diffuse or intrude into the zirconium alloy as the matrix of the fuel cladding tube. Accordingly, corrosion resistance at the welding portions can be maintained satisfactorily and the damages due to the stress corrosion crackings caused by the corrosions and the stresses can effectively be prevented. (Moriyana, K.).

1982-12-28

364

Nuclear fuel assembly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

1980-01-01

365

Metal fuel safety performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to the renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modeling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of the metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation exercises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modeling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated

1988-01-01

366

Metal fuel safety performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to the renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modeling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of the metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation exercises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modeling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, margins to failure, axial in-pin fuel relocation prior to cladding breach, and molten fuel relocation after cladding breach are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated.

Miles, K.J. Jr.; Tentner, A.M.

1988-01-01

367

Nuclear fuel assembly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.).

Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki (Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan))

1989-11-08

368

Vibration of fuel bundles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several mathematical models have been proposed for calculating fuel rod responses in axial flows based on a single rod consideration. The spacing between fuel rods in liquid metal fast breeder reactors is small; hence fuel rods will interact with one another due to fluid coupling. The objective of this paper is to study the coupled vibration of fuel bundles. To account for the fluid coupling, a computer code, AMASS, is developed to calculate added mass coefficients for a group of circular cylinders based on the potential flow theory. The equations of motion for rod bundles are then derived including hydrodynamic forces, drag forces, fluid pressure, gravity effect, axial tension, and damping. Based on the equations, a method of analysis is presented to study the free and forced vibrations of rod bundles. Finally, the method is applied to a typical LMFBR fuel bundle consisting of seven rods

1975-01-01

369

Alternative fuel transit buses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K. [and others

1996-10-01

370

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

1982-02-26

371

Solid oxide fuel cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite being first demonstrated over 160 years ago, and offering significant environmental benefits and high electrical efficiency, it is only in the last two decades that fuel cells have offered a realistic prospect of being commercially viable. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) offers great promise and is presently the subject of intense research activity. Unlike other fuel cells the SOFC is a solid-state device which operates at elevated temperatures. This review discusses the particular issues facing the development of a high temperature solid-state fuel cell and the inorganic materials currently used and under investigation for such cells, together with the problems associated with operating SOFCs on practical hydrocarbon fuels.

Ormerod RM

2003-01-01

372

Fuel cells : emerging markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation highlighted the findings of the 2009 review of the fuel cell industry and emerging markets as they appeared in Fuel Cell Today (FCT), a benchmark document on global fuel cell activity. Since 2008, the industry has seen a 50 per cent increase in fuel cell systems shipped, from 12,000 units to 18,000 units. Applications have increased for backup power for datacentres, telecoms and light duty vehicles. The 2009 review focused on emerging markets which include non-traditional regions that may experience considerable diffusion of fuel cells within the next 5 year forecast period. The 2009 review included an analysis on the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Brazil and India and reviewed primary drivers, likely applications for near-term adoption, and government and private sector activity in these regions. The presentation provided a forecast of the global state of the industry in terms of shipments as well as a forecast of countries with emerging markets.

2009-06-03

373

Why fuel prices differ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fuel taxes differ largely between countries. This paper reviews a number of considerations from the theory of public finance that may explain these differences. Based on a multiple regression model, we find for tax competition in Europe that small countries tend to be more aggressive than large countries by charging lower fuel taxes to attract customers from neighbouring countries. There is strong evidence that fuel is just considered as one of the many sources for government expenditure: as the share of government expenditure in GDP is higher, the fuel tax tends to be higher. No support is found for the hypothesis that fuel taxes are higher in countries where externality problems are more severe (proxied by car density of the country). In this respect, the normative literature on pricing externalities has found little support in the realities of transport policy. (author)

2005-01-01

374

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01

375

Fuel cell water transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

376

Biovulnerability of fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil companies, traders and stockholding organisations experience fouling of fuel by biological processes. Deterioration creates operational problems ranging from filterplugging, acidification, gas formation to water content increase etc. The vulnerability of fuels is quite different, while gasolines very rarely show biological contamination, jet fuels appear extremely vulnerable and somewhat less diesel and home heating oils with the danger even further decreasing with heavy gasoils and fuels. Spoilage is clearly a function of housekeeping practices, but also the type of hydrocarbons in the fuel and additives play a major role. Biofuels further complicate the matter, and even the climate and the construction of storage tanks are factors to consider. We uncover the reason why, how fast and to what extent problems can develop, how they can be prevented or cured and how vulnerability can be measured. (orig.)

Koenig, J.W.J. (Erdoelbevorratungsverband (EBV), Hamburg (Germany))

1999-01-01

377

Biovulnerability of fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil companies, traders and stockholding organisations experience fouling of fuel by biological processes. Deterioration creates operational problems ranging from filterplugging, acidification, gas formation to water content increase etc. The vulnerability of fuels is quite different, while gasolines very rarely show biological contamination, jet fuels appear extremely vulnerable and somewhat less diesel and home heating oils with the danger even further decreasing with heavy gasoils and fuels. Spoilage is clearly a function of housekeeping practices, but also the type of hydrocarbons in the fuel and additives play a major role. Biofuels further complicate the matter, and even the climate and the construction of storage tanks are factors to consider. We uncover the reason why, how fast and to what extent problems can develop, how they can be prevented or cured and how vulnerability can be measured. (orig.)

Koenig, J.W.J. [Erdoelbevorratungsverband (EBV), Hamburg (Germany)

1999-11-01

378

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable to suppress the leaching of radioactive corrosion products into sodium even if coating layers applied to the surface of a fuel can should fail in nuclear fuel elements used for LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: After sputtering argon ions to the surface of a fuel can containing fuel pellets to the inside and consisting of metal material, followed by washing and smoothing, dual coating layer is formed by ion plating, that is, a nickel layer and, further thereover, a ceramic layer comprising ceramics such as TiN or TiC, or ceramics incorporated with transition metals. The corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance of the ceramic layer can be utilized. In addition, if peeling or cracking is resulted to the ceramic layer, direct contact between the fuel can and sodium at high temperature can be prevented by the nickel layer and radioactive corrosion products are adsorbed and suppressed from leaching. (Horiuchi, T.).

1986-07-30

379

Spent fuel management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

2005-01-01

380

MOX fuel at BNFL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989, BNFL decided to use the expertise developed for the Fast Reactor project to enter the thermal MOX fuels market with the aim of becoming a world leader in thermal MOX supply and to return the products from its reprocessing business to its customers as MOX fuel. To reach this objective the company developed a two-stage strategy which involved: (a) Constructing a small-scale plant, the MOX Demonstration Facility (MDF), on a short time-scale to produce commercial quality fuel for irradiation in commercial reactors, and (b) Constructing a small-scale plant, the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP), for bulk fuel supply. MOX production in the MOX Demonstration Facility at Sellafield began in October 1993 and, since that time, the plant has produced more than 10 tonnes of MOX for BNFL`s customers. The MDF was constructed to produce LWR MOX fuel, using BNFL`s patented Short Binderless Route (SBR) in order to gain operational and irradiation experience to support fuel supply from the 120te/yr Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). The first fuel from MDF was loaded into the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke (NOK) Beznau 1 reactor in July 1994 and since that time the plant has been used continuously to provide more fuel for NOK and other customers. Construction of the SMP commenced in April 1994 against a fast-track programme designed to have the plant producing its first MOX fuel by the end of 1997. The SMP will be the most flexible MOX fabrication plant in the world, capable of producing PWR and BWR fuels using the SBR as the basis of the production process. (Author).

Edwards, J.; Brennan, J.M.; MacLeod, H.M.; Brown, C.

1996-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Safety analysis of MOX fuels by fuel performance code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance of plutonium rick mixed oxide fuels specified for the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been analysed by modified fuel performance code. Thermodynamic properties of these fuels up to 120 GWd/t burnup have not been measured and estimated using existing uranium fuel models. Fission product release, pressure rise inside fuel rods and mechanical loads of fuel cans due to internal pressure have been preliminarily assessed based on assumed axial power distribution history, which show the integrity of fuel performance. Detailed evaluation of fuel-cladding interactions due to thermal expansion or swelling of fuel pellets due to high burnup will be required for safety analysis of mixed oxide fuels. Thermal conductivity and swelling of plutonium rich mixed oxide fuels shall be taken into consideration. (T. Tanaka)

Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

2002-12-01

382

Fuel development program of the nuclear fuel element centre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Fuel technology development program pf the nuclear fuel element centre is still devised into two main pillars, namely the research reactors fuel technology and the power reactor fuel technology taking into account the strategic influencing environment such as better access to global market of fuel cycle services, the state of the art and the general trend of the fuel technology in the world. Embarking on the twenty first century the fuel development program has to be directed toward strengthening measure to acquire and self-reliance in the field of fuel technology in support to the national energy program as well as to the utilisation of research reactor. A more strengthened acquisition of fuel cycle technology, in general, and particularly of fuel technology would improve the bargaining power when negotiation the commercial fuel technology transfer in the future

1998-01-01

383

Spent fuel workshop'2002  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238Pu doped UO2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with ? doped UO2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO2 / water interfaces under He2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of UO2(s): experimental approach and preliminary results on uranium oxide - water interface (J. Devoy), Preliminary results on studies on radiolysis effects on dissolution of UO2 (E. Ekeroth, M. Jonnson); Session 5 - Modeling of the Spent Fuel Dissolution: tUO2 dissolution and the effect of radiolysis (T. Lundstrom), Prediction of the effect of radiolysis (F. King), Experimental determination and chemical modeling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel / water interface (E. Cera, J. Bruno, T. Eriksen, M. Grive, L. Duro); Session 6 - Influence of the Potential Evolution prior to the Water Access on IRF: Potential occurrence of ? self-irradiation enhanced-diffusion (H.J. Matzke, T. Petit), Are grain boundaries a stable microstructure? (Y. Guerin), Modeling RN instant release fractions from spent nuclear fuel under repository conditions (C.Poinssot, L. Johnson, P. Lovera). (J.S.)

2002-01-01

384

On future fuels: a comparison of options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following two main topics are dealt with: Transportation fuel choices (Transportation fuel demand; Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; Fuel cell vehicle fuel choices: gasoline, methanol or hydrogen; Hybrid electric vs. fuel cell vehicles) and Stationary power fuel choices (Near-term option: fuel cells for distributed power; Market oportunity: hydrogen and electricity cogeneration; Long-term market opportunity: storage of intermittent renewables).

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

2000-07-01

385

CANDU : fuel for the next millennium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains papers from the 6th International Conference on CANDU Fuel. The topics include International Experience, CANFLEX Fuel Design, Fuel Management, Fuel Handling, Fuel Performance, Fuel Safety, Advanced Fuel Cycles, History of CANDU Fuel and Fission Gas Release Modelling.

Sejnoha, R. (ed.)

1999-07-01

386

CANDU : fuel for the next millennium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains papers from the 6th International Conference on CANDU Fuel. The topics include International Experience, CANFLEX Fuel Design, Fuel Management, Fuel Handling, Fuel Performance, Fuel Safety, Advanced Fuel Cycles, History of CANDU Fuel and Fission Gas Release Modelling.

1999-01-01

387

Alternative fuel information: Alternative fuel vehicle outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major automobile manufacturers continue to examine a variety of alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) options in an effort to provide vehicles that meet the fleet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The current generation of AFVs available to consumers is somewhat limited as the auto industry attempts to respond to the presently uncertain market. At the same time, however, the automobile industry must anticipate future demand and is therefore engaged in research, development, and production programs on a wide range of alternative fuels. The ultimate composition of the AFV fleet may be determined by state and local regulations which will have the effect of determining demand. Many state and regional groups may require vehicles to meet emission standards more stringent than those required by the federal government. Therefore, a significant impact on the market could occur if emission classifications begin serving as the benchmark for vehicles, rather than simply certifying a vehicle as capable of operating on an ``alternative`` to gasoline. Vehicles classified as Zero-Emissions, or even Inherently Low-Emissions, could most likely be met only by electricity or natural gas, thereby dictating that multi-fuel vehicles would be unable to participate in some clean air markets. In the near-term, the Clinton Administration desires to accelerate the use of alternative fuels as evidenced by an executive order directing the federal government to increase the rate of conversion of the federal fleet beyond that called for in EPACT. The Administration has expressed particular interest in using more compressed natural gas (CNG) as a motor fuel, which has resulted in the auto industry`s strong response of concentrating short-term efforts on CNG vehicles. For the 1994 model year, a number of CNG cars and trucks will be available from major automobile manufacturers.

1994-06-01

388

Internet Fuel Cells Forum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provides the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to maintain a Fuel Cell Forum on the Internet. Here, members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies. The purpose of this forum is to promote a better understanding of fuel cell concepts, terminology, processes, and issues relating to commercialization of fuel cell power technology. The Forum was developed by METC to provide those interested with fuel cell conference information for its current concept of exchanging ideas and information pertaining to fuel cells. Last August, the Forum expanded to an on-line and world-wide network. There are 250 members, and membership is growing at a rate of several new subscribers per week. The forum currently provides updated conference information and interactive information exchange. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and government. Because of the public nature of the internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The Forum is unmoderated; therefore, the views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. government or METC.

Sudhoff, Frederick A.

1996-08-01

389

Bio-fuels barometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

390

Fuel cell. Nenryo denchi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the conventional fuel cell, air is used as the oxidizing gas. The exhaust gas from the fuel cell is the mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In recovering the carbon dioxide for the purpose of preventing the green house effect on the Earth, the separation of nitrogen gas is necessary, and a big equipment for separating the nitrogen gas is required. This invention solves such inconvenience. To the anode side of the fuel cell, a coal-gasification apparatus is connected, while to the cathode side of the fuel cell as well as to the coal-gasification apparatus an oxygen separation apparatus which separates oxygen from air is connected. With this structure, the purified gas from the coal-gasification apparatus is supplied to the anode side of the fuel cell, while oxygen gas which comes out of the oxygen separation apparatus is supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell and the coal-gasification apparatus. Consequently the carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas of the fuel cell can be easily treated. 1 fig.

Kurumizawa, Y. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-05-12

391

Nuclear fuel element  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a case of pilling-up nuclear fuel pellets, deviation in the parallelness at the upper surface and the lower surface of individual pellets are accumulated or the axial direction is inclined on the unit of the pellet group. Particularly, the pellet end face with large deformation amount or deviation of parallelness gives large stress distortion to the fuel can. A fuel pellet formed with a concaved surface at a predetermined radius of curvature each of end faces and another fuel pellet formed with a convexed surface at a radius of curvature identical therewith at each of the end faces are combined with each other and charged in the fuel can. Thus, it is possible to eliminate the deviation for the parallelness of the pellets, prevent rattling of the pellets and reduce pellet-cladding mutual interaction. By forming the concaved fuel pellet with highly enriched uranium having a hollow portion while forming the convexed nuclear fuel pellet with less enriched uranium, heat generation at the central portion of the pellets can be suppressed. Accordingly, distortion of the pellet or release of FP gases can be reduced. (K.M.).

Motomiya, Takeo; Yuda, Ryoichi; Oguma, Masaomi.

1989-01-20

392

Nuclear fuel element  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a case of pilling-up nuclear fuel pellets, deviation in the parallelness at the upper surface and the lower surface of individual pellets are accumulated or the axial direction is inclined on the unit of the pellet group. Particularly, the pellet end face with large deformation amount or deviation of parallelness gives large stress distortion to the fuel can. A fuel pellet formed with a concaved surface at a predetermined radius of curvature each of end faces and another fuel pellet formed with a convexed surface at a radius of curvature identical therewith at each of the end faces are combined with each other and charged in the fuel can. Thus, it is possible to eliminate the deviation for the parallelness of the pellets, prevent rattling of the pellets and reduce pellet-cladding mutual interaction. By forming the concaved fuel pellet with highly enriched uranium having a hollow portion while forming the convexed nuclear fuel pellet with less enriched uranium, heat generation at the central portion of the pellets can be suppressed. Accordingly, distortion of the pellet or release of FP gases can be reduced. (K.M.).

1987-07-13

393

Fuels from biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reasons for considering the production of fuels from biomass are examined. Costs, relative to existing fuel prices, are only one consideration important to a community: others are fuel self-sufficiency, balance of payments, employment, agricultural and other benefits; the meeting of special needs; and the impact of energy crops on land use and food production. The present situation in biomass fuel production is summarized, identifying ethanol, methanol and methane, especially the first, as the significant fuels at this time. We consider what we need to do to promote biomass fuels: develop the many facets of the production processes, develop processes making more acceptable products, meet specific needs, tap more attractive markets. Finally, issues in the implementation of a biomass fuels programme are discussed. Governments play a vital role in assessing the national gains to be obtained, and in providing the appropriate economic environment for successful implementation. The role of the chemical engineer we see as leading process research and development, informing the community of these developments, contributing to clarifying and quantifying the wider socio-economic issues, and developing positive implementation programmes.

Prince, R.G.H.; Barford, J.P.; Prince, I.G.

1982-10-01

394

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means for containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchange means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchange means; a heat source for heating the primary heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means for releasing heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means including the expansion chamber in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; fuel injection means in fluid communication with the converter means for injecting vaporized alcohol into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine for mixing with air within the cylinders for proper combustion; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the 23 fuel storage means to the primary heat exchanger means, converter means, fuel injector means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-12-08

395

Diesel fuel oils, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of diesel fuels produced during 1982 were submitted for study and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Tests of 184 samples of diesel fuel oils from 83 refineries throughout the country were made by 27 petroleum groups according to type of diesel fuel. Each group of analyses is subdivided into five tabulations according to five general regions of the country where the fuels are marketed. The regions, containing a total of 16 districts, are shown on a map in the report. Data from 13 laboratory tests on each individual diesel fuel sample are listed and arranged by geographic marketing districts in decreasing order of sales volumes. Charts are included showing trends of averages of certain properties for the four types of diesel fuels for the years 1960 to 1982. Summaries of the results of the 1982 survey, compared with similar data for 1981, are shown in Tables 1 through 4 of the report. A summary of 1-D and 2-D fuels are presented in Tables 5 and 6 respectively.

Shelton, E.M.

1982-11-01

396

Nuclear fuel reprocessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is a relatively simple, well-developed, and successful technology. Large, expensive reprocessing facilities are in use, principally in the UK and France, and are under construction in Japan and the CIS. As in most industrial processes, the viability of the process depends on the usefulness of its function and products, operational costs, and the economics of waste disposal. The current situation for nuclear fuel reprocessing is that the products-plutonium and reprocessed uranium-are not economical to use. There are insufficient facilities in place to fabricate and use the plutonium as fuel, and there is little use for reprocessed uranium as long as fresh uranium remains inexpensive. The result is that most of the plutonium and uranium from reprocessing is stored temporarily, waiting to be recycled as fuel or possibly to be disposed of permanently. Also, plutonium and uranium from proposed dismantlement of nuclear weapons threaten to increase temporary storage stockpiles. In addition to the storage of plutonium and reprocessed uranium, the high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing must be stored temporarily as well, since no permanent HLW disposal facilities have been built, in spite of available and proven technology. Spent nuclear fuel in the open nuclear fuel cycle also is being stored temporarily at reactor sites, awaiting the construction of the same HLW disposal facilities. The current temporary storage of the products of both the closed and the open nuclear fuel cycles cannot go on indefinitely, and reprocessing cannot be justified given the current lack of need for its products. To alleviate these end-of-fuel-cycle problems, two solutions are needed: permanent HLW disposal provisions and increased plutonium utilization. These two solutions apply worldwide and must be implemented at national levels in order to maintain fuel cycle options and to assure the viability of the nuclear electric power industry.

1992-01-01

397

Distillate Fuel Processing for Marine Fuel Cell Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing a 625 kW fuel cell power plant for marine applications based on its Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC(Trademark)) technology. The power plant is designed for operation on Mil-F- 16884J Naval distillate fuel designat...

G. Steinfield R. Sanderson H. Ghezel-Ayagh S. Abens M. C. Cervi

2000-01-01

398

Fuel and fuel cycle of the SM-2 reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the fuel pin and fuel assembly of the high flux research reactor SM-2. The fuel assembly operating experience is summarized, a brief characteristic of the fuel cycle common for the SM-2 and a complex of the three pool type reactors are given. (author)

Ivanov, V.B.; Klinov, A.V.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Tsykanov, V.A. [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

1997-07-01

399

Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports

1998-01-01

400

Second International Conference on CANDU Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four papers were presented at this conference in sessions dealing with international experience and programs relating to CANDU fuel; fuel manufacture; fuel behaviour; fuel handling, storage and disposal; and advanced CANDU fuel cycles. (L.L.).

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-07-22

402

Fuel for Galaxy Disks  

CERN Document Server

Halo clouds have been found about the three largest galaxies of the Local Group and in the halos of nearby spirals. This suggests they are a relatively generic feature of the galaxy evolution process and a source of fuel for galaxy disks. In this review, two main sources of disk star formation fuel, satellite material and clouds condensing from the hot halo medium, are discussed and their contribution to fueling the Galaxy quantified. The origin of the halo gas of M31 and M33 is also discussed.

Putman, M E; Peek, J E G

2008-01-01

403

Metal fuel safety performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how the current development of breeder reactor systems has lead to renewed interest in metal fuels as the driver material. Modelling efforts were begun to provide a mechanistic description of metal fuel during anticipated and hypothetical transients within the context of the SAS4A accident analysis code system. Through validation excerises using experimental results of metal fuel TREAT tests, confidence is being developed on the nature and accuracy of the modelling and implementation. Prefailure characterization, transient pin response, and margins to failure are considered. Transient time scales ranging from milliseconds to many hours can be studied with all the reactivity feedbacks evaluated

1988-01-01

404

Fuels from renewable sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Great interest has lately been taken in plants as a source of renewable fuels. A study of Messrs. Dornier System on behalf of the BMFT showed that, although the area required for a 10% fuel substitution would be available in West Germany without reducing the agricultural production area, the medium-term cost of alcohol fuel would be too high to make it suitable as a petroleum substitute. Still, alcohol production from renewable sources - e.g. from waste or surplus matter containing lignocellulose - should not be abandoned as there are interesting uses as industrial alcohols and as feedstock for chemical processes.

Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

1981-01-01

405

Alternative fuels under scrutiny  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is in the process of introducing new, stringent regulations, which will significantly alter the viability of energy recovery from alternative fuel use in the cement industry. Hazardous waste fuels are currently combusted in 18 US cement plants, but the industry will have to reconsider the economic viability of this, while continuing to explore other alternatives to fossil fuels for combustion in its kilns, in order to continue aiming towards lowering its contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. (UK)

Campbell, C.

1997-12-01

406

Pelletized fuel burning heater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a bio-mass fuel burning heater. It comprises: a combustion chamber having top and bottom ends with side walls extending between the top and bottom ends; pot means for holding the bio-mass fuel, the pot means located adjacent to the lower end of the combustion chamber, the pot means having an open upper combustion end and an open lower fuel feed end passing through a side wall of the combustion chamber; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber and pot means; air manifold means within the combustion chamber for delivering combustion air above the combustion end of the pot means.

Nuesmeyer, D.; Brondt, G.

1990-05-08

407

Analysis of fuel densification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A chronology is given of NRC reviews of analytical models that are used by U.S. fuel manufacturers for the analysis of fuel densifications. A new NRC densification model, which is based on a 17000C-24 hr resintering test and non-instantaneous kinetics, is also described. Statistical methods are presented for applying the model to production quantities of fuel. The NRC densification model is being used in licensing activities, but it was not developed with the intention of replacing approved vendor models

1976-01-01

408

Microwave alcohol fuel sensor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

1984-06-05

409

Bipolar fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.

McElroy, James F. (Suffield, CT)

1989-01-01

410

Aviation turbine fuels, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1982 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1982 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 14 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 90 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and HP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

Shelton, E.M.; Dickson, C.L.

1983-03-01

411

Aviation turbine fuels, 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of this report are typical 1985 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufactures of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, the American Petroleum Institute (API), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office. results for certain properties of 88 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5, and commercial type Jet A. Previous aviation fuel survey reports are listed.

Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

1986-05-01

412

Aviation turbine fuels, 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1981 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1981 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 15 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 95 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

Shelton, E.M.

1982-04-01

413

Aviation turbine fuels, 1979  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1979 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1979 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 93 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5, and commercial type Jet A.

Shelton, E.M.

1980-05-01

414

Aviation turbine fuels, 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1980 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1980 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 98 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5 and commercial type Jet A.

Shelton, E.M.

1981-03-01

415

Features of fuel performance at high fuel burnups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Some features of fuel behavior at high fuel burnups, in particular, initiation and development of rim-layer, increase in the rate of fission gas release from the fuel and increase in the inner gas pressure in the fuel rod are briefly described. Basing on the analysis of the data of post-irradiation examinations of fuel rods of WWER-440 working FA and CR fuel followers, that have been operated for five fuel cycles and got the average fuel burnup or varies as 50MW-day/kgU, a conclusion is made that the WWER-440 fuel burnup can be increased at least to average burnups of 55-58 MW-day/kgU per fuel assembly (Authors)

2001-01-01

416

Combined fuel pressure regulator and fuel injector device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a combination fuel pressure regulator and fuel injector. It comprises: a housing comprising a cylindrical sidewall and having a hollow interior divided into a fuel chamber and a control chamber by a pressure regulating diaphragm that carries a valve element; an inlet via which pressurized fuel is delivered to the fuel chamber; a valve seat disposed within the fuel chamber; a spring that biases the diaphragm and valve element toward the valve seat for establishing the regulation pressure; an injector-receiving socket disposed directly on the cylindrical sidewall of the housing in direct fluid communication with the fuel chamber; and an electromechanical fuel injector having an inlet received in the socket in a fluid-tight manner and receiving pressurized fuel from the fuel chamber; and in which the socket is a separate element that is joined with the cylindrical sidewall in a fluid-tight manner.

Murphy, K.A.

1992-10-06

417

Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

2007-10-16

418

Nuclear fuel cycle back end  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section consists of 3 subpapers, viz. 'Fuel cycle back end', 'Spent fuel casks', and 'Fuel cycle back end programme for WWER type plants - a market segment in the focus of interest of SKODA JS company'. The role and activities of SKODA JS, a traditional manufacturer in the nuclear industry, in the complex area of the nuclear fuel cycle back end are highlighted. (author)

2000-01-01

419

Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

Not Listed

2012-11-01

420

Fuel cycle services  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Fuel cycle services  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

Gruber, Gerhard J. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Fuel Cycle Services Div.

1990-07-01

422

Fueling the AGN  

CERN Document Server

Active Galactic Nuclei are fueled from material (gas or stars) that are in general far away from the gravitational influence of the central black hole, the engine thought to be responsible for their activity. The required material has a lot of angular momentum, that is a priori quite difficult to evacuate. The various dynamical mechanisms that may play a role in this game are reviewed, including m=2 perturbations (bars and spirals), m=1 perturbations (spirals, warps, lopsidedness), and tidal interactions between galaxies and mergers. In the latest stages of the merger, a binary black hole could be formed, and its influence on the dynamics and fueling is discussed. Starbursts are often associated with AGN, and the nature of their particular connection, and their role in the nuclear fueling is described. Evolution of the fueling efficiency with redshift is addressed.

Combes, F

2000-01-01

423

Safety of fuel using  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research reactor complex IR-100 comprises the 200 KW power nuclear reactor and critical assembly. The reactor fuel rods operate since 1967. The tightness of fuel rod casings now has been determined by using of the coolant radiochemical analysis. Prognosis of the casings tightness change has been carried out as well. The minimum and maximum periods of the fuel rods operation in the future has been determined by the graphic method. In the critical assembly fuel rods the long-lived radioactive fission products are accumulated with time. There is the risk of irradiation of IR-100 personnel and students. The prognosis of the long-lived radioactive isotopes accumulating and increase of emanation has been carried out by graphic-analytical method. (author)

Kondratskyy, O.; Ponomarenko, P.; Vasiliev, O. [Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry, 99033 Sevastopol (Ukraine)

2001-07-01

424

Integral-fuel blocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

1975-01-01

425

Coal slurry fuel technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volatile oil markets experienced in the seventies have promoted renewed interest in coal-based fuel technologies. Coal slurry fuels have emerged as viable technical alternatives for oil and gas in utility and industrial boilers. Despite current low prices and the abundance of oil, concern over its long-term availability and price, as well as strategic considerations, make coal-slurry technology attractive. Initially, coal-slurry fuels were based on coal-oil mixtures, now the emphasis is largely on coal-water fuels. This review assesses the status of the relevant technology. It covers the preparation of coal-slurry, slurry properties, combustion characteristics, emissions, current applications and concludes with their future outlook.

Papachristodoulou, G.; Trass, O.

1987-04-01

426

Fuel cell. Nenryo denchi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a conventional phosphoric acid type fuel cell, the matrix layer is formed by that a mixed paste of silicon carbide powder and polytetrafloroethylene is applied directly on the surface of the catalyst layer of the electrode and after heat treatment, impregnated with phosphoric acid. The method has a drawback that it is difficult to obtain the matrix layer of uniform thickness without defect such as void, particularly in the edges of the two electrodes. The invention concerns the fuel cell in which the edges of the two electrodes are covered with nonpermeable and nonconductive thin films between the fuel cell catalyst layer and the oxidizer electrode catalyst layer. Thus, it is possible to prevent a crossover phenomena of a direct reaction of the fuel gas with the oxidizer gas by preventing gas leakage from the edges of the cells. Tetrafluoroethylene/perfluoroalkyl vinyl enter copolymer of 25 micro m thickness is an example of the above thin films. 3 figs.

Segawa, N. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-12-06

427

Fuel cell cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

1995-08-01

428

Motor fuel additive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aryl ethers, e.g., cumylmethylether and anisole, are particularly effective additives for improving the octane number of motor fuels. These aryl ethers are especially useful in increasing the octane number of unleaded gasolines.

Dolhyj, S.R.; Guttmann, A.T.; Velenyi, L.J.

1983-11-01

429

Optimum fuel rod dimensions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) evaluated two fuel rod designs with different moderator-to-fuel ratios: (1) a standard ABB CE rod for 16 X 16 fuel with high uranium loading: value-added pellets, and (2) a thinner rod with reduced clad surface area, clad thickness, and uranium loading: here called the 16 X 16 OFA (optimized fuel assembly). It is well known that all pressurized water reactors are under-moderated; this ensures a negative moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). Increasing the lattice moderation is thus expected to improve uranium utilization while having a detrimental effect on MTC. This study was performed to quantify the uranium utilization benefit and other effects of increased moderation.

Jonsson, A.; Gavin, P.H.; Terney, W.B.; Dixon, D.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

1997-12-01

430

Fuel injection system. Kraftstoffeinspritzanlage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fuel injection system is proposed, which is used to match the fuel air mixture exactly to the operating conditions of the internal combustion engine. the fuel injection system includes supply valves, which have a control valve each, whose moving parts are operated on the one hand by fuel pressure downstream of the supply valve, and on the other hand by the pressure in a differential pressure control pipe, which are limited on the one hand by a first electro-fluidic converter of the nozzle impact plate type and on the other hand by a first throttle. The first electro-fluidic converter can be initiated depending on the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine, and determines the pressure in the differential pressure control line and therefore the differential pressure at the supply valves via the control valves.

Jaeggle, G.; Maisch, W.; Peters, K.J.; Schuetz, R.

1984-06-28

431

The spent fuel fate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spent fuel is not a waste. It can be upgrade by a reprocessing which extracts all products able to produce energy. The today situation is presented and economically analyzed and future alternatives are discussed. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

432

Bioethanol: Fueling sustainable transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol made from biomass, or bioethanol, can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Producing and using bioethanol can help alleviate some of the negative impacts of the dependence on fossil fuels.

Neufeld, S.

2000-05-25

433

Hydrogen fueled transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature reveals periodic interest in hydrogen as an engine fuel since it was used in the first self sustaining combustion engine in 1820. Current interest is driven by the need for drastic reduction in the noxious pollutants emitted with fossil fuels, as well as the fact that fossil fuels are non renewable and must, inevitably, become unavailable. There are, of course, severe problems to be overcome prior to general acceptance of hydrogen fueled engines. These include: the economics of large scale production and distribution of hydrogen, the storage of hydrogen onboard the vehicle, and the development of the infrastructure necessary for the services for its vehicular usage. Safety is not the problem as perceived by the public. Hydrogen may well play a highly significant role in surface transportation (including rail), and is destined to play a dominant one in high speed air travel. 3 figs., 1 tab., 42 refs.

Van Vorst, W.M.D. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-31

434

Processed pulverized fuel ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The composition of pulverized fuel ash is discussed. The soft mud process was chosen for brick making from clay-PFA mixtures, because the resulting comparatively low compaction allows the carbon to burn out.

Anderson, M.; Jackson, G.

1983-01-01

435

Packing Nuclear Fuel  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Development of Scientific Foundations of the Technology of the Metal Matrix Packing of Leaky Unreprocessible Spent Nuclear Fuel of Different Purpose Reactors for a Long-term Environmentally Safe Storage.

436

Irradiated fuel inspection station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Permanently installed fuel inspection stations have been developed for incorporation into the Combustion Engineering System 80 nuclear steam supply systems. The design, description, and usefulness of these stations are presented

1979-11-16

437

Bipolar fuel cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an improvement in a fuel cell stack comprising two or more fuel cells each having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode in contact with opposite surfaces of an ion transporting membrane, a wet-proofed carbon paper bonded to the cathode surface opposite the membrane, a bipolar separator in contact with the wet-proofed carbon paper and forming an oxidant flow field, the bipolar separator being in electrical contact with the anode of a second fuel cell. The improvement comprises a plurality of electrically conductive screens between and in electrical contact with the wet-proofed carbon paper and the bipolar separator resulting in improved product water removal and improved fuel cell performance.

McElroy, J.F.

1989-08-08

438

Polyaluminoxanes as Fuel Additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven polyaluminoxanes, obtained by the interaction of aluminum isopropylate with various acids, were synthesized and characterized. On the basis of polyaluminoxanes which are soluble in hydrocarbons stable fuel additives were prepared with the help of a ...

I. A. Kholomonov M. M. Alimova P. I. Samin S. G. Arabyan V. V. Sher

1972-01-01

439

Solid Fuel Burn Enhancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This patent application relates generally to solid fuel ramjet engines, and more specifically to a solid rocket motor construction which allows the burn rate to be controlled by variations in the oxidizer content. A solid rocket motor grain construction i...

J. G. Nagy D. L. Jaspering

1986-01-01

440

Alternative fuel information sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

1994-06-01