WorldWideScience

Sample records for tsunami event generated

  1. Landslide-generated tsunamis in a perialpine lake: Historical events and numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-05-01

    Many of the perialpine lakes in Central Europe - the large, glacier-carved basins formed during the Pleistocene glaciations of the Alps - have proven to be environments prone to subaquatic landsliding. Among these, Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) has a particularly well-established record of subaquatic landslides and related tsunamis. Its sedimentary archive documents numerous landslides over the entire Holocene, which have either been triggered by earthquakes, or which occurred apparently spontaneously, possibly due to rapid sediment accumulation on delta slopes. Due to their controlled boundary conditions and the possibility to be investigated on a complete basinal scale, such lacustrine tsunamis may be used as textbook analogons for their marine counterparts. Two events in the 17th century illustrate these processes and their consequences: In AD 1601, an earthquake (Mw ~ 5.9) led to widespread failure of the sediment drape covering the lateral slopes in several basins. The resulting landslides generated tsunami waves that reached a runup of several metres, as reported in historical accounts. The waves caused widespread damage as well as loss of lives in communities along the shores. In AD 1687, the apparently spontaneous collapse of a river delta in the lake led to similar waves that damaged nearby villages. Based on detailed information on topography, bathymetry and the geometry of the landslide deposits, numerical simulations combining two-dimensional, depth-averaged models for landslide propagation, as well as for tsunami generation, propagation and inundation, are able to reproduce most of the reported tsunami effects for these events. Calculated maximum runup of the waves is 6 to >10 m in the directly affected lake basins, but significantly less in neighbouring basins. Flat alluvial plains adjacent to the most heavily affected areas are inundated over distances of several hundred metres. Taken as scenarios for possible future events, these past events suggest that tsunami hazard in these lake should not be neglected, although they are infrequent and the effects are naturally limited to the immediate surroundings of the affected basins. The shores of Lake Lucerne, as well as of many other perialpine lakes, are nowadays densely inhabited and host considerable infrastructure, so that events similar to those reported may have serious consequences. Identification and mapping of possible subaquatic landslide source areas, the inclusion of geotechnical data on potentially mobile sediments, as well as numerical modelling of tsunamis are thus important components of a proper hazard assessment for these lakes.

  2. Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

  3. Tsunami Generation Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miho Aoki

    This QuickTime animation by Professor Miho Aoki at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Art Department clearly illustrates how a tsunami can be generated by a subduction zone earthquake. The visualization file is large and may take some time to download.

  4. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, P.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observation...

  5. Tsunami!

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Department of Geophysics at University of Washington provides the Tsunami! Website. An excellent general resource about tsunamis (large water waves), this site provides information about the "mechanisms of tsunami generation and propagation, the impact of tsunamis on humankind, and the Tsunami Warning System." Sections included at the site are General Tsunami Information, Tsunami Survey and Research Information, Miscellaneous Information (links to related sites), and Background on the Development of Tsunami!.

  6. Tsunami Generation Above a Sill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakis, Themistoklis S.; Dias, Frédéric; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-03-01

    The generation of surface waves by seafloor displacement is a classic problem that arises in the study of tsunamis. The generation of waves in a two-dimensional domain of uniform depth by uplift or subsidence of a portion of a flat bottom boundary has been elegantly studied by Hammack (Tsunamis: a model of their generation and propagation, Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1972), for idealized motions. The physical problem of tsunami generation is more complex; even when the final displacement is known from seismic analysis, the deforming seafloor includes relief features such as mounts and trenches. Here, following Kajiura (J Oceanogr Soc Jpn 28:260-277, 1972), we investigate analytically the effect of bathymetry on the surface wave generation, by solving the forced linear shallow water equation. While Kajiura's geometry consisted of a step-type bottom bathymetry with a rectangular uplift to understand the effect of the continental shelf on tsunami generation, our model bathymetry consists of an uplifting cylindrical sill initially resting on a flat bottom, a geometry which helps evaluate the effect of seamounts on tsunami generation. We find that as the sill height increases, partial wave trapping reduces the wave height in the far field, while amplifying it above the sill.

  7. Analytical investigation on tsunamis generated by submarine slides

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolucci, E.; Tinti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Tsunamis induced by landslides are a topic on which growing attention is being paid especially under the pressure of recent events in which movement of underwater masses have been recognised to be the certain or likely cause of the observed tsunami. Here analytical methods and idealised cases are used to investigate tsunami generation by submarine slides that undergo negligible deformation during their motion, such as slumps. The general solution of the 1D Cauchy linear problem for long water...

  8. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fre?de?ric; Dutykh, Denys; O Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solut...

  9. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

  10. The Reconstruction of the 1867 Keelung Tsunami Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Wu, T.

    2012-12-01

    The 1867 Keelung tsunami event has been reported to be the most destructive in Taiwan history, hence it's been documented in many historical literatures. In this event, the sea withdrew and the seabed exposed after a strong ground shake. Then, a series of big waves followed and fluxed into Keelung harbor. Hundreds of people died and the wave height was up to 6 m (Hsu, 1983). Since this event was not recorded instrumentally by tidal gauges or seismographs, the location and focal mechanism are still uncertain. According to the studies by many seismologists (Tsai, 1985; Cheng et al, 1989; Hsu et al, 1996; Lin et al 2005), this event was generated by a large seismic motion with an earthquake magnitude about Mw=7.0, and sourcing from the Shanchiao Fault (Lin et al, 2005). However, none of the parameter sets was able to explain the 7-m tsunami height presented in many historical documents. In this study, we intend to reconstruct this event by means of numerical tsunami simulation. Considering the cliff slop along the Keelung coast, one reasonable assumption is that the earthquake triggered a submarine landslide which increased the tsunami wave height dramatically. To confirm this hypothesis, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to reproduce the 1867 Keelung tsunami event. The Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) is utilized to perform the tsunami simulations. We follow the earthquake magnitude Mw=7.0 proposed by Lin et al. (2006) and add the landslide effect (Watts et al., 2005). The latest scaling law proposed by Yen and Ma (2011) is used to determine the rupture parameters. Two landslide locations, near-field and Mien-Hwa Canyo, are considered in this study. The results show the 7-m tsunami height was most likely to be generated by the near-field submarine landslide with debris amount of 1400000 m3. This result is significant not only to the safety of Keelung city, but also to the security of the 3 nuclear power plants located nearby. The detailed scenario results will be presented in the full paper.

  11. Volcanic Tsunami Generation in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.

    2003-12-01

    Many of the worlds active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines, and during eruptions the transfer of mass from volcano to sea is a potential source mechanism for tsunamis. Flows of granular material off of volcanoes, such as pyroclastic flow, debris avalanche, and lahar, often deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean that have a large potential tsunami hazard. The deposits of both hot and cold volcanic grain flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by granular subaerial volcanic flows using examples from Aniakchak volcano in southwestern Alaska, and Augustine volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Evidence for far-field tsunami inundation coincident with a major caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described and is the basis for one of our case studies. We perform a numerical simulation of the tsunami using a large volume pyroclastic flow as the source mechanism and compare our results to field measurements of tsunami deposits preserved along the north shore of Bristol Bay. Several attributes of the tsunami simulation, such as water flux and wave amplitude, are reasonable predictors of tsunami deposit thickness and generally agree with the field evidence for tsunami inundation. At Augustine volcano, geological investigations suggest that as many as 14 large volcanic-rock avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during the 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. By analogy with the 1883 event, previous studies concluded that tsunamis could have been generated many times in the past. If so, geological evidence of tsunamis, such as tsunami deposits on land, should be found in the area around Augustine Island. Paradoxically, unequivocal evidence for tsunami inundation has been found. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region and a future tsunami from the volcano would have devastating consequences to villages, towns, oil-production facilities, and the fishing industry, especially if it occurred at high tide (the tidal range in this area is about 5 m). Numerical simulation experiments of tsunami generation, propagation and inundation using a subaerial debris avalanche source at Augustine volcano indicate only modest wave generation because of the shallow water surrounding the volcano (maximum water depth about 25 m). Lahar flows produced during eruptions at snow and ice clad volcanoes in the Aleutian arc also deliver copious amounts of sediment to the sea. These flows only rarely transform to subaqueous debris flows that may become tsunamigenic. However, the accumulation of loose, unconsolidated sediment on the continental shelf may lead to subaqueous debris flows and landslides if these deposits become mobilized by large earthquakes. Tsunamis produced by this mechanism could potentially reach coastlines all along the Pacific Rim. Finally, recent work in the western Aleutian Islands indicates that many of the island volcanoes in this area have experienced large-scale flank collapse. Because these volcanoes are surrounded by deep water, the tsunami hazard associated with a future sector collapse could be significant.

  12. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, of Soufriere on St. Vincent and of the Kick’em Jenny underwater volcano near Grenada and provides an overall risk assessment of tsunami generation from volcanic sources in the Caribbean region.

  13. Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events (ASCETE) - Latest Simulation Techniques for Tsunami Process Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; Breuer, Alexander N.; Dalguer, Luis A.; Gabriel, Alice-A.; Galvez Barron, Percy E.; Pelties, Christian; Rahnema, Kaveh; Vater, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The ASCETE project develops a simulation framework for coupled physics-based rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation. Recently, several new results could be achieved. Adaptive mesh tsunami propagation and inundation by discontinuous Galerkin Runge-Kutta methods allows for accurate and conservative inundation schemes. The adaptive mesh refinement allows for efficiency optimization, since computations are only performed in areas of interest and wave activity. A tree-based refinement strategy is utilized to highly optimize the code for high-performance computing architectures. Rupture simulation is performed by an unstructured tetrahedral discontinuous Galerking ADER discretization, which allows for accurate representation of complex geometries. Advanced meshing methods allow for near-realistic geometrical set-ups. Currently physically consistent state of stress and frictional strength properties inspired from seismo-thermo-mechanical models are implemented, opening the path to cutting edge process studies of earthquakes in megathrust and off-megathrust faulting systems. Code optimizations with automatic code generation tools for vector performance show gains in execution time of a factor of five and more. First results of coupled simulations with complex time-dependent rupture mechanics and correspondingly triggered tsunami events demonstrate the potential for novel process studies and uncertainty assessment of realistic events.

  14. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting shoreline wave energy controlled primarily by distance from the landslide and elevation above the lake surface. They are further affected by shoreline gradient, orientation, and substrate. Vegetation trimlines are the most obvious evidence of landslide-generated tsunamis, but they persist only until mature forest becomes reestablished. Erosional scarps in coarse-grained unconsolidated sediments may persist longer, but after lakeshores become revegetated can be detected only with appropriately processed LiDAR data or detailed field surveys. Our observations at Chehalis Lake provide insight into landslide-generated tsunami hazards. Shoreline geomorphic evidence, in conjunction with lake-side landslide scars, facilitates identification of water bodies that have been affected by landslide-generated tsunamis in recent centuries. Geomorphic mapping such as that completed at Chehalis Lake may help identify potential landslide sources and improve understanding of nearshore tsunami hydrodynamics, thus aiding in site-specific hazard analysis. It also provides detailed data for calibrating and validating landslide-generated tsunami models.

  15. Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Tanioka, Y.; Seno, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq...

  16. A Reverse Tracking Method to Analyze the 1867 Keelung Tsunami Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Wu, T.; Tsai, Y.; KO, L.; Chuang, M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1867 Keelung tsunami is the only tsunami event verified by Taiwan government. This event caused serious damage and hundreds death toll in northern Taiwan, including the Keelung city, Jinshan and Patoutzu areas (Fig. 1). This event is not only recorded in many literatures, but also unveiled by sedimentary evidence. In addition, this event also indicates that the three nuclear power plants nearby are prone to tsunami attacks (Fig. 1). The previous studies consider that this tsunami might be generated by a Mw 7.0 earthquake which might occur along the Shanchiao Fault (Zheng et al, 2011). However, there is no evidence showing the relationship between these geological activities and the tsunami event. In this study, we intend to find the potential tsunami source through numerical analysis. We conducted series of numerical experiments by using sets of fault parameters from Mw 7.0 to Mw 8.0. However, none of them was able to explain the 7 m tsunami height observed in history and the sedimentary evidence found on the Hoping Island. Considering the steep bathymetry and intense volcanic activity along the Keelung coast, one reasonable hypothesis is that the earthquake or volcanic eruption triggered a submarine landslide which increased the tsunami height dramatically. In order to confirm this scenario, we performed the Reverse Tracking Method (RTM), based on the linear hypothesis of tsunami wave propagation, to find the possible locations of the tsunami sources (Fig. 1). The Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) was then used to perform the tsunami simulations. We followed the Mw 7.0 earthquake proposed by Lin et al. (2006) and added the landslide disturbance (Watts et al., 2005). The source-scaling relationship proposed by Yen and Ma (2011) was used to determine the fault parameters. In addition to the Shanchiao Fault, five submarine volcanos and three submarine canyons were considered as the potential tsunami sources. The result shows that the 1867 tsunami event was most likely triggered by a near-field submarine landslide just outside the Keelung harbor. The potential tsunami sources from Mien-Hwa Canyon and submarine volcanos should also be noted. The result of this study is important not only for densely populated cities in northern Taiwan, but also for the three nuclear power plants nearby. The detailed scenario results will be presented in the full paper. Fig. 1. The map of Reverse Tracking Method (RTM) in northern Taiwan. Black dots show the relative location between Keelung city, Jinshan and Patouzu areas. Red dots present the nuclear power plants (NPP1, NPP2, and NPP4). Green dots present the sedimentary evidence discovered on Hoping Island. Color indicates the maximum flux of tsunami propagation.

  17. Analytical investigation on tsunamis generated by submarine slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bortolucci

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis induced by landslides are a topic on which growing attention is being paid especially under the pressure of recent events in which movement of underwater masses have been recognised to be the certain or likely cause of the observed tsunami. Here analytical methods and idealised cases are used to investigate tsunami generation by submarine slides that undergo negligible deformation during their motion, such as slumps. The general solution of the 1D Cauchy linear problem for long water waves is specialised to deal with rigid bodies and is used systematically to explore the main characteristics of the generated waves. Relationships between body motion, that is prescribed in terms of the slide Froude number, and wave pattern, wave amplitude and wave energy are studied in dimensionless space. Wave generation in various flow conditions (from subcritical to supercritical is handled, though most attention is given to analysing tsunamis induced by submarine slides at subcritical speed which are by far the most common cases. From numerical experiments it is found that good estimates of the tsunami wave amplitude can be calculated by means of simple expressions based on the maximum value and on the average value of the Froude number during the main generation phase.

  18. Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    On March 11{sup th}, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

  19. Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

  20. Tsunami Impact from a 1755-like event in the Aveiro Region, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Catarina R.; Omira, Rachid; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Baptista, Maria A.; Quaresma, Luis S.; Garrido, Carla

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we present 5m-resolution tsunami flooding maps for the Aveiro region, W. Central Portugal. Aveiro is known to have been impacted by the 1st November 1755 earthquake and tsunami. At that time this portion of the coast had almost no constructions nor population but eversince geomorphological changes took place, and there has been a very large population increase living in constructions extremely close to the shore. As such it is important to model and evaluate the potential impact that a similar event to the 1755 earthquake would have in this area at present. Tsunami flooding maps were computed using a digital elevation model produced from the present-day bathymetric and topographic data including bathymetric surveys, LiDAR and photogrammetric data. Tsunami scenarios were generated considering different solutions for the 1755 earthquake seismic source, in faults constrained by multibeam and multichannel seismic data. The modeling of the tsunami propagation was performed with a validated non-linear shallow water model. To compute inundation, we considered four levels of nested grids with resolutions ranging from 320m to 5m. The tsunami-associated flood is discussed in terms of flow depth, run-up height and maximum inundation area. The Ria de Aveiro is characterized by both flattened relief and significant tidal amplitude range, which can contribute to an important variation in flooding due to tsunami-tide interaction. Therefore, the effect of the tide variation on the extent of tsunami inundation is also discussed. Results are compared with the historical descriptions of the consequences in Aveiro. An event similar to the one from 1755 would cause tsunami run-up heights above one meter within the Ria de Aveiro. The Aveiro oceanic coast would also be strongly affected. The results obtained can be used to identify the potential tsunami inundation areas in Aveiro, which is important for the Portuguese tsunami emergency management system. Keywords: Inundation, DEM, Numerical Modeling, Ria de Aveiro, LiDAR

  1. TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE PREDICTION DURING EVENTS: A TEST BASED ON PREVIOUS TSUNAMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, Paul M.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center’s (WC/ATWC) far-field tsunami amplitude prediction method is tested by applying the technique to nine previous, well-recorded tsunamigenic events. Predicted tsunami amplitudes outside the source area are shown to be sufficiently accurate to guide warning cancellation/restriction/expansion decisions. Average error per event ranged from 0.04m to 0.29m with error defined as the absolute value of the difference between the recorded amplitude and...

  2. POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the margins of the Pacific, all combine to suggest apparent deficiencies in: (1 personal awareness of what to do in the event of a possible local tsunami; (2 the distribution of instrumentation capable of providing rapid confirmation that a local tsunami has been generated; and (3 the subsequent issuance of timely warnings for local tsunamis. With these deficiencies, far more lives may be lost in Hawaii due to local tsunamis than will result from tsunamis that have originated along the margins of the Pacific. Similar deficiencies may exist in other areas of the world threatened by local tsunamis.

  3. Preliminary investigation of the hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D.; Cummins, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the Boxing Day tsunami various countries surrounding the Indian Ocean have been investigating the potential hazard from trans-Indian Ocean tsunami generated along the Sunda Arc, south of Indonesia. This study presents some preliminary estimates of the tsunami hazard faced by Western Australia from tsunami generated along the Arc. To estimate the hazard, a suite of tsunami spaced evenly along the subduction zone to the south of Indonesia were numerically modelled. Offshore wave heights from tsunami generated in this region are significantly higher along northwestern part of the Western Australian coast from Exmouth to the Kimberly than they are along the rest of the coast south of Exmouth. Due to the offshore bathymetry, the area around Onslow in particular may face a higher tsunami than other areas the West Australian coast. Earthquakes between Java and Timor are likely to produce the greatest hazard to northwest WA. Earthquakes off Sumatra are likely the main source of tsunami hazard to locations south of Exmouth, however the hazard here is likely to be lower than that along the north western part of the West Australian coast. Tsunami generated by other sources (eg large intra-plate events, volcanoes, landslides and asteroids) could threaten other parts of the coast.

  4. Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Fre?de?ric

    2010-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on vertical displacements of the seabed due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one...

  5. The TRIDEC Virtual Tsunami Atlas - customized value-added simulation data products for Tsunami Early Warning generated on compute clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, P.; Hammitzsch, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wächter, J.

    2012-04-01

    The development of new Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) requires the modelling of spatio-temporal spreading of tsunami waves both recorded from past events and hypothetical future cases. The model results are maintained in digital repositories for use in TEWS command and control units for situation assessment once a real tsunami occurs. Thus the simulation results must be absolutely trustworthy, in a sense that the quality of these datasets is assured. This is a prerequisite as solid decision making during a crisis event and the dissemination of dependable warning messages to communities under risk will be based on them. This requires data format validity, but even more the integrity and information value of the content, being a derived value-added product derived from raw tsunami model output. Quality checking of simulation result products can be done in multiple ways, yet the visual verification of both temporal and spatial spreading characteristics for each simulation remains important. The eye of the human observer still remains an unmatched tool for the detection of irregularities. This requires the availability of convenient, human-accessible mappings of each simulation. The improvement of tsunami models necessitates the changes in many variables, including simulation end-parameters. Whenever new improved iterations of the general models or underlying spatial data are evaluated, hundreds to thousands of tsunami model results must be generated for each model iteration, each one having distinct initial parameter settings. The use of a Compute Cluster Environment (CCE) of sufficient size allows the automated generation of all tsunami-results within model iterations in little time. This is a significant improvement to linear processing on dedicated desktop machines or servers. This allows for accelerated/improved visual quality checking iterations, which in turn can provide a positive feedback into the overall model improvement iteratively. An approach to set-up and utilize the CCE has been implemented by the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) funded under the European Union's FP7. TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulations and data fusion tools. Additionally, TRIDEC adopts enhancements of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles in terms of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) design. As a next step the implemented CCE's services to generate derived and customized simulation products are foreseen to be provided via an EDA service for on-demand processing for specific threat-parameters and to accommodate for model improvements.

  6. Tsunami Modeling from Submarine Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenji Satake

    This paper describes a kinematic model that computes tsunamis generated from submarine landslides. The model is based on bathymetric (ocean floor modeling) data and historical tsunami data. The papers' main focus is the application of the model to the 1741 Oshima-Oshima Tsunami in Japan and landslide events around the Hawaiian Islands. This paper was presented at the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Review and International Tsunami Symposium in Seattle, Washington on August 10, 2001.

  7. Tsunami generated by the 2004 Kushiro-oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Y.; Katsumata, K.

    2007-02-01

    The 2004 Kushiro-oki earthquake generated a small tsunami that was observed at two tide gauge stations located on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido Province. Analysis of the tsunami waveforms shows that the slip amount of the fault was 2.1 m. The seismic moment was calculated to be 3.1×10^{19} Nm, which is consistent with the results of previous seismological studies. Tsunami simulation results indicate that a small first wave at Urakawa is caused by large shallow water off Cape Erimo. The tsunami generated from the source area off Kushiro circumvents the shallow area off the cape, propagates through the deep sea, and arrives at Urakawa as a small first wave. Larger tsunamis are propagated through the shallow region slowly and arrive at Urakawa as a later tsunami. These results suggest that a tsunami from a future large Nemuro-oki earthquake will also arrive at the west coast of Hidaka with a small first wave and large later phases.

  8. Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insect Hazards Rodent Control Prevent or Respond to Snake Bite Animal Disposal Following an Emergency Carbon Monoxide ... All Regions (NOAA) About Tsunamis (American Red Cross) World Health Organization (WHO) South Asia earthquake and tsunamis ...

  9. Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tsunami is a series of huge ocean waves created by an underwater disturbance. Causes include earthquakes, landslides, volcanic ... space that strike the surface of Earth. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in ...

  10. Simulation of the minor tsunami generated by the September 30 2009 earthquake near Padang, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, C.; Harig, S.; Pranowo, W.; Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Schroeter, J.; Hiller, W.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude 7.6 earthquake (USGS) on September 30, 2009 at 10:16 UTC close to the city of Padang in West Sumatra generated a minor tsunami. Earthquakes in this region however have the potential to generate destructive waves as it was shown in historical and recent events. Taking into account the large number of casualties due to this earthquake it is important to prepare for possible future events which might be accompanied by a tsunami. Due to the geographical setting of Padang a tsunami might have disastrous impact. An effective early warning system is crucial. The tsunami modeling group of Alfred Wegener Institute is part of the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) and is responsible for creating a database of pre-calculated tsunami scenarios of various magnitudes and epicenter locations covering the Sunda Trench. These scenarios are calculated with the newly developed model TsunAWI. It is based on the nonlinear shallow water equations and employs the finite element method in unstructured meshes. In case of a tsunamigenic earthquake, sensor data (comprising seismometers, GPS instruments, tide gauges, buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors) will be evaluated. The most probable scenario will be selected and used to forecast arrival times and estimated wave height along the coast. The unstructured discretisation employed in TsunAWI allows for a high resolution around the city of Padang. In this presentation we show preliminary examples of the results of the GITEWS simulation system. We evaluate our pre-computed scenarios and analyze their deficiencies. Additional simulations based on diverse source models are performed to analyze the predictability of near-field tsunamis within short time. We compare simulation results to tide gauge data from Padang harbor and find good agreement.

  11. Stromboli Island (Italy): Scenarios of Tsunamis Generated by Submarine Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Manucci, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli is an Italian volcanic island known for its persistent state of activity, which leads to frequent mass failures and consequently to frequent tsunamis ranging from large (and rare) catastrophic events involving the entire southern Tyrrhenian Sea to smaller events with, however, extremely strong local impact. Most of tsunamigenic landslides occur in the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) zone, which is a deep scar in the NW flank of the volcano, that was produced by a Holocene massive flank collapse and that is the accumulation area of all the eruptive ejecta from the craters. Shallow-water bathymetric surveys around the island help one to identify submarine canyons and detachment scars giving evidence of mass instabilities and failures that may have produced and might produce tsunamis. The main purpose of this paper is to call attention to tsunami sources in Stromboli that are located outside the SdF area. Further, we do not touch on tsunami scenarios associated with gigantic sector collapses that have repeat times in the order of several thousands of years, but rather concentrate on intermediate size tsunamis, such as the ones that occurred in December 2002. Though we cannot omit tsunamis from the zone of the SdF, the main emphasis is on the elaboration of preliminary scenarios for three more possible source areas around Stromboli, namely Punta Lena Sud, Forgia Vecchia and Strombolicchio, with the aim of purposeful contributing to the evaluation of the hazard associated with such events and to increase the knowledge of potential threats affecting Stromboli and the nearby islands of the Aeolian archipelago. The simulations show that tsunami sources outside of the SdF can produce disastrous effects. As a consequence, we recommend that the monitoring system that is presently operating in Stromboli and that is focussed on the SdF source area be extended in order to cover even the other sources. Moreover, a synoptic analysis of the results from all the considered tsunami scenarios leads to a very interesting relation between the tsunami total energy and the landslide potential energy, that could be used as a very effective tool to evaluate the expected tsunami size from estimates of the landslide size.

  12. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh <25, to include a moving sea-bed, for the simulation of earthquake- and landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only an additional term within the kinematic bottom condition. As first test cases we simulate linear and nonlinear surface waves generated from both positive and negative impulsive bottom movements. The computed results compare well against earlier theoretical, numerical, and experimental values. Additionally, we show that the long-time (fully nonlinear) evolution of waves resulting from an upthrusted bottom can eventually result in true solitary waves, consistent with theoretical predictions. It is stressed, however, that the nonlinearity used far exceeds that typical of geophysical tsunamis in the open ocean. The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, inboth one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run-up capabilities within this approach, and as demonstrated, the model can therefore treat tsunami events from their initial generation, through their later propagation, and final run-up phases. The developed model is shown to maintain reasonable computational efficiency, and is therefore attractive for the simulation of such events, especially in cases where dispersion is important.

  13. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Hancilar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/...

  14. Coastal vegetation and its influence on the 2004 tsunami event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso Bayas, J. C.; Marohn, C.; Dercon, G.; Dewi, S.; Piepho, H. P.; Joshi, L.; van Noordwijk, M.; Cadisch, G.

    2012-04-01

    A tsunami event has several effects once it reaches the shore. Infrastructure damage and casualties are two of its most dire consequences. The intensity of these damages is related to the wave force, which in turn is mostly determined by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. Nevertheless, once on land, the energy of the wave is attenuated by gravity (elevation) and friction (land cover). Despite being promoted as 'bio-shields' against wave impact, tree-belts lack quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, and have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. We have studied some of the land uses in sites affected by the 2004 tsunami event, especially in coastal areas close to the coast of Indonesia, more specifically in the west coast of Aceh, Sumatra. Using transects perpendicular to the coast we analyzed the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. We developed a spatial statistical model that uses a land cover roughness coefficient to account for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. The coefficient was built using satellite imagery, land cover maps, land use characteristics such as stem diameter, height, and planting density, as well as a literature review. The spatial generalized linear mixed models used determined that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. Despite this positive effect of coastal vegetation in front of a settlement, we also found out that dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. We believe that possibly debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. The models developed in Indonesia are currently being adapted and tested for the effects that the same tsunami event caused in the Seychelles, where the intensity of the wave was a tenth of that in Aceh. On the Seychelles, our current work suggests that no direct effect of coastal vegetation existed. At the same time, our results indicate that vegetation maintained dunes seemed to offer a decrease of the probability of structural damage. We believe that instead of advocating for or against tree belts, a sustainable and effective coastal risk management should be promoted. This should include smart planning for the location (relative to the sea) of settlements but also consider the possible roles of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement. Overall, for any of these planning measures to be sustainable, coastal vegetation must be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bio-shield. Consequently, it should be adapted to local customs as well as provide tangible short and mid-term benefits for local communities.

  15. Current issues on PRA regarding seismic and tsunami events at multiunits and sites based on lessons leaned from Tohoku earthquake/tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP (F1-NPP) were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. This paper describes the overview of F1-NPP accident and the usability of tsunami PRA at Tohoku earthquake. The paper makes reference to the following current issues: influence on seismic hazard of gigantic aftershocks and triggered earthquakes, concepts for evaluating core damage frequency considering common cause failure with correlation coefficient against seismic event at multi units and sites, and concepts of 'seismic-tsunami PSA' considering a combination of seismic motion and tsunami effects.

  16. Processing and presentation of high-resolution DART° data for recent significant tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; Stroker, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colorado, is an integral part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. One of three NOAA data centers, NGDC hosts the long-term archive and management of tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards under collaborative development between the National Weather Service, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Data Buoy Center. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and run-up database, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART°) event and native bottom pressure and temperature observations, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, historic marigrams, and other hazards-related data and information. In terms of tsunami observations, NGDC currently process and archives all recovered native or 15 seconds high-resolution DART° bottom pressure observation time series. Tsunami signal-to-noise ratios in the deep-ocean are such that de-tiding based on a combination of tidal harmonic predictions and carefully constructed filters are necessary to obtain clean tsunami records. The processing includes removing tides using a customized version of the IOS tidal package of Mike Foreman. Additional processing is applied for parts of the records with registered tsunami events where the noise from the intra-gravity waves and components representing larger scale oceanic processes are removed by band-pass Kaiser-Bessel filters. The NGDC tsunami archive contains processed full record high-resolution observations for the period 2002-2010. An event-specific archive of real-time and native high-resolution observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Japan Tohoku event are now available through new event pages that have been integrated with the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami Event Database. Event pages are developed to deliver comprehensive summaries of each tsunami event, including socio-economic impacts, tsunami travel time maps, raw observations, de-tided residuals, spectra of the tsunami signal compared to the energy of the background noise, and wavelets. These data are invaluable to tsunami researchers and educators as they are essential to providing a more thorough understanding of tsunamis and their propagation in the open ocean and subsequent inundation of coastal communities. All tsunami data are accessible at http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/recenttsunamis.shtml. Details of filtering and tide removal techniques applied during the processing of all tsunami time series are discussed and spatial distribution and density of the observations along with general statistics are presented. Results obtained from analysis of all recently recovered 15-second high-resolution DART observations for the 11 March 2011 Japan Tohoku tsunami after application of the described processing techniques are presented and show the historic nature of this event; the largest deep-ocean tsunami amplitude in recorded history.

  17. The applicability of fossil foraminifera as a paleo-tsunami indicator: evidence from the 2011 Tohoku and A.D. 869 Jogan tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, J.; Horton, B. P.; Witter, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 megathrust earthquake (Mw 9.0) off the coast of Japan generated a tsunami that reached the Sendai coastal plain with wave heights of ~10 to 12 m above sea level. In May 2011 a series of trench sections (n = 13) and surface samples (n = 17) were collected along a transect on the northern perimeter of the Sendai airport (38.145°N, 140.933°E) in an effort to document the sedimentological characteristics of the Tohoku deposit. In this study we (1) examine the taphonomic signature of recent and fossil foraminifera from the Tohoku tsunami deposit, and (2) apply this technique to detect older events in the paleo-record through comparison with sediments deposited by the Jogan tsunami of A.D. 869 (Mw 8.3). The trench sections containing the Tohoku tsunami deposit are characterized by a poorly-sorted, dark-brown, medium basal sand, overlain by a well-sorted, light-brown, medium sand and a mud cap. The deposit, with sheet-like geometry that is 5 to 30 cm thick, extends ~5 km inland and contains marine sand and a distinct paucity of recent foraminifera. The recent foraminifera that were present showed evidence of prolonged subaerial exposure (e.g. pitting, corrosion, fragmentation) and likely originated from coastal dune and beach sediments that were breached by the tsunami. In contrast, high abundances of robust sediment-filled fossil foraminifera were found within the overwash sands and were ascribed a marine origin since they were absent in units outside of the tsunami deposit. Along a surface transect, greatest abundances were found in offshore samples. Trends associated with test size (e.g. decreasing concentration of large test sizes with distance inland) are in agreement with particle-size data. Preliminary analysis shows the presence of fossil foraminifera within sediments emplaced by the Jogan tsunami of A.D. 869, indicating that a taphonomic based approach is effective in identifying paleo-tsunamis at Sendai where there is a paucity of recent foraminifera, and could prove useful at other locations.

  18. Reconstructing the Paleotsunami Event in the Southern Taiwan from the Tsunami Boulders

    Science.gov (United States)

    KO, L.; Lee, C.; Tsai, Y.; Wu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Three tsunami boulders were found at the Jiupeng coast in the Southeastern Taiwan (Matta et al., 2013), and can be the evidence of a paleotsunami event happened within 5000 years. In this study, we intended to reconstruct this tsunami event and learn the potential large tsunami that might attack the southern Taiwan. The first step is to find the possible tsunami sources by means of tsunami reverse tracking method (TRTM). TRTM is developed based on the linear wave theory and dispersion relationship. By TRTM, we can also rule out the impossible ones. The theory and algorithm of TRTM will be introduced in the full paper. As the probable tsunami sources are located, the second step is to setup the tsunami scenarios, and to eliminate the cases with results contradicted with the geophysics evidences. The simulation results provide the information of velocity field, and the third step is to simulate the transportation of the tsunami boulders by BTT (Boulder Transport by Tsunami) model proposed by Immamura et al. (2008), and compare the results with the location of present tsunami boulders. The result of reverse tracking method shows that only the tsunamis from Ryukyu Manila, and Yap Trenches are able to reach the coast of Jiupeng (Fig. 1). However, different initial waveform plays an important role in boulder transportation (Goto et al., 2009). The BTT analysis shows that to move one of the boulder, B3, requires a tsunami with 6 m bore height and 8 m/s current velocity. To reach this criteria, an earthquake tsunami sourcing from Manila trench is the most-possible candidate, and the momentum magnitude of the earthquake has to reach Mw 8. From the result we can see that, if the event happened in the current time, not only Jiupeng will be attacked, but also the coast of southwestern Taiwan will be attacked by the tsunami with wave height up to 2 m (Fig. 1) at both Kaohsiung and Taitung cities with dense populations. Furthermore, the No. 3 nuclear power plant (NPP3) is also located within the dangerous zone with wave height up to 12 m. On the other hand, for the case of boulder B1 which is larger than boulder B3, it requires a tsunami with 14 m incoming wave height and 12 m/s current velocity which may be induced by a tsunami sourcing from the Yap trench, and the earthquake momentum magnitude has to reach Mw 9.5.

  19. GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TSUNAMI GENERATION IN CHINA'S BOHAI SEA FROM DIRECT GEOTECTONIC AND COLLATERAL SOURCE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pararas Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Sea borders northeastern China's most populous and highest economic valuecoastal areas where several megacities are located. Critical infrastructure facilities exist or areunder construction, including a nuclear power plant and super port facilities. Large reserves of oilhave been discovered and a number of offshore oil platforms have been built. The extent ofdevelopment along coastal areas requires a better assessment of potential tsunami risks. Althoughtsunamis do not pose as much of a threat as earthquakes in this region, locally destructive tsunamishave been generated in the past and future events could have significant impacts on coastalpopulations and China's economy, particularly because most of the development has taken place inlow-lying regions, including river deltas. The present study examines the geotectonics of the Bohaibasin region, the impact of past historical events, and the potential for local tsunami generationfrom a variety of direct and collateral source mechanisms triggered by intra plate earthquakes.More specifically, the present study examines: amajor active faults bounding the Bohai Basin; bthe resulting crustal deformation patterns of tectonic structures that have resulted in catastrophicearthquakes in recent years; c the basin-wide extension - with local inversion - extending into theBohai Sea that generated tsunamigenic earthquakes in 1888 and 1969; and d deformational futureseismic events with the potential to generate local tsunamis directly or by collateral mechanisms offolding, en-echelon bookshelf failures, or from destabilization/dissociation of structuralaccumulations of gas hydrate deposits within the basin's thick sedimentary stratigraphic layers.

  1. TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Benjamin R.

    2008-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabia...

  2. Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

    This page from the Seed Project contains information on the Indian Ocean Tsunami as well as 2 new visualizations. The first shows the main wave's progress across the ocean in hour increments. The second shows a hypothetical tsunami in profile as it travels across open water and then encounters a land mass. (Both of these links are images on the right hand side of the page.)

  3. Tsunami Generated by a Two-Phase Submarine Debris Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini (2011) is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model includes several essential physical aspects, including Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for the solid stress, while the fluid stress is modelled as a solid volume fraction gradient enhanced non-Newtonian viscous stress. The generalized interfacial momentum transfer includes the viscous drag, buoyancy, and the virtual mass. The generalized drag covers both the solid-like and fluid-like contributions, and can be applied to linear to quadratic drags. Strong couplings exist between the solid and the fluid momentum transfer. The advantage of the real two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase or quasi-two-phase models is that by considering the solid (and/or the fluid) volume fraction appropriately, the initial mass can be divided into several (even mutually disjoint) parts; a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This offers a unique and innovative opportunity within a single framework to simultaneously simulate (a) the sliding debris (or landslide), (b) the water lake or ocean, (c) the debris impact at the lake or ocean, (d) tsunami generation and propagation, (e) mixing and separation between the solid and the fluid phases, and (f) sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. The new model is applied to two-phase subaerial and submarine debris flows. Benchmark numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of the debris impact induced tsunamis are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanche and landslides. Special attention is paid to study the basic features of the debris impact to the mountain lakes or oceans. This includes the generation, amplification and propagation of the multiple strong and bore-type tsunami waves and run-ups in the coastal lines, and debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor. Strong debris shock waves are generated that travel upstream. Once the debris supply ceases, the shock front is diffused. The model analysis also includes mixing and separation of phases, including inter-phase mass and momentum exchanges and generation and interactions of solid and fluid waves. The state of the solid volume fraction governs the evolution of the fluid extra stress and thus effectively dominates the entire flow dynamics. So, the actual knowledge of the solid volume fraction is essential for the prediction of the turbidity currents, sediment transport and deposition in the subaerial and submarine environments. Applications of this model include (i) the sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (ii) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines in ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. The Phase-Froude numbers (the solid and fluid Froude numbers) are introduced that change drastically as the debris mass hits the fluid dam. The Phase-Froude numbers can be subcritical or super-critical, suggesting that the tsunami may be following or preceding the wave generating submarine slide and thus enhancing or reducing the tsunami waves. It is observed that the submarine debris front speed can be faster than the tsunami wave speed. This information can be useful for the early warning strategy in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase the dynamical understanding of complex multi-phase systems and flows, allowing proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, with associated applications in hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.

  4. Waves of Destruction: Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-07

    This is a set of interactive articles on tsunamis developed to accompany the Savage Earth television series on PBS. The three articles explain the anatomy of a tsunami and how it differs from typical wind-generated water waves. Animations and illustrations help users understand how these waves are generated and why they can be so destructive upon reaching a shoreline. A history of tsunami events is woven throughout the articles, including a video interview with a tsunami survivor. SEE RELATED ITEMS ON THIS PAGE for a link to the full collection of materials developed by WNET-TV to accompany Savage Earth.

  5. TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R. Jordan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabian Peninsula have occurred on its eastern and southern edge, some, such as the one formed by the 1945 Makran earthquake, were extremely destructive. The Indian Ocean is the most likely source area for future destructive tsunamis that would impact the Arabian Peninsula.

  6. Energy of tsunami waves generated by bottom motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Fre?de?ric

    2009-01-01

    In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both dispersive and non-dispersive shallow-water equations with an energy equation. It is shown that dispersive effects only appear at higher order in the energy budget. Then we solve the Ca...

  7. Tsunami Generation and Propagation by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. A method to predict the maximum wave runup on an opposing headland using nondimensional landslide, water body and bathymetric parameters is derived. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

  8. Multi-scale modelling of submarine landslide-generated tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Collins, G. S.; Smith, R. C.; Allison, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine landslides can be far larger than terrestrial landslides and many generate destructive tsunamis. The Storegga Slide, offshore Norway, covers an area larger than Scotland and contains 3,000 km3 of material (enough to cover Scotland to a depth of 80 m). This huge slide occurred at 8.2 ka and extends for 800 km down slope. It produced a tsunami with >20 m run-up around the Norwegian Sea, including the Shetlands, and run-ups were typically 3-4 m along the mainland coast of Scotland. The tsunami propagated as far as East Greenland. Northern Europe faces few, if any, other natural hazards that could cause damage on the scale of a repeat Storegga Slide tsunami. Modelling such vast natural disasters is not straightforward. In order to achieve accurate run-up, high resolution is required near the coastlines, but entire oceans must be modelled to account for the vast distances travelled by the wave. Here, we use the open-source, three-dimensional CFD model, Fluidity, to simulate the Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Fluidity's unstructured meshing allows resolution to vary by orders of magnitude within a single numerical simulation. We present results from multi-scale simulations that capture fine-scale coastal details and at the same time cover a domain spanning the Arctic ocean to capture run-ups on the East Greenland coast. We also compare the effects of modern vs palaeo-bathymetry, which has been neglected in previous numerical modelling studies. Future work will include assessing other potential landslide sites and how landslide dynamics affect the resulting tsunami wave to be used in hazard assessment for Northern Europe. Close-up of the computational mesh around the UK coast, western Norway and as far east as Iceland. The shift in resolution from 750m at the coast to over 20km in open water is clearly visible. Note the high resolution area to the top left which is the Storegga Landslide region.

  9. Tsunami survey expedition: preliminary investigation of Maldivian coral reefs two weeks after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    On December 26th 2004, a earthquake west of Sumatra generated a devastating tsunami. Hundreds of thousands of people fell victim. Economic losses were greatest in those countries dependant on tourism. The impact in the Maldives on persons and things was modest. Immediately following the event and notwithstanding the lack of scientific data, the mass media gave catastrophic reports on the state of coral reefs in the area. This paper reports on the first survey on coral reefs in the Maldives after the Tsunami. Ocean walls, passes, inner reefs, and shoals in the North and South Malé atolls, were surveyed two weeks after the event. Significant damage was recorded in the passes in the South Malé atoll. Our observations showed that the damage was more or less extensive depending on latitude and topography. Sri Lanka may have broken the wave's rush, reducing the extent of the impact on northern atolls. The water's acceleration inside the passes was so intense as to cause reef collapses. The observed damage represents a minimum fraction of the entire coral reef system. Tourist perception of the area seems unchanged. These data may be used to disseminate correct information about the state of Maldives coral reefs, which would be useful in relaunching local economy. PMID:17180420

  10. QCD (&) event generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  11. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    OpenAIRE

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one gen...

  12. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench

  13. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribadi, S.; Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar, Ibrahim, G.; Laksono, B. I.; Adnan, Z.

    2014-09-01

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

  14. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribadi, S., E-mail: sugengpribadimsc@gmail.com [Tsunami Warning Information Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of T (Indonesia); Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar,; Ibrahim, G. [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Laksono, B. I. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No.2, Jakarta 13920 (Indonesia); Adnan, Z. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta 13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technol (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 < Mw < 7.9) and located near the trench. The others are 4 tsunamigenic earthquakes and 3 inland earthquakes with short rupture duration start from To > 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

  15. The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On 30 December 2002 the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli, in the Tyrrhenian sea, Italy, was attacked by two tsunamis generated by landslides that took place on the north-west flank of the volcano. The landslides and the tsunamis represented the most impressive and threatening episodes of a strong effusive eruption, started on 28 December from a new vent which opened close to the north-east crater of the volcano. In spite of the intensified monitoring carried out in response to the eruption, the landslides and the ensuing tsunamis were not foreseen, and the available instrumental data are insufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of the sequence of the events. The seismic network recorded two main landslides along the steep slope of Sciara del Fuoco, with onset around 13:15 and 13:23 local time (GMT+1. The tsunamis were the direct consequence of the mass movements. Three main post-event surveys helped make assessment on the wave impact on the coast. In this paper the attention is focussed on the accounts of the eye-witnesses, that help us clarify and understand what happened. People in the source area (Sciara del Fuoco reported a small-volume subaerial slide taking place first, then a sharp cut forming in the sea water down to the sea floor (about 10–20 m deep and propagating almost parallel to the coastline, be concomitantly associated with a sea retreat and a subsequent sea advance. It is suggested here that the cut was the effect of a large submarine landslide that detached from very close to the coast and produced the 13:15 signal in the recorded seismograms. The second, mostly subaerial, slump was observed to slide down 7–8 min later and to excite a train of waves some distance offshore. Not all the witnesses realised that two distinct tsunamis occurred. The tsunami period was probably in the order of 100 s, but shorter period crests were seen to travel on the top of the long-period waves by several persons. The duration of each tsunami was appreciated to be around 5–7 min. It is difficult to ascertain which tsunami was the largest, since there is no full agreement among the observers, but certainly by accounts both were characterised by large destructive waves.

  16. The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Manucci, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

    2005-10-01

    On 30 December 2002 the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli, in the Tyrrhenian sea, Italy, was attacked by two tsunamis generated by landslides that took place on the north-west flank of the volcano. The landslides and the tsunamis represented the most impressive and threatening episodes of a strong effusive eruption, started on 28 December from a new vent which opened close to the north-east crater of the volcano. In spite of the intensified monitoring carried out in response to the eruption, the landslides and the ensuing tsunamis were not foreseen, and the available instrumental data are insufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of the sequence of the events. The seismic network recorded two main landslides along the steep slope of Sciara del Fuoco, with onset around 13:15 and 13:23 local time (GMT+1). The tsunamis were the direct consequence of the mass movements. Three main post-event surveys helped make assessment on the wave impact on the coast. In this paper the attention is focussed on the accounts of the eye-witnesses, that help us clarify and understand what happened. People in the source area (Sciara del Fuoco) reported a small-volume subaerial slide taking place first, then a sharp cut forming in the sea water down to the sea floor (about 10-20 m deep) and propagating almost parallel to the coastline, be concomitantly associated with a sea retreat and a subsequent sea advance. It is suggested here that the cut was the effect of a large submarine landslide that detached from very close to the coast and produced the 13:15 signal in the recorded seismograms. The second, mostly subaerial, slump was observed to slide down 7-8 min later and to excite a train of waves some distance offshore. Not all the witnesses realised that two distinct tsunamis occurred. The tsunami period was probably in the order of 100 s, but shorter period crests were seen to travel on the top of the long-period waves by several persons. The duration of each tsunami was appreciated to be around 5-7 min. It is difficult to ascertain which tsunami was the largest, since there is no full agreement among the observers, but certainly by accounts both were characterised by large destructive waves.

  17. Tsunami generation by a rapid entrance of pyroclastic flow into the sea during the 1883 Krakatau eruption, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Fukashi; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2011-09-01

    The 1883 eruption of Krakatau volcano in Indonesia was one of the most explosive volcanic events in history. It was a marine caldera-forming eruption that resulted in voluminous ignimbrite deposits and huge tsunamis. We have used numerical simulations to investigate three major mechanisms for tsunami generation: caldera collapse, phreatomagmatic explosion, and pyroclastic flow, and have constrained the source parameters. Computed tsunami characteristics for each hypothesis are compared with observations at locations along the coasts of the Sunda Strait, where tsunami data were obtained immediately after the eruption. For the pyroclastic flow hypothesis, two types of two-layer shallow water models, dense- and light-type models, were used under different initial conditions. Pyroclastic flows are erupted from a circular source following a sine function that assumes waning and waxing phases. Caldera collapse was performed using a simple piston-like plunger model, in which collapse duration was assumed to be up to 1 h. The phreatomagmatic explosion hypothesis was examined using simple empirical models for underwater explosions in shallow water, with explosion energy between 1016 and 1017 J. The results show that when a pyroclastic flow with a volume of >5 km3 and an average discharge rate of the order of 107 m3/s enters the sea, the computed tsunami heights are broadly consistent with historical records in coastal areas, including a tide gauge record at Batavia (now Jakarta). We conclude that a pyroclastic flow entering the sea is the most plausible mechanism of the 1883 Krakatau tsunami.

  18. Displaced Water Volume, Potential Energy of Initial Elevation, and Tsunami Intensity: Analysis of Recent Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosov, Mikhail A.; Bolshakova, Anna V.; Kolesov, Sergey V.

    2014-12-01

    We consider recent ocean-bottom earthquakes for which detailed slip distribution data are available. Using these data and the Okada formulae, we calculate the vector fields of co-seismic bottom deformations, which allow us to determine the displaced water volume and the potential energy of initial elevation of the tsunami source. It is shown that, in the majority of cases, the horizontal components of bottom deformation provide an additional contribution to the displaced water volume and virtually never diminish the contribution of the vertical component. The absolute value of the relative contribution of the horizontal components of bottom deformation to the displaced volume varies from 0.07 to 55 %, on average amounting to 14 %. The displaced volume and the energy of initial elevation (tsunami energy) are examined as functions of the moment magnitude, and the relevant regressions (least-squares fits) are derived. The obtained relationships exhibit good correspondence with the theoretical upper limits that had been obtained under the assumption of uniform slip distribution along a rectangular fault. Tsunami energy calculated on the basis of finite fault model data is compared with the earthquake energy determined from the energy-magnitude relationship by Kanamori. It is shown that tsunami takes from 0.001 to 0.34 % of the earthquake energy, and on average 0.04 %. Finally, we analyze the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity as a function of the following three quantities: (1) the moment magnitude, (2) the decimal logarithm of the absolute value of displaced volume, and (3) the decimal logarithm of the potential energy of initial elevation. The first dependence exhibits rather poor correlation, whereas the second and third dependences demonstrate noticeably higher correlation coefficients. This gives us grounds to suggest considering the displaced volume and the energy of initial elevation as measures of the tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake.

  19. Boussinesq systems in two space dimensions over a variable bottom for the generation and propagation of tsunami waves

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Considered here are Boussinesq systems of equations of surface water wave theory over a variable bottom. A simplified such Boussinesq system is derived and solved numerically by the standard Galerkin-finite element method. We study by numerical means the generation of tsunami waves due to bottom deformation and we compare the results with analytical solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Moreover, we study tsunami wave propagation in the case of the Java 2006 event, comparing the results of the Boussinesq model with those produced by the finite difference code MOST, that solves the shallow water wave equations.

  20. Generation of the September 29, 2009 Samoa Tsunami: Examination of a Possible Non-Double Couple Component (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Kirby, S. H.; Ross, S.; Dartnell, P.

    2009-12-01

    A non-double couple component associated with the Mw=8.0 September 29, 2009 Samoa earthquake is investigated to explain direct tsunami arrivals at deep-ocean pressure sensors (i.e., DART stations). In particular, we seek a tsunami generation model that correctly predicts the polarity of first motions: negative at the Apia station (#51425) NW of the epicenter and positive at the Tonga (#51426) and Aukland (#54401) stations south of the epicenter. Slip on a single, finite fault corresponding to either nodal plane of the best-fitting double couple fails to predict the positive first-motion polarity observed at the southerly (Tonga and Aukland) DART stations. The Samoa earthquake has a significant non-double component as measured by the compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) ratio that ranges from |?|=0.15 (USGS CMT) to |?| =0.37 (Global CMT). To test what effect the non-double component has on tsunami generation, the static elastic displacement field at the sea floor is computed from the full moment tensor. This displacement field represents the initial conditions for tsunami propagation computed using a finite-difference approximation to the linear shallow-water wave equations. The tsunami waveforms calculated from the full moment tensor are consistent with the observed polarities at all of the DART stations. The static displacement field is then decomposed into double-couple and non-double couple components to determine the relative contribution of each to the tsunami wavefield. Although a point-source approximation to the tsunami source is typically inadequate at near-field and regional distances, finite-fault inversions of the 2009 Samoa earthquake indicate that peak slip is spatially concentrated near the hypocenter, suggesting that the point-source representation may be acceptable in this case. Generation of the 2009 Samoa tsunami may involve earthquake rupture on multiple faults and/or along curved faults, both of which are observed from multibeam bathymetry in the epicentral region. The exact rupture path of the earthquake is presently unclear. It is evident from seismological and tsunami observations of the 2009 Samoa event, however, that uniform slip on a single, planar fault cannot explain all aspects of the observed tsunami wavefield.

  1. Tsunami Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tsunami Database is a global digital database containing information on more than 2000 tsunamis maintained by the National Geophysical Data Center. This is an interactive site; the user is asked to enter search parameters such as date, latitude and longitude, cause of the tsunami - earthquake, landslide, volcano, or all combined - magnitude, and death. Information is then generated on tsunamis that match that data. The National Geophysical Data Center also maintains an historic slide set collection of tsunami damage.

  2. Monte Carlo Event Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Michael H.; Marx, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo event generators are essential components of almost all experimental analyses and are also widely used by theorists and experiments to make predictions and preparations for future experiments. They are all too often used as "black boxes", without sufficient consideration of their component models or their reliability. In this set of three lectures we hope to open the box and explain the physical bases behind the models they use. We focus primarily on the general ...

  3. Potential for tsunami generation by submarine slope failures along the western Great Bahama Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, J. S.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Tehranirad, B.; Eberli, G. P.; Mulder, T.; Ducassou, E.

    2013-12-01

    Multibeam and seismic data reveal repeated slope failures at various scales along the western slope of Great Bahama Bank. In addition, creeping and incipient slump scars indicate slope instabilities that will lead to large-scale slope failures in the near future. To assess the potential of tsunami generation by these slope failures several tsunami scenarios have been constructed and simulated numerically for the Straits of Florida. They are based on the estimated volume and nature of a potential landslide, and failure scenarios of the known scars and mass transport complexes (MTC). During the 2010 Carambar cruise four connected scars with widths of 2.0, 2.2, 3.7 and 1.6 km and lengths of 3.0, 1.4, 3.2 and 3.0 km, respectively, were identified. In the Scenario A, the mass 1.18 km3 of the largest of the four failures was calculated. In Scenario B it is assumed that all scars were generated in one event producing a large MTC with an initial failure mass 3.42 km3. Three different terminal velocities for the failure masses were used; i.e. 20 m/s, 50 m/s and 100 m/s. The numerical model is based on the non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE developed at the Center for Applied Coastal Research at the University of Delaware. Initial wave heights generated are discussed in terms of terminal landslide velocity, failure volume, and outrun distance. The results show that for scenario A within one minute after the failure event a wave height up to 1 m is generated. For scenario B initial wave heights from 1 up to 2 m can be expected. The waves propagate across the entire Straits of Florida impacting the coastline for about 150 km. An 80 km long scar with abundant creeping features in the downslope area is a potential massive slope failure. If released in one event the mass would be 24 km3. A catastrophic release would generate an initial tsunami wave height of 2.5 up to 4 m with a possible major impact on both sides of the Straits. The modeling demonstrates that the generation of tsunamis by slope failure in a tectonically inactive area can cause a potential hazard in the densely populated urban areas of south Florida and the Keys.

  4. Modeling Ruptures and Tsunamis That May Follow Event of September 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeyko, A. Y.; Sobolev, S. V.; Harig, S.; Androsov, A.

    2007-12-01

    The seismic series of the 12-13 September near the Padang/Bengkulu region in Western Sumatra, Indonesia, emerged to, but did not rupture the three locked patches at the subduction plate interface as recently derived from geodetic and paleogeodetic studies (Chlieh et al., 2007), likely increasing probability of the next giant earthquake off Padang. Future earthquake, when rupturing all of the three locked patches, may reach a magnitude of about M=9 and repeat giant historical event of 1797 and partly that of 1833 followed by severe tsunamis. We have modeled possible earthquake and tsunami scenarios assuming future ruptures coinciding with each of the presently locked patches. Our modeling is performed in a framework of the currently developed German- Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). Resulting tsunami wave height in Padang is very sensitive to the location of the ruptured patch. The shallow patch under the Siberut island and the deep patch just off Padang, both result in M=8.4 earthquakes. However, the latter rupture would result in considerably shorter arrival time and in more than 5 times higher run-up in Padang. We show that GPS stations at islands and at Padang can be used to estimate rupture parameters and to predict tsunami heights just after the earthquake. Our modeling also demonstrates that historical records about the 1797 tsunami are more consistent with the simultaneous rupturing of both the shallow and deep patches off Padang.

  5. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hancilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious, infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities. Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

  6. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious), infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings) and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities). Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

  7. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  8. Physical Modeling of Landslide Generated Tsunamis and the 50th Anniversary of the Vajont Dam Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Mohammed, Fahad; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2013-04-01

    The Vajont river is an affluent of the Piave River located in the Dolomite Alps of the Veneto Region, about 100km north of Venice. A 265.5 m high double curved arch dam was built across a V-shaped gorge creating a reservoir with a maximum storage capacity of 0.169 km3. A maximum water depth of 250 m was reached by early September 1963 during the third filling attempt of the reservoir, but as creeping on the southern flank increased the third reservoir draw down was initiated. By October 9, 1963 the water depth was lowered to 240m as the southern flank of Vajont reservoir catastrophically collapsed on a length of more than 2km. Collapse occurred during reservoir drawdown in a final attempt to reduce flank creeping and the reservoir was only about two-thirds full. The partially submerged rockslide with a volume of 0.24 km3 penetrated into the reservoir at velocities up to 30 m/s. The wave runup in direct prolongation of slide axis reached the lowest houses of Casso 270m above reservoir level before impact corresponding to 245m above dam crest (Müller, 1964). The rockslide deposit came within 50m of the left abutment and towers up to 140m above the dam crest. The lateral spreading of the surge overtopped the dam crest by more than 100m. The thin arch dam withstood the overtopping and sustained no damage to the structural shell and the abutments. The flood wave dropped more than 500m down the Vajont gorge and into the Piave Valley causing utter destruction to the villages of Longarone, Pirago, Villanova, Rivalta and Fae. More than 2000 persons perished. The Vajont disaster highlights an extreme landslide tsunami event in the narrowly confined water body of a reservoir. Landslide tsunami hazards exist even in areas not exposed to tectonic tsunamis. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with up to 1,350 kg of naturally rounded river gravel which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down the 2H: 1V slope, launching the granular landslide towards the water at velocities of up to 5 m/s. Topographical and bathymetric features can greatly affect wave characteristics and runup heights. Landslide tsunamis are studied in different topographic and bathymetric configurations: far field propagation and runup, a narrow fjord and curved headland configurations, and a conical island setting representing landslides off an island or a volcanic flank collapse. Water surface elevations were measured using an array of resistance wave gauges. The granulate landslide shape and front velocity were measured using above and underwater cameras. Three-dimensional landslide surfaces with surface velocities were reconstruction using a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup. The speckled pattern on the surface of the granular landslide allows for cross-correlation based PIV analysis. Wave runup was measured with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models.

  9. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  10. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity?8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the tsunami generation mechanisms is of primary importance. Inputs from tsunami numerical modeling and from empirical discrimination criteria for characterizing tsunami sources have been proved particularly effective for recent, well-documented, aseismic landslide tsunamis (1963 Corinth Gulf, 1979 Côte d' Azur, 1999 Izmit Bay, 2002 Stromboli volcano). Since the tsunami generation mechanisms are controlled by a variety of factors, and given that the knowledge of past tsunami activity is the cornerstone for undertaking tsunami risk mitigation actions, future interdisciplinary research efforts on past tsunamis is needed to include: (i) investigation and identification of palaeotsunamis through geological methods in both on-shore and off-shore environments and correlation with the historical record, (ii) better constraints on earthquake and other source parameters and mechanisms, (iii) further development and testing of diagnostic criteria for the source characterization, (iv) drastic improvement of high-resolution bathymetry particularly in the near-shore domain mainly through marine geophysics, as well as of DEM's for coastal topography, and (v) advancement and systematic testing of numerical modeling techniques.

  11. POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE COLOMBIA/ECUADOR SUBDUCTION MARGIN AND THE DOLORES-GUAYAQUIL MEGA-THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in magnitude and rupture to the 1906 event (Mw=8.8, rupture 600 km., can generate a tsunami with destructive near and far-field impacts. To understand the potential for such destructive tsunami generation in this region, the present study examines and evaluates: a the controlling inter-plate coupling mechanisms of the tectonic regime of the margin – including lithospheric structure deformation, sea-floor relief and the subduction or accretion of highly folded, hydrated sediments along the seismogenic zone of southern Colombia/North Ecuador; b the seismo-dynamics and role in tsunami generation as affected by the Carnegie Ridge’s oblique subduction beneath the South American continent; and c the seismotectonic extensional processes in the vicinity of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes Basin and how the northwestward movement of the North Andes block away from the South American continent along the Dolores Guayaquil mega-thrust and the resulting strain rotation may cause sudden detachment, décollement and deformation, with the potential for local tsunami generation that may affect the Gulf of Guayaquil and other coastal areas along southern Ecuador.

  12. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were freezed to transmit any further events during this time window. This limited the maximum transmission speed. In order to improve this speed, Boahen proposed an improved 'burst mode' scheme. In this scheme after the row arbitration, a complete row of events is pipelined out of the array and arbitered out of the chip at higher speed. During this single row event arbitration, the array is free to generate new events and communicate to the row arbiter, in a pipelined mode. This scheme significantly improves maximum event transmission speed, specially for high traffic situations were speed is more critical. We have analyzed and studied this approach and have detected some shortcomings in the circuits reported by Boahen, which may render some false situations under some statistical conditions. The present paper proposes some improvements to overcome such situations. The improved "AER Generator" has been implemented in an AER transmitter system

  13. The Pluto event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluto is a Monte-Carlo event generator designed for hadronic interactions from close-to-threshold to intermediate energies, as well as for studies of heavy ion reactions. The package is entirely based on Root, without the need of additional packages, and uses the embedded C++ interpreter of root to control the event production. The package includes realistic models of resonance production by using mass-dependent Breit-Wigner sampling. The calculation of partial and total widths for resonances is taken into account. Particular attention is paid to the electromagnetic decays, motivated by the physics program of HADES. For elementary reactions, angular distributions (e.g. for the primary meson emission) can be attached by the user in a very simple way as well as multi-particle correlations. Hand-made models (which may change all decay parameters) can be included by the user without recompilation using the CINT interpreter. This contribution gives an overview of the technical implementation of the framework and presents examples of the included physics

  14. The Gondola slide generated tsunami in the South Adriatic Sea (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Trincardi, F.; Foglini, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underwater landslides are hardly predictable and, especially if moving near the coast, represent a concrete threat for the population leaving in coastal areas and for infrastructures placed close to the shoreline. In the framework of the EU funded project TRANSFER, a set of possible sources all around the Mediterranean Sea have been mapped. Among the most common source areas there are the continental margins, owing to their steep slope, favouring the gravitational instability of deposited material. In this work we present the simulation of an ancient event, that occurred during the last glacial age (about 25 kyrs ago), in the Southern Adriatic Sea, known as the Gondola slide. It belongs to the SW Adriatic margin, a margin stretching by about 150 km that is characterized by canyons and widespread failure events that generated slide scars and extensive slide deposits. The most evident slide scar is around 10 km x 2.5 km, at the present-day sea depth of 180 m (but at the time of occurrence the depth was less than 50 meters), with a mobilized volume of around 4.5 km3 and a runout of more than 50 km. Recent bathymetric surveys (high resolution multi beam bathymetry) provided further details on the morphology of the deposit: the upper portion of the slide extends 23 km seaward, down to 800m sea depth, while the distal part is found over 50 km. In this work we consider the tsunami that very likely was generated by such a big slide. The simulation of the slide motion was performed through the code UBO-BLOCK1, developed by the University of Bologna Tsunami Research Team: The model is Lagrangian and block-based, computing the motion and the deformation of each of the blocks in which the total slide mass is discretised. The generation and propagation of the tsunami was simulated through the hydrodynamic code UBO-TSUFE, solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow-water approximation over a mesh formed by triangular elements. The tsunami generation efficiency of Gondola Slide is measured through the Froude number and is found to be low. In spite of the small Froude number value, the tsunami was large because the estimated front of the Gondola Slide is very high with initial mass thickness in the order of several tens of meters. The zone most affected was the coastal region close to the source, that was hit by a long series of waves higher than 8-10 m with period between 15-20 min. The rise of sea level to its present position would lead to reduce the Froude number. Therefore, for a slide like Gondola Slide in identical conditions, but with the today's ocean depth, the associated tsunami would be quite smaller.

  15. Catalogue of reported tsunami events in the Adriatic Sea (from 58 B.C. to 1979 A.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue furnishes a collection of the reported tsunamis within the Adriatic, i.e. Italian coasts from the Strait of Otranto to the gulf of Trieste, the coasts of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania. The events are obtained by the cross-comparison between many existing catalogues, in order to extract all the available reported ones. For each tsunamigenic event, when available in a catalogue, we report: origin time, location, macroseismic intensity, magnitude and the areas (within Adriatic basin) where tsunamis have been reported. In the last column of the table, all the catalogues in which some information of the event (earthquake and tsunami) has been found, are listed; bold letters indicate the basic catalogue for that event (i.e. the catalogue where the origin time has been taken from). Since in the present catalogue more attention is paid to the tsunamis than to the seismic events, the bold reference indicates always the tsunami-catalogue, and not the seismic ones, when contemporarily available. For some events there are no records of a related tsunami (they are labelled as N.A.T.R.= not available tsunami report) but they are included since their location and magnitude suggest a tsunamigenic potential. (author)

  16. Progress in Real-time Tsunami Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA is implementing new tsunami forecast system into tsunami warning operations of the Pacific and Alaska/West Coast Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs). The next-generation methodology combines the real-time deep ocean measurements with tested and verified model estimates to produce a real-time tsunami forecast for coastal communities. DARTTM technology is combined with NOAA's MOST numerical model for the development of the tsunami forecasting scheme called Short-term Inundation Forecast for Tsunamis (SIFT). To forecast tsunami inundation and other critical local tsunami impact parameters (amplitudes at tide gages, flow velocities, wave impact indices), seismic parameter estimates and tsunami measurements are used in combination with model results. The system sifts through a pre-computed generation/propagation forecast database and selects an appropriate (linear) combination of scenarios that most closely matches the observational data. This produces estimates of tsunami characteristics in deep water which can then be used as initial conditions for a site-specific (non-linear) inundation algorithm. The inundation model can provide a high-resolution tsunami forecast scenario showing predicted tsunami dynamics at a specific local community. The results are made available in real time for TWCs and, potentially, to local emergency managers to aid in hazard assessment and decision-making in real time, before the tsunami reaches the community. Including the 15 August 2007 Peru event, NOAA's tsunami forecasting system has produced experimental forecasts for far-field tsunami impact for eight Pacific tsunamis since its first real-time test in 17 November 2003 Rat Island tsunami. These verifications showed very promising performance and accuracy of the forecast system. SIFT is being implemented at NOAA's TWCs for operational use. Forecast system overview and tests will be presented.

  17. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as well as along the western end of the subduction zone. In fact, recent seismic activity indicates that a large earthquake is possible in the region west of the 1945 event. Such an earthquake can be expected to generate a destructive tsunami.Additionally, the on-going subduction of the two micro-plates has dragged tertiary marine sediments into an accretionary prism - thus forming the Makran coastal region, Thick sediments, that have accumulated along the deltaic coastlines from the erosion of the Himalayas, particularly along the eastern Sindh region near the Indus River delta, have the potential to fail and cause large underwater tsunamigenic slides. Even smaller magnitude earthquakes could trigger such underwater landslides. Finally, an earthquake similar to that of 1945 in the Makran zone of subduction, has the potential of generating a bookshelf type of failure within the compacted sediments – as that associated with the “silent” and slow 1992 Nicaragua earthquake – thus contributing to a more destructive tsunami. In conclusion, the Makran subduction zone has a relatively high potential for large tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  18. The Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011: The Key Event to Understanding Tsunami Sedimentation on the Coasts of Closed Bays of the Lesser Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Chernov, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 manifested in the region of the South Kuril Islands, although, as a rule, the run-up heights in this region did not exceed 3 m. In closed bays that were covered with ice before the tsunami, the eroding capacity of tsunami waves was aggravated by the ice fragments they carried. Here, mud sheets formed, reaching up to 106 m inland. The 2012 studies have shown well-preserved tsunami deposits, evident 1.5 years after the event. A comparative analysis of tsunami deposits from the periphery and from the near-field area close to the tsunami source was performed; this was important for understanding the deposition mechanism during the event, as it had different strengths on different shores. The difference in run-up heights determined the considerable differences in erosion, sedimentation, distribution of tsunami deposits, the formation of sedimentary structures, grain-size composition, and diatom and foraminifera assemblages. The sources of the material also varied significantly from each other: the material came from offshore in closed bays located in the tsunami source periphery, while in the near-field region close to the epicenter, the most active erosion occurred in the inundation area. In the latter area, the main sources of sand were beaches and dunes, while soil erosion was the source of mud. Studies of the Tohoku tsunami on the coasts of the Lesser Kuril Islands demonstrated that mud layers in the sections of coastal lowlands in closed bays could contain preserved detailed geological records of paleotsunamis, even those with a small-height run-up. In the sections of coastal peatlands of closed bays on Shikotan Island, up to 7-9 layers of mud and silty sands were found, these can easily be traced for more than 500 m inland. The grain-size composition of the mud is similar to the deposits of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The marine origin of these deposits is confirmed by the diatom analysis data.

  19. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  20. FIRST EVIDENCE OF PALEO-TSUNAMI DEPOSITS OF A MAJOR HISTORIC EVENT IN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kervin Chunga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian shoreline is considered highly susceptible by impacts of tsunamis triggered by marine quakes or submarine landslides occurring close or nearby the subduction zone between the Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates. Since 1877 one dozen known tsunamis have been witnessed along this coast, mostly related to short-distanced seismic activities (earthquakes between Mw 6.9 to 8.8. However, no evidence of these impacts has been recorded in the sedimentary stratigraphy on the Ecuadorian platform so far. Nonetheless, in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Guayaquil, due to a biological, chemical, stratigraphic and geochronologic study of a few cored samples an anomalous horizon to the other sedimentary layers has been identified and recognized as a paleo-tsunami deposit. This layer having a thickness of up to 10 cm and up to 1100 meters away from the actual shore, demonstrates various criteria which confirm its origin such as deep sea foraminifera like Pullenia bulloides, run-up and backwash features, fragments of molluscs, which are absent in other sedimentary levels, matrix of weathered chlorite potentially originated by glauconite besides other. Geocronologic evidence together with the calculated sedimentation rate, implies that a the tsunami surged the coastal lowlands around Villamil Playas about 1250 ± 50 yrs ago and must have been a major event originated from the western or northwestern direction.

  1. Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash flood deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sakuna-Schwartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami, storm and flash event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore from Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea, are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. They are characterized by (1 the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris, (2 cross lamination and (3 the appearance of rip-up clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to individual storm events by using 210Pb dating in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms and could thus be securely differentiated from tsunami deposits. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize the storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents flash floods, which is characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between the storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of rip-up clasts, mud, and terrigenous material within the storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between offshore storm and tsunami deposits.

  2. Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5?N 29°7'23?E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

  3. Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2014-10-01

    NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5?N 29°7'23?E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

  4. On the use of finite fault solution for tsunami generation problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Gardeil, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the tsunami wave generation problem. The main goal of this work is two-fold. First of all, we propose a simple and computationally inexpensive model for the description of the sea bed displacement during an underwater earthquake, based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the rupturing process dynamics. Once the bottom motion is reconstructed, we study waves induced on the free surface of the ocean. For this purpose we consider three different models approximating the Euler equations of the water wave theory. Namely, we deal with linearized Euler equations (also known as Cauchy-Poisson problem), a Boussinesq system and a weakly nonlinear model. An intercomparison of these approaches is performed. All developments in this study are illustrated on the real world example of the July 17, 2006 Java event.

  5. Model-based tsunami warnings derived from observed impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, S. C. R.; Greenslade, D. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre uses the T2 tsunami scenario database to provide forecast guidance for potential tsunami threats to the coastlines of mainland Australia and its external territories. This study describes a method for generating coastal tsunami warnings from model data obtained from the T2 scenario database. Consideration of observed coastal impacts for nine past events leads to retrospective or "ideal" warning schemes being designed. The 95th percentile values of m...

  6. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated under the United Nations. This paper reviews historical tsunamis, their warning activities, and their sea level records to highlight lessons learned with the focus on how these insights have helped to drive further development of tsunami warning systems and their tsunami warning centers. While the international systems do well for teletsunamis, faster detection, more accurate evaluations, and widespread timely alerts are still the goals, and challenges still remain to achieving early warning against the more frequent and destructive local tsunamis.

  7. Numerical simulation of the December 4, 2007 landslide-generated tsunami in Chehalis Lake, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Ward, Steven N.; Xiao, Lili

    2015-04-01

    On December 4, 2007, a three million cubic metres landslide impacted Chehalis Lake, 80 km east of Vancouver, Canada. The failed mass rushed into the lake and parented a tsunami that ran up 38 m on the opposite shore, destroyed trees, roads and campsite facilities. Armed with field surveys and multihigh-tech observations from SONAR, LiDAR and orthophotographs, we apply the newly developed `Tsunami Squares' method to simulate the Chehalis Lake landslide and its generated tsunami. The landslide simulation shows a progressive failure, flow speeds up to ˜60 m s-1, and a slide mass stoppage with uniform repose angle on the lakebed. Tsunami products suggest that landslide velocity and spatial scale influence the initial wave size, while wave energy decay and inundation heights are affected by a combination of distance to the landslide, bathymetry and shoreline orientation relative to the wave direction.

  8. TWO DECADES OF GLOBAL TSUNAMIS - 1982-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal purpose of this catalog is to extend the cataloging of tsunami occurrences and effects begun in 1988 by Soloviev, Go, and Kim (Catalog of Tsunamis in the Pacific 1969 to 1982 to the period extending from 1982 through 2001, and to provide a convenient source of tsunami data and a reference list for tsunamis in this period. While the earlier catalogs by Soloviev were restricted to the Pacific region including Indonesia, this catalog reports on known tsunamis worldwide. The year 1982 was included in this catalog because the data in the Soloviev and Go catalog for that year was incomplete.The Pacific is by far the most active zone for tsunami generation but tsunamis have been generated in many other bodies of water including the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas, and Indian and Atlantic Oceans and other bodies of water. There were no known tsunamis generated in the Atlantic Ocean in the period from 1982 to 2001 but they have occurred there historically. North Atlantic tsunamis include the tsunami associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake that caused up to 60,000 fatalities in Portugal, Spain, and North Africa. This tsunami generated waves of up to seven meters in height into the Caribbean. Since 1498 the Caribbean has had 37 verified tsunamis (local and remote sourced plus an additional 52 events that may have resulted in tsunamis. The death toll from these events is about 9,500 fatalities. In 1929, the Grand Banks tsunami off the coast of Labrador generated waves of up to 15 meters in Newfoundland, Canada, killing 26 people, and the waves were recorded along the New Jersey coast. Smaller Atlantic coast tsunamis have been generated in the Norwegian fjords, Iceland, and off the coast of the New England states of the United States. Major tsunamis have also occurred in the Marmara Sea in Turkey associated with the Izmit earthquake of August 17, 1999.

  9. Earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean Sea: Scenarios of potential threats to Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, Stefano; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Basili, Roberto; Piatanesi, Alessio; Valensise, Gianluca

    2008-01-01

    We calculated the impact on Southern Italy of a large set of tsunamis resulting from earthquakes generated by major fault zones of the Mediterranean Sea. Our approach merges updated knowledge on the regional tectonic setting and scenario-like calculations of expected tsunami impact. We selected three potential source zones located at short, intermediate and large distance from our target coastlines: the Southern Tyrrhenian thrust belt; the Tell-Atlas thrust belt; and the western Hellenic Arc. For each zone we determined a Maximum Credible Earthquake and described the geometry, kinematics and size of its associated Typical Fault. We then let the Typical Fault float along strike of its parent source zone and simulated all tsunamis it could trigger. Simulations are based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite difference technique. For each run we calculated the wavefields at desired simulation times and the maximum water elevation field, then produced traveltime maps and maximum wave-height profiles along the target coastlines. The results show a highly variable impact for tsunamis generated by the different source zones. For example, a large Hellenic Arc earthquake will produce a much higher tsunami wave (up to 5 m) than those of the other two source zones (up to 1.5 m). This implies that tsunami scenarios for Mediterranean Sea countries must necessarily be computed at the scale of the entire basin. Our work represents a pilot study for constructing a basin-wide tsunami scenario database to be used for tsunami hazard assessment and early warning.

  10. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.; Walder, J. S.

    2006-07-01

    Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet, indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by cold granular subaerial volcanic mass flows using examples from Augustine Volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region, and future eruptions, should they lead to debris-avalanche formation and tsunami generation, could be hazardous to some coastal areas. Geological investigations at Augustine Volcano suggest that as many as 12-14 debris avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during an A.D. 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami that was observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. Numerical simulation of mass-flow motion, tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation for Augustine Volcano indicate only modest wave generation by volcanic mass flows and localized wave effects. However, for east-directed mass flows entering Cook Inlet, tsunamis are capable of reaching the more populated coastlines of the southwestern Kenai Peninsula, where maximum water amplitudes of several meters are possible.

  11. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Waythomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet, indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by cold granular subaerial volcanic mass flows using examples from Augustine Volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region, and future eruptions, should they lead to debris-avalanche formation and tsunami generation, could be hazardous to some coastal areas. Geological investigations at Augustine Volcano suggest that as many as 12–14 debris avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during an A.D. 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami that was observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. Numerical simulation of mass-flow motion, tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation for Augustine Volcano indicate only modest wave generation by volcanic mass flows and localized wave effects. However, for east-directed mass flows entering Cook Inlet, tsunamis are capable of reaching the more populated coastlines of the southwestern Kenai Peninsula, where maximum water amplitudes of several meters are possible.

  12. The event generator SIMON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization and development of SIMON generator work was conducted at LPC.This generator was conceived for simple and versatile simulations of different processes occurring in the nuclear collisions at Fermi Energies. At present it is utilized in a large number of French foreign laboratories. Particularly, certain analyses of INDRA data have been done by use of this generator: estimation of collective energy in the Xe + Sn and Gd + U central collisions; shape and space-time correlation analysis in fragment-fragment and particle-fragment output of the same system; calorimetric study of the Xe + Sn and Ar + Ni system; study of the vaporization for the Ar + Ni system. Recently a number of items were improved or modified, among which: the initial configuration was allowed to be non-spherical what permits the analysis of the semi-central collisions; a so-called pre-fragmentation emission may be included to estimate different time constants implied in the fragmentation process

  13. EDDE Monte Carlo event generator

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, V. A.; Ryutin, R. A.; Sobol, A. E.; Guillaud, J. -p

    2004-01-01

    EDDE is a Monte Carlo event generator, under construction, for different Exclusive Double Diffractive Events. The program is based on the extended Regge-eikonal approach for "soft" processes. Standard Model and its extensions are used for "hard" fusion processes. An interface to PYTHIA, CMSJET and CMKIN is provided.

  14. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco) against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Leone, F.; Matias, L.; Mellas, S.; Zourarah, B.; Miranda, J. M.; Carrilho, F.; -p Cherel, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the A...

  15. Two and three-dimensional hybrid modeling of landslide-generated tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R.; Wüunnemann, K.; Fritz, H.; Elbeshausen, D.

    2009-04-01

    On 10 July 1958, an earthquake of Mw 8.3 on the Fairweather Fault on Alaska? south coast triggered a rockslide that impacted the Lituya Bay. The generated tsunami waves produced the largest run up measured at 524 m on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. At the time, the tsunami eroded forest and soil to the bed rock; even half a century later the effects of the tsunami is still visible in satellite imagery. In a two-dimensional setup of the Froude-similarity scaled experiments, Fritz et al. (2001) reproduced the runup and also generated important data sets for validating computer models. These experiments were the first to use a granular material to account for deformation of the slide body as it moves down the slope, impacts into the water, and continues to interact with the water in the early stages of tsunami wave generation. These experiments revealed fundamental differences to experiments with the often used solid wedge. Recently, these experiments were extended to the full three-dimensional domain in the NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University (Fritz et al., 2009). Over the last decade, computer models have been presented that adequately model the tsunami generation by solid wedges, based upon shallow-water equations with a source term to account for linear-bottom deformation. Freely deformable slides may not be treated in such models due to different material rheologies of the slide masses and the water. We report on the success of using the multi-material hydrocode iSALE to reproduce Fritz et al? Lituya Bay experiments. We found an excellent fit of a wave-gauge recored in 885 m distance from the impact site between experimental and modeled data. Furthermore, we extend this to comparisons of velocity fields (total, vertical and horizontal components). Since the three-dimensional hydrocode simulations are computationally very expensive, we present tentative comparisons of results from the modeling and the experiments as an outlook. In the context of high-resolution bathymetric and recently gathered data from continental slopes reveals the long history of landslides, of which some had the caliber to produce significant tsunami waves. Computer models, such as iSALE when carefully validated, play an important role in untangling which of the landslides generated significant tsunamis and equip us with a tool to study the hazards that future slope failures and landslide-generated tsunamis might pose to the world? coastal megalopolises.

  16. Lituya Bay Landslide Impact Generated Mega-Tsunami 50th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Mohammed, Fahad; Yoo, Jeseon

    2009-02-01

    On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the southern coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. The mega-tsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt at 1:675 scale in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. A pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was used to generate a high-speed granular slide with controlled impact characteristics. State-of-the-art laser measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser distance sensors (LDS) were applied to the decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. PIV provided instantaneous velocity vector fields in a large area of interest and gave insight into kinematics of wave generation and runup. The entire process of a high-speed granular landslide impact may be subdivided into two main stages: (a) Landslide impact and penetration with flow separation, cavity formation and wave generation, and (b) air cavity collapse with landslide run-out and debris detrainment causing massive phase mixing. Formation of a large air cavity — similar to an asteroid impact — in the back of the landslide is highlighted. A three-dimenional pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was designed, constructed and successfully deployed in the tsunami wave basin at OSU. The Lituya Bay landslide was reproduced in a three-dimensional physical model at 1:400 scale. The landslide surface velocities distribution was measured with PIV. The measured tsunami amplitude and runup heights serve as benchmark for analytical and numerical models.

  17. Tsunami Squares Approach to Landslide-Generated Waves: Application to Gongjiafang Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lili; Ward, Steven N.; Wang, Jiajia

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a new method, named "Tsunami Squares", for modeling of landslides and landslide-generated waves. The approach has the advantages of the previous "Tsunami Ball" method, for example, separate, special treatment for dry and wet cells is not needed, but obviates the use of millions of individual particles. Simulations now can be expanded to spatial scales not previously possible. The new method accelerates and transports "squares" of material that are fractured into new squares in such a way as to conserve volume and linear momentum. The simulation first generates landslide motion as constrained by direct observation. It then computes induced water waves, given assumptions about energy and momentum transfer. We demonstrated and validated the Tsunami Squares method by modeling the 2008 Three Gorges Reservoir Gongjiafang landslide and river tsunami. The landslide's progressive failure, the wave generated, and its subsequent propagation and run-up are well reproduced. On a laptop computer Tsunami Square simulations flexibly handle a wide variety of waves and flows, and are excellent techniques for risk estimation.

  18. Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvrová, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case-study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami runups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

  19. Numerical simulations of tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvrová, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

    2014-02-01

    Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami run-ups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of the Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, the Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

  20. Evidence of tsunami events in the Paleolimnological record of Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Hugo, Garduño-Monroy; Diana Cinthia, Soria-Caballero; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Víctor Manuel, Hernández Madrigal; Alejandro, Rodríguez-Ramírez; Mikhail, Ostroumov; Miguel Ángel, Rodríguez-Pascua; Arturo, Chacon-Torres; Juan Carlos, Mora-Chaparro.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El actual lago de Pátzcuaro tiene una elevación de 2035 m sobre el nivel del mar. Históricamente, ha alcanzado una elevación de 2041 m, lo cual aislaba una porción de la isla cerca de la población de Jarácuaro en la parte sureste del lago. Dos trincheras realizadas en la antigua isla revelan secuenc [...] ias estratigráficas tripartitas similares. En una trinchera de 3.1 m de profundidad, la secuencia de la base a la cima está formada por la Unidad A que comprende arcillas y limos ricos en diatomeas plegados y fallados con capas de arena volcánica. Estos depósitos están fechados entre 24 y 10 mil años BP. Unidad B que comprende una mezcla caótica de arenas volcánicas y lapilli, con abundantes restos de peces, bivalvos, gasterópodos y ostrácodos, de 10 cm de espesor con un contacto erosivo sobre la Unidad A. Los ostrácodos incluyen valvas articuladas con una mezcla de especies pelágicas de agua profunda y especies litorales. Los fragmentos de artefactos cerámicos pertenecientes al Período Post-Clásico (900 a 1520 AD) son abundantes. La Unidad C comprende una unidad de 20 cm de espesor de limo arcilloso rico en materia orgánica con restos de gasterópodos, semillas, líticos angulares y fragmentos de piezas cerámicas del Post-Clásico. La Unidad B sugiere una resedimentación catastrófica de los depósitos del piso del lago atribuidos a un tsunami. La Unidad C es consistente con condiciones sublacustres que están históricamente documentadas de 1858 a 1947. Un tsunami en el Lago de Pátzcuaro en 1858 ha sido registrado históricamente. El tsunami pudo haber sido creado por movimientos de falla o colapso del flanco suroeste de la isla de Janitzio. La ola del tsunami pudo haber contribuido al rápido aumento del lago de Pátzcuaro después del evento sísmico de 1858. Abstract in english Modern Lake Pátzcuaro has a surface elevation of 2035 m a.s.l. Historically, it reached an elevation of 2041 m a.s.l., which isolated a portion of the island near the town of Jarácuaro in the southeastern part of the lake. Two trenches in the former island reveal similar tripartite stratigraphic seq [...] uences. In a 3.1 m deep trench, the sequence from bottom to top comprises Unit A constituted by folded and faulted diatom-rich clay and silt with beds of volcanic sand. These deposits are dated between 24 and 10 ky BP; Unit B constituted by a 10 of cm chaotic mixture of volcanic sand and lapilli with abundant remains of fish, bivalves, gastropods and ostracodes that is rests on above an erosional unconformity. The ostracodes include articulated valves with a mixture of deep-water pelagic species and attached littoral species. Highly fractured diatom shows a mixture of planktonic and benthic habitats. Fragments of ceramic artifacts dated to the Post-Classic Period (900 to 1520 AD) are abundant; Unit Cconstituted by a 20 cm thick unit of organic-rich argillaceous silt with remains of gastropods, seeds, angular lithoclasts and fragments of Post-Classic ceramic artifacts. Unit B suggests a catastrophic resedi mentation of lake floor deposits attributed to a tsunami. Unit C is consistent with sublacustrine conditions that are historically documented from 1858 to 1947. A tsunami in Lake Pátzcuaro in 1858 has been historically recorded. The tsunami was created either by fault movement or collapse of the SW flank of the island of Janitzio. The tsunami wave may have contributed to the rapid rise of Lake Pátzcuaro following the 1858 seismic event.

  1. TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves hitting the eastern United States is very real despite a general impression to the contrary. We have cataloged 40 tsunamis and tsunami-like waves that have occurred in the eastern United States since 1600. Tsunamis were generated from such events as the 1755 Queen Anne’s earthquake, the Grand Banks event of 1929, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The Queen Anne tsunami was observed as far away as St. Martin in the West Indies and is the only known teletsunami generated in this source region.Since subduction zones are absent around most of the Atlantic basin, tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the United States East Coast are not generated from this traditional source, but appear, in most cases to be the result of slumping or landsliding associated with local earthquakes or with wave action associated with strong storms. Other sources of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the eastern seaboard have recently come to light including volcanic debris falls or catastrophic failure of volcanic slopes; explosive decompression of underwater methane deposits or oceanic meteor splashdowns. These sources are considered as well.

  2. Japan (East Coast of Honshu) Tsunami, March 11, 2011: Main Event Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The forecasting models displayed in this website are from NOAA Center for Tsunami Research featuring the Honshu, Japan tsunami. Forecast results, showing qualitative and quantitative information about the tsunami, including tsunami wave interaction with ocean floor bathymetric features, and neighboring coastlines are available for educators and students. Also included are interactive maps depicting model and sea level data comparison plots, global maximum wave amplitude and tsunami propagation animations.

  3. THE MAY 17, 1992 EVENT: TSUNAMI AND COASTAL EFFECTS IN EASTERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Besana, Glenda M.; Masataka Ando; Ma. Hannah Mirabueno

    2004-01-01

    Tsunami invaded the eastern coastlines of Mindanao islands several minutes after the strong ground shaking of the May 17, 1992 quake. Recent field investigations showed that tsunami intensity generally decreases southwards and northwards relative to Bunga and Zaragoza areas. There was an unusually high tsunami wave height (~6m) at Bunga that was most probably due to local site effect. Tsunami waves were generally preceded by the lowering of sea water level while the tsunami arrival times have...

  4. The Tsunami Geology of the Bay of Bengal Shores and the Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Seshachalam, S.; Andrade, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 Aceh-Andaman earthquake exceeded the known Indian Ocean precedents by its 1,300-km long fault rupture and the height and reach of its tsunami. Literature of the ancient Chola dynasty (AD 9-11 centuries) of south India and the archeological excavations allude to a sea flood that crippled the historic port at Kaveripattinam, a trading hub for Southeast Asia. Here, we combine a variety of data from the rupture zone as well as the distant shores to build a tsunami history of the Bay of Bengal. A compelling set of geological proxies of possible tsunami inundation include boulder beds of Car Nicobar Island in the south and the East Island in the northernmost Andaman, a subsided fossil mangrove forest near Port Blair and a washover sedimentation identified in the Kaveripattinam coast of Tamil Nadu, south India. We have developed an extensive chronology for these geological proxies, and we analyze them in conjunction with the historical information culled from different sources for major sea surges along the Bay of Bengal shores. The age data and the depositional characteristics of these geological proxies suggest four major tsunamis in the last 2000 years in the Bay of Bengal, including the 1881 Car Nicobar tsunami. Among these, the evidence for the event of 800-1200 cal yr BP is fairly well represented on both sides of the Bay of Bengal shores. Thus, we surmise that the 800-1000-year old tsunami mimics the transoceanic reach of the 2004 Indian Ocean and the age constraints also agree with the sea surge during the Chola period. We also obtained clues for a possible medieval tsunami from the islands occurred probably a few hundred years after the Chola tsunami, but its size cannot constrained, nor its source. The convergence of ages and the multiplicity of sites would suggest at least one full size predecessor of the 2004 event 1000-800 years ago.

  5. Warning and prevention based on estimates with large uncertainties: the case of low-frequency and large-impact events like tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2013-04-01

    Geoscientists deal often with hazardous processes like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc., and their research is aimed not only to a better understanding of the physical processes, but also to provide assessment of the space and temporal evolution of a given individual event (i.e. to provide short-term prediction) and of the expected evolution of a group of events (i.e. to provide statistical estimates referred to a given return period, and a given geographical area). One of the main issues of any scientific method is how to cope with measurement errors, a topic which in case of forecast of ongoing or of future events translates into how to deal with forecast uncertainties. In general, the more data are available and processed to make a prediction, the more accurate the prediction is expected to be if the scientific approach is sound, and the smaller the associated uncertainties are. However, there are several important cases where assessment is to be made with insufficient data or insufficient time for processing, which leads to large uncertainties. Two examples can be given taken from tsunami science, since tsunamis are rare events that may have destructive power and very large impact. One example is the case of warning for a tsunami generated by a near-coast earthquake, which is an issue at the focus of the European funded project NearToWarn. Warning has to be launched before tsunami hits the coast, that is in a few minutes after its generation. This may imply that data collected in such a short time are not yet enough for an accurate evaluation, also because the implemented monitoring system (if any) could be inadequate (f.i. one reason of inadequacy could be that implementing a dense instrumental network could be judged too expensive for rare events) The second case is the long term prevention from tsunami strikes. Tsunami infrequency may imply that the historical record for a given piece of coast is too short to capture a statistical sufficient number of large tsunamis, which entails that tsunami hazard has to be estimated by means of speculated worst-case scenarios, and their consequences are evaluated accordingly and usually result associated with large uncertainty bands. In case of large uncertainties, the main issues for geoscientists are how to communicate the information (prediction and uncertainties) to stakeholders and citizens and how to build and implement together responsive procedures that should be adequate. Usually there is a tradeoff between the cost of the countermeasure (warning and prevention) and its efficacy (i.e. its capability of minimizing the damage). The level of the acceptable tradeoff is an issue pertaining to decision makers and to local threatened communities. This paper, that represents a contribution from the European project TRIDEC on management of emergency crises, discusses the role of geoscientists in providing predictions and the related uncertainties. It is stressed that through academic education geoscientists are formed more to better their understanding of processes and the quantification of uncertainties, but are often unprepared to communicate their results in a way appropriate for society. Filling this gap is crucial for improving the way geoscience and society handle natural hazards and devise proper defense means.

  6. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source and devastating on long stretches of Tyrrhenian coasts, but particularly in the neighbouring islands of Panarea and Salina, and along the Calabria coasts around Capo Vaticano.

  7. The 15 August 2007 Peru tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Borrero, Jose C.; Broncano, Pablo; Ortega, Erick

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts to ensure successful self-evacuation.

  8. Tsunami Attack!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and what makes them so dangerous. They learn that engineers design detection and warning equipment, as well as structures that that can survive the strong wave forces. In a hands-on activity, students use a table-top-sized tsunami generator to observe the formation and devastation of a tsunami. They see how a tsunami moves across the ocean and what happens when it reaches a coastline. They make villages of model houses to test how different material types are impacted by the huge waves.

  9. The ALICE Event Generator Pool.

    CERN Document Server

    Hencken, K; CERN. Geneva; Kharlov, Yu V; Kiselev, S; Ranft, J; Sadovsky, S; Samoylenko, V D; Shabratova, G; Zabrodin, E E; van Eijndhoven, N

    1996-01-01

    A description and comparison of various commonly used event generators for very energetic hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented together with a description of the ALICE universal output format and some simple examples of how to install and run the programs. This report is intended to provide the necessary information for people who want to know the basic physics behind the various models, run the various generators and analyse the produced output.

  10. On the cause of the 1908 Messina tsunami, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billi, Andrea; Funiciello, Renato; Minelli, Liliana; Faccenna, Claudio; Neri, Giancarlo; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora

    2008-03-01

    A century after the catastrophic event, the sources of the 1908 Messina, Southern Italy, earthquake and tsunami, which caused at least 60,000 deaths, remain uncertain. Through a simple backward ray-tracing method, we convert the tsunami travel-time data reported in a 100-years-old paper into distances and find that the sources of the earthquake and tsunami are different. Overturning a long-held assumption, reconsideration of the available tsunami, bathymetric, seismic, and seismological data indicates that the tsunami was generated by an underwater landslide.

  11. Assessment of the safety of Ulchin nuclear power plant in the event of tsunami using parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous evaluations of the safety of the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant in the event of a tsunami have the shortcoming of uncertainty of the tsunami sources. To address this uncertainty, maximum and minimum wave heights at the intake of Ulchin NPP have been estimated through a parametric study, and then assessment of the safety margin for the intake has been carried out. From the simulation results for the Ulchin NPP site, it can be seen that the coefficient of eddy viscosity considerably affects wave height at the inside of the breakwater. In addition, assessment of the safety margin shows that almost all of the intake water pumps have a safety margin over 2 m, and Ulchin NPP site seems to be safe in the event of a tsunami according to this parametric study, although parts of the CWPs rarely have a margin for the minimum wave height

  12. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Koetapangwa, B.; Anugrah, S.; Thio, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment considers tsunami generated from near-field earthquakes sources around Indonesia as well as regional and far-field sources, to define the tsunami hazard at the coastline. The PTHA methodology is based on the established stochastic event-based approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted for tsunami. The earthquake source information is primarily based on the recent Indonesian National Seismic Hazard Map and included a consensus-workshop with Indonesia's leading tsunami and earthquake scientists to finalize the seismic source models and logic trees to include epistemic uncertainty. Results are presented in the form of tsunami hazard maps showing the expected tsunami height at the coast for a given return period, and also as tsunami probability maps, showing the probability of exceeding a tsunami height of 0.5m and 3.0m at the coast. These heights define the thresholds for different tsunami warning levels in the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS). The results show that for short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, the islands of Nias and Mentawai. For longer return periods (>500 years), the tsunami hazard in Eastern Indonesia (north Papua, north Sulawesi) is nearly as high as that along the Sunda Arc. A sensitivity analysis of input parameters is conducted by sampling branches of the logic tree using a monte-carlo approach to constrain the relative importance of each input parameter. The results from this assessment can be used to underpin evidence-based decision making by disaster managers to prioritize tsunami mitigation, such as developing detailed inundation simulations for evacuation planning.

  13. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of Mw 7.8 ruptured an up-dip section of the 2007 rupture, west of the South Pagai of Mentawai Islands. It shook the region only gently but woke deadly tsunami up to 14 meter heights and killed about 500 people. Despite it has been a bit quite in the past three years but the amount of strain left on the Mentawai segment, especially under Siberut, Sipora and North Pagai Islands is about Mw 8.8 still, waiting to be released sometime in the near future. Beside Mentawai, stydies on prehistorical earthquakes and mapping off strain budget and releases along the Aceh-Andaman indicates that a Mw 8 or greater earthquake is still possible to occur in the next decades. Moreover, the status and characteristics of the megathrust section south of the Mentawai, the Sunda Strait to south Java Ocean, is largely unknown so far. Nonetheless, we do know that this southernmost section has been quite for the past several hundreds years, suggesting a possible seismic gap, and it is close to dense population of industrial and urban areas. Learning from experience, we should not just prepare for the expected of well known sources but also the unexpected ones.

  14. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2010-05-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

  15. Statistical Analysis of Tsunami Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Francesca; Del Giudice, Tania; Traverso, Chiara; Valfrè, Giulio; Poggi, Pamela; Parker, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate statistical variability of seismically generated tsunami impact. The specific goal of the work was to evaluate the variability in tsunami wave run-up due to uncertainty in fault rupture parameters (source effects) and to the effects of local bathymetry at an individual location (site effects). This knowledge is critical to development of methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. Two types of variability were considered: • Inter-event; • Intra-event. Generally, inter-event variability refers to the differences of tsunami run-up at a given location for a number of different earthquake events. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the variability of tsunami run-up at a given point for a given magnitude earthquake. In this case, the variability is expected to arise from lack of knowledge regarding the specific details of the fault rupture "source" parameters. As sufficient field observations are not available to resolve this question, numerical modelling was used to generate run-up data. A scenario magnitude 8 earthquake in the Hellenic Arc was modelled. This is similar to the event thought to have caused the infamous 1303 tsunami. The tsunami wave run-up was computed at 4020 locations along the Egyptian coast between longitudes 28.7° E and 33.8° E. Specific source parameters (e.g. fault rupture length and displacement) were varied, and the effects on wave height were determined. A Monte Carlo approach considering the statistical distribution of the underlying parameters was used to evaluate the variability in wave height at locations along the coast. The results were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of variation of the simulated wave run-up (standard deviation divided by mean value) for each location. The coefficient of variation along the coast was between 0.14 and 3.11, with an average value of 0.67. The variation was higher in areas of irregular coast. This level of variability is similar to that seen in ground motion attenuation correlations used for seismic hazard assessment. The second issue was intra-event variability. This refers to the differences in tsunami wave run-up along a section of coast during a single event. Intra-event variability investigated directly considering field observations. The tsunami events used in the statistical evaluation were selected on the basis of the completeness and reliability of the available data. Tsunami considered for the analysis included the recent and well surveyed tsunami of Boxing Day 2004 (Great Indian Ocean Tsunami), Java 2006, Okushiri 1993, Kocaeli 1999, Messina 1908 and a case study of several historic events in Hawaii. Basic statistical analysis was performed on the field observations from these tsunamis. For events with very wide survey regions, the run-up heights have been grouped in order to maintain a homogeneous distance from the source. Where more than one survey was available for a given event, the original datasets were maintained separately to avoid combination of non-homogeneous data. The observed run-up measurements were used to evaluate the minimum, maximum, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each data set. The minimum coefficient of variation was 0.12 measured for the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami at Nias Island (7 data) while the maximum is 0.98 for the Okushiri 1993 event (93 data). The average coefficient of variation is of the order of 0.45.

  16. A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was perly, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

  17. A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keum Seok [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant.

  18. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PERMEABILITY OF ROCKS IN TSUNAMI GENERATION AND PROPAGATION BY SEISMIC FAULTING USING LINEARIZED SHALLOW – WATER WAVE THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    PARUL SAXENA; LOKENDRA KUMAR

    2012-01-01

    The effect of permeability of rocks inside the ocean on Tsunami generation and Propagation is investigated. We study the nature of Tsunami build up and propagation using realistic curvilinear source models. The models are used to study the effect of permeability on tsunami amplitude amplification as a function on spreading velocity and rise time. Effect of permeability on Tsunami waveforms within the frame of the linearized shallow water wave theory for constant water depth are analyzed analy...

  19. 2004 Tsunami survey in Comoros and Tanzania with inferences on tsunami risk in the Western Indian Ocean during future mega-thrust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.; Fritz, H. M.; Sladen, A.

    2008-12-01

    We present a total of 59 new data points of run-up of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Comoros and Tanzania, surveyed in 2006-2008 by International Tsunami Survey Teams. Run-up at the Northeastern tip of Grande Comore (6.8 m) is comparable to Socotra (6.1 m), and surpassed only in the Western Indian Ocean by the catastrophic values in Somalia (run-up 9 m; inundation 700 m). Run-up in Mayotte, and to a lesser extent Zanzibar, show considerable variations (from 1 to 5 m), attributed to the influence of the local structure of the reef surrounding these islands. By contrast, the unreefed islands of Anjouan and Moheli, and the mainland coast of Tanzania around Dar-es-Salaam, feature more consistent values in the 2 to 3 m range. The death toll in Tanzania is revised to at least 20. We then use the MOST code to simulate the propagation on the high seas of both the 2004 tsunami, and of potential future tsunamis under scenarios of mega earthquakes rupturing in the South Sumatra region; in particular, we consider the case of a probable event releasing the strain left over from the 1833 rupture after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake. While these studies are not carried to the full extent of run-up calculations at individual sites, they give a general estimate of expectable hazard, relative to 2004, under the relevant scenarios, at 17 offshore virtual gauges strategically located from Oman to South Africa. We confirm more quantitatively the results of Okal and Synolakis (2008), namely that the change of directivity characteristics results in an increase of tsunami amplitude (with respect to 2004) at all sites South of Kenya (including Madagascar and the Mascarenes), while amplitudes at the Horn of Africa (Socotra, Somalia) remain large, due to focusing by individual bathymetric features. In short, potential earthquake sources along the Southern coast of Sumatra could result in higher wave heights than in 2004, along most of the Eastern shores of Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarenes.

  20. The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, S.; Manucci, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

    2005-01-01

    On 30 December 2002 the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli, in the Tyrrhenian sea, Italy, was attacked by two tsunamis generated by landslides that took place on the north-west flank of the volcano. The landslides and the tsunamis represented the most impressive and threatening episodes of a strong effusive eruption, started on 28 December from a new vent which opened close to the north-east crater of the volcano. In spite of the intensified monitoring carried out in response to the er...

  1. Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.; Walder, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and ...

  2. 3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we will try to apply the code to a real life case i.e. the landslide tsunamis at the coast of the Stromboli island (Italy). SELECTED REFERENCES Choi, B.H. and D. C. Kim and E. Pelinovsky and S. B. Woo, 2007. Three dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island. Coastal Engineering 54,374 pp. 618-629. Chopakatla, S.C. and T.C. Lipmann and J.E. Richardson, 2008. Field verification of a computational fluid dynamics model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 134(2), pp. 71-80 Di Risio, M., P. De Girolamo, G. Bellotti, A. Panizzo, F. Aristodemo, M. G.Molfetta, and A. F. Petrillo (2009), Landslidegenerated tsunamis runup at the coast of a conical island: New physical model experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C01009, doi:10.1029/2008JC004858 Flow Science, Inc, 2007. FLOW-3D User's Manual.

  3. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Timothy H; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

    2014-12-01

    The 5 September 2012 M(w) 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr-Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential. PMID:25404327

  4. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lockridge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomenasuch as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis. Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare. In the interim since the last major tsunami event in the Caribbean Sea the coastal regions have greatly increased in population. Coastal development has also increased. Today tourism is a major industry that exposes thousands of non-residents to the disastrous effects of a tsunami. These factors make the islands in this region much more vulnerable today than they were when the last major tsunami occurred in this area. This paper gives an overview of the tsunami history in the area. This history illustrates what can be expected in the future from this geologic hazard and provides information that will be useful for mitigation purposes.

  5. e+ e- event generator EPOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo program EPOCS (Electron POsitron Collision Simulator), which generates e+e- events in high energy region that will be explored by TRISTAN project. Special emphasis is put on the effect of Z0 and possible top quark resonances. The user can control the simulation by selecting the energy and other parameters. Also he can easily incorpolate a new process and/or particles into the program. The central part of this report is a detailed description on the structure and the usage of the program. We would like to stress that the hadronization is based on a number of assumptions, which are made as clear as possible here. (author)

  6. Probabilistic Hazard for Seismically-Induced Tsunamis in Complex Tectonic Contexts: Event Tree Approach to Seismic Source Variability and Practical Feasibility of Inundation Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) rests on computationally demanding numerical simulations of the tsunami generation and propagation up to the inundated coastline. We here focus on tsunamis generated by the co-seismic sea floor displacement, which constitute the vast majority of the observed tsunami events, i.e. on Seismic PTHA (SPTHA). For incorporating the full expected seismic source variability, aiming at a complete SPTHA, a very large number of numerical tsunami scenarios is typically needed, especially for complex tectonic contexts, where SPTHA is not dominated by large subduction earthquakes only. Here, we propose a viable approach for reducing the number of simulations for a given set of input earthquakes representing the modelled aleatory uncertainties of the seismic rupture parameters. Our approach is based on a preliminary analysis of the SPTHA of maximum offshore wave height (HMax) at a given target location, and assuming computationally cheap linear propagation. We start with defining an operational SPTHA framework in which we then introduce a simplified Event Tree approach, combined with a Green's functions approach, for obtaining a first controlled sampling and reduction of the effective source parameter space size. We then apply a two-stage filtering procedure to the 'linear' SPTHA results. The first filter identifies and discards all the sources producing a negligible contribution at the target location, for example the smallest earthquakes or those directing most of tsunami energy elsewhere. The second filter performs a cluster analysis aimed at selecting groups of source parameters producing comparable HMax profiles for each earthquake magnitude at the given test site. We thus select a limited set of sources that is subsequently used for calculating 'nonlinear' probabilistic inundation maps at the target location. We find that the optimal subset of simulations needed for inundation calculations can be obtained basing on just the offshore HMax values, provided that the set of the offshore control points is representative of the inundation zone. The two-stage scenario filtering procedure is semi-automatic and it can be easily repeated for different target locations. We describe and test the performances of our approach on a case study in the Mediterranean, considering potential subduction earthquakes on a section of the Hellenic Arc, and for three target sites on the coast of eastern Sicily and one site on the coast of southern Crete. Comparing the filtered SPTHA results with the full set of inundation maps indicates that our approach allows a reduction factor of 75-80% of the numerical simulations needed for practical applications while preserving the consistency of results. The differences are indeed likely within potential epistemic uncertainties, not considered here, such as those related to tsunami generation and propagation models, bathymetric and topographic models, or other basic and less constrained unknowns related to earthquake activity rates or slip distribution probability.

  7. Tracking Down A Tsunami-generative Fault In The Gargano Region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Gaudio, V.; Mastronuzzi, G.; Sanso', P.

    The northern coastal area of the Gargano promontory in the Apulia region (south- ern Italy), is known to have been affected by several violent earthquakes during his- torical times, with epicenters situated both in inland and offshore areas. A detailed study of historical sources provides an inventory of historical and recent earthquakes, some of which produced devastating tsunamis. Geomorphological survey reveals that three severe tsunamis struck the Lesina coastal barrier. Morphological, archeological and radiometric data indicate a pre-Roman age for the oldest event, which was dated at 2430 years BP. The second tsunami struck the Lesina coastal barrier with similar magnitude 1550 years BP; it was possibly connected to a strong earthquake that, ac- cording to a medieval sacred legend, hit the Gargano promontory in the year 493 AD. The last tsunami hit the northern coast of Gargano on 30th July, 1627. The stretch of Gargano coast between Fortore River mouth and Punta delle Pietre Nere locality, shows evidence of a strong uplift during the Holocene, with a rate of about 1.6 oe 1.8 m/ka. However, the occurrence of a subsiding area situated just to the south-east, corresponding to the Lesina village area, points to a complex and still poorly known geological structure. The border between these two blocks with opposing recent tec- tonic behaviour is likely an important fault running parallel to the Fortore River valley, which has generally been neglected in works about the structural geology of this re- gion. This fault is in continuity with a belt of significant seismic energy release, which, passing through the Tremiti island, crosses the central Adriatic sea. It could have been responsible for the strong historical earthquake which struck the Fortore River coastal plain in 1627, as suggested also by macroseismic information, with special reference to ground effects described by contemporary witnesses.

  8. Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events-information essential for more precisely estimating the average tsunami recurrence rate for the Azores over a longer period. A present-day occurrence of a moderate to intense tsunami (i.e., the size of the 1755 event) would produce societal disruption and economic loss orders of magnitudes greater than those of previous events in Azorean history. To reduce risk from future tsunami, comprehensive assessment of tsunami hazards and the preparation of hazards-zonation maps are needed to guide governmental decisions on issues of prudent land-use planning, public education and emergency management.

  9. Tsunami Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disaster or Emergency › Types of Emergency › Tsunami Preparedness Tsunami Preparedness About About Tsunami Tsunamis are a series of large ocean waves ... night. Be aware of the signs of a tsunami: A strong earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more ...

  10. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi. However, in most other cases, the markers did not help protect the population from the March 2011 tsunami. The villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi have shown interest in passing on the messages through oral history and in school education. However, it is worth asking whether these villages would have heeded the messages of the stone markers if the rest of society had given them other forms of assurance against tsunamis besides their own vigilance, for instance, if they had a tsunami wall or a functioning modern tsunami warning systems. This historical example illustrates that, over the course of several generations, markers informing and warning about disasters are of limited effectiveness for local protection. Despite the historical record and the widespread awareness of the danger that has materialised on a recurrent basis, the local population has, by and large, taken risks with or without the presence of markers. Reliance on new technologies, deferring responsibility to the authorities, and pursuit of short-term economic interests are three potential reasons for this behaviour. On the other hand, the March 2011 tsunami was a thousand-year event; it is questionable whether the population can be asked to live in the constant fear of and preparation for such a rare event, in Japan and in similarly latently dangerous areas around the world. The Japanese tsunami stones provide a rare example of warning markers and allow a number of considerations to be made for markers in the context of repository projects: - The longevity of stone markers in Japan - up to one thousand years - illustrates the possibility of survival of markers over similar timescales, especially in regions that are not subject to devastations from natural catastrophes. - Visible markers contribute to keeping memory alive. - Memory does not guarantee safety. The current international position that a geological repository should be safe by itself is confirmed by this study. - Memory may save lives under special circumstances and it should be fostered. - More than memory, knowledge saves lives. Markers

  11. Lost tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Boschi, Enzo; Favalli, Massimiliano

    2006-11-01

    Numerical simulations support the occurrence of a catastrophic tsunami impacting all of the eastern Mediterranean in early Holocene. The tsunami was triggered by a debris avalanche from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) which entered the Ionian Sea in the order of minutes. Simulations show that the resulting tsunami waves were able to destabilize soft marine sediments across the Ionian Sea floor. This generated the well-known, sporadically located, ``homogenite'' deposits of the Ionian Sea, and the widespread megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains. It is possible that, ~8 ka B.P., the Neolithic village of Atlit-Yam (Israel) was abandoned because of impact by the same Etna tsunami. Two other Pleistocenic megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian Sea can be explained by previous sector collapses from the Etna area.

  12. The VOLNA code for the numerical modelling of tsunami waves: generation, propagation and inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    A novel tool for tsunami wave modelling is presented. This tool has the potential of being used for operational purposes: indeed, the numerical VOLNA code is able to handle the complete life-cycle of a tsunami (generation, propagation and run-up along the coast). The algorithm works on unstructured triangular meshes and, thus, can be run in arbitrary complex domains. It is often the case since natural coasts tend to be of fractal shape [Sapoval et al, 2004]. This paper contains the detailed description of the finite volume scheme implemented in the code. We explain the numerical treatment of the wet/dry transition. This point is crucial for accurate run-up computation. Most existing tsunami codes use semi-empirical techniques at this stage, which are not always sufficient. The main reason is that people evacuation is decided on the base of inundation maps which are produced with this type of numerical tools. Finally we present several realistic test cases that partially validate our algorithm. Comparisons wit...

  13. Tsunami Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2010-10-12

    Tsunami Warning Systems describes the processes involved in anticipating, detecting, and warning for a tsunami by summarizing data collection, modeling, analysis, and alert procedures used at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers. A simulated event and past tsunami occurrences are used to highlight warning system processes for determining the tsunami threat based on seismic and sea level data and tsunami forecast models. Message communication and local response are also addressed as final components of any warning system. The module is intended for Weather Forecast Office staff and emergency managers who require a better understanding of the technical aspects of tsunami warning delivery. The module will also benefit anyone wanting to learn more about the components of tsunami warning systems.

  14. Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brune

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

  15. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  16. Elegent -- an elastic event generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kašpar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD can not be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy sqrt(s). These distributions at ISR, SppS, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework.

  17. Tsunami Propagation Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOAA Center for Tsunami Research

    This visualization of the Tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake shows the spread of the tsunami waves across the pacific. The animation was computed with the MOST tsunami model. Across the bottom of the visualization is a comparison of the MOST predictions to actual data collected by a sensor buoy (denoted by the solid yellow square on the map).

  18. 2011 Tsunami Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Martin

    This activity uses data collected from DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis) stations in the Pacific following the 2011 tsunami generated off the coast of Japan. Students are required to map the wave front after 5, 10, and 15 hours to better understand the speed and propagation of the tsunami wave.

  19. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, E.; Koshimura, S.; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Matsuyama, M.; Yoshii, T.; Jimenez, C.; Yamazaki, F.; Imamura, F.

    2012-01-01

    On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate...

  20. MODELING THE ASIAN TSUNAMI EVOLUTION AND PROPAGATION WITH A NEW GENERATION MECHANISM AND A NON-LINEAR DISPERSIVE WAVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach in modeling the generation and propagation of tsunami is based on the assumption of a kinematic vertical displacement of ocean water that is analogous to the ocean bottom displacement during a submarine earthquake and the use of a non-dispersive long-wave model to simulate its physical transformation as it radiates outward from the source region. In this study, a new generation mechanism and the use of a highly-dispersive wave model to simulate tsunami inception, propagation and transformation are proposed. The new generation model assumes that transient ground motion during the earthquake can accelerate horizontal currents with opposing directions near the fault line whose successive convergence and divergence generate a series of potentially destructive oceanic waves. The new dynamic model incorporates the effects of earthquake moment magnitude, ocean compressibility through the buoyancy frequency, the effects of focal and water depths, and the orientation of ruptured fault line in the tsunami magnitude and directivity.For tsunami wave simulation, the nonlinear momentum-based wave model includes important wave propagation and transformation mechanisms such as refraction, diffraction, shoaling, partial reflection and transmission, back-scattering, frequency dispersion, and resonant wave-wave interaction. Using this model and a coarse-resolution bathymetry, the new mechanism is tested for the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. A new flooding and drying algorithm that consider waves coming from every direction is also proposed for simulation of inundation of low-lying coastal regions.It is shown in the present study that with the proposed generation model, the observed features of the Asian tsunami such as the initial drying of areas east of the source region and the initial flooding of western coasts are correctly simulated. The formation of a series of tsunami waves with periods and lengths comparable to observations are also well simulated with the new generation model. Furthermore, the shoaling behavior of the tsunami waves during flooding of dry land was also simulated by the new run-up algorithm. Finally, the new generation and propagation models can explain the combined and independent effects of various factors in tsunami generation and transformation taking into consideration the properties of the ocean and the geologic disturbance.

  1. International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

  2. Development Of New Databases For Tsunami Hazard Analysis In California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Bryant, W. A.; Dengler, L. A.; Goltz, J. D.; Legg, M.; McGuire, T.; Miller, K. M.; Real, C. R.; Synolakis, C.; Uslu, B.

    2009-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) has partnered with other tsunami specialists to produce two statewide databases to facilitate the evaluation of tsunami hazard products for both emergency response and land-use planning and development. A robust, State-run tsunami deposit database is being developed that compliments and expands on existing databases from the National Geophysical Data Center (global) and the USGS (Cascadia). Whereas these existing databases focus on references or individual tsunami layers, the new State-maintained database concentrates on the location and contents of individual borings/trenches that sample tsunami deposits. These data provide an important observational benchmark for evaluating the results of tsunami inundation modeling. CGS is collaborating with and sharing the database entry form with other states to encourage its continued development beyond California’s coastline so that historic tsunami deposits can be evaluated on a regional basis. CGS is also developing an internet-based, tsunami source scenario database and forum where tsunami source experts and hydrodynamic modelers can discuss the validity of tsunami sources and their contribution to hazard assessments for California and other coastal areas bordering the Pacific Ocean. The database includes all distant and local tsunami sources relevant to California starting with the forty scenarios evaluated during the creation of the recently completed statewide series of tsunami inundation maps for emergency response planning. Factors germane to probabilistic tsunami hazard analyses (PTHA), such as event histories and recurrence intervals, are also addressed in the database and discussed in the forum. Discussions with other tsunami source experts will help CGS determine what additional scenarios should be considered in PTHA for assessing the feasibility of generating products of value to local land-use planning and development.

  3. MadEvent: automatic event generation with MadGraph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and produce unweighted events in a standard output format. Several examples are given for processes that are relevant for physics studies at present and forthcoming colliders. (author)

  4. Geological overview of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake off the coast of northeast Japan generated a major tsunami (herein after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami) that inundated wide area of the northeast coast of Honshu. Remarkable feature of the northeast coast of Honshu is the abundance of available records for the past earthquakes and tsunamis with 1200 years of written history and ~3800 years of geological evidence. According to the historical record of the great tsunami at AD869 (the Jogan tsunami), the tsunami flooded the Sendai plain and over 1000 peoples were drowned. The geological record of the Jogan event, characterized by a thin marine sand layer provides evidence for tsunami inundation at least 3 km inland from the paleo-coastline. Geological evidence also extends back further in time with older sand layers probably deposited by paleo-tsunamis found beneath the Jogan event, leading scientists to estimate a recurrence interval of 600 to 1300 years for large tsunamis in the region [Minoura and Nakaya, 1991; Sawai et al., 2008]. The 2011 event might have confirmed this estimated recurrence interval. The geological surveys of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami was quickly started after the early April by Japanese and international researchers in order to clarify the sedimentological, geomorphological, and geochemical effects of the tsunami. Especially, the comprehensive video coverage is available in some area, thus allowing comparison of local flow variations with deposit characteristics. Moreover, the tsunami inundated with various distance up to 5 km inland and hence it is possible to compare the relationship between the landward extent of the deposit and the tsunami inundation limit. Here, I report the overview of the current understanding of the geological aspects of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami and its implication to the paleo-tsunami events in the area.

  5. Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlazim,, E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id; Hariyono, E., E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) , Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (T{sub dur}), dominant periods (T{sub d}) and exceeds duration (T{sub 50Ex}) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.

  6. Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlazim, Hariyono, E.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (Tdur), dominant periods (Td) and exceeds duration (T50Ex) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.

  7. Historical tsunamis and present tsunami hazard in eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    LøVholt, Finn; Kühn, Daniela; Bungum, Hilmar; Harbitz, Carl B.; Glimsdal, Sylfest

    2012-09-01

    Eastern Indonesia and the southern Philippines comprise a huge and seismically highly active region that has received less than the deserved attention in tsunami research compared with the surrounding areas exposed to the major subduction zones. In an effort to redress the balance the tsunami hazard in this region is studied by establishing a tsunami event database which, in combination with seismological and tectonic information from the region, has allowed us to define and justify a number of `credible worst-case' tsunami scenarios. These scenarios have been used in numerical simulations of tsunami generation and propagation to study maximum water level along potentially affected shorelines. The scenarios have in turn been combined to provide regional tsunami hazard maps. In many cases the simulations indicate that the maximum water level may exceed 10 m locally and even reach above 20 m in the vicinity of the source, which is of the same order as what is forecasted along the Sumatra and Java trenches for comparable return periods. For sections of coastlines close to a source, a tsunami may strike only a few minutes after it is generated, providing little time for warning. Moreover, several of the affected areas are highly populated and are therefore also high risk areas. The combination of high maximum water levels, short warning times, dense populations, and relatively short return periods suggests strongly that the tsunami hazard and risk in these regions are alarmingly high.

  8. Near Source 2007 Peru Tsunami Runup Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Broncano, P.; Ortega, E.

    2008-12-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed two weeks after the event and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. Three tsunami fatalities were reported south of the Paracas Peninsula in a sparsely populated desert area where the largest tsunami runup heights and massive inundation distances up to 2 km were measured. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. As with all near field tsunamis, the waves struck within minutes of the massive ground shaking. Spontaneous evacuations coordinated by the Peruvian Coast Guard minimized the fatalities and illustrate the importance of community-based education and awareness programs. The residents of the fishing village Lagunilla were unaware of the tsunami hazard after an earthquake and did not evacuate, which resulted in 3 fatalities. Despite the relatively benign tsunami effects at Pisco from this event, the tsunami hazard for this city (and its liquefied natural gas terminal) cannot be underestimated. Between 1687 and 1868, the city of Pisco was destroyed 4 times by tsunami waves. Since then, two events (1974 and 2007) have resulted in partial inundation and moderate damage. The fact that potentially devastating tsunami runup heights were observed immediately south of the peninsula only serves to underscore this point.

  9. a Web-Based and Cloud Capable Tsunami Forecast Tool: Tweb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, E. F.; Kamb, L.; Pells, C.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-12-01

    With the move from historically desktop-based technologies towards the cloud, it was inevitable that some tsunami forecast applications would also follow this path. This talk describes Tweb, a web-based tsunami forecast application that is under development at the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research for use by domestic and international partners. While the Tweb tool will centralize forecast technology at a single data center, it will also build on existing distributed tools that allow for localized tsunami inundation product generation. Tweb will be an aggregator for these distributed generated tsunami products and will allow a central access point for tsunami event forecast tools and products. This talk describes the NOAA tsunami forecast methodology on which design of the Tweb application is based, the technologies, system architecture, challenges and implementation details of the application. We also discuss the use of Tweb as a model testbed, the distributed forecast tools and their integration into Tweb.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis and Bayesian Inference of Manning's N Friction Coefficient during a Tsunami Event Using Polynomial Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraj, Ihab; Mandli, Kyle; Dawson, Clint; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    We present an efficient method to perform a sensitivity analysis of the Manning's N friction coefficient in the event of tsunamis. We also infer Manning's N friction coefficient using water surface elevation data obtained during Tohoku tsunami. We characterize the Manning's friction coefficient by three different parameters assumed constant in three regions: N1 on-shore, N2 near-shore and N3 deep-water. The efficiency of our approach stems from the use of polynomial chaos expansions to build an inexpensive surrogate for the numerical tsunami GeoClaw model that can be used to perform the sensitivity analysis. The surrogate also reduces the computational burden of the Markov Chain Monte-Carlo sampling needed for the Bayesian inference. Our objective is to sharpen three initial estimates of the three uncertain parameters. Our results indicate that Manning's N friction coefficients have a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) values of N2=0.011 and N3=0.185 while for N1 no meaningful MAP value can be determined using the available data.

  11. Monitoring tsunami propagation using OTH radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coisson, P.; Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P.; Rolland, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Ionospheric anomalies following tsunamis are now observable after major events as Total Electron Content (TEC) fluctuations. GPS and altimeters are important tools for this purpose, but the detection depends on satellites-receivers geometry, when the line of sight crosses the moving perturbation parallel to the wave fronts. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the coupling mechanism between ocean, neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. This numerical modeling supplies useful information for the estimation of expected anomalies and to explore and identify new techniques to detect the ionospheric tsunami signature. [|#18#|][|#5#|][|#23#|]The Over-The-Horizon (OTH) radars recently proved to be able to measure seismic Rayleigh wave in the ionosphere, consequently we explore here numerically the possibility to detect the ionospheric signature of tsunamis. OTH operate in High Frequency (HF) band and can be used to monitor the bottomside ionosphere over large regions. Those regions can be strongly perturbed by tsunami generated IGW. We reproduce numerically those atmospheric/ionospheric waves as well as the effect that they produce on synthetic radar measurements. The effects of the tsunami directionality are analyzed underlining the radar capabilities to follow the ionospheric perturbations. The large coverage of OTH radar and its sensitivity to plasma anomalies open new perspectives in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning systems.

  12. MadEvent: Automatic Event Generation with MadGraph

    OpenAIRE

    Maltoni, Fabio; Stelzer, Tim

    2002-01-01

    We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and ...

  13. Evaluation on coolability of the reactor core in Monju by natural circulation under earthquake and subsequent tsunami event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion: ? This study clarified that the decay heat of the core can be safely removed in Monju by the natural circulations of the coolant sodium even during an SBO event induced by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, as far as the sodium coolant flow circuits are intact and secured. ? Moreover parametric numerical simulations revealed that the natural circulations will be maintained for a sufficiently long period of time and the safety of the reactor will be ensured even under wide range of varied conditions

  14. Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at five sites from South Bay to Oara, corroborates this. At four of the sites a similar greywacke pebble bearing layer was found which was not present at test sites to the North and South of the peninsula (Kiwa Rd Campsites and Claverly respectively). These deposits contain diatoms indicating marine provenance. Surveys of Kaikoura peninsula households and businesses showed low levels of preparedness for a local source event. In regards to local-source tsunamis the district council has indicated that they "are unpredictable [and] it is impractical to include rules to mitigate their effects. Instead, the Council is committed to a Civil Defence network which provides an educative role and which sets in place a process for dealing with the results of any tsunami" (Kaikoura District Plan, 2010). Plans and an education strategy need to be formulated and implemented. They need to address considerations such as the fact that about 60% of those surveyed expect some sort of siren warning and the limitations inherent in such a warning system along with signage and public tsunami hazard maps and evacuation zones.

  15. Using Media in the Classroom: Learning and Teaching about the 2011 Japanese Earth-Quake, Tsunami and Nuclear Events from a Socio-Scientific and Science Literacy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina; Moore, Leah

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses using students' analysis of media coverage of the March 2011 Japanese earthquake, tsunami and nuclear events to develop their knowledge and understanding of geological concepts and related socio-scientific issues. It draws on news reported at that time, identifies themes in those reports, and suggests how this event can be…

  16. Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Geist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

  17. Tsunamigenic Ratio of the Pacific Ocean earthquakes and a proposal for a Tsunami Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Ocean is the location where two-thirds of tsunamis have occurred, resulting in a great number of casualties. Once information on an earthquake has been issued, it is important to understand if there is a tsunami generation risk in relation with a specific earthquake magnitude or focal depth. This study proposes a Tsunamigenic Ratio (TR that is defined as the ratio between the number of earthquake-generated tsunamis and the total number of earthquakes. Earthquake and tsunami data used in this study were selected from a database containing tsunamigenic earthquakes from prior 1900 to 2011. The TR is calculated from earthquake events with a magnitude greater than 5.0, a focal depth shallower than 200 km and a sea depth less than 7 km. The results suggest that a great earthquake magnitude and a shallow focal depth have a high potential to generate tsunamis with a large tsunami height. The average TR in the Pacific Ocean is 0.4, whereas the TR for specific regions of the Pacific Ocean varies from 0.3 to 0.7. The TR calculated for each region shows the relationship between three influential parameters: earthquake magnitude, focal depth and sea depth. The three parameters were combined and proposed as a dimensionless parameter called the Tsunami Index (TI. TI can express better relationship with the TR and with maximum tsunami height, while the three parameters mentioned above cannot. The results show that recent submarine earthquakes had a higher potential to generate a tsunami with a larger tsunami height than during the last century. A tsunami is definitely generated if the TI is larger than 7.0. The proposed TR and TI will help ascertain the tsunami generation risk of each earthquake event based on a statistical analysis of the historical data and could be an important decision support tool during the early tsunami warning stage.

  18. Development of an online tool for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivihok, P.; Honda, K.; Ruangrassamee, A.; Muangsin, V.; Naparat, P.; Foytong, P.; Promdumrong, N.; Aphimaeteethomrong, P.; Intavee, A.; Layug, J. E.; Kosin, T.

    2014-05-01

    The devastating impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need for an effective end-to-end tsunami early warning system in the region that connects the scientific components of warning with preparedness of institutions and communities to respond to an emergency. Essential to preparedness planning is knowledge of tsunami risks. In this study, development of an online tool named “INSPIRE” for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation is presented. The tool is designed to accommodate various accuracy levels of tsunami exposure data which will support the users to undertake preliminary tsunami risk assessment from the existing data with progressive improvement with the use of more detailed and accurate datasets. Sampling survey technique is introduced to improve the local vulnerability data with lower cost and manpower. The performance of the proposed methodology and the INSPIRE tool were tested against the dataset in Kamala and Patong municipalities, Phuket province, Thailand. The estimated building type ratios from the sampling survey show the satisfactory agreement with the actual building data at the test sites. Sub-area classification by land use can improve the accuracy of the building type ratio estimation. For the resulting loss estimation, the exposure data generated from detailed field survey can provide the agreeable results when comparing to the actual building damage recorded for the Indian Ocean tsunami event in 2004. However, lower accuracy exposure data derived from sampling survey and remote sensing can still provide a comparative overview of estimated loss.

  19. Understanding the Response of the Ionosphere to Atmospheric Waves Generated by Tsunamis and Other Geophysical Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drob, Douglas; Huba, Joseph; Broutman, David

    2014-05-01

    We present results from the coupling of the ground-to-space atmospheric spectral gravity wave model of Drob et al., (2012) with the SAMI3/ESF first-principles ionosphere model of Huba et al., (2009). This coupled physics-based simulation capability provides a means to explore, understand, and characterize the various factors that determine the response of the ionosphere to atmospheric gravity waves generated by tsunamis and other geophysical seismo-acoustic phenomena. These factors include; 1) the wavelength, frequency content, and propagation direction of the ocean/ground motion; 2) the seasonal and geographic factors which determined the anisotropic atmospheric background wind filtering and thermospheric gravity-wave dissipation processes; 3) the seasonal, geographic, local-time, and solar flux conditions that determine the background electron density and ionosphere conductivity profiles; and 4) the relationship of the atmospheric perturbations with respect to the geomagnetic field. For example, by comparing the results of simulations with and without gravity wave-perturbations we explore the effect of zonal, meridional, and vertical gravity wave wind perturbations across a range of geomagnetic latitudes (and thus geomagnetic pitch angle) to the resulting plasma velocity perturbations along the corresponding geomagnetic fields lines, as well as to the subsequent perturbations of total electron content (TEC). For comparable atmospheric gravity wave amplitudes, we find TEC variations of ~ +/- 0.1TECU (1 TECU = 10^16 m^2) which are consistent with observations made during the 11 March 2001 tsunami. This work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Tsunami Assessment for Risk Management at Nuclear Power Facilities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Ken; Imamura, Fumihiko; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu; Annaka, Tadashi; Takeda, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Nobuo

    2007-03-01

    The present study focuses on evaluation of the maximum and minimum water levels caused by tsunamis as risk factors for operation and management at nuclear power facilities along the coastal area of Japan. Tsunamis generated by submarine earthquakes are examined, basing literature reviews and databases of information on historical tsunami events and run-up heights. For simulation of water level along the coast, a numerical calculation system should be designed with computational regions covering a particular site. Also the calculation system should be verified by comparison of historical and calculated tsunami heights. At the beginning of the tsunami assessment, the standard faults, their locations, mechanisms and maximum magnitudes should be carefully estimated by considering historical earthquake-induced tsunamis and seismo-tectonics at each area. Secondly, the range of errors in the model parameters should be considered since earthquakes and tsunamis are natural phenomena that involve natural variability as well as errors in estimating parameters. For these reasons, uncertainty-induced errors should be taken into account in the process of tsunami assessment with parametric study of the tsunami source model. The element tsunamis calculated by the standard fault models with the errors would be given for the design. Then, the design tsunami can be selected among the element tsunamis with the most significant impact, maximum and minimum water levels, on the site, bearing in mind the possible errors in the numerical calculation system. Finally, the design tsunami is verified by comparison with the run-up heights of historical tsunamis, ensuring that the design tsunami is selected as the highest of all historical and possible future tsunamis at the site.

  1. Tsunami Hazards in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Borrero, J.; Patton, J.

    2004-12-01

    A prerequisite to probabilistic hazard assessment is a historic event database and identification of all potential sources. We review published and unpublished material to compile a history of tsunami events, peak tsunami heights and tsunami source regions for San Francisco Bay. Since 1850, 51 credible tsunamis have been recorded or observed within the San Francisco Bay area, all but 6 teletsunamis. Only the tsunamis generated by the 1960 Chile earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake caused damage in San Francisco Bay. Both events are characterized by long duration (12 hours) short period oscillations (about 30 minutes) attributed to near-resonance within the Bay (Wilson and Torum, 1968). Magoon (1966) developed an attenuation relation based on the 1960 and 1964 events and shows an amplitude decay by 50 percent of the Presidio value at Alameda and a 90 percent decrease at the northern and southern ends of the Bay. The 1964 tsunami was the most damaging historic event and caused about 177,000 (US dollars) in damages to boats and floating structures, with 1.13 m amplitude waves recorded at the Presidio. Six credible local tsunami events were observed between 1851 and 1906, four attributed to earthquake sources and two to landslides. The largest (0.6 m near Benicia) was caused by the 1898 Mare Island earthquake and is attributed to slip on the Rogers Creep fault. Garcia and Houston (1975) made return estimates for San Francisco Bay, considering only Alaska sources and estimated 100- and 500-year heights of 2.5 and 4.8 meters respectively at the Presidio. These values need to be reassessed in light of other credible teletsunami sources, particularly the Cascadia subduction zone, and local sources including step-overs on regional strike-slip faults and landslides within the bay. We present the results of numerical modeling runs to test Magoon's attenuation models and to compare local and teletsunami source regions.

  2. Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

  3. South American Tsunamis in Lyttelton Harbor, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.

    2015-01-01

    At 2347 UTC on April 1, 2014 (12:47 pm April 2, 2014 NZDT) an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 8.2 occurred offshore of Iquique in northern Chile. The temblor generated a tsunami that was observed locally and recorded on tide gauges and deep ocean tsunameters close to the source region. While real time modeling based on inverted tsunameter data and finite fault solutions of the earthquake rupture suggested that a damaging far-field tsunami was not expected (and later confirmed), this event nevertheless reminded us of the threat posed to New Zealand by tsunami generated along the west coast of South America and from the Peru/Chile border region in particular. In this paper we quantitatively assess the tsunami hazard at Lyttelton Harbor from South American tsunamis through a review of historical accounts, numerical modeling of past events and analysis of water level records. A sensitivity study for tsunamis generated along the length of the South American Subduction Zone is used to illustrate which section of the subduction zone would generate the strongest response at Lyttelton while deterministic scenario modeling of significant historical South American tsunamis (i.e. 1868, 1877 and 1960) provide a quantitative estimate of the expected effects from possible future great earthquakes along the coast of South America.

  4. South American Tsunamis in Lyttelton Harbor, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.

    2015-03-01

    At 2347 UTC on April 1, 2014 (12:47 pm April 2, 2014 NZDT) an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 8.2 occurred offshore of Iquique in northern Chile. The temblor generated a tsunami that was observed locally and recorded on tide gauges and deep ocean tsunameters close to the source region. While real time modeling based on inverted tsunameter data and finite fault solutions of the earthquake rupture suggested that a damaging far-field tsunami was not expected (and later confirmed), this event nevertheless reminded us of the threat posed to New Zealand by tsunami generated along the west coast of South America and from the Peru/Chile border region in particular. In this paper we quantitatively assess the tsunami hazard at Lyttelton Harbor from South American tsunamis through a review of historical accounts, numerical modeling of past events and analysis of water level records. A sensitivity study for tsunamis generated along the length of the South American Subduction Zone is used to illustrate which section of the subduction zone would generate the strongest response at Lyttelton while deterministic scenario modeling of significant historical South American tsunamis (i.e. 1868, 1877 and 1960) provide a quantitative estimate of the expected effects from possible future great earthquakes along the coast of South America.

  5. The 2010 Mw 7.8 Mentawai earthquake: Very shallow source of a rare tsunami earthquake determined from tsunami field survey and near-field GPS data

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Emma M.; Elosegui, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The M w 7.8 October 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, earthquake was a >tsunami earthquake,> a rare type of earthquake that generates a tsunami much larger than expected based on the seismic magnitude. It produced a locally devastating tsunami, with runup commonly in excess of 6m. We examine this event using a combination of high-rate GPS data, from instruments located on the nearby islands, and a tsunami field survey. The GPS displacement time series are deficient in high-frequency energy, and show ...

  6. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  7. THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hébert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

  8. Tsunami Strike! Pacific Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2011-08-23

    Tsunami Strike! Pacific Edition is a scenario-based learning experience for kids from middle school through high school (approximate ages 13-17). The scenario tells the story of four main characters at different locations in the Pacific basin who are each impacted by a major tsunami that originates in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. Over the course of the story, learners not only view the unfolding events and how each of the characters responds, but also observe how warning scientists analyze and communicate the tsunami threat. Fourteen short lessons provide interactive instruction focused on the science, safety, and history of tsunamis.

  9. POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE COLOMBIA/ECUADOR SUBDUCTION MARGIN AND THE DOLORES-GUAYAQUIL MEGA-THRUST

    OpenAIRE

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in ma...

  10. Systematic event generator tuning for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we describe Professor, a new program for tuning model parameters of Monte Carlo event generators to experimental data by parameterising the per-bin generator response to parameter variations and numerically optimising the parameterised behaviour. Simulated experimental analysis data is obtained using the Rivet analysis toolkit. This paper presents the Professor procedure and implementation, illustrated with the application of the method to tunes of the Pythia 6 event generator to data from the LEP/SLD and Tevatron experiments. These tunes are substantial improvements on existing standard choices, and are recommended as base tunes for LHC experiments, to be themselves systematically improved upon when early LHC data is available. (orig.)

  11. Pacific Tsunami Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pacific Tsunami Museum is dedicated to promoting public education about tsunamis for citizens of Hawaii and the Pacific Region, as well as preserving the social and cultural history of Hawaii. Materials available at the museum's site include a listing of exhibits, a link to a webcam overlooking Hilo Bay, and event announcements. There is also a listing of programs sponsored by the museum, including class visits, a tsunami observer program and evacuation notification team, and a walking tour of historical tsunami sites. The students' page features games and puzzles, a frequently-asked-questions feature, links to related websites, and an online collection of tsunami warning signs. Other materials include a collection of tsunami-related art, interviews with survivors, and an archive of photographs.

  12. On the moroccan tsunami catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaabouben

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary tool for regional tsunami hazard assessment is a reliable historical and instrumental catalogue of events. Morocco by its geographical situation, with two marine sides, stretching along the Atlantic coast to the west and along the Mediterranean coast to the north, is the country of Western Africa most exposed to the risk of tsunamis. Previous information on tsunami events affecting Morocco are included in the Iberian and/or the Mediterranean lists of tsunami events, as it is the case of the European GITEC Tsunami Catalogue, but there is a need to organize this information in a dataset and to assess the likelihood of claimed historical tsunamis in Morocco. Due to the fact that Moroccan sources are scarce, this compilation rely on historical documentation from neighbouring countries (Portugal and Spain and so the compatibility between the new tsunami catalogue presented here and those that correspond to the same source areas is also discussed.

  13. CHARYBDIS: a black hole event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte Carlo programs like HERWIG and PYTHIA which then perform the parton evolution and hadronization. The event generator includes the extra-dimensional 'grey-body' effects as well as the change in the temperature of the black hole as the decay progresses. Various options for modelling the Planck-scale terminal decay are provided. (author)

  14. Modeling Tsunami Wave Generation and Evolution due to the Collapse of the Cumbre Vieja and its effect on the U. S. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Weiss, R.; Titov, V.; Arcas, D.; Wei, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The lack of big subduction zones in the Atlantic Ocean makes the threat of tsunami inundation on the east coast of the U.S. different from that on the west coast. The identified faults that do exist in the Atlantic and Caribbean are ill-defined in terms of tsunami source generation. While the big 1755 earthquake destroyed Lisbon, what effect might it have had on the U.S. east coast? The other question discussed in the literature is the possible effect on the U.S. east coast of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical collapse of the Cumbre Vieja volcano. We address the question of what possible effect this collapse would have on the U.S. Atlantic coast. This study presents results of running a version of the hydro-model (i-SALE), designed to model the dynamics of the landslide and associated tsunami, as well as wave propagation in the Atlantic and potential coastal inundation, by coupling impact results to the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. This research highlights advances in state-of-the-art impact modeling as applied to tsunami wave generation and evolution, which will significantly broaden the scope of potential tsunami sources in NOAA's forecast system.

  15. Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition techniques to identify a potential seismic source located inland very near Venice, and then we evaluate how a tsunami wave generated from this source can affect the MoSE gates if they are standing up (closed) during the tsunami event. From our simulation we get both peaks and troughs as first arrivals: the behavior of the barriers in these two situations could be a very important design matter.

  16. Survive That Tsunami!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students use a table-top-sized tsunami generator to observe the formation and devastation of a tsunami. They see how a tsunami moves across the ocean and what happens when it reaches the continental shelf. Students make villages of model houses and buildings to test how different material types are impacted by the huge waves. They further discuss how engineers design buildings to survive tsunamis. Much of this activity setup is the same as for the Mini-Landscape activity in Lesson 4 of the Natural Disasters unit.

  17. Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

  18. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  19. Tsunamis from nature to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon

  20. EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume archives the reports from the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics II'' held during the week March 15, 1999 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It was the second meeting on the subject following a first one in last September. This workshop has been initiated to establish a firm collaboration between theorists and experimentalists involved in RHIC spin physics with the aim of developing a reliable, high-precision event generator for RHIC spin physics. Needless to say, adequate event generators are indispensable tools for high energy physics programs in general, especially in the process of: planning the experimental programs; developing algorithms to extract the physics signals of interest; estimating the background in the extracted results, and connecting the final particle kinematics to the fundamental i.e. partonic level processes. Since RHIC is the first polarized collider, dedicated efforts are required to obtain a full-fledged event generator which describes spin dependent reactions in great detail

  1. SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watts

    2001-01-01

    Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gne...

  2. NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PACIFIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or pre- computed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite.Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic.This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps. As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  3. Evidence for a Tsunami Event and Coastal Reorganization in the New York Metropolitan Region ~2300 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, S.; Goodbred, S.; Nitsche, F.; McHugh, C.; Carbotte, S.; Slagle, A.; Klein, E.

    2008-12-01

    It is widely recognized that major events such as tsunamis have significant effects on coastal systems over short timescales. While many of these systems show a recovery to the pre-event dynamic equilibrium, it is less well known how often such a recovery does not occur. Recent studies document a widespread reorganization occurring in the New York and New Jersey coastal region between 2100-2400 yr BP that has persisted to the present. Sediment cores and shallow-seismic surveys also reveal a high energy, potentially tsunamigenic event occurring at the same time, possibly as the source of this reorganization. In Great South Bay backbarrier lagoon, a prominent event layer of gravel-based sands and reworked shell deposits sits at the transition between between highly vegetated fresh/brackish marsh deposits and the current open estuarine conditions. The facies is well constrained by radiocarbon dates to 2200-2400 yr BP and is consistent with grain size and distribution of tsunamigenic emplacement. In the nearby Hudson River estuary an erosional unconformity, dated between 2000-2400 yr BP, is observed in the seismic and core data. Also in this portion of the Hudson is a series of distinct woody debris layers, dated between 2200-2400 yr BP. Further south, off Sandy Hook, is another prominent Holocene unconformity as well as a chaotic mass- wasting deposit containing terrigenous clay clasts mixed with marine sediments and mollusks. On the New Jersey shelf, a 20cm thick sandy mass-flow recovered at 600 m of water depth and dated at 2170 is also documented. Geologic evidence seems to show that the ~2300 yr BP event had a considerable and enduring impact on the coastal system. As the NY-NJ coast is one of significant population, understanding the recurrence and impact of such an event is critical.

  4. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  5. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my [Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Post Graduate Studies, UCSI University, Jalan Menara Gading, 56000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che [Malaysian Meteorological Department, MOSTI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  6. Holocene tsunami events in the Eastern Ionian Sea - Geoscientific evidence from Cefalonia and the western Peloponnese (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Willersha?user, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study presents geo-scientific evidence for Holocene tsunami impact along the shores of the Eastern Ionian Sea. Cefalonia Island, the Gulf of Kyparissia and the Gialova Lagoon were subject of detailed geo-scientific investigations. It is well known that the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean were hit by the destructive influence of tsunamis in the past. The seismically highly active Hellenic Trench is considered as the most significant tsunami source in the Eastern Ionian Sea. This study...

  7. New Operational Tsunami Forecast: Accuracy Assessment of Tsunami Amplitude Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA has accepted a new tsunami forecast method in operational use to predict tsunami flooding, amplitudes and other tsunami parameters in real-time, while tsunami is still propagating. The method (called Short-term Inundation Forecast for Tsunamis -- SIFT) uses DART real-time data to improve the accuracy of coastal tsunami forecast, when compared with just the seismic data-based assessment. The main goal of the forecast system is to forecast flooding due to tsunami wave at specific coastal locations. Other tsunami parameters are also computed to estimate overall hazard at a given location for a specific tsunami event. Knowing the accuracy of the forecast is extremely important for making right decisions throughout tsunami warnings procedures. During operational testing of the system a comprehensive analysis of accuracy of the system has been performed. The presentation will present the accuracy analysis of the tsunami forecast and implications for future development and improvements of tsunami forecasting.The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

  8. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area. Some of the uncertainty in the completeness of the written record has been reduced by investigating the history of tide gauges in the different regions. The first tsunami hazard assessment also used the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (NSHM) databases to partially extend the time interval. These databases are primarily meant to assess earthquakes affecting U.S. possessions and do not include all possible seismogenic tsunami sources in the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. However, the databases make it possible to estimate the rate of occurrence of larger magnitude earthquakes that could generate a tsunami. The USGS NSHM databases are based on tectonic models, and paleoseismic and paleotsunami data. These databases are periodically updated with new research. Inclusion of updated information can reduce uncertainties in tsunami sources such as the Cascadia subduction zone and others.

  9. Tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides of variable volume: analytical solutions for a basin of variable depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides of a variable volume in a basin of variable depth is studied within the shallow-water theory. The problem of landslide induced tsunami wave generation and propagation is studied analytically for two specific convex bottom profiles (h ~ x4/3 and h ~ x4. In these cases the basic equations can be reduced to the constant-coefficient wave equation with the forcing determined by the landslide motion. For certain conditions on the landslide characteristics (speed and volume per unit cross-section the wave field can be described explicitly. It is represented by one forced wave propagating with the speed of the landslide and following its offshore direction, and two free waves propagating in opposite directions with the wave celerity. For the case of a near-resonant motion of the landslide along the power bottom profile h ~ x? the dynamics of the waves propagating offshore is studied using the asymptotic approach. If the landslide is moving in the fully resonant regime the explicit formula for the amplitude of the wave can be derived. It is demonstrated that generally tsunami wave amplitude varies non-monotonically with distance.

  10. Status of Monte-Carlo Event Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, Stefan; /SLAC

    2011-08-11

    Recent progress on general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators is reviewed with emphasis on the simulation of hard QCD processes and subsequent parton cascades. Describing full final states of high-energy particle collisions in contemporary experiments is an intricate task. Hundreds of particles are typically produced, and the reactions involve both large and small momentum transfer. The high-dimensional phase space makes an exact solution of the problem impossible. Instead, one typically resorts to regarding events as factorized into different steps, ordered descending in the mass scales or invariant momentum transfers which are involved. In this picture, a hard interaction, described through fixed-order perturbation theory, is followed by multiple Bremsstrahlung emissions off initial- and final-state and, finally, by the hadronization process, which binds QCD partons into color-neutral hadrons. Each of these steps can be treated independently, which is the basic concept inherent to general-purpose event generators. Their development is nowadays often focused on an improved description of radiative corrections to hard processes through perturbative QCD. In this context, the concept of jets is introduced, which allows to relate sprays of hadronic particles in detectors to the partons in perturbation theory. In this talk, we briefly review recent progress on perturbative QCD in event generation. The main focus lies on the general-purpose Monte-Carlo programs HERWIG, PYTHIA and SHERPA, which will be the workhorses for LHC phenomenology. A detailed description of the physics models included in these generators can be found in [8]. We also discuss matrix-element generators, which provide the parton-level input for general-purpose Monte Carlo.

  11. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-06-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  12. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  13. Tsunami Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Monica

    This collection provides a wide array of visual resources and supporting material about the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Visualizations include simple animations, satellite photographs, Quicktime animations and tsunami models. The collection also contains visualizations related to other historical tsunamis and additional resources (beyond visualizations) about tsunamis. Resources can be incorporated into lectures, labs, or other activities.

  14. MEtop – a top FCNC event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a new Monte Carlo generator for Direct top and Single top production via flavour-changing neutral currents (FCNC). This new tool calculates the cross section and generates events with Next-to-Leading order precision for the Direct top process and Leading-Order precision for all other FCNC single top processes. A set of independent dimension six FCNC operators has been implemented – including four-fermion operators – where at least one top-quark is present in the interaction

  15. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

  16. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  17. Model-based tsunami warnings derived from observed impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. C. R.; Greenslade, D. J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre uses the T2 tsunami scenario database to provide forecast guidance for potential tsunami threats to the coastlines of mainland Australia and its external territories. This study describes a method for generating coastal tsunami warnings from model data obtained from the T2 scenario database. Consideration of observed coastal impacts for nine past events leads to retrospective or "ideal" warning schemes being designed. The 95th percentile values of maximum amplitude within designated coastal zones are examined and thresholds that produce the best match for the ideal schemes are selected. This empirical method is impact-based and allows the T2 scenarios to be used as a proxy for potential impacts on the coast in order to generate warnings for the Australian region.

  18. Sources of Tsunami and Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.; Tanioka, Y.

    We classified tsunamigenic earthquakes in subduction zones into three types earth quakes at the plate interface (typical interplate events), earthquakes at the outer rise, within the subducting slab or overlying crust (intraplate events), and "tsunami earthquakes" that generate considerably larger tsunamis than expected from seismic waves. The depth range of a typical interplate earthquake source is 10-40km, controlled by temperature and other geological parameters. The slip distribution varies both with depth and along-strike. Recent examples show very different temporal change of slip distribution in the Aleutians and the Japan trench. The tsunamigenic coseismic slip of the 1957 Aleutian earthquake was concentrated on an asperity located in the western half of an aftershock zone 1200km long. This asperity ruptured again in the 1986 Andreanof Islands and 1996 Delarof Islands earthquakes. By contrast, the source of the 1994 Sanriku-oki earthquake corresponds to the low slip region of the previous interplate event, the 1968 Tokachi-oki earthquake. Tsunamis from intraplate earthquakes within the subducting slab can be at least as large as those from interplate earthquakes; tsunami hazard assessments must include such events. Similarity in macroseismic data from two southern Kuril earthquakes illustrates difficulty in distinguishing interplate and slab events on the basis of historical data such as felt reports and tsunami heights. Most moment release of tsunami earthquakes occurs in a narrow region near the trench, and the concentrated slip is responsible for the large tsunami. Numerical modeling of the 1996 Peru earthquake confirms this model, which has been proposed for other tsunami earthquakes, including 1896 Sanriku, 1946 Aleutian and 1992 Nicaragua.

  19. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  20. Firewaves: introducing a platform for modelling volcanic tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël; Ulvrova, Martina; Kelfoun, Karim; Giachetti, Thomas; Switzer, Adam

    2014-05-01

    When embracing all tsunamis generated by eruptive processes, rapid ground deformation and slope instability at volcanoes, "volcanic tsunamis" represent around 5 % of all tsunamis listed for the last four centuries (>130 events since 1600 AD). About 20-25 % of all fatalities directly attributable to volcanoes during the last 250 years have been caused by volcanic tsunamis (e.g. Krakatau 1883, Mayuyama 1792). Up to eight mechanisms are implied in the generation of volcanic tsunamis: underwater explosions, pyroclastic flows and lahars entering the water, earthquake preceding or during a volcanic eruption, and flank failure, collapse of coastal lava bench, caldera collapse, and shock wave produced by large explosion. It is unlikely that shock waves, lahars and collapses of lava bench can give birth to tsunamis with wave heights of more than 3 m. Pyroclastic flows, flank failures and caldera subsidence are the only source mechanisms likely to imply volumes larger than 1 km³. Volcanic tsunamis are characterised by short-period waves and greater dispersion compared to earthquake-generated tsunamis. With the exceptions of the 1888 Ritter Island and 1883 Krakatau tsunamis, 100 % of the victims of volcanic tsunamis in Southeast Asia were less than 20 km from the volcano. Travel time of the waves from the volcano to a distance of 20 km is typically less than 15 minutes (Paris et al. 2014). In this setting, priority are (1) to improve population's preparedness around highlighted volcanoes, (2) to monitor sea / lake around volcanoes, (3) and to build a database of numerical simulations based on different eruptive scenarios. The Firewaves platform, hosted at Magmas & Volcans laboratory in Clermont-Ferrand (FRance) is a numerical solution for modelling volcanic tsunamis of different sources. Tsunamis generated by volcanic mass flows (including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches etc.) are simulated using VolcFlow code (Kelfoun et al. 2010), and underwater explosions and caldera subsidence using COMCOT (Liu et al. 1998). Three kinds of simulations are runned: (1) case-studies for calibrating the simulations (e.g. Stromboli 2002, Karymsky 1996, Mayuyama 1792), (2) comparisons of different scenarios for reconstructing past tsunamis (e.g. Kolumbo 1650), and (3) prospective scenarios from future eruptions at target volcanoes.

  1. Local Bathymetry and Shelf Resonance Effects Observed for the Near-field Tsunami Generated by the 2010, Mw 8.8, Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Paredes, J. A.; Fuentes, M.; Riquelme, S.; Contreras Reyes, E.; Ruiz, S.; Maksymowicz, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean coast has been hit by several far- and near-field tsunamis, for instance the last recent destructive tsunami devastating the Chilean shore was caused by the 2010 Mw 8.8, Maule earthquake. Several long-period waves were recorded away by DART buoys and local eyewitness and field surveys also confirm that incoming waves have hit the shore several hours after the leading wave arrival time. In addition, few published numerical modeling of the Maule near-field tsunami show trapping waves and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf. To better understand the origin of the tsunami wave trains and the continental shelf features as a potential responsible of resonance, we perform tsunami modeling by improving the earthquake source parameters modeling. We generate realistic 3D static displacement of the seafloor to be used as input for tsunami passive generation, propagation and runup estimates along the shore. We meshed the seismogenic contact zone between the Nazca and Sudamerica plates along the Maule region, through a 3D surface. The co-seismic slip distribution solution published for the Maule earthquake were used to model the runup, and trapped waves were observed on the numerical simulations. To further study the hypothesis of that a large magnitude earthquake may generate same kind of hydrodynamic effect, such as, successive tsunami wave trains, we modeled several hypothetical physical-based slip distributions for a Mw 8.8 earthquake rupture. At every subfault we used the Okada's point-source formula to compute the co-seismic static 3D displacement field. Preliminary results, show that a complex geometry of the slab have important effects on the vertical static displacements. We are currently evaluating the tsunami propagation for these hypothetical earthquakes, the study include understanding specific aspects related to local bathymetry, and hydrodynamic effects, among which, flow direction, directivity, reflection, diffraction, focusing/defocussing of water waves, and local shelf resonance.

  2. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mu?ck, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-01-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of t...

  3. Along-strike variations in the Nankai shallow décollement properties and their implications for tsunami earthquake generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Oh; Naruse, Hajime; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2014-10-01

    Rupture of slow tsunami earthquakes at subduction zones propagates along a shallow plate-boundary fault (i.e., décollement) nearly all the way to the trench. Seismic reflection profiles reveal that the shallow décollements have variable reflection characteristics in the Nankai subduction zone, allowing us to divide the subduction zone into impedance-decreasing (inferred to be fluid-rich) and impedance-increasing (fluid-poor) décollement regions. The fluid-rich décollement regions with reverse-polarity reflections may play a role as conditionally stable patches because of elevated fluid pressures. In contrast, the fluid-poor décollement regions with normal-polarity reflections could be unstable seismogenic patches with no unusual fluid pressures. We propose that when megathrust earthquakes nucleate at shallow depth, the small unstable fluid-poor patches are prone to slip. They may also accelerate (velocity-weakening) adjacent large, conditionally stable patches, generating large shallow slip and large tsunamis. As a result, along-strike contrast of fault properties can involve large tsunami earthquakes along the Nankai shallow megathrust fault.

  4. New developments in event generator tuning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data analyses in hadron collider physics depend on background simulations performed by Monte Carlo (MC) event generators. However, calculational limitations and non-perturbative effects in strong interactions require approximate models with adjustable parameters. In fact, we need to simultaneously adjust (''tune'') many phenomenological parameters in a high-dimensional parameter-space in order to make the MC generator predictions fit the data. I will present extensions and improvements of the systematic approach to MC tuning, called PROFESSOR (PROcedure For Estimating SyStematic errORs), whose key idea is to construct a fast analytic model of a MC generator response under parameter variations which can then be easily fitted to data. Among the improvements are a robust estimate of tuning uncertainties as well as a graphical user interface that allows for interactive exploration of the behaviour of observables under shifts in parameter space.

  5. Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

  6. Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

  7. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

  8. Tsunami Model of Cilacap-Indonesia: Inundation and Its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongko, W.; Schlurmann, T.; Khomarudin, R.

    2009-12-01

    Cilacap has a relatively flat topographical terrain and the highest population in the south coast of Java. Furthermore, several industrial parks and factories with domestic scale are also located along and near to the coast. On 17 July 2006, an Earthquake magnitude Mw 7.8 off the south coast of west Java, generated tsunami that affected over 300 km of south Java coastline and killed more than 600 people. Several sub-districts in Cilacap experienced tsunami, and the most affected area recorded the tsunami run-up up to 6 m with penetration around 400 m inland and remaining hundreds victims. Obviously, this city is the one of the most vulnerable place in south of Java against tsunami in future. Within German-Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project, there are three cities as a pilot project for study area, one among them is Cilacap. In this area, the high-resolution near-shore bathymetrical survey equipped by multi-beam echo-sounder as well as the highly data acquisition of topographical data as a Digital Terrain Data (DTM) has been conducted. These efforts’ goal is to support the analysis tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment in Indonesia in future. This paper will describe the result of the tsunami inundation model using high resolution data of bathymetry and topography which is the case study at Cilacap Indonesia. The non linear shallow water equation of 2D model with several plausible worst scenario of tsunami source which their parameter validated using 2006 event have been used. For mitigation purpose, to reduce the tsunami attack, the existence of artificial coastal protection i.e. sand dunes and coastal forest were examined. The results were compared and the effectiveness of the coastal protections was discussed. The people affected by tsunami in terms of their distribution in major timely-based (day, night, and holiday) also being predicted.

  9. Field Survey of the March 28, 2005 Nias-Simeulue Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; McAdoo, Brian; Jaffe, Bruce; Dengler, Lori; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Higman, Bretwood; Hidayat, Rahman; Moore, Andrew; Kongko, Widjo; Lukijanto; Peters, Robert; Prasetya, Gegar; Titov, Vasily; Yulianto, Eko

    2011-06-01

    On the evening of March 28, 2005 at 11:09 p.m. local time (16:09 UTC), a large earthquake occurred offshore of West Sumatra, Indonesia. With a moment magnitude ( M w) of 8.6, the event caused substantial shaking damage and land level changes between Simeulue Island in the north and the Batu Islands in the south. The earthquake also generated a tsunami, which was observed throughout the source region as well as on distant tide gauges. While the tsunami was not as extreme as the tsunami of December 26th, 2004, it did cause significant flooding and damage at some locations. The spatial and temporal proximity of the two events led to a unique set of observational data from the earthquake and tsunami as well as insights relevant to tsunami hazard planning and education efforts.

  10. California Seismic Safety Commission: Tsunami Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides general information on tsunamis for the state of California and the Pacific coast. Topics include what tsunamis are and how they are generated, the tsunami generated by the 1964 Alaska earthquake, and steps individuals should take if they experience an earthquake at the shoreline or hear a tsunami warning. There is also a discussion of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 and an animation of the powerful tsunamis it generated, as well as a set of links to tsunami research organizations.

  11. Tsunami: the Great Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in advance of the first of six tsunami waves after venturing out when the water first receded ( ... generation mechanism. T sunamis, also called seismic sea waves or incorrectly tidal waves, are caused generally by ...

  12. The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

  13. Relative Tsunami Hazard Maps, Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L. A.; Ludy, B. R.; Patton, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    We present a series of maps depicting the relative tsunami hazard of coastal Humboldt County in Northern California. Unlike inundation maps that show a single line to show the inland extent of flooding, these maps use a four-color zonation to represent relative risk. The highest hazard area has experienced tsunami or storm wave inundation in historic times. These areas include beaches and low coastal bluffs on the open coast and low areas adjacent to Humboldt Bay and major river deltas. The high hazard zones are also mapped as zone A (100 year flooding) or zone V (100 year flood with wave action) on FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Moderate hazard zones are areas likely to be flooded by a major tsunami generated by the Cascadia subduction zone based on published paleotsunami studies, numerical modeling (Bernard and others, 1994) and observations of recent tsunamis elsewhere. Current estimates of major Cascadia earthquake recurrence averages about 500 years. Low hazard zones show no evidence of flooding in the paleotsunami record and are likely to provide refuge in all but the most extreme event. No hazard areas are too high in elevation and/or too far inland to be at risk. A continuous gradational color scale ranging from red (high hazard) through orange (medium), yellow (low) to gray (no hazard) depicts the zones. The blurred boundaries help convey the continuum of possible events and the uncertainty in delineating distinct inundation lines. The maps are GIS based to facilitate ready adaptation by planners and emergency managers. The maps are intended for educational purposes, to improve awareness of tsunami hazards and to encourage emergency planning efforts of local and regional organizations by illustrating the range of possible tsunami events.

  14. A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatrarious simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  15. The 1755 Lisbon tsunami; evaluation of the tsunami parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Heitor, S.; Miranda, J. M.; Miranda, P.; Victor, L. Mendes

    1998-01-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1755.01.11 earthquake affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco and was observed all over the North Atlantic coasts. The catastrophic dimensions of that phenomenon had a tremendous impact on the city of Lisbon and on several villages along the south coast of Portugal. The earthquake was felt all over Europe and the seismic intensity was estimated as X-XI (Mercalli Intensity Scale) at Lisbon and Southwest Portugal (Cape S. Vicente). The most destructive waves were observed along the coast of Portugal, specially in Lisbon, in the area of the S. Vicente Cape, along the Gulf of Cadiz and Northwest Morocco. Throughout historic times, earthquakes have periodically affected the city of Lisbon causing severe damage and casualties. In spite of that, the city kept growing, so the extension of damage and the loss of human lives in 1755, was quite impressive. The down town of Lisbon was flooded by the rising of the waters of the river Tagus and most historical documents reported waves of 6 m height. At Cape S. Vicente (Southwest Portugal) the run-up height, evaluated from historical data, is greater than 15 m. The eye witness accounts from Spain and Morocco reported wave heights greater than 10 m and large flooded areas along the Gulf of Cadiz and in several harbours in Morocco, e.g. Safi and Agadir. In the city of Lisbon, the number of casualties due exclusively to the tsunami, is estimate around 900, and the penetration of the waters is evaluated to be 250 m. Most of the available literature concerning the 1755 earthquake is based on the compilation of Pereira de Sousa (1919) and, sometimes, incorporates both well established historical records and non reliable information. As the 1755 event evaluation is crucial to a quantitative approach of the tsunami hazard and risk assessment in Portugal, a new examination of the historical records was needed before the establishment of reliable tsunami parameters that can be used both in numerical models of tsunami propagation and in geodynamic studies. In this paper, we present a new compilation of almost all the available historical data from the countries affected by the tsunami. In the analysis of these records, the following tsunami parameters are inferred: travel time, polarity of the first movement, maximum run-up height, period, number of waves, duration of the sea disturbance and extent of flooding.

  16. Improved partonic event generators at lepton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Giele, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    A method is detailed for the phase space integration of multi-jets cross sections at lepton colliders, applicable to parton level Monte Carlo's at any order in perturbation theory. Other non-jet objects, massless or massive, can be included in the phase space generation. We correlate the bremsstrahlung events in a manner that integrates out all partonic configurations leading to a fixed jet configuration, thereby improving convergence. This also allows the method to extend infra-red safety to the fully differential multi-jet cross section.

  17. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Hait as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  18. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right) tsunami induced currents and surface agitation. The small jetty indicated with the arrow is overtopped in the second image (indicated by the oval)

  19. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura

  20. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronisation model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

  1. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, T.; Hoche, Stefan.; Krauss, F.; Schoenherr, M.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Winter, J.

    2008-12-18

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

  2. Sensitivity of tsunami wave profiles and inundation simulations to earthquake slip and fault geometry for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Mai, Paul Martin; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Mori, Nobuhito

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we develop stochastic random-field slip models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and conduct a rigorous sensitivity analysis of tsunami hazards with respect to the uncertainty of earthquake slip and fault geometry. Synthetic earthquake slip distributions generated from the modified Mai-Beroza method captured key features of inversion-based source representations of the mega-thrust event, which were calibrated against rich geophysical observations of this event. Using original and synthesised earthquake source models (varied for strike, dip, and slip distributions), tsunami simulations were carried out and the resulting variability in tsunami hazard estimates was investigated. The results highlight significant sensitivity of the tsunami wave profiles and inundation heights to the coastal location and the slip characteristics, and indicate that earthquake slip characteristics are a major source of uncertainty in predicting tsunami risks due to future mega-thrust events.

  3. Sensitivity of tsunami wave profiles and inundation simulations to earthquake slip and fault geometry for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we develop stochastic random-field slip models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and conduct a rigorous sensitivity analysis of tsunami hazards with respect to the uncertainty of earthquake slip and fault geometry. Synthetic earthquake slip distributions generated from the modified Mai-Beroza method captured key features of inversion-based source representations of the mega-thrust event, which were calibrated against rich geophysical observations of this event. Using original and synthesised earthquake source models (varied for strike, dip, and slip distributions), tsunami simulations were carried out and the resulting variability in tsunami hazard estimates was investigated. The results highlight significant sensitivity of the tsunami wave profiles and inundation heights to the coastal location and the slip characteristics, and indicate that earthquake slip characteristics are a major source of uncertainty in predicting tsunami risks due to future mega-thrust events.

  4. Tsunami Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site assists the international Tsunami Society in its mission to distribute "knowledge about tsunamis to scientists, officials, and the public." In the first section of the site, scientists can download articles from the 2002 and 2003 issues of the journal Science of Tsunami Hazards. Visitors can also view footage from tsunamis around the world. The second section of the site discusses the details of the society including its origin, award recipients, and symposiums.

  5. NOAA Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web site developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on issues surrounding tsunamis. It provides an extensive selection of links to information on how tsunamis are created, hazards associated with them, and how individuals and communities can prepare and respond to a tsunami. There is also information about the NOAA's role in tsunami warnings and preparedness, including locations of warning centers in the Pacific Ocean Basin, observations and data, forecasts, and hazard-assessment research and modeling.

  6. A comparison between two inundation models for the 25 Ooctober 2010 Mentawai Islands Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Borrero, J. C.; Qiu, Q.; Hill, E. M.; Li, L.; Sieh, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    On 25 October 2010, an Mw~7.8 earthquake occurred on the Sumatra megathrust seaward of the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, generating a tsunami which killed approximately 500 people. Following the event, the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) initiated a post-tsunami field survey, collecting tsunami run-up data from more than 30 sites on Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara and Sipora. The strongest tsunami effects were observed on several small islands offshore of Pagai Selatan, where runup exceeded 16 m. This presentation will focus on a detailed comparison between two tsunami propagation and inundation models: COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model) and MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami). Simulations are initialized using fault models based on data from a 1-hz GPS system that measured co-seismic deformation throughout the region. Preliminary simulations suggest that 2-m vertical seafloor deformation over a reasonably large area is required to recreate most of the observed tsunami effects. Since the GPS data suggest that subsidence of the islands is small, this implies that the tsunami source region is somewhat narrower and located further offshore than described in recently published earthquake source models based on teleseismic inversions alone. We will also discuss issues such as bathymetric and topographic data preparation and the uncertainty in the modeling results due to the lack of high resolution bathymetry and topography in the study area.

  7. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J; Nejad, B Chokoufe; Kilian, W; Ohl, T; Sekulla, M; Weiss, C

    2014-01-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  8. North East Atlantic Tsunamis: Update of the Portuguese Catalogue of Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is the 1st November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, which are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.This research was funded by NEAREST and TRANSFER, 6FP EU Projects

  9. The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

  10. Numerical simulation of the tsunami generated by the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and implications for unusual tidal surges observed in Toyama Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ikuo; Goto, Kazuhisa; Imamura, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Katsuyoshi

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a numerical analysis of the tsunami generated by the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake ( M j = 6.9) that occurred on 25 March 2007 near the Noto Peninsula on the northwest coast of Honshu Island, Japan. Our numerical simulation reproduced well the behaviors of the tsunami as recorded at the Wajima tidal observatory and showed that the computed tsunami arrived in Toyama Bay more than 1 h after the earthquake. However, a crew of a small boat in the bay felt the shock and, despite calm weather conditions, their boat capsized just 3 min after the earthquake. Although abnormal tidal surges were recorded at several locations around Toyama Bay, the timing of these is inconsistent with the surges being a direct result of the tsunami generated at the source area of the earthquake. We used "backward wave propagation analysis" to estimate the likely source area of the abnormal tidal surges in the bay and carried out the a simulation of landslide-induced tsunami. Our conclusion is that these abnormal tidal surges were likely caused by a submarine landslide on the steep sea floor on the western side of Toyama Bay.

  11. Possible sources of the tsunami observed in the northwestern Indian Ocean following the 2013 September 24 Mw 7.7 Pakistan inland earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    We report and analyse the tsunami recorded in the northwestern Indian Ocean at the Makran region following the Mw 7.7 Pakistan inland strike-slip earthquake on 2013 September 24. We analyse eleven tide gauge records as well as one DART record of this tsunami and perform numerical modelling of the tsunami that would be triggered by a range of possible sources. The tsunami registered a maximum wave height of 109 cm at the Qurayat tide gauge station (Oman). The dominant period of the tsunami was around 12 min, although wavelet analysis showed that parts of the tsunami energy were partitioned into a slightly wider period range of 7 and 16 min. Tsunami backward ray tracing showed that the tsunami source was possibly located offshore Jiwani (Pakistan) and that the tsunami was most likely triggered by the main shock. The aftershocks are distributed in the inland region and the coseismic vertical and horizontal displacements are also limited inland implying that the tsunami was generated by secondary sources triggered by the earthquake. Different possible tsunami sources including a mud volcano at the location of the newly generated island, and a mud volcano or diapir at offshore deep water were examined through numerical modelling and all failed to reproduce the observed waveforms. Numerical modelling showed that a submarine slump with a source dimension of about 10-15 km and a thickness of about 100 m located at 61.49°E and 24.62°N, that is, about 60-70 km off the Jiwani coast (Pakistan), seems capable of reasonably reproducing the wave amplitudes and periods of the observed tsunami waveforms. This event was the second instrumentally recorded tsunami in the region, after the Makran tsunami of 1945 November, and provides evidence for a hazard from landslide/slump-generated waves following seismic activity in the area.

  12. Dynamics of tsunami waves

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Fre?de?ric; Dutykh, Denys

    2006-01-01

    The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoo...

  13. TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc., the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

  14. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard...

  15. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  16. Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures on inundation and outflow flow velocities. Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events. On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the south coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. This event was observed by eyewitnesses on board the sole surviving fishing boat, which managed to ride the tsunami. The mega-tsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross-section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt in a two dimensional physical laboratory model. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) provided instantaneous velocity vector fields of decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. Three dimensional source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance numerical landslide tsunami models. This lecture encompasses multi-hazard aspects and implications of recent tsunami and cyclonic events around the world such as the November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in the Philippines.

  17. First applications of the HIPSE event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictions of an event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range, are compared with experimental data collected by the INDRA and INDRA-ALADIN collaborations. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles at all impact parameters for the system Xe+Sn between 25 and 80 MeV/u. Considering the kinematical characteristics of the fragments, we have shown that the collective motion finds its origin both in the intrinsic motion of the nucleon and in the relative momentum between the two partners of the reaction suggesting a fragmentation process with a strong memory of the entrance channel. Moreover, the model gives information on the phase space explored during the collision as for example pre-equilibrium emission. It also allows a direct access of the partition at freeze-out (in terms of excitation energy, angular momentum, impact parameter...) before secondary decay

  18. A case study of sanitary survey on community drinking water supplies after a severe (post-Tsunami) flooding event / Caso studio di sorveglianza sanitaria in una comunità per l'approvvigionamento di acque potabili dopo un maremoto post-Tsunami

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emanuele, Ferretti; Lucia, Bonadonna; Luca, Lucentini; Simonetta, Della Libera; Maurizio, Semproni; Massimo, Ottaviani.

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english This report presents a case study of a comprehensive sanitary survey on ca. 160 community drinking water supplies after a severe (post-Tsunami) flooding event in Sri Lanka. Sanitary inspection and microbiological and chemical water quality analyses were performed according to specifically-designed p [...] rocedures established on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Significant hazards and critical points were identified in almost all the investigated water supplies. The overall results showed a significant level of microbiological and chemical risk associated with drinking water consumption within the investigated areas. The criteria and methods practised in this study are proposed as a model to assure an effective and reliable monitoring in post-emergencies involving possible deterioration of water quality and to identify health priorities related to water consumption.

  19. What is the fault that has generated the earthquake on 8 September 1905 in Calabria, Italy? Source models compared by tsunami data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Facchin, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    The earthquake that the 8 September 1905 hit Calabria in southern Italy was the second Italian earthquake for magnitude in the last century. It destroyed many villages along the coast of the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia, caused more than 500 fatalities and has also generated a tsunami with non-destructive effects. The historical reports tell us that the tsunami caused major damage in the villages of Briatico, Bivona, Pizzo and Vibo Marina, located in the south part of the Sant'Eufemia gulf and minor damage to Tropea and to Scalea, this one being village located about 100 km far from the epicenter. Other reports include accounts of fishermen at sea during the tsunami. Further, the tsunami is visible on tide gauge records in Messina, Sicily, in Naples and in Civitavecchia, a harbour located to the north of Rome (Platania, 1907) In spite of the attention devoted by researchers to this case, until now, like for other tsunamigenic Italian earthquakes, the genetic structure of the earthquake is still not identified and debate is still open. In this context, tsunami simulations can provide contributions useful to find the source model more consistent with observational data. This approach was already followed by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002), who carried out numerical simulations of tsunamis from a number of local sources. In the last decade studies on this seismogenic area were int ensified resulting in new estimates for the 1905 earthquake magnitude (7.1 according to the CPTI11 catalogue) and in the suggestion of new source models. By using an improved tsunami simulation model, more accurate bathymetry data, this work tests the source models investigated by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002) and in addition the new fault models proposed by Cucci and Tertulliani (2010) and by Loreto et al. (2013). The simulations of the tsunami are calculated by means of the code, UBO-TSUFD, that solves the linear equations of Navier-Stokes in approximation of shallow water with the finite-difference technique, while the initial conditions are calculated via Okada's formula. The key-result used to test the models against the data is the maximum height of the tsunami calculated close to the shore at a minimum depth of 5m corrected using the values of the initial coseismic field deformation.

  20. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  1. Simulation of the short-term tsunami forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yury; Lavrentiev-Jr, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    The method of the short-term tsunami forecast based on a known reciprocity principle is applied for simulation of recent events. 2006, 2007, 2009 Simushir tsunamis, 2009 Samoa tsunami and 2009 Santa Cruz tsunami were simulated. The only seismological information about earthquakes epicenter coordinates was used. The transfer function permitting to compute the waveform of expected tsunami in any specific point is formed during an event, at once after receiving an information about earthquake epicenter coordinates. At once after passing the first half-wave of a tsunami through a point of registration and receiving information about it the forecasted tsunami waveform at specific point can be obtained. Tsunami waveforms at remote points are computed on data of DART system station near to epicenter. The result of computation demonstrates a good concurrence expected tsunami waveform with the recorded tsunami waveform during 60 minutes. The coefficient of correlation is estimated as 0.9.

  2. Tsunami Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Tsunami Surge is a project for students in grades 6-12 that uses real-time data sources from the internet to help students answer these questions. They will be challenged to think critically and creatively in their efforts to understand, predict, and guard against this powerful force of nature. Students will learn to describe what a tsunami is and what causes it, explain how tsunamis are different from regular waves in the ocean, determine where tsunamis are most likely to originate, create a plan for a tsunami warning system, and explain how to prepare and protect an area that could be hit by a tsunami. There are many activities and helpful tools for the teachers, like a reference guide and teacher guide.

  3. The April Fool's Tsunami of 1946: Lessons From Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Tryon, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Submarine landslides are often invoked to explain very large runups because of "Plafker's rule of thumb" (corroborated by Okal &Synolakis), that maximum tsunami runup in the near field does not much exceed maximum slip of the generating earthquake. The huge (30 m) runups along the Aceh coast in 2004 do not require any landslide, however, because earthquake slip approached 30 m. From its tsunami alone, Tanioka &Seno have inferred similar large slip for the eastern Aleutian earthquake of 1 April 1946. But 1946 remains an enigma because the tsunami source region seems too small for the generating earthquake, and the earthquake, supposedly magnitude 8.5, occurred in a region of no strain accumulation. The unambiguous evidence of Sumatra, however, demands that the 1946 event be reexamined. The small source region of the 1946 tsunami depends critically on the one Japanese tide gauge that recorded the tsunami clearly, Hanasaki. But the calibration notations on the Hanasaki record are inconsistent with the identified tsunami arrival time, so the timing remains suspect. The lack of measurable strain is more difficult to dismiss: rupture areas of known great earthquakes (including both Sumatra 2004 and Alaska 1964) all show post-seismic or inter-seismic deformation, making the Unimak segment of the Aleutian Megathrust, and the adjacent Shumagin segment (which also shows no strain accumulation, despite a supposed great earthquake there in 1788), anomalous. A landslide in 1946 was invoked to explain 42 m runup at Scotch Cap, near the western end of Unimak Island. A multibeam survey of the Aleutian slope in 2004 showed that there is no landslide capable of producing such runup. While a landslide on the adjacent unsurveyed slope is possible, it would have to be so large that runup exceeded 50 m along Unimak Bight, the central Unimak coast. No evidence for such huge runup has yet been found, though the tsunami runup exceeded 22 m at Cape Pankof, the eastern extremity of the island. From Scotch Cap to Cape Pankof is 115 km. This compares to the 190 km from Banda Aceh to Meulaboh in Sumatra, the extent of >20 m runups in 2004. We remain uncertain of the origins of the 1946 tsunami. If the source was a landslide, then great ocean- crossing tsunamis can be generated without great earthquakes, which has serious implications for tsunami warning. But if, as comparison with Sumatra now suggests, the source turns out to be purely the earthquake, then we must infer that between major events it is possible for a megathrust to display no deformation at all. A few multibeam tracks would resolve the issue.

  4. CAPTURING THE NEXT GENERATION OF CULTURAL MEMORIES – THE PROCESS OF VIDEO INTERVIEWING TSUNAMI SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional story telling is rare in many cultures these days and yet stories are an effective way of educating people of all ages. The technology of modern media is increasingly accessing all corners of the world and if used wisely can help capture and communicate messages of disaster preparedness. Planned video interviewing of tsunami survivors began around 1998 and an extensive archive has been assembled at the Pacific Tsunami Museum. Video interviewing is an effective way to collect data that are both educational and scientific. The technique however, is not simple and a protocol has been developed to achieve the best results. We explain the protocol in detail using examples where appropriate, and discuss a wide range of applications that have been developed using interview materials. Recent advances in analytical techniques mean that the previously difficult to access qualitative data of these interviews are now available for more robust scientific analysis. The database continues to grow each year. It seems likely that this publicly- available database will now be available for a whole suite of new applications that can be developed.

  5. THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Annunziato

    2007-01-01

    The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the loc...

  6. MadGraph/MadEvent. The new web generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new web-based version of the automatized process and event generator MadGraph/MadEvent is now available. Recent developments are: New models, notably MSSM, 2HDM and a framework for addition of user-defined models, inclusive sample generation and on-line hadronization and detector simulation. Event generation can be done on-line on any of our clusters. (author)

  7. Exploring tsunamis with non-traditional dataset: array recordings from temporary ocean-bottom seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, A. F.; Yang, Z.; Nicolsky, D.; Mungov, G.; Eakins, B.

    2011-12-01

    We observe clear tsunami signals generated by the July 15, 2009 magnitude 7.8 Dusky Sound (Fiordland) New Zealand earthquake on seafloor differential pressure gauges (DPGs). The dataset was collected during the ocean-bottom seismic experiment, Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA). This experiment deployed 30 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (Trillium 240) and differential pressure gauges (DPGs) for a year (2009/01-2010/02) both in deep ocean (greater than 4000 m water depth) and on the continental shelf (550 m to 1300 m) offshore of the South Island of New Zealand. The DPGs are used in many US National Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) experiments and are designed to record seismic signals. In this study, we demonstrate that DPGs can effectively record open-ocean tsunami signals and the tsunami signals on DPG records can be used for tsunami studies. We carry out waveform and spectral analysis for DPG data recordings of the Fiordland tsunami event. The arrival times of tsunami signals on DPG recordings can be directly used to constrain tsunami wave propagation models. We calibrate the DPGs to obtain better control on the amplitude of the tsunami signals on the DPG records. Calibrations are done over frequency bands of both Rayleigh wave and tidal signals. Synthetic pressure waveforms are calculated to be compared with the DPG recorded signals.

  8. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante / Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, González González; Modesto, Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel, Montoya Rodríguez.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de o [...] ndas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which p [...] rovides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  9. Automated Testing with Targeted Event Sequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning; Prasad, Mukul R.

    2013-01-01

    Automated software testing aims to detect errors by producing test inputs that cover as much of the application source code as possible. Applications for mobile devices are typically event-driven, which raises the challenge of automatically producing event sequences that result in high coverage. Some existing approaches use random or model-based testing that largely treats the application as a black box. Other approaches use symbolic execution, either starting from the entry points of the applications or on specific event sequences. A common limitation of the existing approaches is that they often fail to reach the parts of the application code that require more complex event sequences. We propose a two-phase technique for automatically finding event sequences that reach a given target line in the application code. The first phase performs concolic execution to build summaries of the individual event handlers of the application. The second phase builds event sequences backward from the target, using the summaries together with a UI model of the application. Our experiments on a collection of open source Android applications show that this technique can successfully produce event sequences that reach challenging targets.

  10. Tsunami observations in the open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Deep-sea tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in the creation of an effective tsunami warning system. The paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the beginning (about 50 years ago) to the present day. It describes modern tsunami monitoring systems, including the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART), innovative Japanese bottom cable projects, and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with those recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom presure observations is exemplified based on analysis of distant (22000 km) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  11. Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.

    2015-03-01

    Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  12. Development of tsunami-seismic PSA software for nuclear power plants in multi-unit site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large tsunami induced by the Great East Japan earthquakes on March 11, 2011 triggered the accidents at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The earthquake caused loss of off-site power and the tsunami failed most of the ultimate heat sink of the seawater pumps and on-site diesel generators and eventually DC batteries, resulting in station blackout (SBO), loss of core cooling and loss of reactor control. Because of insufficient preparedness against such severe accidents, three reactor cores damaged and large amount of radioactivity released to the environment. The primary lessons learned are enhancement of protective measures against severe accidents by external events, especially tsunami-seismic events. This paper describes development of tsunami-seismic PSA methods and sample analysis to gain some of risk insights and directions of PSA technology improvement. (author)

  13. Tohoku Tsunami Created Icebergs In Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Lynch

    This website, from NASA, offers an article, images, and a video about the connection between the 2011 tsunami off the coast of Japan and a large ice calving event in Antarctica. Scientists observed ice calving soon after the Japan event and attributed it to the swell caused by the tsunami; this finding marks the first direct observation of such a connection between tsunamis and icebergs.

  14. The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the demand has grown ...

  15. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  16. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  17. The Transoceanic 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Baptista, M. A.; Sahal, A.; Accary, F.; Allgeyer, S.; Hébert, H.

    2011-06-01

    On 1 November 1755, a major earthquake of estimated M w=8.5/9.0 destroyed Lisbon (Portugal) and was felt in the whole of western Europe. It generated a huge transoceanic tsunami that ravaged the coasts of Morocco, Portugal and Spain. Local extreme run-up heights were reported in some places such as Cape St Vincent (Portugal). Great waves were reported in the Madeira Islands, the Azores and as far as the Antilles (Caribbean Islands). An accurate search for historical data allowed us to find new (unpublished) information concerning the tsunami arrival and its consequences in several islands of the Lesser Antilles Arc. In some places, especially Martinique and the Guadeloupe islands, 3 m wave heights, inundation of low lands, and destruction of buildings and boats were reported (in some specific locations probably more enclined to wave amplification). In this study, we present the results of tsunami modeling for the 1755 event on the French island of Martinique, located in the Lesser Antilles Arc. High resolution bathymetric grids were prepared, including topographic data for the first tens of meters from the coastline, in order to model inundations on several sites of Martinique Island. In order to reproduce as well as possible the wave coastal propagation and amplification, the final grid was prepared taking into account the main coastal features and harbour structures. Model results are checked against historical data in terms of wave arrival, polarity, amplitude and period and they correlate well for Martinique. This study is a contribution to the evaluation of the tele-tsunami impact in the Caribbean Islands due to a source located offshore of Iberia and shows that an 8.5 magnitude earthquake located in the northeastern Atlantic is able to generate a tsunami that could impact the Caribbean Islands. This fact must be taken into account in hazard and risk studies for this area.

  18. Modeling the underlying event: generating predictions for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, A

    2009-01-01

    This report presents tunings for PYTHIA6.416 and JIMMY4.3 to the underlying event. The MC generators are tuned to describe underlying event measurements made by CDF for proton-anti-proton collisions at 1.8 TeV in the centre of mass. LHC predictions for the underlying event generated by the tuned models are also compared in this report.

  19. Earthquake and Tsunami Potential of the Hikurangi Subduction Thrust, New Zealand: Insights from Paleoseismology, GPS, and Tsunami Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hikurangi subduction margin, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North Island of New Zealand, poses a major seismic and tsunami hazard to the New Zealand region, but its seismic and tsunami potential is largely unknown because of New Zealand's short (< 170 years historical record of seismicity. This article discusses the implications of results from GPS, paleoseismology, and tsunami modeling studies for understanding Hikurangi subduction earthquake and tsunami potential. Paleoseismic and geodetic data indicate that earthquakes of MW 8.0 and larger are certainly plausible at the Hikurangi margin. Paleoseismic evidence for large megathrust earthquakes beneath Hawke Bay in central Hikurangi demonstrates that large seismic slip may occur within an area that currently slips in episodic slow slip events. This result has important implications for seismic hazards at subduction margins elsewhere. Strong similarities between the subduction zones of the Hikurangi margin and the Japan Trench suggest that a giant MW 9.0 earthquake similar to the 2011 T?hoku-Oki earthquake may be possible for the Hikurangi margin. Such an event would generate a large tsunami that would inundate much of the east coast of the North Island. Understanding of the earthquake potential of the Hikurangi megathrust is only in its infancy, and we recommend a number of studies to increase knowledge.

  20. Tsunami Source Specification for Southeast Alaska with Focus on Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment in Sitka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E. N.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska. This activity provides local emergency officials with tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation tools. At-risk communities are spread along several segments of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, with each segment having a unique seismic history and potential tsunami hazard. As a result, almost every community has a distinct set of potential tsunami sources that need to be considered in order to make a tsunami inundation map. Therefore, an important component of the inundation mapping effort is identification and specification of potential tsunami sources. We are creating tsunami inundation maps for Sitka, Alaska, in the scope of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Tsunami potential from tectonic and submarine landslide sources must be evaluated in this case for comprehensive mapping of areas at risk for inundation. The community of Sitka, the former capital of Russian Alaska, is located in Southeast Alaska, on the west coast of Baranof Island, facing the Pacific Ocean. In this area of southern Alaska, the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North America plate becomes a transform boundary that continues down the coast as the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte (FW-QC) transform fault system. The Sitka segment of the FW-QC fault system ruptured in large strike-slip earthquakes in 1927 (Ms7.1) and in 1972 (Ms7.6). We numerically model the extent of inundation in Sitka due to tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake, repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami waves generated by a hypothetically extended 1964 rupture, a hypothetical Cascadia megathrust earthquake, and hypothetical earthquakes in the FW-QC fault system. Underwater landslide events off the continental shelf along the FW-QC fault zone are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the scenarios using AEIC's numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup, which was validated through a set of analytical benchmarks and tested against laboratory and field data. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations in the region will be delivered to local emergency management to be used in local tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning and public education.

  1. Analysis of Coral Damage due to September, 29,2009 Samoa Tsunami on Tsunami Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya; Titov, Vasily

    2014-05-01

    An earthquake of a magnitude Mw=8.0 occurred on September 29th, 2009 at 17:48 UTC in the central South Pacific Ocean with the epicenter at 15.5°S 172°. The tsunami waves, generated by the earthquake, hit islands of Samoa and American Samoa in about 15-20 minutes, killing over 150 people. The tsunami wave forces also generated adverse impacts to environmentally and economically valuable coral reef ecosystems, particularly in Tutuila Island of American Samoa. The aim of this research is to study coastal and near-shore tsunami impact and coastal tsunami damage with numerical techniques using high resolution bathymetry of Tutuila, to measure tsunami damage to the corals, to find a relationship between coral damage and tsunami impact, and to correlate this relationship with tsunami parameters. The results of a sensitivity study on the mitigation effects of corals on tsunami inundation will be presented.

  2. Observed and Modeled Tsunami Currents on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, A. R.; Dengler, L.; Crawford, G. B.; uslu, B. U.; Montoya, J.; Wilson, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, a pilot project was implemented in Humboldt Bay, near Eureka, California to measure the currents produced by tsunamis. This area is susceptible to both near- and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located about 100km north of Humboldt Bay, suffered 20 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional 16 million from the 2011 Tohoku-oki (Japan) tsunami. We deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600kHz 2D Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) with a one-minute sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the NOAA tide gauge site. The instrument recorded the tsunami produced by the Mw 8.8 Chilean earthquake on February 27, 2010 as well as the Mw 9.0 Japanese earthquake on March 11, 2011. Currents from the 2010 tsunami persisted in Humboldt Bay for at least 30hrs with a peak current amplitude of 0.3m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 86hrs with a peak amplitude of 1.2m/s. Strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level as recorded on the NOAA tide gauge, about 90min after the initial wave arrival. Tsunami currents associated with ebb tides (tidal currents flowing out of the bay) were about 25% larger than currents associated with flood tides. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event; the 2011 tsunami pulled one boat away from its moorings at the marina about six kilometers away from the instrument site. Although we have no instrument in Crescent City, we were able to estimate currents for the first three and a half hours of the Japan tsunami using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master building across from the entrance to the boat basin, about 70m away from the NOAA tide gauge site. Most of the damage occurred within this time window. The strongest currents reached 4.5m/s and six cycles exceeded 4m/s in the three and a half hours of data. We used the MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunamis) model to compare measured currents to numerical predictions. MOST does a reasonably good job of predicting peak amplitudes for the 2010 and 2011 events in Humboldt Bay and the 2011 tsunami in Crescent City. For Humboldt Bay, the model does a good job of replicating the first four hours of the signal although the ebb currents are slightly underestimated. The model predictions break down for the later part of the signal. This project shows that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events. Data from this project will be used to validate and/or calibrate MOST so that realistic tsunami current hazard maps can be generated for California for use by harbor managers.

  3. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, W.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2009-12-01

    Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis originating near PR are a near-field hazard for as they can reach coastal areas within minutes of a generating event. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have been identified. To mitigate these risks to communities, the PR Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000 with funding from FEMA, the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) and the PR State Emergency Management Agency (PRSEMA). With the support of NTHMP and TsunamiReady (TR), PR continues to seek to mitigate possible tsunami damages and increase community resilience by helping communities meet the TR guidelines by providing them inundation maps, helping them develop evacuation maps and emergency plans, assisting them with community outreach efforts and conducting evacuation drills. Currently 6 of 44 tsunami threatened communities in PR have been recognized as TsunamiReady. As part of this process, the PRSN, PRSEMA and various communities participated in the LANTEX 2009 tsunami exercise. This exercise took place on April 2, 2009 and was based on a scenario in which an earthquake northeast of PR generates a major tsunami which impacts PR and the USVI and threatens the states along the continental US eastern coast. The municipality of Mayagüez, a TsunamiReady community since 2006, participated in the exercise by activating its Emergency Operations Center , conducting evacuation drills in schools located within its tsunami exposed area, and activating its warning siren. This presentation highlights findings of UPRM social scientists collaborating with the PRTWMP who conducted a sample survey of residents of the Mayagüez tsunami evacuation area to serve as an assessment of the effectiveness of TsunamiReady outreach efforts and of the drill's warning efforts. 166 20-30 minute interviews were conducted during the month of April. Questions explored residents' perceptions of coastal hazards they may face; knowledge about tsunamis and how to react to them; use of mass media to obtain information about potential hazards; tsunami preparation efforts, including knowledge of the existence and location of assembly areas; and whether and how they received and understood the drill's warning messages. The sample's answers to the risk perception questions is compared to those obtained for the same questions from a sample of residents of storm surge areas in 8 municipalities along PR's west coast. This allows comparing tsunami hazard awareness among individuals exposed to the Tsunami Ready program efforts with that of residents of municipalities that are not part of it. This effort serves as an example of the multidisciplinary collaboration between physical and social scientists needed to increase the effectiveness and value of scientific knowledge as a tool to mitigate damages from natural hazards.

  4. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  5. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    William Proenza, X.; Maul, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in ...

  6. High-energy deposits newly recognized in Hawaii Island (South Point): a catastrophic tsunami generated by South Kona or Kalae flank collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Most of the population and economic activity on Earth is concentrated in coastal areas. Tsunamis, in particular, represent a major threat, because they can travel great distances and impact the far surrounding shorelines within a few hours and cause considerable damage. Two main geological processes can generate destructive tsunamis: (1) high-magnitude earthquakes within the oceans, mostly along active margins, which can generate long-wavelength, low amplitude waves; and (2) giant mass-movements, such as catastrophic flank failure at oceanic volcanoes, which can instantaneously mobilize great amounts of material (several hundreds of km3) and generate high amplitude, medium-wavelength tsunamis. The Hawaiian volcanic chain has been affected by the largest landslides on Earth. Big Island, especially, has faced several catastrophic episodes of flank destabilization, the number, the amplitude and the age of which remain controversial. Knowing that there were flank collapses in South Kona and Kalae, we went to South Point to look for onland evidence of the collapse(s) and related tsunami(s), and found a deposit composed of polygenetic clasts, from mm3 to several m3 in size, mostly angular to sub-rounded, with a sandy to silty matrix. The deposit is covered by pyroclasts (the Pahala ash?), which seem to have been locally remobilized to fill in the spaces in the underlying conglomeratic deposit. The absence of a continuous indurate cement precludes an inland origin for the sedimentary deposit. Moreover, the South Point deposit lies on a flat platform far from the main topographic relief of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Emplacement of the ash layers covering the deposits requires a highly explosive eruption, which we attribute to pressure release driven by the collapse. Presently the deposit is lying at an altitude of ca. 10 m, but in the past it was higher, since the island has experienced significant ongoing subsidence. From previous estimates of the age of the South Kona collapse (ca. 250ka) and the average rate of subsidence (ca. 1 mm/yr), the original deposit likely emplaced at ca. 250 m altitude. This suggests that m3 blocks have been transported at least 250 m upslope by a very high-energy wave. We conclude that the South Point sediments comprise a very high-energy deposit transported upslope by a tsunami generated by a large flank collapse, the nearby large-scale South Kona or Kalae flank collapses, the only known geological process in volcanic islands capable of producing such high-amplitude waves.

  7. The Messina 1908 earthquake and the effect of irregular seafloor topography on the subsequent tsunami generation: a 2-D numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.

    2003-04-01

    The generation mechanism of earthquake-induced tsunamis is generally assumed to be related to the sudden displacement of the seafloor induced by the seismic shock. More precisely, the basic hypothesis is that the initial sea surface perturbation exactly reproduces the vertical coseismic movement due to faulting. The availability of a reliable model for the computation of the ocean bottom's deformation should then be considered a basic demand in tsunami research. In the most commonly adopted approach, the Earth's crust is modelled as a homogeneous and isotropic elastic half-space bounded by a flat-free surface (FFS), for which the displacement field induced by arbitrary point sources as well as by rectangular faults can be computed analytically (e.g. Okada, 1992). As to its application to the tsunami generation problem, this model is completely unable to account for the real seafloor topography. Hence, incorrect results may be predicted especially when the seismic sources are very close to, or even intersect, the coastlines and when relevant topographic structures like escarpments or grabens are involved, which is the typical scenario for the tsunami source regions in the Mediterranean sea. So far, the effect of non-flat bathymetries has been modelled through approximate algorithms (Tanioka and Satake, 1996; Tinti and Armigliato, 1998), taking into account the coseismic horizontal movement of the sea bottom and the correction it adds to the vertical displacement. Only rough estimates of the effect of an irregular bathymetry can be obtained through these methods, since they don't allow for the computation of the displacements exactly on the points belonging to the bathymetric relief. This goal can be accomplished by means of a hybrid approach we developed recently, which solves the equilibrium equations of linear elasticity in two dimensions through both the analytical FFS solutions and a finite element code. The approach is here applied to compute the coseismic displacements along selected 2-D cross sections intersecting the Messina Straits (southern Italy), where one of the most catastrophic tsunamis hitting the Italian coasts was generated by the December 28, 1908, M=7.2 earthquake. After selecting some of the most reliable fault models proposed in the literature for this earthquake, we compare the results accounting for the seafloor topography with those obtained through the FFS analytical formulas and the approximate algorithms cited above, and we discuss the consequences for the tsunami generation process.

  8. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  9. Proximal Tsunami Deposits Produced During the 1883 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.; Beget, J.

    2006-12-01

    In 1883 a debris avalanche from Augustine Volcano flowed into Cook Inlet and generated a distal tsunami that in some localities was as much as 6-8 m high at distances of 80 km from the volcano (Beget and Kowalik, 2006). Waves generated by the landslide also propagated back to Augustine Island, and left proximal tsunami deposits on the 1883 debris avalanche and nearby parts of Augustine Island. Near the center of the 1883 debris avalanche the tsunami deposits are locally more than 2 m thick, consist mainly of marine mud with admixtures of sand, rounded pumice and shells, and are found in both laminated and massive exposures overlying hummocks on Augustine Island and adjacent Tsunami Island. Sand-dominated proximal tsunami deposits are much thinner and more discontinuous, and occur only at the margins of the 1883 landslide, and in more distal sites around Augustine Island and elsewhere around Cook Inlet. The mud-dominated and sand- dominated facies found in the proximal tsunami deposits reflect local sediment entrainment by waves travelling via different paths back to Augustine Island. The tsunami deposits record local waves that were at least 21 m high near the center of the landslide. The tsunami deposit heights systematically decrease both to the east and west away from the center of the debris avalanche, and indicate wave run-up heights of ca. 12 m at the landslide margins, and ca. 8 m at West Island. The tsunami deposits, together with evidence from erosional features and driftwood found on 1883 hummocks are used to retrodict a mareogram for the Augustine 1883 event. The 1883 maregram is similar to maregrams produced by other landslide tsunamis, and proves that the 1883 debris avalanche generated the tsunami. The 1883 mareogram also constitutes an independent test of various numerical models which purport to reconstruct the1883 tsunami. The field data from proximal tsunami deposits on Augustine Island is in agreement with numerical models that successfully simulate waves consistent with eyewitness acounts and contemporary reports of 6-8 m wave heights at English Bay (modern Nanwalek) and other sites along the lowermost Kenai Peninsula of Cook Inlet.

  10. SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE M-9 TSUNAMI EVENT BETWEEN RAMESWARAM AND THOOTHUKUDI, GULF OF MANNAR, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Singarasubramanian, S. R.; Mukesh, M. V.; Manoharan, K.; Murugan, S.; Bakkiaraj, D.; John Peter, A.; Seralathan, P.

    2006-01-01

    On 26th December, 2004, a massive earthquake occurred NW of Sumatra in the seismically active zone close to Sunda Trench at a water depth of about 1300m and with an epicenter located at a shallow depth of 10km below the ocean floor. This earthquake triggered tsunami waves in the Indian Ocean and hit most of the Tamilnadu coast, with wave height varying from 3 to 10m. In the study area dunes were breached. Erosional channels were created. Inundation in the study area ranges between 10 and 600m...

  11. Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.; Imamura, F.

    2011-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and after tsunami events...

  12. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  13. Demo: Automatically generating interesting events with LifeJoin

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin K.; Thiagarajan, Arvind; Madden, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This demo will showcase LifeJoin, a system that collects raw sensor data from phones and laptop computers to generate interesting events. Given the raw sensor data, LifeJoin implements a number of activity recognition algorithms to generate higher-level events. Furthermore, it uses supervised learning techniques to learn from users' feedback to generate only events of interest. In this demo, the audience will get to interact with the LifeJoin system and be able to examine the internals of Lif...

  14. Identification of Forerunners and Transmission of Energy to Tsunami Waves Generated by Instanteneous Ground Motion on a Non-Uniformly Sloping Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of generation and propagation of tsunami waves is mainly focused on plane beach, there are very few analytical works where wave generation is considered on non-uniformly sloping beach and as a result those works might have failed to capture important facts which are influenced by bottom-slope of the beach. Some researchers provided solution to the forced long linear waves but on a beach with uniform slope while the importance of including variable bottom topography is mentioned by few researchers but they also stayed away from considering continuous variability of the ocean bed as they were studying runup problem. This paper analyzes tsunami waves which are generated by instantaneous bottom dislocation on a ocean floor with variable slope of the form y=-qxr, q > 0, r > 0. Attempts are made to find analytical solution of the problem and along the way tsunami forerunners are identified while investigating the short time wave behavior, not found even with constant slope beaches. In our study a rather significant phenomenon with regard to energy transmission to the waves at steady-state are observed with some notable features.

  15. Modelling tsunamis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

  16. BRIDGE: Branching Ratio Inquiry/Decay Generated Events

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, P; Meade, Patrick; Reece, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We present the manual for the program BRIDGE: Branching Ratio Inquiry/Decay Generated Events. The program is designed to operate with arbitrary models defined within matrix element generators, so that one can simulate events with small final-state multiplicities, decay them with BRIDGE, and then pass them to showering and hadronization programs. BRI can automatically calculate widths of two and three body decays. DGE can decay unstable particles in any Les Houches formatted event file. DGE is useful for the generation of event files with long decay chains, replacing large matrix elements by small matrix elements followed by sequences of decays. BRIDGE is currently designed to work with the MadGraph/MadEvent programs for implementing and simulating new physics models. In particular, it can operate with the MadGraph implementation of the MSSM. In this manual we describe how to use BRIDGE, and present a number of sample results to demonstrate its accuracy.

  17. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; Sardiña, Victor; Hsu, Vindell; Hirshorn, Barry F.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Duputel, Zacharie; Rivera, Luis; Kanamori, Hiroo; Koyanagi, Kanoa K.; Shiro, Brian

    2012-10-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  18. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wegscheider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1 identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2 bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3 can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk.

    Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  19. A tsunami PSA methodology and application for NPP site in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. ? Tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. ? Procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. ? A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. ? Accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. - Abstract: A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. In this study, tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. In the case of system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the s developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real Nuclear Power Plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which located in east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. But for more accurate tsunami PSA result, there are many researches needed for evaluation of hydrodynamic force, effect of debris, structural failure probability of break water structure and intake structure, functional failure criteria for offsite power.

  20. Assessment of Nearshore Hazard due to Tsunami-Induced Currents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Son, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2013-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program coordinated by CalOES and CGS in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. The goals of the study are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and sensitivity of existing numerical models for assessing maritime tsunami hazards, (2) find a relationship between current speeds and expected damage levels, (3) evaluate California ports and harbors in terms of tsunami induced hazards by identifying regions that are prone to higher current speeds and damage and to identify regions of relatively lower impact that may be used for evacuation of maritime assets, and (4) determine ';safe depths' for evacuation of vessels from ports and harbors during a tsunami event. This presentation will focus on the results from five California ports and harbors, and will include feedback we have received from initial discussion with local harbor masters and port authorities. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  1. The Monte Carlo Event Generator DPMJET-III

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, S; Ranft, J; Roesler, Stefan; Engel, Ralph; Ranft, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    A new version of the Monte Carlo event generator DPMJET is presented. It is a code system based on the Dual Parton Model and unifies all features of the DTUNUC-2, DPMJET-II and PHOJET 1.12 event generators. DPMJET-III allows the simulation of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, nucleus-nucleus, photon-hadron, photon-photon and photon-nucleus interactions from a few GeV up to the highest cosmic ray energies.

  2. MARTINI: An event generator for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Bjoern; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the Modular Algorithm for Relativistic Treatment of heavy IoN Interactions (MARTINI), a comprehensive event generator for the hard and penetrating probes in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Its main components are a time evolution model for the soft background, PYTHIA 8.1 and the McGill-AMY parton evolution scheme including radiative as well as elastic processes. This allows us to generate full event configurations in the high p_T region that take into ac...

  3. Differentiating earthquake tsunamis from other sources; how do we tell the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Grilli, Stephan; Harris, Jeffrey; Masterlark, Timothy; Kirby, James; Shi Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2013-04-01

    When a great earthquake generates a large magnitude tsunami, the focus is on the relationship between the two, usually addressed through analysis of earthquake, tide and geodetic data, often in various combinations. These methods, however, have limitations in resolving the up-dip extent of rupture; onshore geodetic inversions have limited sensitivity to slip offshore, seismic inversions have instabilities in moment estimation where subfault segments are shallow, and tsunami inversions average over the large areas of ocean bottom uplift. Seismic wave estimates depend on the velocity structure, which affects both seismic moment estimation and inferred slip. Validation of tsunami generating mechanism is mainly from tide gauges, although there are problems and assumptions made in their use. Models may be circular, with inversion of the data used to identify earthquake rupture that is then modeled as the tsunami source. Different slip distributions may be modelled and the results compared with recorded surface elevations offshore and inundation data, then adjusted to provide new scenarios in order to improve the agreement with tidal observations. Tide gauge data may be both from near and far fields; invalidating the identification of a contribution from local submarine mass failure (SMF). "Green's functions" used for assimilating tsunami observations in source models may be based on non-dispersive equations which may not capture the correct phase speed of shorter wave trains, e.g. such as generated by SMFs. A major problem with identifying the generating mechanism is when tsunami magnitude is large compared to the earthquake such as with 'tsunami' earthquakes and where the earthquake is not slow, as in Papua New Guinea in 1998, where a SMF was identified as the tsunami source. However, with most great earthquakes, e.g. the Indian Ocean, it is accepted from the outset that the only source is the earthquake. Another, more recent event is the Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami that devastated the northeast of Japan in March 2011; although with some unusual rupture characteristics it is not a tsunami earthquake. There are now a number of simulations published, that mostly assume an earthquake source but that fail the simple test of using an independently defined earthquake rupture mechanism that can be validated by onshore fieldwork, tide gauge and offshore buoy data. Here we briefly consider some of the existing source models and present new tsunami simulations based on a combination of a FEM coseismic source and a SMF. We show that the multi-source tsunami agrees well with the available tide gauge data and field observations onshore and the wave data from offshore buoys.

  4. Historic Tsunami in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Cummins, P. R.; Burbidge, D.

    2005-12-01

    The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami dramatically highlighted the need for a better understanding of the tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. One of the most important foundations on which to base such an assessment is knowledge of tsunami that have affected the region in the historical past. We present a summary of the previously published catalog of Indian Ocean tsunami and the results of a preliminary search of archival material held at the India Records Office at the British Library in London. We demonstrate that in some cases, normal tidal movements and floods associated with tropical cyclones have been erroneously listed as tsunami. We summarise interesting archival material for tsunami that occurred in 1945, 1941, 1881, 1819, 1762 and a tsunami in 1843 not previously identified or reported. We also note the recent discovery, by a Canadian team during a post-tsunami survey following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, of archival evidence that the Great Sumatra Earthquake of 1833 generated a teletsunami. Open ocean wave heights are calculated for some of the historical tsunami and compared with those of the Boxing Day Tsunami.

  5. Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

  6. SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE M-9 TSUNAMI EVENT BETWEEN RAMESWARAM AND THOOTHUKUDI, GULF OF MANNAR, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.Singarasubramanian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On 26th December, 2004, a massive earthquake occurred NW of Sumatra in the seismically active zone close to Sunda Trench at a water depth of about 1300m and with an epicenter located at a shallow depth of 10km below the ocean floor. This earthquake triggered tsunami waves in the Indian Ocean and hit most of the Tamilnadu coast, with wave height varying from 3 to 10m. In the study area dunes were breached. Erosional channels were created. Inundation in the study area ranges between 10 and 600m from the shoreline. The inundated sediment thickness varies from 1 to 30cm and was well preserved. Sediments thickness gets reduced landwards and occurs as set of layers. The sediments were fresh, grey to dark grey in color.

  7. Is there a best source model of the Sumatra 2004 earthquake for simulating the consecutive tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, B.; Oliveros, C.; Pedreros, R.

    2011-06-01

    Many studies have attempted to invert the fault source of the Sumatra 2004 event. Whereas they mostly consider the same fault geometry, they lead to a wide range of potential slip distributions. Using tsunami modelling with GEOWAVE, a model based on fully non-linear Boussinesq equations, we investigate the influence of five distinct source models of various origins and the influence of rupture kinematics on the generated tsunami. The simulation results are considered both at ocean-scale and at country-scale. We then compare the results along the Jason-1 track to the corresponding sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) profile, and examine the patterns of maximum sea surface elevation around the Bay of Bengal and on the eastern and southern coastlines of Sri Lanka. In most cases, the synthetic SSHA profiles are not very consistent with the observed one, although they all display a prevailing first wave. The divergence in maximum sea surface elevation appears in particular along the Sri Lankan coast, where three of the models lead to a clearly underestimated tsunami impact. The best models derive from purely seismic and geodetic studies that did not consider any tsunami modelling, thus suggesting that the methods to invert a fault model from tsunami data still need some adjustment, especially concerning the handling of coastal data. In addition, it is important to consider the rupture kinematics along such a long fault, as the generated tsunami is more significant than when considering an instantaneous rupture. In the case of the Sumatra 2004 event, the tsunami impact on Sri Lanka is notably underestimated if modelled without the rupture kinematics. We conclude that for tsunami modelling, a complex description of the fault source model is not absolutely necessary, but some significant parameters such as rupture kinematics should be taken into account.

  8. Insights on the 2009 South Pacific tsunami in Samoa and Tonga from field surveys and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Okal, Emile A.; Weiss, Robert; Titov, Vasily V.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Foteinis, Spyros; Lynett, Patrick J.; Chan, I.-Chi; Liu, Philip L.-F.

    2011-07-01

    An M w ? 8.1 earthquake south of the Samoan Islands on 29 September 2009 generated a tsunami that killed 189 people. From 4 to 11 October, an International Tsunami Survey Team surveyed the seven major islands of the Samoan archipelago. The team measured locally focused runup heights of 17 m at Poloa and inundation of more than 500 m at Pago Pago. A follow-up expedition from 23 to 28 November surveying the three main islands of Tonga's northernmost Niua group revealed surprising 22 m runup and 1 km inundation. We analyze the extreme tsunami runup and complex impact distribution based on physical and societal observations combined with numerical modeling. That an outer rise/outer trench slope (OR/OTS) event is responsible for a tsunami disaster in the Pacific calls for care in identifying and defining tsunami hazards. Evacuation exercises conducted in Samoa in the preceding year may have limited the human toll; however, cars were identified as potential death traps during tsunami evacuations. This event highlights the extreme hazards from near source tsunamis when the earthquake's shaking constitutes the de facto warning, and further underscores the importance of community based education and awareness programs as essential in saving lives.

  9. Field Survey of the effects of the 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005 Tsunamis and Earthquakes in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, B. E.; Borrero, J. C.; Prasetya, G. S.; Dengler, L.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Hidayat, R.; Higman, B.; Kingsley, E.; Lukiyanto, L.; McAdoo, B.; Moore, A.; Morton, R.; Peters, R.; Ruggiero, P.; Titov, V.; Kongko, W.; Yulianto, E.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused widespread devastation and loss of life throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Fatalities in Indonesia alone totaled greater than 125,000 with more than 35,000 missing and 500,000 displaced. From March 30 to April 26, a team of 17 US and Indonesian scientists conducted a tsunami field survey to collect data to improve the ability to mitigate tsunami hazard in Indonesia and worldwide. Data collected included tsunami water heights, eyewitness reports, nearshore bathymetry, topographic profiles, land level change, and tsunami deposits. Study sites spanned 800 km of coast from Breuh Island north of Banda Aceh to the Batu Islands, and included 20 sites in Aceh Province in Sumatra and on Nias Island, Simeulue Island, and the Banyak Islands. Tsunami heights near the shoreline during the 26 December 2004 event were greater than 15 m along 100s of kilometers of coast. The tsunami did not loose energy rapidly as it inundated land; heights were greater than 10 m at 1500 m inland. Extensive tsunami sand deposits were found. At Kuala Merisi in Aceh Province, tsunami deposits were found from within 100 m of the shoreline to 1800 m inland. As part of the team was mobilizing in Jakarta on 28 March 2005, a magnitude 8.7 earthquake occurred offshore of Nias and Simuelue Islands. This earthquake generated a moderately sized tsunami (maximum heights greater than 3 m) that arrived within 10-15 minutes of the earthquake. Both the 28 March 2005 and the 26 December 2004 earthquakes caused land level changes greater than 2 m. Co-seismic subsidence is resulting in coastal erosion. These data are being used to improve the understanding of tsunamis and to mitigate future disasters. For example, the data allows refinement of tsunami inundation models, which will improve the identification of tsunami hazard zones. Models that utilize the observed relations between tsunami characteristics and sediment deposits are also being developed to increase the ability to interpret paleotsunami deposits, which will aid in determining tsunami risk.

  10. Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

  11. UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Palermo, D.; Nistor, I.

    2008-01-01

    The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowled...

  12. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  13. A new multi-sensor approach to simulation assisted tsunami early warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Behrens

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new tsunami forecasting method for near-field tsunami warning is presented. This method is applied in the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, as part of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. The method employs a rigorous approach to minimize uncertainty in the assessment of tsunami hazard in the near-field. Multiple independent sensors are evaluated simultaneously in order to achieve an accurate estimation of coastal arrival times and wave heights within very short time after a submarine earthquake event. The method is validated employing a synthetic (simulated tsunami event, and in hindcasting the minor tsunami following the Padang 30 September 2009 earthquake.

  14. A new multi-sensor approach to simulation assisted tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J.; Androsov, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Harig, S.; Klaschka, F.; Mentrup, L.

    2010-06-01

    A new tsunami forecasting method for near-field tsunami warning is presented. This method is applied in the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, as part of the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Center in Jakarta, Indonesia. The method employs a rigorous approach to minimize uncertainty in the assessment of tsunami hazard in the near-field. Multiple independent sensors are evaluated simultaneously in order to achieve an accurate estimation of coastal arrival times and wave heights within very short time after a submarine earthquake event. The method is validated employing a synthetic (simulated) tsunami event, and in hindcasting the minor tsunami following the Padang 30 September 2009 earthquake.

  15. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE / DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Alvarez; Jorge, Ramirez; Lorena, Paredes; Miguel, Canales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami com [...] o una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warnin [...] g system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  16. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú.The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  17. How study of hurricane swell can help to provide a better prediction of the tsunami wave propagation on Caribbean coasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Dondin, Frédéric; Cécé, Raphael; Bernard, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Prediction of tsunami wave propagation on a complex bathymetry can be fatal. Do a mistake on the location of the tsunami wave impact on the coast is highly dangerous. The destruction due to mechanical impact or submersion of the large area of the coast zone can be avoid with a good estimation (i.e.; height, location, duration) of the hazard. Features of the propagation are important in term of values but also in term of dynamic, an evacuation plan is directly base on the prediction of the sequence of events. The frequency of large tsunami is low, but the study of real case may help to have a complete comprehension of the process. We would be better prepare for a tsunami if we had more tsunami. Caribbean arc was generated by an intense tectonic motion and volcanic activity. The risk of tsunami is high in the area both generated by tectonic motion and volcanic landslide. The quality of a numerical propagation of tsunami is highly dependent of the quality of the DEM Caribbean coast are impact by large Hurricane wave. The study of those can be helpful in the tsunami study, particularly for the bathymetry effect on large wave. The shape of the both types of wave are not the same, we do not try to do a direct comparison, but used the information of the dispersion of large swell wave to applied it to the tsunami dispersion and fill the lack of information of the bathymetry. We focus on the comparative study of the propagation of tsunami wave generated by submarine volcano land slide and hurricane wave on a small scale bathymetry (10 m, Lito 3d). The case of Guadeloupe and Martinique island are detailed in this study, due to the available dataset. We used those two territories as reference area. The numerical propagation of the waves is done with FUNWAVE on two different bathymetry (10 m & 50 m). The tsunami wave was generated by VolcFlow in case of submarine volcano collapse and the swell determine by coupling of WaveWatchIII and SWAN in case of past Hurricane. The information gathered by the propagation of a past study will help to correct the bathymetry and have a best prediction of the propagation of a tsunami wave. The result is applied on other Caribbean islands to improve the prediction method of tsunami wave propagation.

  18. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

  19. New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

    2012-12-01

    Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

  20. Pliocene mass failure deposits mistaken as submarine tsunami backwash sediments - An example from Hornitos, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Weiss, Robert

    2014-05-01

    In this study we question the former interpretation of a shallow marine backwash tsunami origin of a conspicuous Pliocene coarse clastic unit at Hornitos, northern Chile, and instead argue for a debris flow origin for this unit. We exclude a relation to a tsunami in general and to the Eltanin impact in particular. The observed deposit at Hornitos was not generated either directly (impact-triggered tsunami) or indirectly (submarine mass flow caused by seismic shaking) by an impact. Re-calculation of the alleged impact tsunami including consideration of the Van Dorn effect shows that an impact in the Southern Ocean did not cause a significant tsunami at Hornitos. Impact-related seismic shaking was not able to trigger slides several thousands of kilometers away because the Eltanin event was a deep sea-impact that did not create a crater. Additionally, the biostratigraphic age of 5.1-2.8 Ma of the associated La Portada Formation is not concurrent with the newly established age of 2.511 ± 0.07 Ma for the Eltanin impact. Instead, we argue for an origin of the conspicuous unit at Hornitos as a debris flow deposit caused by an earthquake in the Andean subduction zone in northern Chile. Our re-interpretation considers the local synsedimentary tectonic background, a comparison to recent submarine tsunami sediments, and recent examples of mass wasting deposits along the Chilean margin. The increased uplift during the Pliocene caused oversteepening of the coastal scarp and entailed a contemporaneous higher frequency of seismic events that triggered slope failures and cliff collapses. The coarse clastic unit at Hornitos represents an extraordinary, potentially tsunami-generating mass wasting event that is intercalated with mass wasting deposits on a smaller scale.

  1. The elementary events underlying force generation in neuronal lamellipodia

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Amin; Erika Ercolini; Rajesh Shahapure; Giacomo Bisson; Vincent Torre

    2011-01-01

    We have used optical tweezers to identify the elementary events underlying force generation in neuronal lamellipodia. When an optically trapped bead seals on the lamellipodium membrane, Brownian fluctuations decrease revealing the underlying elementary events. The distribution of bead velocities has long tails with frequent large positive and negative values associated to forward and backward jumps occurring in 0.1–0.2?ms with varying amplitudes up to 20?nm. Jump frequency and amplitude...

  2. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    OpenAIRE

    Que, Qiudeng; Elumalai, Sivamani; Li, Xianggan; Zhong, Heng; Nalapalli, Samson; Schweiner, Michael; Fei, Xiaoyin; Nuccio, Michael; Kelliher, Timothy; Gu, Weining; Chen, Zhongying; Chilton, Mary-dell M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desir...

  3. The 1945 Balochistan earthquake and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchner, Andreas; Babeyko, Andrey; Zamora, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries quite frequently affected by destructive earthquakes. For instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30'000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, but a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Additionally, some recent publications raise the question of the possiblity of rare but huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We first model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights, and then generate various synthetic earthquake and tsunami catalogs including the possibility of large events in order to asses the tsunami hazard at the affected coastal regions. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by the use of an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast.

  4. Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Viroulet, Sylvain; Kimmoun, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the collapse of initially dry granular media into water and the subsequent impulse waves. We systematically characterize the influence of the slope angle and the granular material on the initial amplitude of the generated leading wave and the evolution of its amplitude during the propagation. The experiments show that whereas the evolution of the leading wave during the propagation is well predicted by a solution of the linearized Korteweg-de Vries equation, the generation of the wave is more complicated to describe. Our results suggest that the internal properties of the granular media and the interplay with the surrounding fluid are important parameters for the generation of waves at low velocity impacts. Moreover, the amplitude of the leading wave reaches a maximum value at large slope angle. The runout distance of the collapse is also shown to be smaller in the presence of water than under totally dry conditions. This study provides a first insight into tsunam...

  5. Tsunami sediments and their foraminiferal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, B. L.; Strotz, L. C.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-12-01

    Tsunami hazard assessment begins with a compilation of past events that have affected a specific location. Given the inherent limitations of historical archives, the geological record has the potential to provide an independent dataset useful for establishing a richer, chronologically deeper time series of past events. Recent geological studies of tsunami are helping to improve our understanding of the nature and character of tsunami sediments. Wherever possible, geologists should be working to improve the research ‘tool kit’ available to identify past tsunami events. Marine foraminifera (single celled heterotrophic protists) have often been reported as present within tsunami-deposited sediments but in reality, little information about environmental conditions, and by analogy, the tsunami that deposited them, has been reported even though foraminifera have an enormous capacity to provide meaningful palaeo-environmental data. We discuss the potential use of foraminifera within tsunami research using results from specific case studies from Japan, south Asia, North America, Europe, the UK and New Zealand. We review the gaps in our understanding, present a model for ‘better’ practice and make recommendations to assist researchers who examine foraminiferal assemblages in order to enhance their use within tsunami geology.

  6. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; /Edinburgh U.; Butterworth, Jonathan; /University Coll. London; Gieseke, Stefan; /Karlsruhe U., ITP; Grellscheid, David; /Durham U., IPPP; Hoche, Stefan; /SLAC; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys. /CERN; Nurse, Emily; /University Coll. London; Richardson, Peter; /Durham U., IPPP; Schumann, Steffen; /Heidelberg U.; Seymour, Michael H.; /Manchester U.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Skands, Peter; /CERN; Webber, Bryan; /Cambridge U.

    2011-03-03

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  7. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy [PPE Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH25 9PN (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gieseke, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grellscheid, David [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Loennblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nurse, Emily [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Richardson, Peter [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seymour, Michael H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sjoestrand, Torbjoern [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Skands, Peter [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Webber, Bryan, E-mail: webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  8. Tsunami detection by satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Emile A.; Piatanesi, Alessio; Heinrich, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    We present what is to our knowledge the first direct observation of the deformation of the surface of the ocean upon passage of a tsunami wave, on the high seas, far from the influence of shorelines and continental shelves. We use satellite altimetry data from the ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON programs, complemented by spectrogram techniques and synthetic maregrams to examine the case of seven recent tsunamigenic earthquakes. We make a positive identification of the tsunami wave field in the case of the 1992 Nicaraguan tsunami, which we detect at 15°S, 106°W, five hours after origin time. We model the observed spectrogram by injecting a synthetic of variable amplitude into the signal of a repetitive cycle of the satellite along the same track, concluding that the Nicaraguan tsunami had a zero-to-peak amplitude of 8 cm in that region. In the case of the 1995 Chilean tsunami, a large scatter in the spectral properties of the reference tracks renders the detection tentative. We fail to detect the tsunamis of five other large events, including the 1996 Biak and 1996 Peru earthquakes, primarily on account of unfavorable source directivity in the geometry of existing satellite tracks, and of the strong and incoherent noise produced by large current systems, such as the Kuroshio in the Northwest Pacific.

  9. What Is a Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story Smile Style Game WHAT? What is a tsunami? Tsunamis are giant sea waves. They can be ... will destroy anything in their way. Why are tsunamis so destructive? During a normal storm or hurricane, ...

  10. Tsunami watch and warning in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami warning system needs further development in Fiji. The MRD earthquake and tsunami plan of action needs to be tested and appropriate authorities drilled in putting this plan into practice. It also needs to be supplemented with an alarm system such that people near the coasts, especially in built-up areas such as Suva can be made aware of impending tsunami danger. The plan of action becomes virtually ineffective when dealing with locally generated tsunamis and for this we have to rely on public education as it is not yet possible or practical to devise a warning system which can be activated within adequate time. 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. The elementary events underlying force generation in neuronal lamellipodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ladan; Ercolini, Erika; Shahapure, Rajesh; Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We have used optical tweezers to identify the elementary events underlying force generation in neuronal lamellipodia. When an optically trapped bead seals on the lamellipodium membrane, Brownian fluctuations decrease revealing the underlying elementary events. The distribution of bead velocities has long tails with frequent large positive and negative values associated to forward and backward jumps occurring in 0.1-0.2 ms with varying amplitudes up to 20 nm. Jump frequency and amplitude are reduced when actin turnover is slowed down by the addition of 25 nM Jasplakinolide. When myosin II is inhibited by the addition of 20 ?M Blebbistatin, jump frequency is reduced but to a lesser extent than by Jasplainolide. These jumps constitute the elementary events underlying force generation. PMID:22355669

  12. EDDE Monte Carlo event generator.Version 2.1

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, V. A.; Ryutin, R. A.; Sobol, A. E.; Guillaud, J. -p

    2007-01-01

    EDDE is a Monte Carlo event generator for different Exclusive and Semi-Inclusive Double Diffractive processes. The program is based on the extended Regge-eikonal approach for "soft" processes. Standard Model and its extensions are used for "hard" fusion processes.

  13. DJANGO: the interface for the event generators HERACLES and LEPTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo event generator HERACLES has been extended to include QCD effects. Multiple gluon radiation is incorporated in a parton shower approach assuming factorization of higher order QED and QCD corrections. The LUND-string fragmentation is used to obtain the complete hadronic final state. (orig.)

  14. Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report

  15. Source and progression of a submarine landslide and tsunami: The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake at Valdez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Geist, Eric L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Lee, Homa J.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lynett, Patrick; Hart, Patrick E.; Sliter, Ray; Roland, Emily

    2014-11-01

    Like many subduction zone earthquakes, the deadliest aspects of the 1964 M = 9.2 Alaska earthquake were the tsunamis it caused. The worst of these were generated by local submarine landslides induced by the earthquake. These caused high runups, engulfing several coastal towns in Prince William Sound. In this paper, we study one of these cases in detail, the Port Valdez submarine landslide and tsunami. We combine eyewitness reports, preserved film, and careful posttsunami surveys with new geophysical data to inform numerical models for landslide tsunami generation. We review the series of events as recorded at Valdez old town and then determine the corresponding subsurface events that led to the tsunami. We build digital elevation models of part of the pretsunami and posttsunami fjord-head delta. Comparing them reveals a ~1500 m long region that receded 150 m to the east, which we interpret as the primary delta landslide source. Multibeam imagery and high-resolution seismic reflection data identify a ~400 m wide chute with hummocky deposits at its terminus, which may define the primary slide path. Using these elements we run hydrodynamic models of the landslide-driven tsunamis that match observations of current direction, maximum inundation, and wave height at Valdez old town. We speculate that failure conditions at the delta front may have been influenced by manmade changes in drainage patterns as well as the fast retreat of Valdez and other glaciers during the past century.

  16. COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Ruffman

    2005-01-01

    This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002) covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002) massive text table (pp. 124-141) entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast...

  17. Tsunami-generated boulder ridges in Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Schweickert, R.A.; Robinson, J.E.; Lahren, M.M.; Kitts, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    An array of east-trending ridges 1-2 m high and up to 2 km long occurs on the Tahoe City shelf, a submerged wave-cut bench <15 m deep in the northwest sector of the lake. The shelf is just north of the amphitheater of the giant subaqueous 10 km3 McKinney Bay landslide, which originated on the west wall of Lake Tahoe. Images from a submersible camera show that the ridges are composed of loose piles of boulders and cobbles that lie directly on poorly consolidated, fine-bedded lake beds deposited in an ancestral Lake Tahoe. Dredge hauls from landslide distal blocks, as well as from the walls of the re-entrant of the landslide, recovered similar lake sediments. The McKinney Bay landslide generated strong currents, which rearranged previous glacial-derived debris into giant ripples creating the boulder ridges. The uncollapsed part of the sediment bench, including the Tahoe City shelf, poses a hazard because it may fail again, producing a landslide and damaging waves. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  18. Simulation of space-borne tsunami detection using GNSS-Reflectometry applied to tsunamis in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stosius

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009, a feasibility study on a future tsunami detection system from space has been carried out. The Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R is an innovative way of using reflected GNSS signals for remote sensing, e.g. sea surface altimetry. In contrast to conventional satellite radar altimetry, multiple height measurements within a wide field of view can be made simultaneously. With a dedicated Low Earth Orbit (LEO constellation of satellites equipped with GNSS-R, densely spaced sea surface height measurements could be established to detect tsunamis. This simulation study compares the Walker and the meshed comb constellation with respect to their global reflection point distribution. The detection performance of various LEO constellation scenarios with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo as signal sources is investigated. The study concentrates on the detection performance for six historic tsunami events in the Indian Ocean generated by earthquakes of different magnitudes, as well as on different constellation types and orbit parameters. The GNSS-R carrier phase is compared with the PARIS or code altimetry approach. The study shows that Walker constellations have a much better reflection point distribution compared to the meshed comb constellation. Considering simulation assumptions and assuming technical feasibility it can be demonstrated that strong tsunamis with magnitudes (M ?8.5 can be detected with certainty from any orbit altitude within 15–25 min by a 48/8 or 81/9 Walker constellation if tsunami waves of 20 cm or higher can be detected by space-borne GNSS-R. The carrier phase approach outperforms the PARIS altimetry approach especially at low orbit altitudes and for a low number of LEO satellites.

  19. Simulation of space-borne tsunami detection using GNSS-Reflectometry applied to tsunamis in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosius, R.; Beyerle, G.; Helm, A.; Hoechner, A.; Wickert, J.

    2010-06-01

    Within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009), a feasibility study on a future tsunami detection system from space has been carried out. The Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an innovative way of using reflected GNSS signals for remote sensing, e.g. sea surface altimetry. In contrast to conventional satellite radar altimetry, multiple height measurements within a wide field of view can be made simultaneously. With a dedicated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellation of satellites equipped with GNSS-R, densely spaced sea surface height measurements could be established to detect tsunamis. This simulation study compares the Walker and the meshed comb constellation with respect to their global reflection point distribution. The detection performance of various LEO constellation scenarios with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo as signal sources is investigated. The study concentrates on the detection performance for six historic tsunami events in the Indian Ocean generated by earthquakes of different magnitudes, as well as on different constellation types and orbit parameters. The GNSS-R carrier phase is compared with the PARIS or code altimetry approach. The study shows that Walker constellations have a much better reflection point distribution compared to the meshed comb constellation. Considering simulation assumptions and assuming technical feasibility it can be demonstrated that strong tsunamis with magnitudes (M) ?8.5 can be detected with certainty from any orbit altitude within 15-25 min by a 48/8 or 81/9 Walker constellation if tsunami waves of 20 cm or higher can be detected by space-borne GNSS-R. The carrier phase approach outperforms the PARIS altimetry approach especially at low orbit altitudes and for a low number of LEO satellites.

  20. Grey-box GUI Testing: Efficient Generation of Event Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Arlt, Stephan; Bertolini, Cristiano; Memon, Atif M; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs), due to their event driven nature, present a potentially unbounded space of all possible ways to interact with software. During testing it becomes necessary to effectively sample this space. In this paper we develop algorithms that sample the GUI's input space by only generating sequences that (1) are allowed by the GUI's structure, and (2) chain together only those events that have data dependencies between their event handlers. We create a new abstraction, called an event-dependency graph (EDG) of the GUI, that captures data dependencies between event handler code. We develop a mapping between EDGs and an existing black-box user-level model of the GUI's workflow, called an event-flow graph (EFG). We have implemented automated EDG construction in a tool that analyzes the bytecode of each event handler. We evaluate our "grey-box" approach using four open-source applications and compare it with the current state-of-the-art EFG approach. Our results show that using the EDG reduc...

  1. Validation of NEOWAVE with Measurements from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2012-12-01

    An accurate and reliable numerical model is essential in mapping tsunami hazards for mitigation and preparedness. The model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) is being used for tsunami inundation mapping in Hawaii, American Samoa, the Gulf coast states, and Puerto Rico. In addition to the benchmarks established by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, we have been conducting a thorough investigation of NEOWAVE's capability in reproducing the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and its impact across the Pacific. The shock-capturing non-hydrostatic model is well suited to handle tsunami conditions in a variety of coastal environments in the near and far field. It describes dispersive waves through non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for tsunami generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference model captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through a momentum conservation scheme. The model supports up to five levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates to describe tsunami processes of varying time and spatial scales from the open ocean to the coast. We first define the source mechanism through forward modeling of the near-field tsunami recorded by coastal and deep-ocean buoys. A finite-fault solution based on teleseismic P-wave inversion serves as the starting point of the iterative process, in which the source parameters are systematically adjusted to achieve convergence of the computed tsunami with the near-field records. The capability of NEOWAVE in modeling propagation of the tsunami is evaluated with DART data across the Pacific as well as water-level and current measurements in Hawaii. These far-field water-level records, which are not considered in the forward modeling, also provide an independently assessment of the source model. The computed runup and inundation are compared with measurements along Northeastern Japan coasts and the Hawaiian Island chain. These coastlines include shallow embayments with open plains, narrow estuaries with steep cliffs, and volcanic insular slopes with fringing reefs for full validation of the model in a single event. The Tohoku tsunami caused persistent oscillations and hazardous currents in coastal waters around Hawaii. Analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals complex resonance modes along the Hawaiian Island chain. Standing waves with period 16 min or shorter are able to form a series of nodes and antinodes over the reefs that results in strong currents and large drawdown responsible for the damage in harbors and marinas. The results provide insights into effects of fringing reefs, which are present along 70% of Hawaii's coastlines, on tsunami transformation and runup processes. The case study improves our understanding on tsunamis in tropical island environments and validates the modeling capability to predict their impacts for hazard mitigation and emergency management.

  2. EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS-VOLUME 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAITO,N.; SCHAEFER,A.

    1998-12-01

    This volume contains the report of the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics'' held on September 21-23, 1998 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A major objective of the workshop was to establish a firm collaboration to develop suitable event generators for the spin physics program at RHIC. With the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a polarized collider a completely new domain of high-energy spin physics will be opened. The planned studies address the spin structure of the nucleon, tests of the standard model, and transverse spin effects in initial and final states. RHIC offers the unique opportunity to pursue these studies because of its high and variable energy, 50 {le} {radical}s {le} 500 GeV, high polarization, 70%, and high luminosity, 2 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} or more at 500 GeV. To maximize the output from the spin program at RHIC, the understanding of both experimental and theoretical systematic errors is crucial. It will require full-fledged event generators, to simulate the processes of interest in great detail. The history of event generators shows that their development and improvement are ongoing processes taking place in parallel to the physics analysis by various experimental groups. The number of processes included in the generators has been increasing and the precision of their predictions has been being improved continuously. Our workshop aims at getting this process well under way for the spin physics program at RHIC, based on the fist development in this direction, SPHINX. The scope of the work includes: (1) update of the currently existing event generator by including the most recent parton parameterizations as a library and reflecting recent progress made for spin-independent generators, (2) implementation of new processes, especially parity violating effects in high energy pp collisions, (3) test of the currently available event generator by comparing to existing experimental data and analytical calculations for the unpolarized case, and (4) search for ways to improve the treatment of polarization for the fragmentation phase.

  3. TOWARD INDONESIAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BY USING RAPID RUPTURE DURATIONS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adlazim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has an Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purpose of this study is to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea and Pacific Ocean using a direct procedure and software developed Lomax and Michelini for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential by deriving two simple measures from vertical component broadband P-wave velocity record. The first is the high-frequency apparent rupture duration, Tdur which may be related to can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L, depth (z, and shear modulus (?. The second is a confirmation of the earlier finding by Lomax and Michelini, namely that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and Depth. We analyzed at least 510 vertical seismogram recorded by GEOFON-IA and IRIS-DMC networks. Our analysis shows that the seismic potency, LWD, which is more obviously related to capability to generate a tsunami than former. The larger Tdur the larger is the seismic potency LWD because Tdur is proportional to L/vr (with vr – rupture velocity. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 3 to 8 min after the P-onset.

  4. The tsunami signature on a submerged promontory: the case study of the Atacames Promontory, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioualalen, M.; Ratzov, G.; Collot, J.-Y.; Sanclemente, E.

    2011-02-01

    Shelf promontories exhibit very specific bathymetric features with regards to tsunamis. Because of their submerged cape morphology, a potential tsunami generated seawards of the promontory will exhibit a specific mode of propagation and coastal impact. To identify this peculiar tsunami signature, the Atacames Promontory, Ecuador, was chosen as a case study (another example is the shelf of the Nile delta, Egypt). The area is tectonically very active, hosts earthquakes among the most powerful recorded, as well as areas of slope instabilities that have triggered significant submarine landslides in the past (several cubic kilometres of volume). Both types of events are likely to be tsunamigenic. To examine the tsunami behaviour at the coastal area of the promontory and at its vicinity, we have considered two examples of tsunamigenic landslides of which scars were identified near the base of the continental slope. We also took into consideration two earthquake scenarios that are likely to represent most classes of earthquakes possibly occurring in this area depending on their locations and subsequent tsunami directivity, that is, a sensitivity test investigation. We took two distinct earthquake scenarios which are based on the 1942 and 1958 events that stroke the area. Then we computed their derived tsunamis and analysed their coastal impact. We found that significant tsunamis can be generated by either landslides or earthquakes. However, the maxima of wave amplitude occur offshore (but still above the underwater promontory): the concave-type shape of the bathymetric field often yields a refraction/focusing area that is located on the shelf promontory and not at the coast area of the promontory: the wave propagates first through the focusing area before striking the considered coast. This area may be considered as a sheltered zone. Besides, in the vicinity of the promontory (not exactly concerned by the study), the city of Esmeraldas, is relatively sheltered due to the presence of the underwater canyon at its termination and due to diverging waves.

  5. Tsunami Catalogues for the Eastern Mediterranean - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambraseys, N.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    We critically examine examine tsunami catalogues of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean published in the last decade, by reference to the original sources, see Ambraseys (2008). Such catalogues have been widely used in the aftermath of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami for probabilistic hazard analysis, even to make projections for a ten year time frame. On occasion, such predictions have caused panic and have reduced the credibility of the scientific community in making hazard assessments. We correct classification and other spurious errors in earlier catalogues and posit a new list. We conclude that for some historic events, any assignment of magnitude, even on a six point intensity scale is inappropriate due to lack of information. Further we assert that any tsunami catalogue, including ours, can only be used in conjunction with sedimentologic evidence to quantitatively infer the return period of larger events. Statistical analyses correlating numbers of tsunami events derived solely from catalogues with their inferred or imagined intensities are meaningless, at least when focusing on specific locales where only a handful of tsunamis are known to have been historically reported. Quantitative hazard assessments based on scenario events of historic tsunamis for which -at best- only the size and approximate location of the parent earthquake is known should be undertaken with extreme caution and only with benefit of geologic studies to enhance the understanding of the local tectonics. Ambraseys N. (2008) Earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: multidisciplinary study of 2000 years of seimicity, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge (ISBN 9780521872928).

  6. COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ruffman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002 covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002 massive text table (pp. 124-141 entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast and Caribbean tsunami compilations contained in Lander and Lockridge's 1989 National Geophysical Data Center volume United States Tsunamis (including United States Possessions 1690-1988.The Lockridge et al. (2002 compilation contains a small error with respect to the 1929 "Grand Banks" Earthquake and Tsunami of which I may be cause in part. In addition the tsunami histories of oceans without a tsunami warning system will be now receiving much closer attention, including historic events in the Atlantic Ocean given the events of December 26, 2004 and March 18, 2005 in the Indian Ocean; both the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans have no tsunami warning system and have an incomplete tsunami history.

  7. Treat simulation of two steam generator tube rupture events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objectives of the recovery actions following a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) are to minimize the radiological releases from the ruptured SG and to equalize reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure with the ruptured SG pressure to stop the primary to secondary leakage. Although these basic objectives are the same for all SGTR events, there can be significant differences in the plant response due to differences in plant design, equipment availability, and operator actions taken during the recovery. This paper provides the simulations and plant data comparisons for two SGTR events

  8. A revision of the 1783-1784 Calabrian (southern Italy) tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, L.; Maramai, A.; Tinti, S.

    2006-12-01

    Southern Italy is one of the most tsunamigenic areas in the Mediterranean basin, having experienced during centuries a large number of tsunamis, some of which very destructive. In particular, the most exposed zone here is the Messina Straits separating the coasts of Calabria and Sicily that was the theatre of the strongest Italian events. In 1783-1785 Calabria was shaken by the most violent and persistent seismic crisis occurred in the last 2000 years. Five very strong earthquakes, followed by tsunamis, occurred in a short interval of time (February-March 1783), causing destruction and a lot of victims in a vast region embracing the whole southern Calabria and the Messina area, Sicily. In this study we re-examined these events by taking into account all available historical sources. In particular, we focussed on the 5 and 6 February 1783 tsunamis, that were the most destructive. As regards the 5 February event, we found that it was underestimated and erroneously considered a minor event. On the contrary, the analysis of the sources revealed that in some localities the tsunami effects were quite strong. The 6 February tsunami, the strongest one of the sequence, was due to a huge earthquake-induced rockfall and killed more than 1500 people in the Calabrian village of Scilla. For this event the inundated area and the runup values distribution were estimated. Further, the analysis of the historical sources allowed us to find three new tsunamis that passed previously unnoticed and that occurred during this seismic period. The first one occurred a few hours before the large earthquake of 5 February 1783. The second was generated by a rockfall on 24 March 1783. Finally, the third occurred on 9 January 1784, probably due to a submarine earthquake.

  9. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground-motion measurements were available. Development of a global tsunami-warning system utilizing an expanded network of coastal GPS stations was under consideration at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  10. Tsunami overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Robert C; Llewellyn, D Mark

    2006-10-01

    Historically, floods and tsunamis have caused relatively few severe injuries; an exception to that tendency followed the great Andaman Island-Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of 2004. More than 280,000 people died, the coastal plains were massively scoured, and more than 1 million individuals were made homeless by the quake and resulting tsunami, which affected a 10-nation region around the Indian Ocean. This destruction overwhelmed local resources and called forth an unprecedented, prolonged, international response. The USNS Mercy deployed on a unique mission and rendered service to the people and government of Indonesia. This introduction provides background on the nature and extent of the damage, conditions upon arrival of the hospital ship 5 weeks after the initial destruction, and the configuration of professionals aboard (officers and sailors of the U.S. Navy, civilian volunteers from Project HOPE, officers of the U.S. Public Health Service, and officers and civilian mariners of the Military Sealift Command). Constraints on the mission provide context for the other articles of this issue that document and comment on the activities, challenges, methods, and accomplishments of this unique mission's "team of teams," performing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in the Pacific theater. PMID:17447612

  11. Peru 2007 tsunami runup observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Borrero, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    On 15 August 2007 an earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.0 centered off the coast of central Peru, generated a tsunami with locally focused runup heights of up to 10 m. A reconnaissance team was deployed in the immediate aftermath and investigated the tsunami effects at 51 sites. The largest runup heights were measured in a sparsely populated desert area south of the Paracas Peninsula resulting in only 3 tsunami fatalities. Numerical modeling of the earthquake source and tsunami suggest that a region of high slip near the coastline was primarily responsible for the extreme runup heights. The town of Pisco was spared by the presence of the Paracas Peninsula, which blocked tsunami waves from propagating northward from the high slip region. The coast of Peru has experienced numerous deadly and destructive tsunamis throughout history, which highlights the importance of ongoing tsunami awareness and education efforts in the region. The Peru tsunami is compared against recent mega-disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.

  12. U.S. Tsunami Warning System: Advancements since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. government embarked on a strengthening program for the U.S. Tsunami Warning System (TWS) in the aftermath of the disastrous 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The program was designed to improve several facets of the U.S. TWS, including: upgrade of the coastal sea level network - 16 new stations plus higher transmission rates; expansion of the deep ocean tsunameter network - 7 sites increased to 39; upgrade of seismic networks - both USGS and Tsunami Warning Center (TWC); increase of TWC staff to allow 24x7 coverage at two centers; development of an improved tsunami forecast system; increased preparedness in coastal communities; expansion of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center facility; and improvement of the tsunami data archive effort at the National Geophysical Data Center. The strengthening program has been completed and has contributed to the many improvements attained in the U.S. TWS since 2004. Some of the more significant enhancements to the program are: the number of sea level and seismic sites worldwide available to the TWCs has more than doubled; the TWC areas-of-responsibility expanded to include the U.S./Canadian Atlantic coasts, Indian Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and U.S. Arctic coast; event response time decreased by approximately one-half; product accuracy has improved; a tsunami forecast system developed by NOAA capable of forecasting inundation during an event has been delivered to the TWCs; warning areas are now defined by pre-computed or forecasted threat versus distance or travel time, significantly reducing the amount of coast put in a warning; new warning dissemination techniques have been implemented to reach a broader audience in less time; tsunami product content better reflects the expected impact level; the number of TsunamiReady communities has quadrupled; and the historical data archive has increased in quantity and accuracy. In addition to the strengthening program, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) has expanded its efforts since 2004 and improved tsunami preparedness throughout U.S. coastal communities. The NTHMP is a partnership of federal agencies and state tsunami response agencies whose efforts include: development of inundation and evacuation maps for most highly threatened communities; tsunami evacuation and educational signage for coastal communities; support for tsunami educational, awareness and planning seminars; increased number of local tsunami warning dissemination devices such as sirens; and support for regional tsunami exercises. These activities are major factors that have contributed to the increase of TsunamiReady communities throughout the country.

  13. How to learn and develop from both good and bad lessons- the 2011Tohoku tsunami case -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Megumi; Okazumi, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami revealed Japan has repeated same mistakes in a long tsunami disaster history. After the disaster Japanese remember many old lessons and materials: an oral traditional evacuation method 'Tsunami TENDENKO' which is individual independent quick evacuation, a tsunami historical memorial stone "Don't construct houses below this stone to seaside" in Aneyoshi town Iwate prefecture, Namiwake-shrine naming from the story of protect people from tsunami in Sendai city, and so on. Tohoku area has created various tsunami historical cultures to descendent. Tohoku area had not had a tsunami disaster for 50 years after the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The 2010 Chilean tsunami damaged little fish industry. People gradually lost tsunami disaster awareness. At just the bad time the magnitude (M) 9 scale earthquake attacked Tohoku. It was for our generations an inexperienced scale disaster. People did not make use of the ancestor's lessons to survive. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami attacked just before 7 years ago. The magnitude scale is almost same as M 9 scale. Why didn't Tohoku people and Japanese tsunami experts make use of the lessons? Japanese has a character outside Japan. This lesson shows it is difficult for human being to learn from other countries. As for Three mile island accident case in US, it was same for Japan. To addition to this, there are similar types of living lessons among different hazards. For examples, nuclear power plantations problem occurred both the 2012 Hurricane Sandy in US and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Both local people were not informed about the troubles though Oyster creek nuclear power station case in US did not proceed seriously all. Tsunami and Hurricane are different hazard. Each exparts stick to their last. 1. It is difficult for human being to transfer living lessons through next generation over decades. 2. It is difficult for human being to forecast inexperienced events. 3. It is usually underestimated the danger because human being have a tendency to judge based on own experience. 4. It is difficult for human being to make use of lessons from different countries because human being would not like to think own self suffer victim for a self-preservation mind. 5. It is usual for experts not to pay attention to other fields even if similar case occurs in different fields. We started collecting 18 hazards of such historical living lessons all over the world before the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. We adapted to this project collecting lessons from Tohoku tsunami and will publish for small children in developing countries in March 2013. This will be translated in at least 10 languages. This disaster lessons guide books are free. We will introduce some lessons in the presentations. We believe education is one of useful countermeasures to prevent from repeating same mistakes and transfer directly living lessons to new generations.

  14. On the feasibility of new tsunami warning system by measuring the low frequency T phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely known that, before a tsunami attacked a coast, loud sounds like thunders were heard in coastal areas and/or vessels in the ocean felt sea shocks. Sea shocks are violent shocks with long durations felt by ocean vessels at the moment of submarine earthquakes. The cause of sea shocks is thought to be the T phase. Tsunami-producing earthquakes, large and shallow focus seismic events occurring at sea can generate the T phase, that is, seismic waves generated by their conversion at an ocean bottom, propagate over large distance at the speed of the sound wave in the sea water along the SOFAR channel. Many studies have been done about the use of the T phase for tsunami warnings. For example, in this paper, considering the compressibility of the sea water, it is shown that another mechanism can also generate the low frequency T phase. It is also shown that the low frequency T phase carries the information of the magnitude and the duration of the displacement of the ocean bottom and is useful for tsunami warnings, in particular, for near shore tsunami warnings. 3 refs, 8 figs

  15. Time Reversal Imaging of the Tsunami Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Roberts, Stephen G.; Allgeyer, Sebastien

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we apply time reversal imaging (TRI) to the problem of reconstructing the initial sea surface displacement that generates a tsunami. We discuss theoretical considerations in the application of TRI to the tsunami problem, including time reversibility and reciprocity of the shallow-water equations. Several numerical experiments are conducted to establish the efficacy of TRI in the tsunami context. TRI is applied to observations of the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, for which an unprecedented number of high-quality observations are available. Finally, we compare the findings of the TRI results with other, more conventional methods of source inversion. Results indicate that TRI is effective for imaging a tsunami source when a sufficient number of observations are available. Because it involves fewer assumptions about the nature of the tsunami source, in particular those regarding source location and fault geometry, we believe that TRI has the potential to improve our understanding of tsunami generation—for example, through detection of non-seismic components of the tsunami source.

  16. Time Reversal Imaging of the Tsunami Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Roberts, Stephen G.; Allgeyer, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we apply time reversal imaging (TRI) to the problem of reconstructing the initial sea surface displacement that generates a tsunami. We discuss theoretical considerations in the application of TRI to the tsunami problem, including time reversibility and reciprocity of the shallow-water equations. Several numerical experiments are conducted to establish the efficacy of TRI in the tsunami context. TRI is applied to observations of the tsunami generated by the Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011, for which an unprecedented number of high-quality observations are available. Finally, we compare the findings of the TRI results with other, more conventional methods of source inversion. Results indicate that TRI is effective for imaging a tsunami source when a sufficient number of observations are available. Because it involves fewer assumptions about the nature of the tsunami source, in particular those regarding source location and fault geometry, we believe that TRI has the potential to improve our understanding of tsunami generation—for example, through detection of non-seismic components of the tsunami source.

  17. Catastrophic geomorphic effects of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki Tsunami, Sanriku coastline, northeastern Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Matsui, T.; Mcguire, L.; Oguchi, T.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Sanriku coastline of northeastern Honshu, Japan, consists of multiple embayments, or inlets into the Kitakami Mountains. This produces a "ria" (drowned river valley) configuration that is particularly susceptible to the enhancement of erosion effects from tsunamis generated at the very active Pacific-Asiatic plate-boundary subduction zone lying approximately 200 km to the east. A preliminary post-Tohoku tsunami survey of areas with minimal artificial construction of sea walls and other coastal defense works revealed that the highest intensity erosion of channels and hill slopes occurred in the narrowest coastal embayments, particularly those with funnel-shaped inlets that open most directly to incident tsunami wave crests. At Aneyoshi, Miyako-Shi, where wave run-up heights achieved 40.5 meters (the highest recorded for the March 11 event), there was spectacular erosion of valley sides, transport and deposition of coarse gravel, and scour-hole generation around large boulders. As at Tokura, just south of Shizugawa (Minamisanriku), regolith and vegetation, including trees, were stripped off hillsides, exposing and scouring bare rock. Inundation levels at these sites show an approximate correspondence to levels reached by the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku tsunami event. Combining this observation with local evidence of older tsunami events, e.g., the 1611 Keicho-Sanriku tsunami and the 869 Jogan tsunami, leads to the suggestion that century-scale repetition of very high-energy tsunami events constitutes a critical factor in long-term coastal erosion for northeastern Honshu, Japan. These preliminary observations are consistent with a threshold phenomenon, whereby the energy expenditures by the incidence tsunami waves must be high enough to exceed resistance factors imposed by vegetation-stabilized regolith on hillsides. When the threshold is exceeded, on the approximate order of once per century, catastrophic erosion and deposition are generated in the local zone of tsunami impact. These effects are all remarkably similar to what is observed for catastrophic fluvial erosion in bedrock channels (e.g., Baker, 1977). Reference: Baker, V.R. (1977) Stream channel response to floods with examples from central Texas, Geol. Soc. America Bull., 88, 1057 1070.

  18. Solitons and Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Adrian; Henry, David

    2009-02-01

    We discuss the relevance of soliton theory to the modeling of tsunami waves. Our analysis shows that for the two most devastating tsunamis of the last century, the 2004 Bay of Bengal and the 1960 Chile tsunami, the propagation distances were too short for soliton dynamics to apply. Thus the shallow water theory is appropriate for the modelling of tsunamis

  19. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2015-02-01

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972-2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  20. HERWIRI2: Exponentiated Electroweak Corrections in a Hadronic Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Yost, Scott A; Hejna, Miroslav; Ward, B F L

    2013-01-01

    Reaching the desired precision level for W and Z processes at the LHC will require a mixture of higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections. HERWIRI2 is a step in implementing QED x QCD exponentiation in a hadronic event generator. This program implements leading electroweak corrections and coherent exclusive exponentiation in a HERWIG environment. We discuss the status of the program, recent tests, and future developments.

  1. MODELING OF THE 1755 LISBON TSUNAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Mader, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and propagation of the November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated tsunami is of current interest to the IOCARIBE Tsunami Scientific Steering Committee.The November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated a tsunami with a period of one hour and amplitudes of 20 meters at Lisbon and along the African and south European coasts, of 4 meters along the English coast, and of 7 meters at Saba in the Caribbean after 7 hours of travel. The modeling was performed using the SWAN code whi...

  2. e+e- event generator EPOCS user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPOCS(Electron POsitron Collision Simulator) is a Monte-Carlo event generator for high energy e+e- annihilation. This program generates events based on the standard model, i.e., quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and electro-weak theory. It works at the center-of-mass energy below W+W- production, i.e., in the energy region of TRISTAN, SLC and LEP. For these high energy machines one of the important subjects is the exploration for the top quark. The production and hadronization of the top quark is included in EPOCS. Besides the top quark, we expect 'new' physics in this high energy region. EPOCS has enough flexibility for users to cope with a new idea. Users can register a new particle, modify the built-in particle data, define new primary interactions and so on. The event generator has a number of parameters, both physical parameters and control parameters. Users can control most of these parameters in EPOCS at will. (author)

  3. PROCESS MONITORING FOR SAFEGUARDS VIA EVENT GENERATION, INTEGRATION, AND INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2010-07-01

    There is a recognized safeguards benefit from using process monitoring (PM) on nuclear facilities to complement nuclear materials accountancy. We introduce a model-based approach for PM in which the assessment regarding the state of the monitored system is conducted at a system-centric level. The proposed architecture integrates both time-driven and event-driven data integration and analysis for decision-making. While the time-driven layers of the proposed architecture encompass more traditional PM methods based on time series data and analysis, the event-driven layers encompass operation monitoring methods based on discrete event data integration and analysis. By integrating process- and operation-related information and methodologies within an unified modeling and monitoring framework that includes not only current but also past plant behaviors, the task of anomaly detection is greatly improved because this decision-making approach can benefit from not only known time-series relationships among measured signals but also from known event sequence relationships among generated events. Building from the proposed system-centric PM architecture, we briefly introduce methods that can be used to implement its different components. The application of the proposed approach is then demonstrated via simulation experiments.

  4. Tsunami Hazard Evaluation for the East Coast of Korea by using Empirical Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a tsunami hazard curve was determined for a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) induced tsunami event in Nuclear Power Plant site. A Tsunami catalogue was developed by using historical tsunami record which happen before 1900 and instrumental tsunami record after 1900. For the evaluation of return period of tsunami run-up height, power-law, uppertruncated power law and exponential function were considered for the assessment of regression curves and compared with each result. Although the total tsunami records were only 9 times at the east coast of Korea during tsunami catalogue, there was no such research like this about tsunami hazard curve evaluation and this research lay a cornerstone for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) in Korea

  5. Learning from Fukushima. A holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two devastating tsunamis in the 21st century were caused by large megathrust earthquakes on tectonic plate boundaries; the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and the Great Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Both of these events have led to a focus on tsunamis caused by megathrusts when assessing risks to coastal nuclear power plants. From a longer time perspective, however, such earthquakes are not the only - or even the most significant - sources of large tsunamis. It is important that the key lesson from the impact of the Great Tohoku earthquake and associated tsunami on the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant - that unexpected combinations of events can cause complete failure of defence in depth - is not lost by looking in too much detail at these particular incidents. Instead a wider assessment of events that can give rise to giant waves and major inundation should be considered. (author)

  6. The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

  8. Effects of Harbor Modification on Crescent City, California's Tsunami Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Lori; Uslu, Burak

    2011-06-01

    More damaging tsunamis have impacted Crescent City, California in historic times than any other location on the West Coast of the USA. Crescent City's harbor has undergone significant modification since the early 20th century, including construction of several breakwaters, dredging, and a 200 × 300 m2 small boat basin. In 2006, a M w 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a moderate Pacific-wide tsunami. Crescent City recorded the highest amplitudes of any tide gauge in the Pacific and was the only location to experience structural damage. Strong currents damaged docks and boats within the small boat basin, causing more than US 20 million in damage and replacement costs. We examine how modifications to Crescent City's harbor may have affected its vulnerability to moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. A bathymetric grid of the basin was constructed based on US Army Corps of Engineers soundings in 1964 and 1965 before the construction of the small boat basin. The method of splitting tsunamis was used to estimate tsunami water heights and current velocities at several locations in the harbor using both the 1964-1965 grid and the 2006 bathymetric grid for the 2006 Kuril event and a similar-sized source along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Model velocity outputs are compared for the two different bathymetries at the tide gauge location and at six additional computational sites in the harbor. The largest difference between the two grids is at the small boat basin entrance, where the 2006 bathymetry produces currents over three times the strength of the currents produced by the 1965 bathymetry. Peak currents from a Sanriku event are comparable to those produced by the 2006 event, and within the boat basin may have been higher. The modifications of the harbor, and in particular the addition of the small boat basin, appear to have contributed to the high current velocities and resulting damage in 2006 and help to explain why the 1933 M w 8.4-8.7 Sanriku tsunami caused no damage at Crescent City.

  9. Far-field tsunami risk from mega-thrust earthquakes in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C.; Okal, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    In the wake of the 2004 Great Sumatran tsunami, we present numerical simulations of a number of scenarios for tsunamis generated by potential mega-earthquakes on the shores of the Indian Ocean. Our sources include (1) a repeat of the 1833 Southern Sumatra earthquake estimated to have reached magnitude 9 and whose probability of reccurence is perceived as enhanced by stress transfer arguments; (2) a major event along the Andaman-Burma plate boundary, recently identified as the locus of a large earthquake in 1762 [Sieh, pers.comm.; also experiencing stress-transfer from the northern end of the 2004 Sumatran rupture]; (3) a magnitude 8.5 earthquake in the Makran, modeled as simultaneously rupturing the faults of the 1851, 1945, and 1765 events. We use the model MOST to calculate far-field evolution of free- surface wave generated by transfering the seafloor displacement directly to the ocean surface. MOST has been repeatedly shown to model the 2004 megatsunami propagation realistically. We also examine the robustness of our simulations with respect to variations in source parameters, such as latitude/longitude, focal mechanism and heterogeneity of slip distribution on the fault plane; we conclude that the far-field evolution is generally insensitive to this level of details, as long as the integrated parameter, i.e., the seismic moment, remains constant. However, the presence of very shallow bathymetry over the source region does substantially reduce the tsunami excitation in the far-field, as illustrated during the 2005 Nias earthquake; for the same reason, the tsunami from the Andaman/Burma source (2) attenuates rapidly as it propagates outside the Bay of Bengal. By contrast, the South Sumatra scenario (1) generates a tsunami with stronger impact than in 2004 on the SW Indian Ocean Islands of the Mascarenes and on Madagascar. The Makran tsunami (3) strongly affects Western India, the Maldives, and the Seychelles, as well as the Kerguelen Islands.

  10. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  11. Event trees and dynamic event trees: Applications to steam generator tube rupture accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic event tree analysis method (DETAM) is a simulation based approach that models the integrated, dynamic response of the plant/operating crew system to an accident. It extends the conventional event tree/fault tree methodology for accident sequence analysis in two ways. First, it allows for tree branchings at discrete points in time. Second, the tree sequences explicitly track changes in the operating crew state, as well as changes in the plant hardware state. Process variable calculations and operating procedures are used in linking the crew and hardware behaviour. - The paper compares the conventional event tree/fault tree methodology for accident sequence analysis with the dynamic event tree method in the analysis of a pressurized water reactor steam generator tube rupture. Two previous PSA analyses are used for the comparison. The first employs the ''event tree with boundary conditions'' approach and uses fairly detailed top event headings. The second employs the ''linked fault tree'' approach and uses a relatively small event tree. - A quantitative comparison of the results of the three analyses shows that, in this particularly case study, the DETAM results appear to be less conservative. This is due, in part, to DETAM's treatment of recovery actions embedded in the emergency operating procedures. The quantitative results, however, should be viewed with some caution, since: (a) the three analyses have different scopes and employ different assumptions, ancopes and employ different assumptions, and (b) a number of the parameters used in the DETAM analysis are highly uncertain. - A qualitative comparison of results shows that the dominant sequences predicted by each methodology are similar. However, the DETAM scenario descriptions are more detailed and allow better definition of steps to reduce risk. Further, the DETAM models deal with the variety of human error forms and their consequences; this provides a better capability of identifying and quantifying complex accident scenarios that may not be treated in conventional PSA models. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Methodology for Estimating Tsunami Induced Hazard for Ports Along California Coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Burak; Titov, Vasily V.; Eble, Marie C.; Kanoglu, Utku

    2010-05-01

    Los Angeles County hosts two of the busiest container ports in the United States. The ports are adjacent to one another in San Pedro Bay but are operated separately by the cities of Long Beach and Los Angeles. Due to their importance to United States commerce, the hazard posed by tsunami is of great concern as the potential devastation and impact would likely interrupt commerce and marine activities. Furthermore, a tsunami would be hazardous to both the resident coastal population and the tourist trade for which these cities rely on for income. The Maritime Museum, Aquarium of the Pacific, and Queen Mary would all potentially be impacted by a tsunami. The seismic history of the Southern California Bight is well documented and confirms the tsunami generating potential of the region. A comprehensive study of the threat from near-field generation was conducted by Borrero et al. (2001, 2004). Dykstra and Jin (2006) and Moffatt and Nichol (2007) expanded these near-field studies by inclusion of tsunamis generated in the far-field along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Prior to the Kuril Islands event in November 2006, most studies focused on wave heights as the dominant measure of hazard. However, the impact of Kuril Islands tsunami at Crescent City, CA demonstrated that distant sources have the potential of inducing strong currents in harbors. To investigate the hazard posed by currents, a sensitivity study is performed for 322 tsunami sources for Mw 9.3 earthquakes along Pacific Rim subduction zones using the Method of Splitting Tsunamis model (Titov and Synolakis, 1998). Of the scenarios investigated, eleven sources in Alaska, Chile, Philippines, Manu, New Zealand and Vanuatu are identified as potentially hazardous to Ports in Southern California. Initial study results suggest that a Mw 9.3 earthquake can potentially trigger a tsunami with wave amplitudes reaching up to 2 m and currents exceeding 8 knots in Los Angeles Harbor. This study also suggests that Pacific Basin subduction zones in addition to those in Alaska and along the Aleutians are capable of generating tsunamis that pose a threat to Southern California harbors. Borrero, J. C., Dolan, J., and Synolakis, C. E. (2001). Tsunami sources within the Eastern Santa Barbara Channel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:643-647. Borrero, J., Legg, M. and Synolakis C.(2004). Tsunami sources in the southern California bight. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 (13): L13211. Dykstra, D. and Jin, W. (2006). Detailed modeling of locally generated tsunami propagation into the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. In Coastal Engineering 2006—Proceedings of the 30th International Conference, San Diego, CA, 3-8 December 2006, 1616-1624. Moffatt and Nichol (2007). Tsunami hazard assessment for the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles. Tech. Report M&N File: 4839-169, 97 pages. Titov, V. V. and Synolakis, C. E. (1998). Numerical modelling of tidal wave runup. J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng., 124:157-171. Contact Information Burak U. Uslu, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115.

  13. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

    2010-08-01

    The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

  14. Tsunami Forecast by Joint Inversion of Real-Time Tsunami Waveforms and Seismic or GPS Data: Application to the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

    2014-12-01

    Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model-data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

  15. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the school at Venga evacuated the later flooded school already during a foreshock. On Tomotu Noi Island at Bamoi the residents evacuated inland towards a crocodile infested lake, which was not reached by the tsunami inundation. Community-based education and awareness programs are particularly essential to help save lives in locales at risk from near-source tsunamis.

  16. Application of new numerical methods for near-real time tsunami height prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive tsunami modeling system (ITMS) for the numerical simulation of tsunami generation and propagation in the ocean with real bathymetry has been elaborated at Novosibirsk Computing Center. It was developed to be a simulation subsystem within regional tsunami warning center's software, so the following factors have been taken into account: 1) all numerical models in the system are to be united by an easy-to-use graphical interface; 2) the system should work in two modes - pre-event mode, and real-time mode; 3) the output of computations in the real-time mode should appear on the screen during computations, not waiting for the end of modeling; 4) the results of simulation should be suitable for the operative analysis and decision making. 3 refs, 7 figs

  17. A program to acquire deep ocean tsunami measurements in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep ocean tsunami measurements are needed to provide open ocean boundary conditions for testing numerical models in hindcast studies, and for improving our understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Jacob (1984) has identified a portion of the Aleutian Trench which includes the Shumagin Island group as a seismic gap (the Shumagin Gap); he has computed estimates which indicate that the probability of a great earthquake occurrence (Mw > 7.8) is significantly higher for this region than any other in the U.S. Because tsunamigenic earthquakes along a major portion of the seismically active Aleutian trench threaten Hawaii and the U.S. west coast, and because a large tsunami is possible in the event of a great earthquake in the Shumagin Gap, this region has become the focus of a long-term monitoring program by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  18. State Emergency Response and Field Observation Activities in California (USA) during the March 11, 2011, Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Goltz, J.; Fenton, J.; Long, K.; Dengler, L.; Rosinski, A.; California Tsunami Program

    2011-12-01

    This poster will present an overview of successes and challenges observed by the authors during this major tsunami response event. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami was the most costly to affect California since the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and ensuing tsunami. The Tohoku tsunami caused at least $50 million in damage to public facilities in harbors and marinas along the coast of California, and resulted in one fatality. It was generated by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake which occurred at 9:46PM PST on Thursday, March 10, 2011 in the sea off northern Japan. The tsunami was recorded at tide gages monitored by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), which projected tsunami surges would reach California in approximately 10 hours. At 12:51AM on March 11, 2011, based on forecasted tsunami amplitudes, the WCATWC placed the California coast north of Point Conception (Santa Barbara County) in a Tsunami Warning, and the coast south of Point Conception to the Mexican border in a Tsunami Advisory. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) activated two Regional Emergency Operation Centers (REOCs) and the State Operation Center (SOC). The California Geological Survey (CGS) deployed a field team which collected data before, during and after the event through an information clearinghouse. Conference calls were conducted hourly between the WCATWC and State Warning Center, as well as with emergency managers in the 20 coastal counties. Coordination focused on local response measures, public information messaging, assistance needs, evacuations, emergency shelters, damage, and recovery issues. In the early morning hours, some communities in low lying areas recommended evacuation for their citizens, and the fishing fleet at Crescent City evacuated to sea. The greatest damage occurred in the harbors of Crescent City and Santa Cruz. As with any emergency, there were lessons learned and important successes in managing this event. Forecasts by the WCATWC were highly accurate. Exercises and workshops have enhanced communications between state and local agencies, and emergency managers are more educated about what to expect. Areas for improvement include keeping people out of the hazard area; educating the non-English speaking community; and reinforcing the long duration and unpredictable peak damaging waves of these events to emergency managers. The Governor proclaimed a state of emergency in six counties and the President declared a major disaster on April 18, 2011, allowing federal assistance to support repairs and economic recovery. Detailed evaluation of local maritime response activities, harbor damage, and measured and observed tsunami current velocity data will help the California Tsunami Program develop improved tsunami hazard maps and guidance for maritime communities. The state program will continue to emphasize the importance of both tsunami warnings and advisories, the unpredictable nature of each tsunami, and encourage public understanding of tsunamis to prepare and protect themselves in the future.

  19. Developing Tsunami Warnings Based on Model Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stewart; Greenslade, Diana

    2010-05-01

    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings for the Australian mainland and offshore territories. Warnings are currently based on model output from the T2 scenario database. When a tsunami event occurs, the closest scenario is selected from the T2 scenario database according to the seismic parameters. The values of the maximum amplitude for the scenario are assessed within coastal regions to determine the threat level. Tsunami warnings are issued according to whether the maximum amplitudes exceed pre-determined threshold values. The threshold values have been derived empirically by consideration of past events and observed coastal impacts. This presentation will describe recent developments that have been made to improve this technique, such as consideration of percentile values of the maximum amplitude.

  20. Modeling of the 2011 Tohoku Near-field Tsunami from Finite-fault Inversion of Seismic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Cheung, K.; Lay, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake ruptured the megathrust fault offshore of northeastern Honshu and generated a devastating near-field tsunami that caused over 24,000 casualties in Japan. While both the earthquake and tsunami caused extensive infrastructure damage in the region, most of the casualties were caused by inundation of coastal towns and villages. The extensive global seismic networks, dense geodetic instruments, well-positioned water level stations, and comprehensive post-event surveys along the northeast Japan coasts provide datasets of unprecedented quality and coverage for investigation of the tsunami source mechanism and near-field wave characteristics. We utilize the shock-capturing, dispersive wave model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) to reconstruct the tsunami from a finite-fault solution based on teleseismic P-wave inversion. The depth-integrated model describes dispersive waves through non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for tsunami generation from time histories of seafloor deformation and transfer of kinetic energy to the water mass. These model capabilities are important for the timing and evolution of the tsunami waves near the earthquake source. The finite-fault model produces seafloor uplift patches at the epicenter and near the trench that are crucial in reproducing the near-field tsunami recorded by coastal and deep-water buoys around the source as well as runup variation along east Japan coasts. The model tsunami allows investigation of the generation mechanism in terms of the rupture process and the ocean wave dynamics over the continental margin. A confluence of physical processes associated with the rupture and the bathymetry and topography led to the devastating impact of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami along the northeastern Japan coasts. The large slip near the trench produced a long-crested wave directed toward the continental shelf. The superposition of this long-crested wave with the radial wave from the epicentral vicinity produced 6 m of recorded wave amplitude, and together with local topographic effects, caused large runup heights on the rugged coasts of Iwate. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes on the continental shelf and areas prone to tsunami hazards. Coupling of coastal resonance at Sendai Bay with large-scale standing edge waves over the continental margin produced a series of large-amplitude waves that result in the extensive inundation on the Sendai plain. This case study has improved our understanding of near-field tsunami waves and validated the modeling capability to predict their impacts for hazard mitigation and emergency management.

  1. Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2011-11-01

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

  2. Tsunami hazard and exposure on the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, Finn; Glimsdal, Sylfest; Harbitz, Carl B.; Zamora, Natalia; Nadim, Farrokh; Peduzzi, Pascal; Dao, Hy; Smebye, Helge

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a large increase in the activity of tsunami hazard and risk mapping is observed. Most of these are site-specific studies with detailed modelling of the run-up locally. However, fewer studies exist on the regional and global scale. Therefore, tsunamis have been omitted in previous global studies comparing different natural hazards. Here, we present a first global tsunami hazard and population exposure study. A key topic is the development of a simple and robust method for obtaining reasonable estimates of the maximum water level during tsunami inundation. This method is mainly based on plane wave linear hydrostatic transect simulations, and validation against results from a standard run-up model is given. The global hazard study is scenario based, focusing on tsunamis caused by megathrust earthquakes only, as the largest events will often contribute more to the risk than the smaller events. Tsunamis caused by non-seismic sources are omitted. Hazard maps are implemented by conducting a number of tsunami scenario simulations supplemented with findings from literature. The maps are further used to quantify the number of people exposed to tsunamis using the Landscan population data set. Because of the large geographical extents, quantifying the tsunami hazard assessment is focusing on overall trends.

  3. Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Method and Application to an NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period was evaluated with empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipment and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in a Nuclear Power Plant. For the system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event was developed according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real nuclear power plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which is located on the east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) working procedure was established and an example calculation was performed for one nuclear power plant in Korea

  4. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

  5. Event generator comparison for SUSY discovery potential at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start its operation this fall, opening the path to new physics at an initial centre-of-mass energy of 10 TeV. Supersymmetry is a theory which proposes new heavy particles, the bosonic superpartners of the standard model fermions and fermionic superpartners of the standard model bosons. The search for such new particles is a major goal of the LHC. SUSY theories, however, have large parameter spaces, making it difficult to prepare for specific scenarios. While a generic minimal supersymmetric standard model consists of 105 free parameters, constrained model still have 5 free parameters. We must therefore scan these parameter spaces and generate Monte Carlo simulations for many choices thereof. This is done using a generator program, which in the case of ATLAS is Herwig(Isawig) for SUSY studies. In this talk, a comparison of particle-spectra stemming from supersymmetric events generated using Herwig(Isawig) and Pythia will be presented. It will be shown that the cross-sections need not be the same a priori for different generators, and its impact on the SUSY discovery potential with ATLAS will be highlighted. (author)

  6. MARTINI: An event generator for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the modular algorithm for relativistic treatment of heavy ion interactions (MARTINI), a comprehensive event generator for the hard and penetrating probes in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Its main components are a time-evolution model for the soft background, PYTHIA 8.1, and the McGill-Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) parton-evolution scheme, including radiative as well as elastic processes. This allows us to generate full event configurations in the high pT region that take into account thermal quantum chromodynamic (QCD) and quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects as well as effects of the evolving medium. We present results for the neutral pion nuclear modification factor in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as a function of pT for different centralities and also as a function of the angle with respect to the reaction plane for noncentral collisions. Furthermore, we study the production of high-transverse-momentum photons, incorporating a complete set of photon-production channels.

  7. MARTINI: An event generator for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Björn; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong

    2009-11-01

    We introduce the modular algorithm for relativistic treatment of heavy ion interactions (MARTINI), a comprehensive event generator for the hard and penetrating probes in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Its main components are a time-evolution model for the soft background, PYTHIA 8.1, and the McGill-Arnold, Moore, and Yaffe (AMY) parton-evolution scheme, including radiative as well as elastic processes. This allows us to generate full event configurations in the high pT region that take into account thermal quantum chromodynamic (QCD) and quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects as well as effects of the evolving medium. We present results for the neutral pion nuclear modification factor in Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider as a function of pT for different centralities and also as a function of the angle with respect to the reaction plane for noncentral collisions. Furthermore, we study the production of high-transverse-momentum photons, incorporating a complete set of photon-production channels.

  8. Stakeholder-driven geospatial modeling for assessing tsunami vertical-evacuation strategies in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Schmidtlein, M.; Schelling, J.; Jones, J.; Ng, P.

    2012-12-01

    Recent tsunami disasters, such as the 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events, demonstrate the significant life loss that can occur from tsunamis. Many coastal communities in the world are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards that may inundate low-lying areas only minutes after a tsunami begins. Geospatial integration of demographic data and hazard zones has identified potential impacts on populations in communities susceptible to near-field tsunami threats. Pedestrian-evacuation models build on these geospatial analyses to determine if individuals in tsunami-prone areas will have sufficient time to reach high ground before tsunami-wave arrival. Areas where successful evacuations are unlikely may warrant vertical-evacuation (VE) strategies, such as berms or structures designed to aid evacuation. The decision of whether and where VE strategies are warranted is complex. Such decisions require an interdisciplinary understanding of tsunami hazards, land cover conditions, demography, community vulnerability, pedestrian-evacuation models, land-use and emergency-management policy, and decision science. Engagement with the at-risk population and local emergency managers in VE planning discussions is critical because resulting strategies include permanent structures within a community and their local ownership helps ensure long-term success. We present a summary of an interdisciplinary approach to assess VE options in communities along the southwest Washington coast (U.S.A.) that are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards generated by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes. Pedestrian-evacuation models based on an anisotropic approach that uses path-distance algorithms were merged with population data to forecast the distribution of at-risk individuals within several communities as a function of travel time to safe locations. A series of community-based workshops helped identify potential VE options in these communities, collectively known as "Project Safe Haven" at the State of Washington Emergency Management Division. Models of the influence of stakeholder-driven VE options identified changes in the type and distribution of at-risk individuals. Insights from VE use and performance as an aid to evacuations from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami helped to inform the meetings and the analysis. We developed geospatial tools to automate parts of the pedestrian-evacuation models to support the iterative process of developing VE options and forecasting changes in population exposure. Our summary presents the interdisciplinary effort to forecast population impacts from near-field tsunami threats and to develop effective VE strategies to minimize fatalities in future events.

  9. Modeling of the Tohoku-oki 2011 tsunami coastal hazard: effects of a mixed co-seismic and seabed failure source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J. C.; Tajali Bakhsh, T. S.; Tappin, D. R.; Masterlark, T.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Ma, G.

    2012-12-01

    The devastating coastal impact of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami cannot at present be fully explained from a pure co-seismic source. Indeed, no numerical simulation solely based on a source resulting from seismic or geodetic data inversion, has been able to reproduce the 40+ m tsunami runup heights measured along the (Sanriku) coast of northern Honshu, nor the higher frequency wave periods (3-4 min.) recorded at offshore buoys (both GPS and DART). Understanding the origin of such extreme coastal impact is key to proper tsunami hazard assessment for future events in this and other similar areas around the world. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of geological, seismic, geodetic and tsunami data and use the best available 3D hydrodynamic and long wave Boussinesq models, to simulate the tsunami generated from the combination of: (i) a new co-seismic source based on a detailed three-dimensional (3D) Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of the heterogeneous subduction zone, with geodetic data assimilation; and (ii) an additional tsunami source from a large seabed failure, seismically triggered to the North of the main rupture, with a 2' time delay. We show that the multi-source tsunami agrees well with all the available field observations, both offshore and onshore.

  10. Tsunami asymptotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the technique of uniform asymptotic approximation to the oscillatory integrals representing tsunami wave profiles, the form of the travelling wave far from the source is calculated for arbitrary initial disturbances. The approximations reproduce the entire profiles very accurately, from the front to the tail, and their numerical computation is much faster than that of the oscillatory integrals. For one-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve Airy functions and their derivatives; for two-dimensional propagation, the uniform asymptotics involve products of these functions. Separate analyses are required when the initial disturbance is specified as surface elevation or surface velocity as functions of position, and when these functions are even or odd. 'There was an awful rainbow once in heaven' (John Keats, 1820)

  11. Data Fusion Concepts for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, G. T.; Salzberg, D. H.

    2007-12-01

    The tsunami source region for subduction zone earthquakes is near the base of the acreationary wedge. In that region the material properties are weak, and are unable to store significant elastic energy. Therefore, the tsunamigenic rupture is nearly aseismic. Instead, the seismic energy primarily radiates from deeper within the fault; thus resolving or imaging this shallow rupture is extremely difficult, particularly when factoring in the real time requirements of tsunami warning. In the current U.S. Tsunami warning systems, the operational paradigm is to initially determine the most probable source parameters in a maximum likelihood sense, then establish alert level based, and wait for sea level measurements (DART or tide gauge) to validate or cancel the alert. This approach results in numerous false alarms, with some missed tsunamis based on the initial alert. In fact, the maximum likelihood approach works well for typical events; however, the tsunamigenic events are outliers; in the last 30 years, there have been about 130 events of size and location that would warrant a expanding warning. Of those events, 43 were associated with tsunamis of greater than 1 m; however, most of those were local, with only 13 events having significant far field tsunamis. So, even for large events, tsunamigenic earthquakes are statistical outliers. To address this issue, we have conceptualized a data fusion based approach to tsunami warning that will incorporate multiple data types simultaneously to provide better, rapid estimates of tsunami source, partially by identifying "statistical outliers" and partially by running multiple hypothesis of tsunami sources. For example, we can test to see the error bias of the preliminary magnitude estimate; that is, is the system more likely underestimating or overestimating the magnitude. In addition, incorporating non-seismic data, such as hydroactoustic (T-phase) and GPS data may improve the ability to image the shallow rupture. The approach also allows for the incorporation of evidence for slumping/landslides, including anomalous long period Rayleigh waves (e.g., Eksrom, 2006) and hydroacoustic signals. In summary, a fusion approach to tsunami warning should provide for lower false alarm rates while increasing the probability of detection of the events in time period prior to sea level measurements.

  12. IMPACT OF TSUNAMI 2004 IN COASTAL VILLAGES OF NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumaraperumal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Nagapattinam coast of southern India on December 26, 2004 at around 9.00 am (IST. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats, prawn culture ponds, soil and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The study was carried out in the Tsunami affected villages in the coastal Nagapattinam with the help of remote sensing and geographical information science tools. Through the use of the IRS 1D PAN and LISS 3 merged data and quick bird images, it was found that 1,320 ha of agricultural and non-agricultural lands were affected by the tsunami. The lands were affected by soil erosion, salt deposition, water logging and other deposited sediments and debris. The maximum run-up height of 6.1 m and the maximum seawater inundation distance of 2.2 km were observed at Vadakkupoyyur village in coastal Nagapattinam.Pre and Post Tsunami survey on soil quality showed an increase in pH and EC values, irrespectiveof distance from the sea. The water reaction was found to be in alkaline range (> 8.00 in most of the -1wells. Salinity levels are greater than 4 dS m in all the wells except the ring well. The effect of summer rainfall on soil and water quality showed the dilution of soluble salts. Pumping of water has reduced the salinity levels in the well water samples and as well as in the open ponds. Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent to know the relative tsunami hazard for this coastal Nagapattinam. So, the Tsunami hazard maps are generated using a geographical information systems (GIS approach and the results showed 20.6 per cent, 63.7 per cent and 15.2 per cent of the study area fall under high hazard, medium hazard and low hazard category respectively.

  13. Revisiting the February 6th 1783 Scilla (Calabria, Italy) landslide and tsunami by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, P.; Bozzano, F.

    2011-03-01

    On February 6th, 1783, a landslide of about 5 × 106 m3 triggered by a 5.8 M earthquake occurred near the village of Scilla (Southern Calabria, Italy). The rock mass fell into the sea as a rock avalanche, producing a tsunami with a run-up as high as 16 m. The tsunami killed about 1,500 people, making it one of the most catastrophic tsunamis in Italian history. A combined landslide-tsunami simulation is proposed in this paper. It is based on an already performed reconstruction of the landslide, derived from subaerial and submarine investigation by means of geomorphological, geological and geomechanical surveys. The DAN3D model is used to simulate the landslide propagation both in the subaerial and in the submerged parts of the slope, while a simple linear shallow water model is applied for both tsunami generation and propagation. A satisfying back-analysis of the landslide propagation has been achieved in terms of run-out, areal distribution and thickness of the final deposit. Moreover, landslide velocities comparable to similar events reported in the literature are achieved. Output data from numerical simulation of the landslide are used as input parameters for tsunami modelling. It is worth noting that locations affected by recordable waves according to the simulation correspond to those ones recorded by historical documents. With regard to run-up heights a good agreement is achieved at some locations (Messina, Catona, Punta del Faro) between computed and real values, while in other places modelled heights are overestimated. The discrepancies, which were most significant at locations characterized by a very low slope gradient in the vicinity of the landslide, were probably caused by effects such as wave breaking, for which the adopted tsunami model does not account, as well as by uncertainties in the historical data.

  14. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for NPP had been established by the Standardization Committee of AESJ. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of (1) investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, (2) selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, (3) evaluation of Tsunami hazards, (4) fragility evaluation of building and components and (5) evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Unearthing earthquakes and their tsunamis using multiple proxies: the 22 June 1932 event and a probable fourteenth-century predecessor on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ramírez-Herrera, M.-T.; Corona, N.; Lagos, M.; ?erný, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Goff, J.; Chaugé-Goff, C.; Machain, M. L.; Zawadzki, A.; Jacobsen, G.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Lozano, S.; Blecher, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 56, ?. 13 (2014), s. 1584-1601. ISSN 0020-6814 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : tsunami deposits * palaeotsunami * tropical environment * multi-proxy approach * Pacific coast * México Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2013

  16. Investigation on tsunami effects in the central Adriatic Sea during the last century – a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maramai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the result of a study aimed at examining the Italian earthquake sequences that occurred in the area of the central Adriatic sea with the purpose of understanding whether some of them were accompanied by tsunami effects. The motivation for this research was the update and enrichment of the Italian Tsunami Catalogue. The result was that evidence was found for two new cases of earthquake-induced tsunamis: these are the August 1916 Rimini and the October 1930 Ancona events. The bulk of the present research consisted in collecting all the available data on the earthquakes that affected the selected area in the past century and in identifying those potentially capable of generating tsunamis. During the study all the available material was gathered, which includes specific monographs and scientific papers, articles available in contemporary chronicles and in local and national newspapers. The final result of this research will improve our knowledge of the tsunamigenic activity of the central Adriatic sea and contribute to the assessment of the tsunami hazard and risk along these coasts, that especially in the peak season form one of the most densely populated areas of the Italian peninsula with flat and large beaches and water front resorts crowded of tourists.

  17. Finite-element simulations of the 5 February 1783 Calabrian tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Piatanesi, A.

    1996-03-01

    Southern Calabria is one of the Italian coastal regions mostly affected by tsunami hazard. This work is a part of a wider study of the assessment of the tsunami hazard in the southern Calabria and eastern Sicily. The tsunami which we focus our attention on was the first of a series of events that were associated with the 1783 Calabrian seismic crisis that was one of the most catastrophic affecting southern Italy in historical times. The tsunami was generated by an I=XI earthquake: the isoseismal field is elongated in the direction of the Apennine chain and centered in the Gioia Tauro plain where the most relevant damage was reported. Several numerical simulations of the tsunami have been performed by means of a finite-element method based on the shallow-water equations with different sources. The Tyrrhenian sea facing southern Calabria, including the Messina Strait, has been covered by a triangle-based mesh. The numerical results, compared with the available historical observations, such as the polarity of the first arriving wave, the mean wave period, etc. enable us to evaluate the most reliable source mechanisms and locations.

  18. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami off the Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2014-12-01

    A major (M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (Luc(eonard) and Buc(ednarski) 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (Luc(eonard) and Buc(ednarski) 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.

  19. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, Stephanie; Post, Joachim; Mück, Matthias; Zosseder, Kai; Muhari, Abdul; Anwar, Herryal Z.; Gebert, Niklas; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas on the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Depending on the location of the tsunamigenic earthquake, in many cases the time to reach a tsunami-safe area is as short as 15 or 20 minutes. To increase the chances of a successful evacuation a comprehensive and thorough planning and preparation is necessary. For this purpose, detailed knowledge on potential hazard impact and safe areas, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, deficiencies in response capabilities and evacuation routes is crucial. The major aims of this paper are (i) to assess and quantify people's response capabilities and (ii) to identify high risk areas which have a high need of action to improve the response capabilities and thus to reduce the risk. The major factor influencing people's ability to evacuate successfully is the factor time. The estimated time of arrival of a tsunami at the coast which determines the overall available time for evacuation after triggering of a tsunami can be derived by analyzing modeled tsunami scenarios for a respective area. But in most cases, this available time frame is diminished by other time components including the time until natural or technical warning signs are received and the time until reaction follows a warning (understanding a warning and decision to take appropriate action). For the time to receive a warning we assume that the early warning centre is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. Reaction time is difficult to quantify as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience play a role. Although we are aware of the great importance of this factor and the importance to minimize the reaction time, it is not considered in this paper. Quantifying the needed evacuation time is based on a GIS approach. This approach is relatively simple and enables local authorities to implement it at low technical complexity and relatively low cost and time needs. Basic principle is to define the best evacuation route from a given point to the nearest safe area. Here the fastest path from that point to the shelter location has to be found. Thereby the impact of land cover, slope, population density, population age and gender distribution are taken into account as literature studies prove these factors as highly important. Knowing the fastest path and the distance to the nearest safe area together with a spatially distributed pattern of evacuation speed delivers the time needed from each location to a shelter. A shelter location can either be a horizontal area or an evacuation building (vertical evacuation). For both kinds of evacuation target points, one limiting factor can be again time: are the people able to reach the target point within the available time? Especially for evacuation buildings, there is a second possibly limiting factor, namely capacity. In the majority of cases in all of the three study areas where this approach was applied to, capacity was the critical factor instead of time. Consequently, for planning purposes it is essential to know which area can be served by an evacuation building and which areas have to be assigned to a different evacuation target point due to exhausted capacity of the nearest one. The coverage of a building is also derived on basis of a GIS approach using the beforehand derived available and needed evacuation times and detailed population distribution data. Evacuation time and derived evacuable areas are then used to identify high risk areas. In combination with detailed population distribution data, hazard probability and hazard intensity, it is possible to identify areas with high risk and large deficiencies in response capabilities. Often enough, human response capabilities can be increased by thorough disaster planning and thus, the results of this paper provide valuable information for planning authorities to decrease the risk. This paper presents results exemplarily for the study are

  20. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  1. Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... your family by following these steps Hygiene and Sanitation From the CDC Water-Related Emergencies and Outbreaks ...

  2. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Health Effects of Tsunamis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... in areas where little medical care exists. Secondary effects Natural disasters do not necessarily cause an increase ...

  3. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that of a typical tsunami. The ability to model and then validate these currentsdissect them has only recently become available through the evaluation of dozens of eyewitness accounts and hundreds of videos.developed. In this presentation, we will present ongoing work related to the application of such models to quantify the maritime tsunami hazard in select ports and harbors in California. The development of current-based tsunami hazard maps and safe-offshore-depth delineations will be discussed. We will also present an overview of the challenges in modeling tsunami currents, including capture of turbulent dynamics, coupling with tides, and issues with long-duration simulations. This work in California will form the basis for tsunami hazard reduction for all U.S. maritime communities through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  4. Tsunami Risk and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Khomarudin, Muhammad Rokhis

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on providing reliable spatial information in support of tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment within the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project. It contributes to three major components of the project: (1) the provision of spatial information on surface roughness as an important parameter for tsunami inundation modeling and hazard assessment; (2) the modeling of population distribution, which is an essential factor in tsunami ...

  5. THE INAPPROPRIATE TSUNAMI ICON

    OpenAIRE

    DoakC. Cox

    2001-01-01

    The supposition that the Japanese printmaker Hokusai intended to represent a tsunami in his print of the “Great Wave at Kanagawa” is unfounded and the use of his “Great Wave” as a tsunami icon gives a false impression of the nature of tsunami waves.

  6. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will underpin efforts to produce port-specific guidance and information in the event of future Pacific tsunamis.

  7. Next-Generation Navigational Infrastructure and the ATLAS Event Store

    CERN Document Server

    van Gemmeren, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Nowak, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS event store employs a persistence framework with extensive navigational capabilities. These include real-time back navigation to upstream processing stages, externalizable data object references, navigation from any data object to any other both within a single file and across files, and more. The 2013-2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider provides an opportunity to enhance this infrastructure in several ways that both extend these capabilities and allow the collaboration to better exploit emerging computing platforms. Enhancements include redesign with efficient file merging in mind, content-based indices in optimized reference types, and support for forward references. The latter provide the potential to construct valid references to data before those data are written, a capability that is useful in a variety of multithreading, multiprocessing, distributed processing, and deferred processing scenarios. This paper describes the architecture and design of the next generation of ATLAS navigation...

  8. Next-Generation Navigational Infrastructure and the ATLAS Event Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemmeren, P.; Malon, D.; Nowak, M.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS event store employs a persistence framework with extensive navigational capabilities. These include real-time back navigation to upstream processing stages, externalizable data object references, navigation from any data object to any other both within a single file and across files, and more. The 2013-2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider provides an opportunity to enhance this infrastructure in several ways that both extend these capabilities and allow the collaboration to better exploit emerging computing platforms. Enhancements include redesign with efficient file merging in mind, content-based indices in optimized reference types, and support for forward references. The latter provide the potential to construct valid references to data before those data are written, a capability that is useful in a variety of multithreading, multiprocessing, distributed processing, and deferred processing scenarios. This paper describes the architecture and design of the next generation of ATLAS navigational infrastructure.

  9. India’s Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami Hazard & Tsunami Potential in Northern Bay of Bengal (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end-to-end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system is functioning well. We also examine the tsunami potential in the northern Bay of Bengal, where a large population (about 100 million) in the coastal area makes the region very vulnerable if a large tsunami was to occur. It is observed that: i) oblique plate motion characterizes the region resulting in strike-slip dominated earthquakes with low tsunami generating potential; ii) in the northern Bay of Bengal, the deformation front associated with the plate boundary between India and Sunda plates is either landward or in the shallow water in the Arakan region and therefore a great earthquake will not displace large amounts of water causing a major tsunami; and iii) there is no evidence of the region been affected by a large tsunami in the past 2000 years. We therefore conclude that though a great earthquake could occur in the Arakan region, it would not generate a large tsunami in the northern Bay of Bengal.

  10. Six large tsunamis in the past ~1700 years at Stardust Bay, Sedanka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, R. C.; Carver, G. A.; Bender, A. M.; Briggs, R. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Two great earthquakes in 1946 (Unimak Island, Mw 8.1) and 1957 (Andreanof Islands, Mw 8.6) ruptured parts of the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, generating deadly pan-Pacific tsunamis that hit Hawaii. Here, we provide the first estimates of recurrence intervals of such destructive Aleutian-born tsunamis from evidence for tsunami inundation at Stardust Bay on the Pacific coast of Sedanka Island, ~25 km southeast of Dutch Harbor, Alaska. We used soil augers, outcrops and shallow pits to map 6 continuous sand deposits across four depositional environments in a ~500-m-wide, 35-hectare valley. Successive sandy deposits mantled the crests of beach ridges, buried peat formed in freshwater wetlands and upland muskeg, and accumulated to form unusual terrace remnants along the valley's inland margin. Dark, basaltic tephras interbedded in peat underlying two of the sands guided stratigraphic correlation across the study area. Thin, peaty horizons separate the six gray sand beds that can be distinguished from black tephra deposits by their compositions, which consist of subangular volcanic lithics similar to Stardust Bay beach sand. The youngest sand, often the thinnest (graded sand beds, some of which contain ripped-up mud or peat clasts. The sheet-like sand beds blanket topography, thinning over beach ridges and thickening in swales and bogs. Although marine foraminifera are absent in the sandy and peaty deposits in the valley, we infer a tsunami origin for the sand beds, based on their physical properties. The activity of 210Pb and 137Cs in organic-rich sediment above and below the youngest sand bed suggest it predates 1963, consistent with deposition by either the 1946 or 1957 tsunami. Radiocarbon (AMS) analyses of herbaceous seeds, herb stems, moss leaves and insect parts suggest the following ages for the older sand beds: 0.4 ka, sand 2; 0.6 ka, sand 3; 1.1 ka, sand 4; 1.4 ka, sand 5; and 1.6 ka, sand 6. Large tsunamis entered Stardust Bay on average every ~325 years. Remaining questions include: How has late Holocene relative sea-level change and beach-ridge formation influenced tsunami sediment transport and deposition? What were the characteristics of the earthquake sources that generated earlier tsunamis? Like the 1946 and 1957 events, the tsunamis evidenced by the older Stardust Bay deposits probably crossed the Pacific. For example, the age of the penultimate Stardust Bay deposit (290-420 cal yr BP) overlaps the time of an unusual marine flood (285-520 cal yr BP) at Maha';ulepu Caves on the south coast of Kaua';i, Hawaiian Islands.

  11. Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

    2008-12-01

    As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

  12. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    OpenAIRE

    Theilen-willige, B.

    2006-01-01

    Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000) of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps) based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be rela...

  13. Preservation potential of tsunami deposits on arid siliciclastic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, Michaela; Piepenbreier, Jens; Benavente, Carlos; Bahlburg, Heinrich

    2013-11-01

    Numerous post-tsunami surveys have been conducted in the last two decades, especially since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. These studies have documented a variety of characteristic sedimentary and erosional features that can be ascribed to known events. Nevertheless, the question arises whether these structures are just ephemeral or have a potential to be preserved in the geological record. This review describes the changes that have affected muddy to sandy siliciclastic tsunami deposits in Peru. Each of these was surveyed in the first months after the tsunami: Chimbote (1996), Camaná (2001) and Pisco-Paracas (2007). Here, we describe the changes we observed during re-surveys in 2007 and 2008.

  14. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application: The technical development is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards already applies to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services. This is a first step towards best practices and service lifecycles for Early Warning Centre IT service management, including Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Certification. While on a global scale the integration of TEWS progresses towards Systems of Systems (SoS), there is still an absence of accredited and reliable certifications for national TEWS or regional Tsunami Early Warning Systems of Systems (TEWSoS). Concepts for TEWS operations have already been published under the guidance of the IOC, and can now be complemented by the recent research advances concerning SoS architecture. Combined with feedback from the real world, such as the NEAMwave 2012 Tsunami exercise in the Mediterranean, this can serve as a starting point to formulate initial requirements for TEWS and TEWSoS certification: Certification activities will cover the establishment of new TEWS and TEWSoS, and also both maintenance and enhancement of existing TEWS/TEWSoS. While the IOC is expected to take a central role in the development of the certification strategy, it remains to be defined which bodies will actually conduct the certification process. Certification requirements and results are likely to become a valuable information source for various target groups, ranging from national policy decision makers, government agency planners, national and local government preparedness officials, TWC staff members, Disaster Responders, the media and the insurance industry.

  15. Foam A General Purpose Cellular Monte Carlo Event Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, Stanislaw

    2003-01-01

    A general purpose, self-adapting, Monte Carlo (MC) event generator (simulator) is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be $n$-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called ``foam'', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyper-plane is driven by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution. As any MC generator, it can also be used for the MC integration. With the typical personal computer CPU, the program is able to perform adaptive integration/simulation at relatively small number of dimensions ($\\leq 16$). With the continu...

  16. High-resolution, multi-proxy characterization of the event deposit generated by the catastrophic events associated with the Mw 6.2 earthquake of 21 April 2007 in Aysén fjord (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Batist, M. A.; Van Daele, M. E.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Tjallingii, R. H.; Pino, M.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2007, a seismic swarm with more than 7000 recorded earthquakes affected the region around Aysén fjord, Chile (45°25'S). The series of seismic events reached a maximum on 21 April 2007, with an Mw 6.2 earthquake. Intensities as high as VIII to IX on the Modified Mercalli scale were reported around the epicenter. Multiple debris flows, rock slides and rock avalanches were triggered along the fjord's coastline, and several of these caused impact waves or tsunamis with wave heights of up to 6 m, which inundated the fjord shorelines and caused heavy damage and 10 casualties. In order to characterize in detail the imprint left by this series of catastrophic events in the sedimentary record of the fjord, we conducted a multi-disciplinary survey of the inner fjord region in December 2009. Multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution reflection seismic data reveal that large parts of the fjord basin floor, mostly at the foot of the fjord's steep underwater slopes, are covered by recent mass-wasting deposits or consist of mass-wasting-induced deformed basin-plain sediments. A series of short sediment cores collected throughout the inner fjord contain also the more distal deposits of this significant basin-wide mass-wasting event. By combining classical sedimentological techniques (i.e. grain-size analysis, LOI and magnetic susceptibility measurements, all at high resolution) with X-ray CT scanning and XRF scanning we were able to demonstrate that the event deposits encountered in the cores have a very complex signature and actually consist of a succession of several sub-deposits, comprising distal mass-flow deposits from different source areas (as evidenced by XRF-derived geochemical provenance indications) and with a different flow direction (as evidenced by CT-derived 3D flow-direction indications, such as imbricated rip-up mud clasts, cross and convolute laminations) and tsunami- or seiche-generated deposits. This allowed us to reconstruct the succession of sedimentary events that affected the inner fjord region and got imprinted in the fjord's sedimentary record. The improved characterization of such a complex event deposit may help to reconstruct the exact nature and basin-wide effects of past similar events (i.e. the seismic data show clear evidence of 3-4 similar prehistoric events) and to establish a reliable hazard assessment for the region.

  17. Data base for British Columbia tsunami warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum expected tsunami amplitudes, currents, and travel times to 185 locations on the coast of British Columbia from four different earthquake epicentres are tabulated. This information is used by the regional tidal superintendent in arriving at the advice that is provided to the Provincial Emergency Program in the case of a real tsunami event. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  19. Probabilistic hazard for seismically induced tsunamis: accuracy and feasibility of inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorito, S.; Selva, J.; Basili, R.; Romano, F.; Tiberti, M. M.; Piatanesi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) relies on computationally demanding numerical simulations of tsunami generation, propagation, and non-linear inundation on high-resolution topo-bathymetric models. Here we focus on tsunamis generated by co-seismic sea floor displacement, that is, on Seismic PTHA (SPTHA). A very large number of tsunami simulations are typically needed to incorporate in SPTHA the full expected variability of seismic sources (the aleatory uncertainty). We propose an approach for reducing their number. To this end, we (i) introduce a simplified event tree to achieve an effective and consistent exploration of the seismic source parameter space; (ii) use the computationally inexpensive linear approximation for tsunami propagation to construct a preliminary SPTHA that calculates the probability of maximum offshore tsunami wave height (HMax) at a given target site; (iii) apply a two-stage filtering procedure to these `linear' SPTHA results, for selecting a reduced set of sources and (iv) calculate `non-linear' probabilistic inundation maps at the target site, using only the selected sources. We find that the selection of the important sources needed for approximating probabilistic inundation maps can be obtained based on the offshore HMax values only. The filtering procedure is semi-automatic and can be easily repeated for any target sites. We describe and test the performances of our approach with a case study in the Mediterranean that considers potential subduction earthquakes on a section of the Hellenic Arc, three target sites on the coast of eastern Sicily and one site on the coast of southern Crete. The comparison between the filtered SPTHA results and those obtained for the full set of sources indicates that our approach allows for a 75-80 per cent reduction of the number of the numerical simulations needed, while preserving the accuracy of probabilistic inundation maps to a reasonable degree.

  20. Observing sea level and current anomalies driven by a megathrust slope-shelf tsunami: The event on February 27, 2010 in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobarzo, Marcus; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Tassara, Andrés; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2012-10-01

    At 03:34 (local time) on 27 February 2010, the world's sixth largest earthquake on record (8.8 Mw) occurred off central Chile, rupturing a segment about 550 km long of the Nazca-South America plate boundary fault parallel to the coastline. This earthquake triggered a destructive tsunami that affected the entire Pacific basin, especially the Chilean coast in an extension of ˜580 km. Here we analyze observations of currents and sea level anomalies caused by the tsunami that were recorded ˜30 km east of the epicenter by an RDI 600 kHz ADCP installed facing upward at 35 m depth. Although the ADCP sampling rate was not optimal for this kind of phenomenon, we were able to document for the first time near-field ocean hydrodynamics caused by an earthquake-triggered tsunami. We combine our observations with measurements of sea level recorded by tide gauges located along the Chilean coast. The ADCP recorded the passage of five waves of about 1.5-2 m amplitude during approximately 4 h after the earthquake. The first wave hit the coast in about 20 min with slow flows and propagated faster northwards (where the trench is deeper) than it did to the south. The first strong flow arrived cross-shore (after the first wave) with a vertical mean speed of 65 cm/s. Unlike this first cross-shore flow, the following peak flows were increasingly aligned with the coastline and had magnitudes that, in at least two cases, exceeded 70 cm/s. These flows were consistent with edge waves driven by the contact between the tsunami and the coastline. Current and sea level measurements had more energetic periods at 35, 50 and 72 min, displaying a coherent relationship with the dominant oscillation modes of large-scale resonance.

  1. The role of strong earthquakes and tsunami in the Late Holocene evolution of the Fortore River coastal plain (Apulia, Italy): A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Sansò, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    Morphological analysis of the Fortore River coastal plain and the Lesina Lake coastal barrier integrated with radiocarbon age data indicates that the evolution of the coastal landscape has been strongly affected by a number of strong earthquakes and related tsunamis which occurred during the last 3000 years. The first seismic event struck this coastal area in the V century BC. It produced strong erosion of the Fortore River coastal plain and significant emersion of Punta delle Pietre Nere, as well as the large tsunami responsible for the development of the Sant'Andrea washover fan. The second event occurred in 493 AD; it induced severe erosion of the Fortore River coastal plain and triggered the large tsunami that hit the Lesina Lake coastal barrier, producing the Foce Cauto washover fan. Then later in 1627, an earthquake was responsible for the further coseismic uplift of Punta delle Pietre Nere, the subsidence of Lesina village area and the development of a tsunami which produced two washover fans. Morphological analysis points out that seismic events strong enough to control the morphological evolution of local coastal landscapes show a statistical return period of about 1000 years. These major events produced important coseismic vertical movements and large tsunamis. However, the correct identification of the tectonic structure responsible for the generation of these strong earthquakes is still an unsolved problem.

  2. Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, S.; Manucci, A.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

    2009-04-01

    Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The most famous event hitting the town was the earthquake of 11 January, 1693 (M=7.4) which almost completely ruined the city and that was followed by a violent tsunami, impacting the entire eastern Sicily coast and producing very relevant effects in Catania. The high level of tsunami hazard is accompanied also by a high level of vulnerability to tsunamis. This is the reason why Catania is one of the five test sites that were chosen in the framework of the EU-funded SCHEMA project for the tsunami vulnerability assessment along the Mediterranean coasts. Building reliable scenarios of tsunami impact requires on one side to develop numerical simulations of worst-case events on the basis of the known tsunami history and of the tectonics and geological evolution of the area, on the other side to characterise the vulnerability of the town, possibly distinguishing which areas area most exposed to a tsunami threat. As to the first point, it appears reasonable to adopt the 11 January 1693 event as the reference for the development of the numerical scenarios. The important fact is that a debate on the source of the 1693 tsunami is still ongoing as it is not clear whether the tsunami was generated by the earthquake only or by a submarine landslide or by a combination of these causes. So different hypotheses must be taken into account as regards the generation of the tsunami, and numerical scenarios of tsunami propagation and impact must be run for each hypothesis. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed an maintained at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna, Italy. Regarding the vulnerability assessment, at a first glance Catania presents three coastal areas with different characteristics. South of Catania, an extended flat area is delimited seaward by a very long sandy beach striking N-S (the so-called Playa di Catania); the area counts a large number of summer houses and resorts; moreover, the airport of Catania Fontanarossa is built at just about 1.5-2 km from the sea. North of Catania the coastline is instead very rocky, steep and high, with very few settlements facing along this coast. These two very different zones are divided by the port of Catania, which is very close to the city centre but is separated from it by the ancient walls of the city. Combining the results coming from the numerical simulations with the preliminary considerations on the tsunami vulnerability, we determine for each considered tsunamigenic source which part of the town presents the highest exposure to possible future tsunami impacts.

  3. Tsunami-induced electromagnetic fields at the seafloor caused by earthquakes on both sides of the Kuril trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.; Hamano, Y.; Goto, T.

    2009-12-01

    It is generally known that electromagnetic (EM) fields can be generated by ocean currents moving through the Earth’s magnetic field. Theory of motional induction in the ocean (Longuet-Higgins, 1949; Sanford, 1971; Chave and Luther, 1991) indicates that observations of the induced EM fields by oceanic dynamo effect can reveal large scale oceanic flows, which is usually difficult by other methods. Especially, detection of tsunami propagation in off-shore areas is very important to predict accurate arrival times and tsunami heights at the sea shore. Unlike conventional tsunami sensors such as ocean bottom pressure gauges, simultaneous measurements of seafloor electric and magnetic fields are superior in detecting arrival directions and particle motions of tsunami flows by a single station, since EM measurements are essentially vector measurements. Recently, it was found, for the first time, that EM time-series from seafloor observatories in the northwest Pacific captured clear signals of the tsunami-induced EM variations. We have been operating one long-term seafloor electromagnetic station at a site called NWP in the northwest Pacific basin since August, 2001 and the other (WPB) in the west Philippine basin since June, 2006 (Toh et al., 2004; 2006). Both stations have successfully provided seafloor EM time-series for slightly less than 2000 days at NWP and more than 900 days at WPB so far. On the other hand, the three years from the end of 2004 were found seismically so active in the Pacific region that the time period covered large tsunami-generating earthquakes such as off the west coast of northern Sumatra earthquake occurred on December 26, 2004. Among the tsunami-generated earthquakes, we focused our analysis to a pair of earthquakes occurred successively on both sides of the Kuril Trench in November, 2006 and January, 2007. It turned out the seafloor EM station at NWP succeeded in capturing the tsunami-induced EM fields. The most dominant periods of the tsunamis were estimated to be ~900s and ~500s for the 2006 and 2007 events, respectively. The vector measurements of the seafloor EM fields allowed us direction finding of the tsunami waves to yield an approximate bearing of N320E that coincided well with the direction of the epicenters. Furthermore, the time lag between the arrival of seismic waves detected by tilt meters that were also attached to the seafloor EM observatories, and that of tsunami waves by the EM sensors was found compatible with the phase velocity of the tsunamis (e.g., ~240 m/s for the averaged depth of the northwest Pacific basin from the epicenter to NWP). The velocity of the particle motions was estimated to be ~10 mm/s from the amplitudes of the tsunami-induced EM signals of ~1 nT and ~0.5 mV/km for the magnetic and electric fields, respectively. It will be further argued that the vertical geomagnetic component, Bz, may possibly be converted into the tsunami wave height above the seafloor observatory because Bz is strongly correlated with horizontal divergence of the tsunami velocity field (Sanford, 1971).

  4. Tsunami Prediction and Earthquake Parameters Estimation in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawlan, Zaid A

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami concerns have increased in the world after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Consequently, tsunami models have been developed rapidly in the last few years. One of the advanced tsunami models is the GeoClaw tsunami model introduced by LeVeque (2011). This model is adaptive and consistent. Because of different sources of uncertainties in the model, observations are needed to improve model prediction through a data assimilation framework. Model inputs are earthquake parameters and topography. This thesis introduces a real-time tsunami forecasting method that combines tsunami model with observations using a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble Kalman smoother. The filter is used for state prediction while the smoother operates smoothing to estimate the earthquake parameters. This method reduces the error produced by uncertain inputs. In addition, state-parameter EnKF is implemented to estimate earthquake parameters. Although number of observations is small, estimated parameters generates a better tsunami prediction than the model. Methods and results of prediction experiments in the Red Sea are presented and the prospect of developing an operational tsunami prediction system in the Red Sea is discussed.

  5. Flux Transfer Events: 1. generation mechanism for strong southward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Raeder

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a global numerical model of the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field with Earth's magnetosphere to study the formation process of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs during strong southward IMF. We find that: (i The model produces essentially all observational features expected for FTEs, in particular the bipolar signature of the magnetic field BN component, the correct polarity, duration, and intermittency of that bipolar signature, strong core fields and enhanced core pressure, and flow enhancements; (ii FTEs only develop for large dipole tilt whereas in the case of no dipole tilt steady magnetic reconnection occurs at the dayside magnetopause; (iii the basic process by which FTEs are produced is the sequential generation of new X-lines which makes dayside reconnection inherently time dependent and leads to a modified form of dual or multiple X-line reconnection; (iv the FTE generation process in this model is not dependent on specific assumptions about microscopic processes; (v the average period of FTEs can be explained by simple geometric arguments involving magnetosheath convection; (vi FTEs do not develop in the model if the numerical resolution is too coarse leading to too much numerical diffusion; and (vii FTEs for nearly southward IMF and large dipole tilt, i.e., near solstice, should only develop in the winter hemisphere, which provides a testable prediction of seasonal modulation. The semiannual modulation of intermittent FTE reconnection versus steady reconnection is also expected to modulate magnetospheric and ionospheric convection and may thus contribute to the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity.

  6. Source Mechanism and Near-field Characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Cheung, K.; Lay, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Tohoku-oki great earthquake ruptured the megathrust fault offshore of Miyagi and Fukushima in Northeast Honshu with moment magnitude of Mw 9.0 on March 11, 2011, and generated strong shaking across the region. The resulting tsunami devastated the northeastern Japan coasts and damaged coastal infrastructure across the Pacific. The extensive global seismic networks, dense geodetic instruments, well-positioned buoys and wave gauges, and comprehensive runup records along the northeast Japan coasts provide datasets of unprecedented quality and coverage for investigation of the tsunami source mechanism and near-field wave characteristics. Our finite-source model reconstructs detailed source rupture processes by inversion of teleseismic P waves recorded around the globe. The finite-source solution is validated through comparison with the static displacements recoded at the ARIA (JPL-GSI) GPS stations and models obtained by inversion of high-rate GPS observations. The rupture model has two primary slip regions, near the hypocenter and along the trench; the maximum slip is about 60 m near the trench. Together with the low rupture velocity, the Tohoku-oki event has characteristics in common with tsunami earthquakes, although it ruptured across the entire megathrust. Superposition of the deformation of the subfaults from the planar fault model according to their rupture initiation and rise times specifies the seafloor vertical displacement and velocity for tsunami modeling. We reconstruct the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami from the time histories of the seafloor deformation using the dispersive long-wave model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs). The computed results are compared with data from six GPS gauges and three wave gauges near the source at 120~200-m and 50-m water depth, as well as DART buoys positioned across the Pacific. The shock-capturing model reproduces near-shore tsunami bores and the runup data gathered by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes and areas prone to tsunami hazards. This case study improves our understanding of near-field tsunami waves and validates the modeling capability to predict their impacts for hazard mitigation and emergency management.

  7. Tsunami Modeling to Validate Slip Models of the 2007 M w 8.0 Pisco Earthquake, Central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioualalen, M.; Perfettini, H.; Condo, S. Yauri; Jimenez, C.; Tavera, H.

    2013-03-01

    Following the 2007, August 15th, M w 8.0, Pisco earthquake in central Peru, Sladen et al. (J Geophys Res 115: B02405, 2010) have derived several slip models of this event. They inverted teleseismic data together with geodetic (InSAR) measurements to look for the co-seismic slip distribution on the fault plane, considering those data sets separately or jointly. But how close to the real slip distribution are those inverted slip models? To answer this crucial question, the authors generated some tsunami records based on their slip models and compared them to DART buoys, tsunami records, and available runup data. Such an approach requires a robust and accurate tsunami model (non-linear, dispersive, accurate bathymetry and topography, etc.) otherwise the differences between the data and the model may be attributed to the slip models themselves, though they arise from an incomplete tsunami simulation. The accuracy of a numerical tsunami simulation strongly depends, among others, on two important constraints: (i) A fine computational grid (and thus the bathymetry and topography data sets used) which is not always available, unfortunately, and (ii) a realistic tsunami propagation model including dispersion. Here, we extend Sladen's work using newly available data, namely a tide gauge record at Callao (Lima harbor) and the Chilean DART buoy record, while considering a complete set of runup data along with a more realistic tsunami numerical that accounts for dispersion, and also considering a fine-resolution computational grid, which is essential. Through these accurate numerical simulations we infer that the InSAR-based model is in better agreement with the tsunami data, studying the case of the Pisco earthquake indicating that geodetic data seems essential to recover the final co-seismic slip distribution on the rupture plane. Slip models based on teleseismic data are unable to describe the observed tsunami, suggesting that a significant amount of co-seismic slip may have been aseismic. Finally, we compute the runup distribution along the central part of the Peruvian coast to better understand the wave amplification/attenuation processes of the tsunami generated by the Pisco earthquake.

  8. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, Tdur. Tdur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (?) while Tdur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or ?. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/?, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because Tdur is proportional L and greater Mo/?. Because Mo/? is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4–5 min after an earthquake occurs and thus can aid in effective, accuracy and reliable tsunami early warning for Indonesia region.

  9. Event generator analysis for singly strange particle production data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the event generator LUCIAE to analyze the data of singly strange particle production in pp, pA, and AA reactions at 200A GeV and compared them with the corresponding experimental data and theoretical results of HIJING, VENUS, and RQMD. The results indicate that for reproducing the NA35 data of AA reactions it requires a somewhat larger s quark suppression factor (s=0.3) and shorter formation time (?=1 fm/c) of produced particles than for reproducing the experimental data of pp and pA (s=0.2 and ?=1.5 fm/c). This might be understood intuitively from the relationship between the effective string tension and the violence of collision. However, the NA36 data of the negative multiplicity dependence of ? in S + Pb reaction at 200 A GeV could not be well reproduced by LUCIAE, VENUS, or RQMD, and the NA36 data prefers model parameters of s=0.2 and ?=1.5 fm/c especially, this seems hard to understand and needs further studies. From comparing the NA35 data of the rapidity distribution of ? in S + Ag reactions to the corresponding results of LUCIAE one knows that the effect of varying the s quark suppression factor from 0.2 to 0.3 is smaller than the effect of rescattering with respect to strangeness production. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Analysis of accident management in steam generator tube rupture event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the preparation of the database of calculated results on severe accident sequences for emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants, steam generator tube rupture initiated severe accident sequences at a reference two-loop PWR plant have been analyzed using the THALES/ART computer code. Estimation were made of the times of key events such as core uncovery, core melt and reactor vessel melt-through, and an amount of fission products released to the environment. The effects of recovery action on core integrity and the amount of environmental fission products released were studied with regard to the discussion on mitigation of or recovery from the accident by the feed and/or bleed operation in the primary and/or the secondary system. The analysis showed that (1) the ECCS has adequate capability of maintaining core integrity, and (2) the bleed operation in the primary system is effective to suppress the environmental fission products released even if the ECCS did not function. (author)

  11. Tsunami Simulations With Unstructured Grids in Support of a Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, S.; Chaeroni, C.; Androsov, A.; Behrens, J.; Braune, S.; Mentrup, L.; Schröter, J.

    2007-12-01

    A Finite Element Model for simulations of Tsunami waves (TsunAWI) has been developed. It is part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). Model results will be the main source for the prediction of arrival times and expected wave heights. The unstructured triangular grid has a relatively low resolution in the ocean interior (about 10 km) coastal regions however are very well resolved (up to 80 m). This flexibility allows for a good representation of the wave propagation in the deep ocean as well as inundation processes without the need of nesting different grids. Numerical experiments simulating the Indian Ocean Tsunami generated by the earthquake of Dec. 26 in 2004 have been conducted. The role of the model bathymetry and topography (based on the GEBCO dataset as well as data from the SRTM satellite mission and ship cruises) has been investigated. The inundation obtained in the simulations were compared to field measurements as well as to satellite images of Banda Aceh region. Furthermore the results were compared to simulations of the same event by the finite difference model TUNAMI- N3 with three nested grids and resolutions ranging from 900 m in the coarsest grid to 90 m in the finest nested grid. It turned out that the two models coincide fairly well with respect to wave propagation and inundation. However in both approaches a good knowledge of topography and bathymetry especially in the near shore range turned out to be crucial for realistic results.

  12. TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005 demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

  13. Database of tsunami scenario simulations for Western Iberia: a tool for the TRIDEC Project Decision Support System for tsunami early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    TRIDEC is a EU-FP7 Project whose main goal is, in general terms, to develop suitable strategies for the management of crises possibly arising in the Earth management field. The general paradigms adopted by TRIDEC to develop those strategies include intelligent information management, the capability of managing dynamically increasing volumes and dimensionality of information in complex events, and collaborative decision making in systems that are typically very loosely coupled. The two areas where TRIDEC applies and tests its strategies are tsunami early warning and industrial subsurface development. In the field of tsunami early warning, TRIDEC aims at developing a Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates 1) a set of seismic, geodetic and marine sensors devoted to the detection and characterisation of possible tsunamigenic sources and to monitoring the time and space evolution of the generated tsunami, 2) large-volume databases of pre-computed numerical tsunami scenarios, 3) a proper overall system architecture. Two test areas are dealt with in TRIDEC: the western Iberian margin and the eastern Mediterranean. In this study, we focus on the western Iberian margin with special emphasis on the Portuguese coasts. The strategy adopted in TRIDEC plans to populate two different databases, called "Virtual Scenario Database" (VSDB) and "Matching Scenario Database" (MSDB), both of which deal only with earthquake-generated tsunamis. In the VSDB we simulate numerically few large-magnitude events generated by the major known tectonic structures in the study area. Heterogeneous slip distributions on the earthquake faults are introduced to simulate events as "realistically" as possible. The members of the VSDB represent the unknowns that the TRIDEC platform must be able to recognise and match during the early crisis management phase. On the other hand, the MSDB contains a very large number (order of thousands) of tsunami simulations performed starting from many different simple earthquake sources of different magnitudes and located in the "vicinity" of the virtual scenario earthquake. In the DSS perspective, the members of the MSDB have to be suitably combined based on the information coming from the sensor networks, and the results are used during the crisis evolution phase to forecast the degree of exposition of different coastal areas. We provide examples from both databases whose members are computed by means of the in-house software called UBO-TSUFD, implementing the non-linear shallow-water equations and solving them over a set of nested grids that guarantee a suitable spatial resolution (few tens of meters) in specific, suitably chosen, coastal areas.

  14. Assessment of the tsunami-induced current hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick J.; Borrero, Jose; Son, Sangyoung; Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of tsunami damage is not limited to events causing coastal inundation. Even without flooding, maritime assets are vulnerable to significant damage from strong currents and associated drag forces. While such impacts have been observed in the past, they have not been well studied in any context. Nearshore tsunami currents are governed by nonlinear and turbulent physics and often have large spatial and temporal variability making high-fidelity modeling particularly challenging. Furthermore, measured data for the validation of numerical simulations is limited, with few quality data sets appearing after recent tsunami events. In this paper, we present a systematic approach for the interpretation of measured tsunami-induced current impacts as well as a validation approach for simulation tools. The methods and results provided here lay the foundation for much needed efforts to assess tsunami hazards in ports and harbors.

  15. Mass Movement-Induced Tsunami Hazard on Perialpine Lake Lucerne (Switzerland): Scenarios and Numerical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies of the sediments of Lake Lucerne have shown that massive subaqueous mass movements affecting unconsolidated sediments on lateral slopes are a common process in this lake, and, in view of historical reports describing damaging waves on the lake, it was suggested that tsunamis generated by mass movements represent a considerable natural hazard on the lakeshores. Newly performed numerical simulations combining two-dimensional, depth-averaged models for mass-movement propagation and for tsunami generation, propagation and inundation reproduce a number of reported tsunami effects. Four analysed mass-movement scenarios—three based on documented slope failures involving volumes of 5.5 to 20.8 × 106 m3—show peak wave heights of several metres and maximum runup of 6 to >10 m in the directly affected basins, while effects in neighbouring basins are less drastic. The tsunamis cause large-scale inundation over distances of several hundred metres on flat alluvial plains close to the mass-movement source areas. Basins at the ends of the lake experience regular water-level oscillations with characteristic periods of several minutes. The vulnerability of potentially affected areas has increased dramatically since the times of the damaging historical events, recommending a thorough evaluation of the hazard.

  16. Relationship Between Maximum Tsunami Amplitude and Duration of Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo Yin; Whitmore, Paul M.

    2014-12-01

    All available tsunami observations at tide gauges situated along the North American coast were examined to determine if there is any clear relationship between maximum amplitude and signal duration. In total, 89 historical tsunami recordings generated by 13 major earthquakes between 1952 and 2011 were investigated. Tidal variations were filtered out of the signal and the duration between the arrival time and the time at which the signals drops and stays below 0.3 m amplitude was computed. The processed tsunami time series were evaluated and a linear least-squares fit with a 95 % confidence interval was examined to compare tsunami durations with maximum tsunami amplitude in the study region. The confidence interval is roughly 20 h over the range of maximum tsunami amplitudes in which we are interested. This relatively large confidence interval likely results from variations in local resonance effects, late-arriving reflections, and other effects.

  17. Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Canadian Coastlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Mazzotti, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a preliminary probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment of Canadian coastlines from local and far-field, earthquake and large landslide sources. Our multifaceted analysis is based on published historical, paleotsunami and paleoseismic data, modelling, and empirical relations between fault area, earthquake magnitude and tsunami runup. We consider geological sources with known tsunami impacts on Canadian coasts (e.g., Cascadia and other Pacific subduction zones; the 1755 Lisbon tsunami source; Atlantic continental slope failures) as well as potential sources with previously unknown impact (e.g., Explorer plate subduction; Caribbean subduction zones; crustal faults). The cumulative estimated tsunami hazard for potentially damaging runup (? 1.5 m) of the outer Canadian Pacific coastline is ~40-80% in 50 y, respectively one and two orders of magnitude greater than the outer Atlantic (~1-15%) and the Arctic (Mackenzie River delta requires further study. We highlight areas susceptible to locally-damaging landslide-generated tsunamis, but do not quantify the hazard.

  18. Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work some reliable tsunami scenarios for the city of Catania are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the historical events that hit the city in the past. The most famous are the tsunamis associated with the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 earthquakes, of which the source determination is still an open issue, because it is not clear if the tsunamis were generated by the earthquake only or by a landslide or by a combination of both. One remote source based on the 365 A.D. West Hellenic Arc event is also considered in order to complete the possible tsunami scenarios for the town of Catania. The work is focused on the area of the harbour where many human activities and structures are present. Nowadays the harbour is protected by a long jetty opened in the south and here the coast presents two very different morphological aspects: moving southern respect to the harbour the coast is sandy and shallow, while moving northern it is rocky and high. Inundation maps computed on a 40-meters resolution grid are shown in order to identify the areas most exposed to tsunami inundation in this specific area and to study the harbour response to tsunami wave trains of different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite difference code UBO-TSUFD, which solves both linear and non-linear shallow water equations on multi-grid domain that allow to increase the grid resolution in the area of interest. The code can compute the inundation of specific areas and it is developed and maintained by the research team itself. The work has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA, where Catania has been chosen as one of the test sites on which carrying out a tsunami vulnerability assessment study.

  19. Marin Tsunami (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  20. Far-Field Simulations of Tele-tsunami Observed in the Atlantic Ocean: Impact on the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Baptista, M.; Roger, J.; Hebert, H.

    2009-12-01

    In this study we present the results of far-field numerical modelling of tsunamis generated in the North-Atlantic Ocean and the impact along the coasts. The historical databases for the North East Atlantic area and the Caribbean region present two tele-tsunamis of seismic origin: the 1755.11.01 and the 1761.03.31 events. The impact of the 1755 tsunami in the West Indies and Northern America is extensively described in the historical documents; in fact important wave heights (> 2 m), flooding of low areas and damage and destruction of coastal infrastructures were reported in the West Indies, Brazil and Newfoundland (Canada) for the 1755 event. Recently several authors published the results of far-field simulations, for this event. The 31st March 1761 earthquake occurred at noon and one hour and a quarter after the quake Lisbon was impacted by the tsunami with a maximum amplitude of 8 feet (circa 2.4 meter). Sea water changes were observed along the south coast of Spain, and in the Atlantic Islands of Azores and Madeira. In the far field the most well known report comes from Barbados where the tide ebbed and flowed, in about eight minutes between eighteen inches and two feet. According to the Portuguese catalogue of tsunamis the source location of this event is 34.5°N, 13°W and the magnitude of the generating earthquake is 8.5. We present far-field simulation results in two French Overseas Territories, Guadeloupe and Martinique Islands in the West Indies and in Newfoundland (Canada). The main objective is to discuss the reliability of the available historical reports for this event occurring about 5.5 years after the big Lisbon tsunami. Then we show that such event has to be considered in hazard assessment with regards to the West Indies. Understanding the impact of these two tele-tsunamis is crucial for hazard and risk studies in the Caribbean region and particularly for the Martinique and Guadeloupe Islands. This study has been founded by the French ANR project MAREMOTI under contract ANR-08-RISKNAT-05-01c.

  1. New Edition of the UNESCO-IOC International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Yamamoto, M.; Borrero, J. C.; Dunbar, P. K.; Fritz, H. M.; Imamura, F.; Kong, L. S.; Koshimura, S.; McAdoo, B. G.; Satake, K.; Yalciner, A. C.; Yulianto, E.

    2011-12-01

    A subcommittee of the IUGG International Tsunami Commission was convened in 2010 to revise and update the 1998 UNESCO-IOC Post-Tsunami Survey Field Guide. The revised Guide addresses the developments in the tsunami field since 1998, the need to accommodate vastly increased amounts of data, and to incorporate disciplines that were not covered in the original guide. The Guide also advocates a systems-approach to assessing tsunami impacts that examines the full range of physical, environmental, and socio-economic effects and their interrelationship, bringing tsunami research efforts into a closer alignment with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). This Field Guide is intended to provide a flexible framework to facilitate the acquisition of critical data in the immediate aftermath of significant tsunamis and to balance the needs of international researchers with those of communities and agencies involved with response and recovery. It will be of use to a variety of people and organizations who may either participate in, assist in coordination, or host post-tsunami field surveys. It is hoped that this Guide will promote pre-event planning in countries at risk of tsunamis to reduce the stresses of developing organizational logistics in the post-emergency response phase and make the process of conducting an ITST easier and more productive for both participating researchers and host country organizations. A complete draft of the Guide will be presented at the meeting and members of the tsunami community invited to comment.

  2. The February 27, 2010 Chile Tsunami - Sedimentology of runup and backflow deposits at Isla Mocha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.; Spiske, M.

    2010-12-01

    On February 27, 2010, at 3:34 am local time, an earthquake with Mw 8.8 occurred off the town of Constitución in Central Chile and caused a major tsunami beween Valaparaiso (c. 33°S) and Tirua (c. 38°S). Maximum runup heights of up to 10 m were measured on coastal plains. The cliff coast at Tirua recorded a runup height between 30 m and 40 m. Considering past tsunami events, respective deposits may be the only observable evidence, even though their preservation potential is limited. To understand how tsunami deposits form and how they can be identified in the geological record, it is of paramount importance to undertake detailed studies in the wake of such events. Here we report initial field data of a sedimentological post-tsunami field survey undertaken in Central Chile between March 31 and April 18, 2010. At selected localities we measured detailed topographic profiles including runup heights and inundation distances, and recorded the thickness, distribution and sedimentological features of the respective tsunami deposits, as well as erosional features caused by the tsunami. We found the most instructive and complete sedimentological record of the February 27, 2010 tsunami at the northern tip of Isla Mocha, a small island off the Chilean coast at c. 28.15°S. Runup distances vary between 400 m and 600 m, the flow depth exceeded 3 m at ca. 100 m from the coast. Runup heights reached up to 21 m above sea level. In a rare sedimentological case, deposits of tsunami runup and backwash could be distinguished. The runup phase was mainly documented by fields of boulders extending c. 360 m inland. Boulders had maximum weights of 12 t. They were oriented with their long axis parallel to the coast and the wave front. Algal veneers and barnacles on the boulder faces give evidence of entrainment in intertidal water depths. The boulders are now embedded in mostly structureless coarse shelly sand. These sands were originally entrained during near shore supratidal erosion of coastal plain terraces by the tsunami and transported inland during runup. Flow structures indicate that the sands were then re-deposited during backwash. Downcurrent of terrace steps the tsunami backwash produced large erosional gullies. The backwash deposits occur either as widespread covers blanketing microtopography consisting of dark pre-tsunami soils, or as depositional fans which prograde seaward over soils free of a sediment cover. The coarse to very coarse shell debris is comprised of fragmented or entire mollusk and crab cascs. Some coarser deposits also contain significant amounts of Tertiary sandstone bedrock gravels in parts freshly eroded by the tsunami. The deposits are either massive or imbricated, the imbrication identifying them as a product of backflow currents. The deposit thickness is commonly c. 10 to 15 cm. Around large boulders backflow partitioning and associated erosion and deposition permitted the generation of 0.8 m deep scours and accumulation of up to 80 cm thick backflow sands. The depositional angles at the fan fronts vary between 27° and 36°. Backflow fan surfaces are characterized by channel and overbank regions and flow structures like current ripples. Clusters of bedrock pebbles and mollusk cascs are distributed irregularly over the fan surfaces.

  3. Tsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMET

    2012-02-07

    Tsunami Strike! Caribbean Edition offers an interactive learning experience in which learners take on the role of a journalist writing an article for a news magazine. Sixteen multimedia lessons on tsunami science, safety, and history are interwoven within the learning scenario as resources for the article. The material is aimed at middle school and high school students (ages 13-17) but will be useful to a broader audience wishing to learn more about tsunamis in general, and in particular about tsunami risks in the Caribbean.

  4. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The field observations in the Santa Cruz Islands present an important dataset to assess tsunami impact in the near-source region. The tsunami was also recorded at deep-ocean tsunameters and tide gauges throughout the Pacific. These observations allow us to further investigate the physics of tsunami generation caused by the seismic process (or other non-seismic mechanisms). We use numerical model MOST to analyze the large runup and complex impact distribution caused by the Santa Cruz tsunami. Source models obtained using seismic data / tsunami data are carried out to initialize the tsunami model. MOST uses two sets of numerical grids to investigate both the near- and far-field aspects of the tsunami. The basin-scale modeling results are computed using a spatial resolution of 4 arc min (approx. 7,200 m) and compared with measurements at deep-ocean tsunameters. The near-field modeling is carried out using a series of telescoped grids up to a grid resolution of tens of meters to compare with the tsunami runup and flooding extent obtained through the field survey in the Solomon Islands. The modeling results emphasize the contrast between the tsunami impact on the exposed coastline and the sheltered Lata Bay stressing the problematic interpretation of a tsunami in progress based solely on near-source tide-gauge measurements. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the

  5. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early War