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1

Landslide-generated tsunamis in a perialpine lake: Historical events and numerical models  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the perialpine lakes in Central Europe - the large, glacier-carved basins formed during the Pleistocene glaciations of the Alps - have proven to be environments prone to subaquatic landsliding. Among these, Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) has a particularly well-established record of subaquatic landslides and related tsunamis. Its sedimentary archive documents numerous landslides over the entire Holocene, which have either been triggered by earthquakes, or which occurred apparently spontaneously, possibly due to rapid sediment accumulation on delta slopes. Due to their controlled boundary conditions and the possibility to be investigated on a complete basinal scale, such lacustrine tsunamis may be used as textbook analogons for their marine counterparts. Two events in the 17th century illustrate these processes and their consequences: In AD 1601, an earthquake (Mw ~ 5.9) led to widespread failure of the sediment drape covering the lateral slopes in several basins. The resulting landslides generated tsunami waves that reached a runup of several metres, as reported in historical accounts. The waves caused widespread damage as well as loss of lives in communities along the shores. In AD 1687, the apparently spontaneous collapse of a river delta in the lake led to similar waves that damaged nearby villages. Based on detailed information on topography, bathymetry and the geometry of the landslide deposits, numerical simulations combining two-dimensional, depth-averaged models for landslide propagation, as well as for tsunami generation, propagation and inundation, are able to reproduce most of the reported tsunami effects for these events. Calculated maximum runup of the waves is 6 to >10 m in the directly affected lake basins, but significantly less in neighbouring basins. Flat alluvial plains adjacent to the most heavily affected areas are inundated over distances of several hundred metres. Taken as scenarios for possible future events, these past events suggest that tsunami hazard in these lake should not be neglected, although they are infrequent and the effects are naturally limited to the immediate surroundings of the affected basins. The shores of Lake Lucerne, as well as of many other perialpine lakes, are nowadays densely inhabited and host considerable infrastructure, so that events similar to those reported may have serious consequences. Identification and mapping of possible subaquatic landslide source areas, the inclusion of geotechnical data on potentially mobile sediments, as well as numerical modelling of tsunamis are thus important components of a proper hazard assessment for these lakes.

Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

2014-05-01

2

Mass transport events and their tsunami hazard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mass transport events, such as those from submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapse at convergent margins and on oceanic islands, and subaerial failure are reviewed and found to be all potential tsunami sources. The intensity and frequency of the tsunamis resulting is dependent upon the source. Most historical records are of devastating tsunamis from volcanic collapse at convergent margins. Although the database is limited, tsunamis sourced from submarine landslides and collapse on oceani...

Tappin, D. R.

2010-01-01

3

Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems. PMID:24399356

Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

2014-01-01

4

On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation  

CERN Document Server

While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

2012-01-01

5

An innovative tsunami detector operating in tsunami generation environment  

Science.gov (United States)

On August 25th 2007 a tsunami detector installed onboard the multi-parameter observatory GEOSTAR was successfully deployed at 3200 b. s. l. in the Gulf of Cadiz, Portugal. This activity is within the NEAREST EC Project (http://nearest.bo.ismar.cnr.it/ ). Among other deliverables, the NEAREST project will produce and test the basic parts of an operational prototype of a near field tsunami warning system. This system includes an onshore warning centre, based on the geophysical monitoring networks which are already operating, and a tsunami detector deployed on board GEOSTAR at the sea bottom. On land the warning centre is in charge of collecting, integrating, and evaluating data recorded at sea. At the sea bottom data is recorded and processed by an advanced type of tsunami detector which includes: a pressure sensor, a seismometer and two accelerometers. The detector communicates acoustically with a surface buoy in two-way mode. The buoy is equipped with meteo station, GPS and tiltmeter and is connected to a shore station via satellite link. The prototype is designed to operate in tsunami generation areas for detection-warning purpose as well as for scientific measurements. The tsunami detector sends a near real time automatic alert message when a seismic or pressure threshold are exceeded. Pressure signals are processed by the tsunami detection algorithm and the water pressure perturbation caused by the seafloor motion is taken into account. The algorithm is designed to detect small tsunami waves, less than one centimetre, in a very noisy environment. Our objective is to combine a novel approach to the tsunami warning problem, with a study of the coupling between the water column perturbations and sea floor motion, together with the long term monitoring of geophysical, geochemical and oceanographic parameters.

Chierici, F.; Beranzoli, L.; Embriaco, D.; Favali, P.; Marinaro, G.; Monna, S.; Pignagnoli, L.; Zitellini, N.; Bruni, F.; Furlan, F.; Gasparoni, F.

2007-12-01

6

The Reconstruction of the 1867 Keelung Tsunami Event  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1867 Keelung tsunami event has been reported to be the most destructive in Taiwan history, hence it's been documented in many historical literatures. In this event, the sea withdrew and the seabed exposed after a strong ground shake. Then, a series of big waves followed and fluxed into Keelung harbor. Hundreds of people died and the wave height was up to 6 m (Hsu, 1983). Since this event was not recorded instrumentally by tidal gauges or seismographs, the location and focal mechanism are still uncertain. According to the studies by many seismologists (Tsai, 1985; Cheng et al, 1989; Hsu et al, 1996; Lin et al 2005), this event was generated by a large seismic motion with an earthquake magnitude about Mw=7.0, and sourcing from the Shanchiao Fault (Lin et al, 2005). However, none of the parameter sets was able to explain the 7-m tsunami height presented in many historical documents. In this study, we intend to reconstruct this event by means of numerical tsunami simulation. Considering the cliff slop along the Keelung coast, one reasonable assumption is that the earthquake triggered a submarine landslide which increased the tsunami wave height dramatically. To confirm this hypothesis, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to reproduce the 1867 Keelung tsunami event. The Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) is utilized to perform the tsunami simulations. We follow the earthquake magnitude Mw=7.0 proposed by Lin et al. (2006) and add the landslide effect (Watts et al., 2005). The latest scaling law proposed by Yen and Ma (2011) is used to determine the rupture parameters. Two landslide locations, near-field and Mien-Hwa Canyo, are considered in this study. The results show the 7-m tsunami height was most likely to be generated by the near-field submarine landslide with debris amount of 1400000 m3. This result is significant not only to the safety of Keelung city, but also to the security of the 3 nuclear power plants located nearby. The detailed scenario results will be presented in the full paper.

Lee, C.; Wu, T.

2012-12-01

7

Some events in Central Italy: are they all tsunamis? A revision for the Italian tsunami catalog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

he catalogs available in the literature show that tsunamis affecting Italian coasts are not very strong, except for a few well analyzed events, i.e. the Messina December 28, 1908 tsunami. This study aims at making a careful revision of some minor tsunamigenic events, in particular those occurred along the coasts of the Central Tyrrhenian Sea, considering tsunamis associated with earthquakes, from 1700 to 1919. These events have been poorly studied so far, and need a check to verify their reli...

Tertulliani, A.; Maramai, A.

1994-01-01

8

Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq...

Tanioka, Y.; Seno, T.

2001-01-01

9

Comparison between three-dimensional linear and nonlinear tsunami generation models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The modeling of tsunami generation is an essential phase in understanding tsunamis. For tsunamis generated by underwater earthquakes, it involves the modeling of the sea bottom motion as well as the resulting motion of the water above it. A comparison between various models for three-dimensional water motion, ranging from linear theory to fully nonlinear theory, is performed. It is found that for most events the linear theory is sufficient. However, in some cases, more sophi...

Kervella, Youen; Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Fre?de?ric

2007-01-01

10

Analytical investigation on tsunamis generated by submarine slides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis induced by landslides are a topic on which growing attention is being paid especially under the pressure of recent events in which movement of underwater masses have been recognised to be the certain or likely cause of the observed tsunami. Here analytical methods and idealised cases are used to investigate tsunami generation by submarine slides that undergo negligible deformation during their motion, such as slumps. The general solution of the 1D Cauchy linear problem for long water waves is specialised to deal with rigid bodies and is used systematically to explore the main characteristics of the generated waves. Relationships between body motion, that is prescribed in terms of the slide Froude number, and wave pattern, wave amplitude and wave energy are studied in dimensionless space. Wave generation in various flow conditions (from subcritical to supercritical is handled, though most attention is given to analysing tsunamis induced by submarine slides at subcritical speed which are by far the most common cases. From numerical experiments it is found that good estimates of the tsunami wave amplitude can be calculated by means of simple expressions based on the maximum value and on the average value of the Froude number during the main generation phase.

E. Bortolucci

2000-06-01

11

Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On March 11{sup th}, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

12

Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

13

Tsunami Impact from a 1755-like event in the Aveiro Region, Portugal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we present 5m-resolution tsunami flooding maps for the Aveiro region, W. Central Portugal. Aveiro is known to have been impacted by the 1st November 1755 earthquake and tsunami. At that time this portion of the coast had almost no constructions nor population but eversince geomorphological changes took place, and there has been a very large population increase living in constructions extremely close to the shore. As such it is important to model and evaluate the potential impact that a similar event to the 1755 earthquake would have in this area at present. Tsunami flooding maps were computed using a digital elevation model produced from the present-day bathymetric and topographic data including bathymetric surveys, LiDAR and photogrammetric data. Tsunami scenarios were generated considering different solutions for the 1755 earthquake seismic source, in faults constrained by multibeam and multichannel seismic data. The modeling of the tsunami propagation was performed with a validated non-linear shallow water model. To compute inundation, we considered four levels of nested grids with resolutions ranging from 320m to 5m. The tsunami-associated flood is discussed in terms of flow depth, run-up height and maximum inundation area. The Ria de Aveiro is characterized by both flattened relief and significant tidal amplitude range, which can contribute to an important variation in flooding due to tsunami-tide interaction. Therefore, the effect of the tide variation on the extent of tsunami inundation is also discussed. Results are compared with the historical descriptions of the consequences in Aveiro. An event similar to the one from 1755 would cause tsunami run-up heights above one meter within the Ria de Aveiro. The Aveiro oceanic coast would also be strongly affected. The results obtained can be used to identify the potential tsunami inundation areas in Aveiro, which is important for the Portuguese tsunami emergency management system. Keywords: Inundation, DEM, Numerical Modeling, Ria de Aveiro, LiDAR

Lemos, Catarina R.; Omira, Rachid; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Baptista, Maria A.; Quaresma, Luis S.; Garrido, Carla

2014-05-01

14

POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the margins of the Pacific, all combine to suggest apparent deficiencies in: (1 personal awareness of what to do in the event of a possible local tsunami; (2 the distribution of instrumentation capable of providing rapid confirmation that a local tsunami has been generated; and (3 the subsequent issuance of timely warnings for local tsunamis. With these deficiencies, far more lives may be lost in Hawaii due to local tsunamis than will result from tsunamis that have originated along the margins of the Pacific. Similar deficiencies may exist in other areas of the world threatened by local tsunamis.

Daniel A. Walker

2010-01-01

15

Simulation of the minor tsunami generated by the September 30 2009 earthquake near Padang, Sumatra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The magnitude 7.6 earthquake (USGS) on September 30, 2009 at 10:16 UTC close to the city of Padang in West Sumatra generated a minor tsunami. Earthquakes in this region however have the potential to generate destructive waves as it was shown in historical and recent events. Taking into account the large number of casualties due to this earthquake it is important to prepare for possible future events which might be accompanied by a tsunami. Due to the geographical setting of Padang a tsunami m...

Wekerle, Claudia; Harig, Sven; Setiyo Pranowo, Widodo; Behrens, Jo?rn; Androsov, Alexey; Schro?ter, Jens; Hiller, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

16

Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation  

CERN Document Server

The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

Dutykh, Denys

2008-01-01

17

Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997 estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq equation to determine the fault model which explains the observed tsunami waveforms including the large second pulse observed at Honolulu. The estimated fault width is 40–60 km which is much narrower than the fault widths of the typical great underthrust earthquakes, the 1957 Aleutian and the 1964 Alasuka earthquakes. A previous study of the 1896 Sanriku earthquake, another typical tsunami earthquake, suggested that the additional uplift of the sediments near the Japan Trench had a large effect on the tsunami generation. In this study, we also show that the additional uplift of the sediments near the trench, due to a large coseismic horizon-tal movement of the backstop, had a significant effect on the tsunami generation of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake. The estimated seismic moment of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake is 17–19 × 1020 20 Nm (Mw 8.1.

Y. Tanioka

2001-01-01

18

Residual hydrodynamic fields after tsunami generation by an earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The linear theory of long waves was applied to study horizontal motions of the water layer in a rotating ocean which appear after tsunami generation by an earthquake. The structures of residual potential and eddy fields are analyzed on the basis of the analytical solution of a model axisymmetric problem for an ocean of constant depth. The estimates of the horizontal displacements of water particles, velocity of the eddy current, and energy of the geostrophic eddy are calculated for typical conditions of the tsunami source. Particular features of the residual fields related to the existence of stable stratification are considered. Static and dynamic numerical models are described that allow us to calculate the residual potential field and its evolution related to the realistic events. The field of residual horizontal displacements of water particles for the catastrophic earthquake near the coasts of Japan on March 11, 2011, is calculated and analyzed.

Nosov, M. A.; Nurislamova, G. N.; Moshenceva, A. V.; Kolesov, S. V.

2014-09-01

19

Hikurangi margin tsunami earthquake generated by slow seismic rupture over a subducted seamount  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami earthquakes generate much larger tsunami than their surface wave magnitude would suggest and are a problem for tsunami warning systems. They are often not accompanied by intense or even strong ground shaking and hence do not provide a natural warning for self-evacuation. The lesser-known 1947 Offshore Poverty Bay and Tolaga Bay earthquakes along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand share many characteristics with other well-known tsunami earthquakes (including low amplitude shaking, long durations and anomalously large tsunami), however these two New Zealand events are rare in that their source area has been imaged directly by long-offset 2D seismic reflection profiles. In this contribution we propose a source model for the 1947 Offshore Poverty Bay tsunami earthquake, recognising that the hypocentre occurs in a region where seismic reflection and magnetic data support the existence of a shallow (Tsunami modelling shows that tsunami run-up heights are more than doubled when low rupture speeds of 150-300 m/s are employed, rather than assuming instantaneous rupture. This study suggests that subducted topography can cause the nucleation of up to M?7 earthquakes with complex, low velocity rupture scenarios that enhance tsunami waves, and their role in seismic hazard should not be under-estimated.

Bell, Rebecca; Holden, Caroline; Power, William; Wang, Xiaoming; Downes, Gaye

2014-07-01

20

Tsunami flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The TRIDEC Virtual Tsunami Atlas - customized value-added simulation data products for Tsunami Early Warning generated on compute clusters  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of new Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) requires the modelling of spatio-temporal spreading of tsunami waves both recorded from past events and hypothetical future cases. The model results are maintained in digital repositories for use in TEWS command and control units for situation assessment once a real tsunami occurs. Thus the simulation results must be absolutely trustworthy, in a sense that the quality of these datasets is assured. This is a prerequisite as solid decision making during a crisis event and the dissemination of dependable warning messages to communities under risk will be based on them. This requires data format validity, but even more the integrity and information value of the content, being a derived value-added product derived from raw tsunami model output. Quality checking of simulation result products can be done in multiple ways, yet the visual verification of both temporal and spatial spreading characteristics for each simulation remains important. The eye of the human observer still remains an unmatched tool for the detection of irregularities. This requires the availability of convenient, human-accessible mappings of each simulation. The improvement of tsunami models necessitates the changes in many variables, including simulation end-parameters. Whenever new improved iterations of the general models or underlying spatial data are evaluated, hundreds to thousands of tsunami model results must be generated for each model iteration, each one having distinct initial parameter settings. The use of a Compute Cluster Environment (CCE) of sufficient size allows the automated generation of all tsunami-results within model iterations in little time. This is a significant improvement to linear processing on dedicated desktop machines or servers. This allows for accelerated/improved visual quality checking iterations, which in turn can provide a positive feedback into the overall model improvement iteratively. An approach to set-up and utilize the CCE has been implemented by the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) funded under the European Union's FP7. TRIDEC focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources with accelerated generation of large volumes of data. These include sensor systems, geo-information repositories, simulations and data fusion tools. Additionally, TRIDEC adopts enhancements of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles in terms of Event Driven Architecture (EDA) design. As a next step the implemented CCE's services to generate derived and customized simulation products are foreseen to be provided via an EDA service for on-demand processing for specific threat-parameters and to accommodate for model improvements.

Löwe, P.; Hammitzsch, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wächter, J.

2012-04-01

22

Tsunami Modeling from Submarine Landslides  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a kinematic model that computes tsunamis generated from submarine landslides. The model is based on bathymetric (ocean floor modeling) data and historical tsunami data. The papers' main focus is the application of the model to the 1741 Oshima-Oshima Tsunami in Japan and landslide events around the Hawaiian Islands. This paper was presented at the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Review and International Tsunami Symposium in Seattle, Washington on August 10, 2001.

Satake, Kenji; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

23

Preliminary Analysis of the Tsunami Generated by the 23 June 2001 Peru Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation shows a model of the tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peru earthquake. The first 33 minutes of tsunami propagation are shown. The tsunami is generated very near the coast and propagates outward to the Pacific Basin and along the coastline to the north and south. Largest offshore tsunami amplitudes are in the Chala-Camaná region of southern Peru.

Usgs

24

Tsunami Generation from the 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The pages on this web site (listed in the Table of Contents) provide a brief overview of the tectonic setting and seismological characteristics of the earthquake, as well as a summary of tsunami generation modeling for this event and the March 28, 2005 M=8.6 northern Sumatra earthquake. Supplemental images and diagrams are provided within this collection of pages.

Noaa

25

Real-time inversion of tsunamis generated by landslides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we test a method for forecasting in real-time the properties of offshore propagating tsunami waves generated by landslides, with the aim of supporting tsunami early warning systems. The method uses an inversion procedure, that takes input data measurements of water surface elevation at a point close to the tsunamigenic source. The measurements are used to correct the results of pre-computed numerical simulations, reproducing the wave field induced by different...

Cecioni, C.; Romano, A.; Bellotti, G.; Di Risio, M.; Girolamo, P.

2011-01-01

26

Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

A tsunami is a series of huge ocean waves created by an underwater disturbance. Causes include earthquakes, landslides, volcanic ... space that strike the surface of Earth. A tsunami can move hundreds of miles per hour in ...

27

Sedimentary Record and Morphological Effects of a Landslide-Generated Tsunami in a Polar Region: The 2000 AD Tsunami in Vaigat Strait, West Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, the effects of tsunami erosion and deposition have mainly been reported from tropical and temperate climatic zones yet tsunamis are also frequent in polar zones, particularly in fjord settings where they can be generated by landslides. Here we report the geological effects of a landslide-triggered tsunami that occurred on 21st November 2000 in Vaigat, northern Disko Bugt in west Greenland. To characterise the typical features of this tsunami we completed twelve detailed coastal transects in a range of depositional settings: cliff coasts, narrow to moderate width coastal plains, lagoons and a coastal lake. At each setting we completed a detailed map using a laser scanner and DGPS survey. The tsunami deposits were described from closely spaced trenches and, from the lake, by a series of sediment cores . At each setting we examined the sedimentological properties of the deposits, as well as their bulk geochemistry and diatom content. Selected specimens of arctic willow from inundated and non-inundated areas were collected to assess the impact of the event in their growth ring records. Samples of sediments beneath the AD 2000 deposit were studied for 137Cs to confirm the age of the tsunami and to assess the extent of erosion. Offshore sediment samples, modern beach and soils/sediments underlying the AD 2000 tsunami deposits were sampled to determine tsunami deposit sources. The observed tsunami run-up exceeded 20 m next to the tsunami trigger - a rock avalanche at Paatuut - and up to 10 m on the opposite coast of the fjord. The inland inundation distance ranged from several tens of meters to over 300 m. The wave was recorded as far as 180 km away from the source. The tsunami inundated the coast obliquely to the shoreline in all locations studied. The tsunami frequently caused erosion of existing beach ridges whilst erosional niches were formed inland. The tsunami deposits mainly comprise gravels and very coarse sand. They are over 30 cm thick close to the coast and in front of inland scarps. In the most inland parts of the inundation they are often marked only by patches of coarse sand left on the pre-tsunami soil. At several sites we observed boulder deposits, although in many cases they were likely transported as boulders in icebergs. A characteristic feature related to tsunami deposits were "mud pats" - up to 1 m in diameter and about 20 cm thick silty deposits with occasional gravels - which cover the tsunami deposit. They are interpreted as the result of melting of icebergs washed inland by the tsunami. They often occur close to the inundation limit. The mud pats are a characteristic feature for the tsunami deposits in iceberg dominated settings and are unlikely to be left by storms. The results of this study will serve as a guide for further studies of palaeotsunami in the Vaigat region and elsewhere in polar regions. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Fieldwork was supported by the Arctic Station, Disko (Danish Polar Centre). The police at Ilulissat is acknowledged for providing photographic documentation of the tsunami taken one day after the event.

Szczucinski, W.; Rosser, N. J.; Strzelecki, M. C.; Long, A. J.; Lawrence, T.; Buchwal, A.; Chague-Goff, C.; Woodroffe, S.

2012-12-01

28

Tsunamis generated by unconfined deformable granular landslides in various topographic configurations  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events. Major tsunamis caused by landslides or volcanic island collapse were recorded at Krakatoa in 1883, Grand Banks, Newfoundland in 1929, Lituya Bay, Alaska in 1958, Papua New Guinea in 1998, and Java in 2006. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with up to 1,350 kg of naturally rounded river gravel which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down the 2H: 1V slope, launching the granular landslide towards the water at velocities of up to 5 m/s. Topographical and bathymetric features can greatly affect wave characteristics and runup heights. Landslide tsunamis are studied in different topographic and bathymetric configurations: far field propagation and runup, a narrow fjord and curved headland configurations, and a conical island setting representing landslides off an island or a volcanic flank collapse. Water surface elevations were measured using an array of resistance wave gauges. The granulate landslide width, thickness and front velocity were measured using above and underwater cameras. Landslide 3-dimensional surface reconstruction and surface velocity properties were measured using a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup. The speckled pattern on the surface of the granular landslide allows for cross-correlation based PIV analysis. Wave runup was measured with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models.

McFall, B. C.; Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.

2012-04-01

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Comparison between three-dimensional linear and nonlinear tsunami generation models  

CERN Document Server

The modeling of tsunami generation is an essential phase in understanding tsunamis. For tsunamis generated by underwater earthquakes, it involves the modeling of the sea bottom motion as well as the resulting motion of the water above it. A comparison between various models for three-dimensional water motion, ranging from linear theory to fully nonlinear theory, is performed. It is found that for most events the linear theory is sufficient. However, in some cases, more sophisticated theories are needed. Moreover, it is shown that the passive approach in which the seafloor deformation is simply translated to the ocean surface is not always equivalent to the active approach in which the bottom motion is taken into account, even if the deformation is supposed to be instantaneous.

Kervella, Y; Dutykh, D; Dias, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Dutykh, Denys; Kervella, Youen

2006-01-01

30

The Great End Permian Tsunamis: Recognition, Extent and Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

At least three coarse intrabioclastic limestones at the base of the Khunamuh Formation (latest Permian to early Triassic) in Kashmir show features typical features of wave reworking of sediments too deep to be affected by storm waves. These are now interpreted as the deposits of large tsunamis by inferring the wavelengths and amplitudes of the waves from basic wave theory. The same three beds are found in latest Permian shallow marine to moderately deep slope environments throughout the southern Neotethy, as well as further afield in the Alps, East Greenland, and possibly even in the lowland deposits of the European Buntsandstein. Such tsunamis can also account for the contemporary marine erosion surfaces in China and elsewhere in shelf and slope environments. Tsunami waves, unlike storm waves, can also cause reworking of fine sediment and ventilation in deep-sea deposits, and there is some evidence for this in latest Permian oceanic sediments in Japan, New Zealand and western North America. The inferred huge size of the tsunami waves requires marine extraterrestrial impacts or large slumps into and/or under the sea, to generate them. The lack of good evidence for marine extraterrestrial impacts in the latest Permian, and the presence of seismically disturbed beds below the tsunami deposits in some sections suggest that large earthquakes preceded the formation of the tsunamis. These earthquakes might have triggered tsunami-generating large submarine landslides, such as are seen in Quaternary deposits at continental margins and around the Hawaiian and other oceanic volcanic islands. Large slumps of the appropriate age occur in some latest Permian sections in East Greenland and New Zealand.

Brookfield, M. E.; Algeo, T. J.; Hannigan, R.; Williams, J. C.; Bhat, G. M.

2013-12-01

31

Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/...

Hancilar, U.

2012-01-01

32

The Papua New Guinea tsunami of 17 July 1998: anatomy of a catastrophic event  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Papua New Guinea (PNG tsunami of July 1998 was a seminal event because it demonstrated that relatively small and relatively deepwater Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs can cause devastating local tsunamis that strike without warning. There is a comprehensive data set that proves this event was caused by a submarine slump. Yet, the source of the tsunami has remained controversial. This controversy is attributed to several causes. Before the PNG event, it was questionable as to whether SMFs could cause devastating tsunamis. As a result, only limited modelling of SMFs as tsunami sources had been undertaken, and these excluded slumps. The results of these models were that SMFs in general were not considered to be a potential source of catastrophic tsunamis. To effectively model a SMF requires fairly detailed geological data, and these too had been lacking. In addition, qualitative data, such as evidence from survivors, tended to be disregarded in assessing alternative tsunami sources. The use of marine geological data to identify areas of recent submarine failure was not widely applied.

The disastrous loss of life caused by the PNG tsunami resulted in a major investigation into the area offshore of the devastated coastline, with five marine expeditions taking place. This was the first time that a focussed, large-scale, international programme of marine surveying had taken place so soon after a major tsunami. It was also the first time that such a comprehensive data set became the basis for tsunami simulations. The use of marine mapping subsequently led to a larger involvement of marine geologists in the study of tsunamis, expanding the knowledge base of those studying the threat from SMF hazards. This paper provides an overview of the PNG tsunami and its impact on tsunami science. It presents revised interpretations of the slump architecture based on new seabed relief images and, using these, the most comprehensive tsunami simulation of the PNG event to date. Simulation results explain the measured runups to a high degree. The PNG tsunami has made a major impact on tsunami science. It is one of the most studied SMF tsunamis, yet it remains the only one known of its type: a slump.

D. R. Tappin

2008-03-01

33

Current issues on PRA regarding seismic and tsunami events at multiunits and sites based on lessons leaned from Tohoku earthquake/tsunami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP (F1-NPP) were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. This paper describes the overview of F1-NPP accident and the usability of tsunami PRA at Tohoku earthquake. The paper makes reference to the following current issues: influence on seismic hazard of gigantic aftershocks and triggered earthquakes, concepts for evaluating core damage frequency considering common cause failure with correlation coefficient against seismic event at multi units and sites, and concepts of 'seismic-tsunami PSA' considering a combination of seismic motion and tsunami effects.

34

Current issues on PRA regarding seismic and tsunami events at multiunits and sites based on lessons leaned from Tohoku earthquake/tsunami  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP (F1-NPP) were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. This paper describes the overview of F1-NPP accident and the usability of tsunami PRA at Tohoku earthquake. The paper makes reference to the following current issues: influence on seismic hazard of gigantic aftershocks and triggered earthquakes, concepts for evaluating core damage frequency considering common cause failure with correlation coefficient against seismic event at multi units and sites, and concepts of 'seismic-tsunami PSA' considering a combination of seismic motion and tsunami effects.

Ebisawa, Katsumi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Iwabuchi, Yoko; Sugino, Hideharu [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-06-15

35

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/ero...

Wiegel, Robert L.

2006-01-01

36

Event generator overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to their ability to provide detailed and quantitative predictions, the event generators have become an important part of studying relativistic heavy ion physics and of designing future experiments. In this talk, the author will briefly summarize recent progress in developing event generators for the relativistic heavy ion collisions.

Pang, Y.

1997-12-01

37

GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2012-01-01

38

Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

... to the third floor and higher in reinforced concrete hotel structures. If an earthquake occurs and you ... your animals with you. Move inland to higher ground immediately. Pick areas ... recession in water away from the shoreline this is nature's tsunami ...

39

Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

... mold, environmental concerns, and coping with a disaster. Learn more. Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

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TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabia...

Jordan, Benjamin R.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TSUNAMI GENERATION IN CHINA'S BOHAI SEA FROM DIRECT GEOTECTONIC AND COLLATERAL SOURCE MECHANISMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Bohai Sea borders northeastern China's most populous and highest economic valuecoastal areas where several megacities are located. Critical infrastructure facilities exist or areunder construction, including a nuclear power plant and super port facilities. Large reserves of oilhave been discovered and a number of offshore oil platforms have been built. The extent ofdevelopment along coastal areas requires a better assessment of potential tsunami risks. Althoughtsunamis do not pose as much of a threat as earthquakes in this region, locally destructive tsunamishave been generated in the past and future events could have significant impacts on coastalpopulations and China's economy, particularly because most of the development has taken place inlow-lying regions, including river deltas. The present study examines the geotectonics of the Bohaibasin region, the impact of past historical events, and the potential for local tsunami generationfrom a variety of direct and collateral source mechanisms triggered by intra plate earthquakes.More specifically, the present study examines: amajor active faults bounding the Bohai Basin; bthe resulting crustal deformation patterns of tectonic structures that have resulted in catastrophicearthquakes in recent years; c the basin-wide extension - with local inversion - extending into theBohai Sea that generated tsunamigenic earthquakes in 1888 and 1969; and d deformational futureseismic events with the potential to generate local tsunamis directly or by collateral mechanisms offolding, en-echelon bookshelf failures, or from destabilization/dissociation of structuralaccumulations of gas hydrate deposits within the basin's thick sedimentary stratigraphic layers.

G. Pararas Carayannis

2009-01-01

42

THE MAY 17, 1992 EVENT: TSUNAMI AND COASTAL EFFECTS IN EASTERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami invaded the eastern coastlines of Mindanao islands several minutes after the strong ground shaking of the May 17, 1992 quake. Recent field investigations showed that tsunami intensity generally decreases southwards and northwards relative to Bunga and Zaragoza areas. There was an unusually high tsunami wave height (~6m at Bunga that was most probably due to local site effect. Tsunami waves were generally preceded by the lowering of sea water level while the tsunami arrival times have some variation particularly in Bobon and Panompon. The period of the tsunami wave was quite difficult to determine because of sketchy details and so much variation in terms of the number of waves that attacked the areas investigated.In terms of regional and local geomorphological effects, the 1992 event caused very minor changes. Tsunami sediments were dumped in very few places. It was noted that the coral reefs located between 100-250m from the shore of eastern Mindanao were the coastal features that most probably attenuate the effects tsunami. Local subsidence was likewise observed west of the affected areas.Recommended future activities are tsunami simulations and detailed shore morphology mapping to explain anomalous observations like tsunami intensity, unusual tsunami height and subsidence. Furthermore, considering that there were two large events that occurred during that day less than 30 minutes apart, it is was quite interesting that only one strong ground shaking was observed by local inhabitants. Thus, it is highly recommended that a closer look into the seismic data would be undertaken to explain such anomaly.

Glenda M. Besana

2004-01-01

43

Impact of a tsunami generated at the Lesser Antilles subduction zone on the Northern Atlantic Ocean coastlines  

Science.gov (United States)

On 11 March 2011, a Mw ~ 9.0 megathrust earthquake occurred off the coast of Tohoku, triggering a catastrophic tsunami reaching heights of 10 m and more in some places and resulting in lots of casualties and destructions. It is one of a handful of catastrophic tsunamis having occurred during the last decade, following the 2004 Indonesian tsunami, and leading to the preparation of tsunami warning systems and evacuation plans all around the world. In the Atlantic Ocean, which has been struck by two certified transoceanic tsunamis over the past centuries (the 1755 "Lisbon" and 1929 Grand Banks events), a warning system is also under discussion, especially for what concerns potential tsunamigenic sources off Iberian Peninsula. In addition, the Lesser Antilles subduction zone is also potentially able to generate powerful megathrust ruptures as the 8 February 1843 Mw ~ 8.0/8.5 earthquake, that could trigger devastating tsunamis propagating across the Northern Atlantic Ocean. The question is in which conditions these tsunamis could be able to reach the Oceanic Islands as well as the eastern shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and what could be the estimated times to react and wave heights to expect? This paper attempts to answer those questions through the use of numerical modelings and recent research results about the Lesser Antilles ability to produce megathrust earthquakes.

Roger, J.; Frère, A.; Hébert, H.

2014-07-01

44

ASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI GENERATION POTENTIAL THROUGH RAPID ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC PARAMETERS Case study: Comparison of the Sumatra Earthquakes of 6 April and 25 October 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (Tdur, dominant periods (Td and rupture durations greater than 50 seconds (T50Ex for two large, shallow earthquakes, which occurred off the coast of Sumatra on 6 April and 25 October 2010. Although both earthquakes had similar parameters of magnitude and focal depth, the 25 October event (Mw=7.8 generated a tsunami while the 6 April event (Mw=7.8 did not. Analysis of the above stated parameters helped understand the mechanisms of tsunami generation of these two earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters could provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why one event generated a tsunami, while the other one did not.

Madlazim

2013-01-01

45

POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the m...

Walker, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

46

VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the over...

George Pararas-Carayannis

2004-01-01

47

OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type earthquakes and tsunamis may be more common than previously believed.

Daniel A. Walker

2005-01-01

48

Wroclaw neutrino event generator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the $\\Delta$ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering.

Nowak, Jaroslaw A.

2006-01-01

49

Wroclaw neutrino event generator  

Science.gov (United States)

A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the ? resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering.

Nowak, J. A.

2006-10-01

50

Multi-scale modelling of submarine landslide-generated tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Submarine landslides can be far larger than terrestrial landslides and many generate destructive tsunamis. The Storegga Slide, offshore Norway, covers an area larger than Scotland and contains 3,000 km3 of material (enough to cover Scotland to a depth of 80 m). This huge slide occurred at 8.2 ka and extends for 800 km down slope. It produced a tsunami with >20 m run-up around the Norwegian Sea, including the Shetlands, and run-ups were typically 3-4 m along the mainland coast of Scotland. The tsunami propagated as far as East Greenland. Northern Europe faces few, if any, other natural hazards that could cause damage on the scale of a repeat Storegga Slide tsunami. Modelling such vast natural disasters is not straightforward. In order to achieve accurate run-up, high resolution is required near the coastlines, but entire oceans must be modelled to account for the vast distances travelled by the wave. Here, we use the open-source, three-dimensional CFD model, Fluidity, to simulate the Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Fluidity's unstructured meshing allows resolution to vary by orders of magnitude within a single numerical simulation. We present results from multi-scale simulations that capture fine-scale coastal details and at the same time cover a domain spanning the Arctic ocean to capture run-ups on the East Greenland coast. We also compare the effects of modern vs palaeo-bathymetry, which has been neglected in previous numerical modelling studies. Future work will include assessing other potential landslide sites and how landslide dynamics affect the resulting tsunami wave to be used in hazard assessment for Northern Europe. Close-up of the computational mesh around the UK coast, western Norway and as far east as Iceland. The shift in resolution from 750m at the coast to over 20km in open water is clearly visible. Note the high resolution area to the top left which is the Storegga Landslide region.

Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Collins, G. S.; Smith, R. C.; Allison, P. A.

2013-12-01

51

An approximate method of short-term tsunami forecast and the hindcasting of some recent events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a method for a short-term tsunami forecast based on sea level data from remote sites. This method is based on Green's function for the wave equation possessing the fundamental property of symmetry. This property is well known in acoustics and seismology as the reciprocity principle. Some applications of this principle on tsunami research are considered in the current study. Simple relationships and estimated transfer functions enabled us to simulate tsunami waveforms for any selected oceanic point based only on the source location and sea level data from a remote reference site. The important advantage of this method is that it is irrespective of the actual source mechanism (seismic, submarine landslide or other phenomena. The method was successfully applied to hindcast several recent tsunamis observed in the Northwest Pacific. The locations of the earthquake epicenters and the tsunami records from one of the NOAA DART sites were used as inputs for the modelling, while tsunami observations at other DART sites were used to verify the model. Tsunami waveforms for the 2006, 2007 and 2009 earthquake events near Simushir Island were simulated and found to be in good agreement with the observations. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and observed tsunami waveforms were from 0.50 to 0.85. Thus, the proposed method can be effectively used to simulate tsunami waveforms for the entire ocean and also for both regional and local tsunami warning services, assuming that they have access to the real-time sea level data from DART stations.

Yu. P. Korolev

2011-11-01

52

QCD (and) event generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions

53

QCD (and) Event Generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for 1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton showers, 2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and 3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions

54

THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one gen...

George Pararas-Carayannis

2006-01-01

55

Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench

56

Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

Pribadi, S.; Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar, Ibrahim, G.; Laksono, B. I.; Adnan, Z.

2014-09-01

57

TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The threat of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves hitting the eastern United States is very real despite a general impression to the contrary. We have cataloged 40 tsunamis and tsunami-like waves that have occurred in the eastern United States since 1600. Tsunamis were generated from such events as the 1755 Queen Anne’s earthquake, the Grand Banks event of 1929, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The Queen Anne tsunami was observed as far away as St....

Lander, James F.; Whiteside, Lowell S.; Lockridge, Patricia A.

2002-01-01

58

Displaced Water Volume, Potential Energy of Initial Elevation, and Tsunami Intensity: Analysis of Recent Tsunami Events  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider recent ocean-bottom earthquakes for which detailed slip distribution data are available. Using these data and the Okada formulae, we calculate the vector fields of co-seismic bottom deformations, which allow us to determine the displaced water volume and the potential energy of initial elevation of the tsunami source. It is shown that, in the majority of cases, the horizontal components of bottom deformation provide an additional contribution to the displaced water volume and virtually never diminish the contribution of the vertical component. The absolute value of the relative contribution of the horizontal components of bottom deformation to the displaced volume varies from 0.07 to 55 %, on average amounting to 14 %. The displaced volume and the energy of initial elevation (tsunami energy) are examined as functions of the moment magnitude, and the relevant regressions (least-squares fits) are derived. The obtained relationships exhibit good correspondence with the theoretical upper limits that had been obtained under the assumption of uniform slip distribution along a rectangular fault. Tsunami energy calculated on the basis of finite fault model data is compared with the earthquake energy determined from the energy-magnitude relationship by Kanamori. It is shown that tsunami takes from 0.001 to 0.34 % of the earthquake energy, and on average 0.04 %. Finally, we analyze the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity as a function of the following three quantities: (1) the moment magnitude, (2) the decimal logarithm of the absolute value of displaced volume, and (3) the decimal logarithm of the potential energy of initial elevation. The first dependence exhibits rather poor correlation, whereas the second and third dependences demonstrate noticeably higher correlation coefficients. This gives us grounds to suggest considering the displaced volume and the energy of initial elevation as measures of the tsunamigenic potential of an earthquake.

Nosov, Mikhail A.; Bolshakova, Anna V.; Kolesov, Sergey V.

2014-12-01

59

OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type eart...

Walker, Daniel A.

2005-01-01

60

Boussinesq systems in two space dimensions over a variable bottom for the generation and propagation of tsunami waves  

CERN Document Server

Considered here are Boussinesq systems of equations of surface water wave theory over a variable bottom. A simplified such Boussinesq system is derived and solved numerically by the standard Galerkin-finite element method. We study by numerical means the generation of tsunami waves due to bottom deformation and we compare the results with analytical solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Moreover, we study tsunami wave propagation in the case of the Java 2006 event, comparing the results of the Boussinesq model with those produced by the finite difference code MOST, that solves the shallow water wave equations.

Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a ts...

Geist, Eric L.; Lynett, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

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Differences in tsunami generation between the December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005 Sumatra earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Source parameters affecting tsunami generation and propagation for the Mw > 9.0 December 26, 2004 and the Mw = 8.6 March 28, 2005 earthquakes are examined to explain the dramatic difference in tsunami observations. We evaluate both scalar measures (seismic moment, maximum slip, potential energy) and finite-source repre-sentations (distributed slip and far-field beaming from finite source dimensions) of tsunami generation potential. There exists significant variability in local tsunami runup with respect to the most readily available measure, seismic moment. The local tsunami intensity for the December 2004 earthquake is similar to other tsunamigenic earthquakes of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the March 2005 local tsunami was deficient relative to its earthquake magnitude. Tsunami potential energy calculations more accurately reflect the difference in tsunami severity, although these calculations are dependent on knowledge of the slip distribution and therefore difficult to implement in a real-time system. A significant factor affecting tsunami generation unaccounted for in these scalar measures is the location of regions of seafloor displacement relative to the overlying water depth. The deficiency of the March 2005 tsunami seems to be related to concentration of slip in the down-dip part of the rupture zone and the fact that a substantial portion of the vertical displacement field occurred in shallow water or on land. The comparison of the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes presented in this study is analogous to previous studies comparing the 1952 and 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquakes and tsunamis, in terms of the effect slip distribution has on local tsunamis. Results from these studies indicate the difficulty in rapidly assessing local tsunami runup from magnitude and epicentral location information alone.

Geist, E.L.; Bilek, S.L.; Arcas, D.; Titov, V.V.

2006-01-01

63

Monte Carlo Event Generators  

Science.gov (United States)

Every neutrino experiment requires a Monte Carlo event generator for various purposes. Historically, each series of experiments developed their own code which tuned to their needs. Modern experiments would benefit from a universal code (e.g. PYTHIA) which would allow more direct comparison between experiments. GENIE attempts to be that code. This paper compares most commonly used codes and provides some details of GENIE.

Dytman, Steven

2011-10-01

64

Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious), infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings) and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities). Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

Hancilar, U.

2012-01-01

65

Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious, infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities. Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

U. Hancilar

2012-01-01

66

The 2013 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake: evidence for tsunami generation by a deep earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sea of Okhotsk earthquake of 24 May 2013 is the largest ever recorded deep earthquake (h = 603 km; M sub w = 8.3). Despite the generally accepted concept that such deep events do not generate significant tsunamis, a long-period signal with a tentative peak-to-peak amplitude of 3-4 mm is present on the records of DART buoys 21402 and 21419, deployed seawards of the Kuril Island arc. This interpretation is confirmed by numerical simulations, using both a shallow-water approximation algorithm (based on surface displacements calculated in the framework of Mansinha and Smylie [1971] and/or Okada's [1985] formulae), and a normal mode summation, based on the original work of Ward [1980]. Both approaches confirm tsunami amplitudes in the millimetric range at the two DART sensors, and reaching 1-2 cm in the epicentral area. More generally, the dependence of tsunami amplitude with focal depth between 20 and 670 km is investigated theoretically on the basis of numerical simulations.

Pelinovsky, Efim; Okal, Emile; Zaytsev, Andrey

2014-05-01

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The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

2014-12-01

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Inclusion of landslide tsunamis generation into a depth integrated wave model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A numerical model based on the mild slope equation, suitable to reproduce the propagation of small amplitude tsunamis in the far field, is extended to reproduce the generation and the propagation of waves generated by landslides. The wave generation is modeled through a forcing term included in the field equation, which reproduces the effects of the movement of a submerged landslide on the fluid. The measurements of three dimensional laboratory experiments, which simulate tsunamis generated b...

Cecioni, C.; Bellotti, G.

2010-01-01

69

Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity?8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the tsunami generation mechanisms is of primary importance. Inputs from tsunami numerical modeling and from empirical discrimination criteria for characterizing tsunami sources have been proved particularly effective for recent, well-documented, aseismic landslide tsunamis (1963 Corinth Gulf, 1979 Côte d' Azur, 1999 Izmit Bay, 2002 Stromboli volcano). Since the tsunami generation mechanisms are controlled by a variety of factors, and given that the knowledge of past tsunami activity is the cornerstone for undertaking tsunami risk mitigation actions, future interdisciplinary research efforts on past tsunamis is needed to include: (i) investigation and identification of palaeotsunamis through geological methods in both on-shore and off-shore environments and correlation with the historical record, (ii) better constraints on earthquake and other source parameters and mechanisms, (iii) further development and testing of diagnostic criteria for the source characterization, (iv) drastic improvement of high-resolution bathymetry particularly in the near-shore domain mainly through marine geophysics, as well as of DEM's for coastal topography, and (v) advancement and systematic testing of numerical modeling techniques.

Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

2013-04-01

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POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE COLOMBIA/ECUADOR SUBDUCTION MARGIN AND THE DOLORES-GUAYAQUIL MEGA-THRUST  

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Full Text Available The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in magnitude and rupture to the 1906 event (Mw=8.8, rupture 600 km., can generate a tsunami with destructive near and far-field impacts. To understand the potential for such destructive tsunami generation in this region, the present study examines and evaluates: a the controlling inter-plate coupling mechanisms of the tectonic regime of the margin – including lithospheric structure deformation, sea-floor relief and the subduction or accretion of highly folded, hydrated sediments along the seismogenic zone of southern Colombia/North Ecuador; b the seismo-dynamics and role in tsunami generation as affected by the Carnegie Ridge’s oblique subduction beneath the South American continent; and c the seismotectonic extensional processes in the vicinity of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes Basin and how the northwestward movement of the North Andes block away from the South American continent along the Dolores Guayaquil mega-thrust and the resulting strain rotation may cause sudden detachment, décollement and deformation, with the potential for local tsunami generation that may affect the Gulf of Guayaquil and other coastal areas along southern Ecuador.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2012-01-01

71

Event generators for address event representation transmitters  

Science.gov (United States)

Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were freezed to transmit any further events during this time window. This limited the maximum transmission speed. In order to improve this speed, Boahen proposed an improved 'burst mode' scheme. In this scheme after the row arbitration, a complete row of events is pipelined out of the array and arbitered out of the chip at higher speed. During this single row event arbitration, the array is free to generate new events and communicate to the row arbiter, in a pipelined mode. This scheme significantly improves maximum event transmission speed, specially for high traffic situations were speed is more critical. We have analyzed and studied this approach and have detected some shortcomings in the circuits reported by Boahen, which may render some false situations under some statistical conditions. The present paper proposes some improvements to overcome such situations. The improved "AER Generator" has been implemented in an AER transmitter system

Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

2005-06-01

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The Pluto event generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pluto is a Monte-Carlo event generator designed for hadronic interactions from close-to-threshold to intermediate energies, as well as for studies of heavy ion reactions. The package is entirely based on Root, without the need of additional packages, and uses the embedded C++ interpreter of root to control the event production. The package includes realistic models of resonance production by using mass-dependent Breit-Wigner sampling. The calculation of partial and total widths for resonances is taken into account. Particular attention is paid to the electromagnetic decays, motivated by the physics program of HADES. For elementary reactions, angular distributions (e.g. for the primary meson emission) can be attached by the user in a very simple way as well as multi-particle correlations. Hand-made models (which may change all decay parameters) can be included by the user without recompilation using the CINT interpreter. This contribution gives an overview of the technical implementation of the framework and presents examples of the included physics

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Catalogue of reported tsunami events in the Adriatic Sea (from 58 B.C. to 1979 A.D.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This catalogue furnishes a collection of the reported tsunamis within the Adriatic, i.e. Italian coasts from the Strait of Otranto to the gulf of Trieste, the coasts of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania. The events are obtained by the cross-comparison between many existing catalogues, in order to extract all the available reported ones. For each tsunamigenic event, when available in a catalogue, we report: origin time, location, macroseismic intensity, magnitude and the areas (within Adriatic basin) where tsunamis have been reported. In the last column of the table, all the catalogues in which some information of the event (earthquake and tsunami) has been found, are listed; bold letters indicate the basic catalogue for that event (i.e. the catalogue where the origin time has been taken from). Since in the present catalogue more attention is paid to the tsunamis than to the seismic events, the bold reference indicates always the tsunami-catalogue, and not the seismic ones, when contemporarily available. For some events there are no records of a related tsunami (they are labelled as N.A.T.R.= not available tsunami report) but they are included since their location and magnitude suggest a tsunamigenic potential. (author)

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Intraplate Splay Faults and Near-field Tsunami Generation during Giant Megathrust Earthquakes in Chile, Alaska, and Sumatra  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival times, extreme wave heights, and short wave periods. Data for all three giant earthquakes show that local near-field tsunamis caused close to 3/4 of the deaths and most of the damage. This was due mainly to the combination of slip on intraplate splay faults that break relatively steeply to the surface in Alaska, Sumatra, and probably Chile, and by submarine slides along steep-sided fiords and submarine valleys in Alaska and possibly Chile. Near-field wave sources are especially hazardous because the initial wave at the source is higher and closer to shore than slip on the megathrust. As a result, warning time to inhabitants can be significantly decreased and property damage is increased.

Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.

2010-12-01

75

LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS IN HAWAII: A LOW COST, HEAL TIME WARNING SYSTEM WITH WORLD WIDE APPLICATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cellular runup detectors have been installed along those coastlines of the island of Hawaii that have been frequently inundated by locally generated tsunamis. These devices provide for near instantaneous (i.e., less than 1 minute) warnings of locally generated tsunamis. Principal components of the detectors are cellular transceivers and water sensors. Because of the extensive use of these devices throughout the security industry, they are extremely reliable and cost effective. Such instrument...

Walker, Daniel A.; Cessaro, Robert K.

2002-01-01

76

Tsunami focusing  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only exact but also more general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We explore parametric dependence of the focusing height and distance on the initial wave parameters through the analytical solution.

Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

2010-12-01

77

THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as well as along the western end of the subduction zone. In fact, recent seismic activity indicates that a large earthquake is possible in the region west of the 1945 event. Such an earthquake can be expected to generate a destructive tsunami.Additionally, the on-going subduction of the two micro-plates has dragged tertiary marine sediments into an accretionary prism - thus forming the Makran coastal region, Thick sediments, that have accumulated along the deltaic coastlines from the erosion of the Himalayas, particularly along the eastern Sindh region near the Indus River delta, have the potential to fail and cause large underwater tsunamigenic slides. Even smaller magnitude earthquakes could trigger such underwater landslides. Finally, an earthquake similar to that of 1945 in the Makran zone of subduction, has the potential of generating a bookshelf type of failure within the compacted sediments – as that associated with the “silent” and slow 1992 Nicaragua earthquake – thus contributing to a more destructive tsunami. In conclusion, the Makran subduction zone has a relatively high potential for large tsunamigenic earthquakes.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2006-01-01

78

The Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011: The Key Event to Understanding Tsunami Sedimentation on the Coasts of Closed Bays of the Lesser Kuril Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 manifested in the region of the South Kuril Islands, although, as a rule, the run-up heights in this region did not exceed 3 m. In closed bays that were covered with ice before the tsunami, the eroding capacity of tsunami waves was aggravated by the ice fragments they carried. Here, mud sheets formed, reaching up to 106 m inland. The 2012 studies have shown well-preserved tsunami deposits, evident 1.5 years after the event. A comparative analysis of tsunami deposits from the periphery and from the near-field area close to the tsunami source was performed; this was important for understanding the deposition mechanism during the event, as it had different strengths on different shores. The difference in run-up heights determined the considerable differences in erosion, sedimentation, distribution of tsunami deposits, the formation of sedimentary structures, grain-size composition, and diatom and foraminifera assemblages. The sources of the material also varied significantly from each other: the material came from offshore in closed bays located in the tsunami source periphery, while in the near-field region close to the epicenter, the most active erosion occurred in the inundation area. In the latter area, the main sources of sand were beaches and dunes, while soil erosion was the source of mud. Studies of the Tohoku tsunami on the coasts of the Lesser Kuril Islands demonstrated that mud layers in the sections of coastal lowlands in closed bays could contain preserved detailed geological records of paleotsunamis, even those with a small-height run-up. In the sections of coastal peatlands of closed bays on Shikotan Island, up to 7-9 layers of mud and silty sands were found, these can easily be traced for more than 500 m inland. The grain-size composition of the mud is similar to the deposits of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The marine origin of these deposits is confirmed by the diatom analysis data.

Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Chernov, S. B.

2014-12-01

79

Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles  

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Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

N. Zahibo

2001-01-01

80

FIRST EVIDENCE OF PALEO-TSUNAMI DEPOSITS OF A MAJOR HISTORIC EVENT IN ECUADOR  

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Full Text Available The Ecuadorian shoreline is considered highly susceptible by impacts of tsunamis triggered by marine quakes or submarine landslides occurring close or nearby the subduction zone between the Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates. Since 1877 one dozen known tsunamis have been witnessed along this coast, mostly related to short-distanced seismic activities (earthquakes between Mw 6.9 to 8.8. However, no evidence of these impacts has been recorded in the sedimentary stratigraphy on the Ecuadorian platform so far. Nonetheless, in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Guayaquil, due to a biological, chemical, stratigraphic and geochronologic study of a few cored samples an anomalous horizon to the other sedimentary layers has been identified and recognized as a paleo-tsunami deposit. This layer having a thickness of up to 10 cm and up to 1100 meters away from the actual shore, demonstrates various criteria which confirm its origin such as deep sea foraminifera like Pullenia bulloides, run-up and backwash features, fragments of molluscs, which are absent in other sedimentary levels, matrix of weathered chlorite potentially originated by glauconite besides other. Geocronologic evidence together with the calculated sedimentation rate, implies that a the tsunami surged the coastal lowlands around Villamil Playas about 1250 ± 50 yrs ago and must have been a major event originated from the western or northwestern direction.

Kervin Chunga

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Physical Modeling of Tsunamis Generated By 3D Deformable Landslides in Various Scenarios From Fjords to Conical Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Two different materials are used to simulate landslides to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. A method to predict the maximum wave runup on an opposing headland using nondimensional landslide, water body and bathymetric parameters is derived. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.

2013-12-01

82

Advances in Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

Chile has records of recurring tsunamis. This is confirmed by its geological evidences, long historical records and instrumental data. However, tsunamis were always an underestimated hazard. In 2010 its coasts were affected by a large near-field tsunami and in 2011 for a far-field tsunami generated in Japan, confirming the high vulnerability of coastal communities. Both events had different magnitudes and impacts on coastal areas. The near-field tsunami was generated by an earthquake (Mw 8.8) that occurred on the 27th of February 2010, the waves arrived at the coast in a few minutes and mostly impacted small coastal communities located within the rupture area, there were 156 victims and 25 missing. While the far-field tsunami was generated by a giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan, arriving their first waves on the coast of Chile twenty one hours later, displacing thousands of people to high ground. These two recent events have resulted in advances in tsunami hazard mitigation, mainly in the localities that were affected by both events, incorporating the tsunami risk and the emergency management in territorial planning. Example of this is the consideration of risk based on worst case scenarios, design and assessment of mitigation scenarios (e.g. tsunami forest, mitigation parks, dikes and fills) using tsunami modeling and land use policies more rigorous. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

Lagos, M.; Arenas, F.; Lillo, I.; Tamburini, L.

2012-12-01

83

Ionospheric Method of Detecting Tsunami-Generating Earthquakes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the earthquake phenomenon and its possible relation to ionospheric disturbances. Discusses the basic physical principles involved and the methods upon which instrumentation is being developed for possible use in a tsunami disaster warning system. (GA)

Najita, Kazutoshi; Yuen, Paul C.

1978-01-01

84

Landslide generated tsunamis : numerical modeling and real-time prediction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Submarine Erdrutsche können lokale Tsunamis auslösen und stellen somit eine Gefahr für Siedlungen an der Küste und deren Einwohner dar. Zwei Hauptprobleme sind (i) die quantitative Abschätzung der Gefahr, die von einem Tsunami ausgeht und (ii) das schnelle Erkennen von gefährlichen Rutschungsereignissen. In dieser Doktorarbeit beschäftige ich mich mit beiden Problemen, indem ich Erdrutschtsunamis numerisch modelliere und eine neue Methode vorstelle, in der submarine Erdrutsche mit H...

Brune, Sascha

2009-01-01

85

Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash flood deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami, storm and flash event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore from Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea), are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. They are characterized by (1) the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris, (2) cross lamination and (3) the appearance of rip-up clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to individual storm events by using 210Pb dating in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms and could thus be securely differentiated from tsunami deposits. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize the storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents flash floods, which is characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between the storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of rip-up clasts, mud, and terrigenous material within the storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between offshore storm and tsunami deposits.

Sakuna-Schwartz, D.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.; Khokiattiwong, S.; Stattegger, K.

2014-12-01

86

NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY POTENTIAL EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE KOMANDORSKY SEISMIC GAP IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLAND ARC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Komandorsky seismic gap has distinctive boundaries and a length of 650 km. Its period of “seismic silence” comes close to the maximum recurrence interval for great earthquakes in the Aleutian Island Arc - the stress concentration here probably having reached the critical value. So, estimation of possible earthquake and tsunami characteristics within this gap becomes a significant problem. The closest analog of a similar gap is the area where the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman catastrophic event occurred. Thus, for the present study we used the same modeling scheme as we used for that event. It was assumed that a source length of 650 km, consisting of 9 blocks, and an earthquake with a moment magnitude MW=8.5. Several block motion scenarios were considered. The tsunami generation and propagation in the Pacific Ocean and the possible wave characteristics on near and far-field coasts were estimated. Modeling of such an event showed that the wave heights on different Pacific coasts will vary from 3 to 9 meters. A tsunami wave with a 9-meter height is capable in causing significant loss of human life and economic damage.

R. Kh. Mazova

2013-01-01

87

EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preliminary results from a set of laboratory experiments aimed at producing a high-quality dataset for modeling underwater landslide-induced tsunami are presented. A unique feature of these experiments is the use of a method to measure water surface profiles continuously in both space and time rather than at discrete points. Water levels are obtained using an optical technique based on laser induced fluorescence, which is shown to be comparable in accuracy and resolution to traditional electrical point wave gauges. The ability to capture the spatial variations of the water surface along with the temporal changes has proven to be a powerful tool with which to study the wave generation process.In the experiments, the landslide density and initial submergence are varied and information of wave heights, lengths, propagation speeds, and shore run-up is measured. The experiments highlight the non- linear interaction between slider kinematics and initial submergence, and the wave field.The ability to resolve water levels spatially and temporally allows wave potential energy time histories to be calculated. Conversion efficiencies range from 1.1%-5.9% for landslide potential energy into wave potential energy. Rates for conversion between landslide kinetic energy and wave potential energy range between 2.8% and 13.8%.The wave trough initially generated above the rear end of the landslide propagates in both upstream and downstream directions. The upstream-travelling trough creates the large initial draw-down at the shore. A wave crest generated by the landslide as it decelerates at the bottom of the slope causes the maximum wave run-up height observed at the shore.

Langford P. Sue

2006-01-01

88

EVALUATION OF THE THREAT OF MEGA TSUNAMI GENERATION FROM POSTULATED MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF ISLAND STRATOVOLCANOES ON LA PALMA, CANARY ISLANDS, AND ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Massive flank failures of island stratovolcanoes are extremely rare phenomena and none have occurred within recorded history. Recent numerical modeling studies, forecasting mega tsunami generation from postulated, massive slope failures of Cumbre Vieja in La Palma, Canary Islands, and Kilauea, in Hawaii, have been based on incorrect assumptions of volcanic island slope instability, source dimensions, speed of failure and tsunami coupling mechanisms. Incorrect input parameters and treatment of wave energy propagation and dispersion, have led to overestimates of tsunami far field effects. Inappropriate media attention and publicity to such probabilistic results have created unnecessary anxiety that mega tsunamis may be imminent and may devastate densely populated coastlines at locations distant from the source - in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.The present study examines the assumptions and input parameters used by probabilistic numerical models and evaluates the threat of mega tsunami generation from flank failures of island stratovolcanoes. Based on geologic evidence and historic events, it concludes that massive flank collapses of Cumbre Vieja or Kilauea volcanoes are extremely unlikely to occur in the near geologic future. The flanks of these island stratovolcanoes will continue to slip aseismically, as in the past. Sudden slope failures can be expected to occur along faults paralleling rift zones, but these will occur in phases, over a period of time, and not necessarily as single, sudden, large-scale, massive collapses. Most of the failures will occur in the upper flanks of the volcanoes, above and below sea level, rather than at the basal decollement region on the ocean floor. The sudden flank failures of the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea in 1868 and 1975 and the resulting earthquakes generated only destructive local tsunamis with insignificant far field effects. Caldera collapses and large slope failures associated with volcanic explosions of Krakatau in 1883 and of Santorin in 1490 B.C., generated catastrophic local tsunamis, but no waves of significance at distant locations. Mega tsunami generation, even from the larger slope failures of island stratovolcanoes, is extremely unlikely to occur. Greater source dimensions and longer wave periods are required to generate tsunamis that can have significant, far field effects. The threat of mega tsunami generation from massive flank failures of island stratovolcanoes has been greatly overstated.

George Pararas-Carayannis

2002-01-01

89

A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunami...

Lockridge, Patricia A.; LowellS. Whiteside; Lander, James F.

2002-01-01

90

On the use of finite fault solution for tsunami generation problems  

CERN Document Server

The present study is devoted to the tsunami wave generation problem. The main goal of this work is two-fold. First of all, we propose a simple and computationally inexpensive model for the description of the sea bed displacement during an underwater earthquake, based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the rupturing process dynamics. Once the bottom motion is reconstructed, we study waves induced on the free surface of the ocean. For this purpose we consider three different models approximating the Euler equations of the water wave theory. Namely, we deal with linearized Euler equations (also known as Cauchy-Poisson problem), a Boussinesq system and a weakly nonlinear model. An intercomparison of these approaches is performed. All developments in this study are illustrated on the real world example of the July 17, 2006 Java event.

Dutykh, Denys; Gardeil, Xavier

2010-01-01

91

The influence of landslide shape and continental shelf on landslide generated tsunamis along a plane beach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work proposes an advancement in analytical modelling of landslide tsunamis propagating along a plane beach. It is divided into two parts. In the first one, the analytical two-horizontal-dimension model of Sammarco and Renzi (2008) for tsunamis generated by a Gaussian-shaped landslide on a plane beach is revised and extended to realistic landslide shapes. The influence of finiteness and shape of the slide on the propagating waves is investigated and discussed. In the second part...

Renzi, E.; Sammarco, P.

2012-01-01

92

New insights of tsunami hazard from the 2011 Tohoku-oki event  

Science.gov (United States)

We report initial results from our recent field survey documenting the inundation and resultant deposits of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami from Sendai Plain, Japan. The tsunami inundated up to 4.5. km inland but the > 0.5 cm-thick sand deposit extended only 2.8. km (62% of the inundation distance). The deposit however continued as a mud layer to the inundation limit. The mud deposit contained high concentrations of water-leachable chloride and we conclude that geochemical markers and microfossil data may prove to be useful in identifying the maximum inundation limit of paleotsunamis that could extend well beyond any preserved sand layer. Our newly acquired data on the 2011 event suggest that previous estimates of paleotsunamis (e.g. 869 AD J??gan earthquake and tsunami) in this area have probably been underestimated. If the 2011 and 869 AD events are indeed comparable, the risk from these natural hazards in Japan is much greater than previously recognized. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Goto, K.; Chague-Goff, C.; Fujino, S.; Goff, J.; Jaffe, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Richmond, B.; Sugawara, D.; Szczucinski, W.; Tappin, D.R.; Witter, R.C.; Yulianto, E.

2011-01-01

93

Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by cold volcanic mass flows at Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the world's active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines. During eruptions, diverse geophysical mass flows, including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, and lahars, can deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean in a short period of time and thereby generate tsunamis. Deposits of both hot and cold volcanic mass flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet, indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by cold granular subaerial volcanic mass flows using examples from Augustine Volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region, and future eruptions, should they lead to debris-avalanche formation and tsunami generation, could be hazardous to some coastal areas. Geological investigations at Augustine Volcano suggest that as many as 12-14 debris avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during an A.D. 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami that was observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. Numerical simulation of mass-flow motion, tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation for Augustine Volcano indicate only modest wave generation by volcanic mass flows and localized wave effects. However, for east-directed mass flows entering Cook Inlet, tsunamis are capable of reaching the more populated coastlines of the southwestern Kenai Peninsula, where maximum water amplitudes of several meters are possible.

Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.; Walder, J.S.

2006-01-01

94

The event generator SIMON  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The utilization and development of SIMON generator work was conducted at LPC.This generator was conceived for simple and versatile simulations of different processes occurring in the nuclear collisions at Fermi Energies. At present it is utilized in a large number of French foreign laboratories. Particularly, certain analyses of INDRA data have been done by use of this generator: estimation of collective energy in the Xe + Sn and Gd + U central collisions; shape and space-time correlation analysis in fragment-fragment and particle-fragment output of the same system; calorimetric study of the Xe + Sn and Ar + Ni system; study of the vaporization for the Ar + Ni system. Recently a number of items were improved or modified, among which: the initial configuration was allowed to be non-spherical what permits the analysis of the semi-central collisions; a so-called pre-fragmentation emission may be included to estimate different time constants implied in the fragmentation process

95

W Phase Inversion and Tsunami Inundation Modeling for Tsunami Early Warning: Case Study for the 2011 Tohoku Event  

Science.gov (United States)

Centroid moment tensor solutions for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake are determined by W phase inversions using 5 and 10 min data recorded by the Full Range Seismograph Network of Japan (F-net). By a scaling relation of moment magnitude to rupture area and an assumption of rigidity of 4 × 1010 N m-2, simple rectangular earthquake fault models are estimated from the solutions. Tsunami inundations in the Sendai Plain, Minamisanriku, Rikuzentakata, and Taro are simulated using the estimated fault models. Then the simulated tsunami inundation area and heights are compared with the observations. Even the simulated tsunami heights and inundations from the W phase solution that used only 5 min data are considerably similar to the observations. The results are improved when using 10 min of W phase data. These show that the W phase solutions are reliable to be used for tsunami inundation modeling. Furthermore, the technique that combines W phase inversion and tsunami inundation modeling can produce results that have sufficient accuracy for tsunami early warning purposes.

Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Tanioka, Yuichiro

2014-07-01

96

Lituya Bay Landslide Impact Generated Mega-Tsunami 50th Anniversary  

Science.gov (United States)

On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the southern coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. The mega-tsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt at 1:675 scale in a two-dimensional physical laboratory model based on the generalized Froude similarity. A pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was used to generate a high-speed granular slide with controlled impact characteristics. State-of-the-art laser measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser distance sensors (LDS) were applied to the decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. PIV provided instantaneous velocity vector fields in a large area of interest and gave insight into kinematics of wave generation and runup. The entire process of a high-speed granular landslide impact may be subdivided into two main stages: (a) Landslide impact and penetration with flow separation, cavity formation and wave generation, and (b) air cavity collapse with landslide run-out and debris detrainment causing massive phase mixing. Formation of a large air cavity — similar to an asteroid impact — in the back of the landslide is highlighted. A three-dimenional pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was designed, constructed and successfully deployed in the tsunami wave basin at OSU. The Lituya Bay landslide was reproduced in a three-dimensional physical model at 1:400 scale. The landslide surface velocities distribution was measured with PIV. The measured tsunami amplitude and runup heights serve as benchmark for analytical and numerical models.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Mohammed, Fahad; Yoo, Jeseon

2009-02-01

97

Earthquake-generated tsunamis near the Africa-Eurasia collision zone: cases studies for tsunami hazard evaluation in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern Atlantic Ocean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this thesis is to improve the knowledge of tsunami hazard in Western Mediterranean and Northern Atlantic. It focusses on earthquake-generated tsunamis which present the advantage to be preceded by a useful precursor for the warning, that can be felt by the population: the earthquake. Two types of studies are presented, using numerical modelling. It allows to built maximum wave height maps for each scenario, determine arrival times, inundation zones and study resonance ph...

Roger, Jean

2011-01-01

98

Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity. In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1 a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka, and (2 from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case-study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami runups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

M. Ulvrová

2013-11-01

99

Evidence of tsunami events in the Paleolimnological record of Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El actual lago de Pátzcuaro tiene una elevación de 2035 m sobre el nivel del mar. Históricamente, ha alcanzado una elevación de 2041 m, lo cual aislaba una porción de la isla cerca de la población de Jarácuaro en la parte sureste del lago. Dos trincheras realizadas en la antigua isla revelan secuenc [...] ias estratigráficas tripartitas similares. En una trinchera de 3.1 m de profundidad, la secuencia de la base a la cima está formada por la Unidad A que comprende arcillas y limos ricos en diatomeas plegados y fallados con capas de arena volcánica. Estos depósitos están fechados entre 24 y 10 mil años BP. Unidad B que comprende una mezcla caótica de arenas volcánicas y lapilli, con abundantes restos de peces, bivalvos, gasterópodos y ostrácodos, de 10 cm de espesor con un contacto erosivo sobre la Unidad A. Los ostrácodos incluyen valvas articuladas con una mezcla de especies pelágicas de agua profunda y especies litorales. Los fragmentos de artefactos cerámicos pertenecientes al Período Post-Clásico (900 a 1520 AD) son abundantes. La Unidad C comprende una unidad de 20 cm de espesor de limo arcilloso rico en materia orgánica con restos de gasterópodos, semillas, líticos angulares y fragmentos de piezas cerámicas del Post-Clásico. La Unidad B sugiere una resedimentación catastrófica de los depósitos del piso del lago atribuidos a un tsunami. La Unidad C es consistente con condiciones sublacustres que están históricamente documentadas de 1858 a 1947. Un tsunami en el Lago de Pátzcuaro en 1858 ha sido registrado históricamente. El tsunami pudo haber sido creado por movimientos de falla o colapso del flanco suroeste de la isla de Janitzio. La ola del tsunami pudo haber contribuido al rápido aumento del lago de Pátzcuaro después del evento sísmico de 1858. Abstract in english Modern Lake Pátzcuaro has a surface elevation of 2035 m a.s.l. Historically, it reached an elevation of 2041 m a.s.l., which isolated a portion of the island near the town of Jarácuaro in the southeastern part of the lake. Two trenches in the former island reveal similar tripartite stratigraphic seq [...] uences. In a 3.1 m deep trench, the sequence from bottom to top comprises Unit A constituted by folded and faulted diatom-rich clay and silt with beds of volcanic sand. These deposits are dated between 24 and 10 ky BP; Unit B constituted by a 10 of cm chaotic mixture of volcanic sand and lapilli with abundant remains of fish, bivalves, gastropods and ostracodes that is rests on above an erosional unconformity. The ostracodes include articulated valves with a mixture of deep-water pelagic species and attached littoral species. Highly fractured diatom shows a mixture of planktonic and benthic habitats. Fragments of ceramic artifacts dated to the Post-Classic Period (900 to 1520 AD) are abundant; Unit Cconstituted by a 20 cm thick unit of organic-rich argillaceous silt with remains of gastropods, seeds, angular lithoclasts and fragments of Post-Classic ceramic artifacts. Unit B suggests a catastrophic resedi mentation of lake floor deposits attributed to a tsunami. Unit C is consistent with sublacustrine conditions that are historically documented from 1858 to 1947. A tsunami in Lake Pátzcuaro in 1858 has been historically recorded. The tsunami was created either by fault movement or collapse of the SW flank of the island of Janitzio. The tsunami wave may have contributed to the rapid rise of Lake Pátzcuaro following the 1858 seismic event.

Victor Hugo, Garduño-Monroy; Diana Cinthia, Soria-Caballero; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Víctor Manuel, Hernández Madrigal; Alejandro, Rodríguez-Ramírez; Mikhail, Ostroumov; Miguel Ángel, Rodríguez-Pascua; Arturo, Chacon-Torres; Juan Carlos, Mora-Chaparro.

2011-06-01

100

THE MAY 17, 1992 EVENT: TSUNAMI AND COASTAL EFFECTS IN EASTERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunami invaded the eastern coastlines of Mindanao islands several minutes after the strong ground shaking of the May 17, 1992 quake. Recent field investigations showed that tsunami intensity generally decreases southwards and northwards relative to Bunga and Zaragoza areas. There was an unusually high tsunami wave height (~6m) at Bunga that was most probably due to local site effect. Tsunami waves were generally preceded by the lowering of sea water level while the tsunami arrival times have...

Besana, Glenda M.; Masataka Ando; Ma. Hannah Mirabueno

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Japan (East Coast of Honshu) Tsunami, March 11, 2011: Main Event Page  

Science.gov (United States)

The forecasting models displayed in this website are from NOAA Center for Tsunami Research featuring the Honshu, Japan tsunami. Forecast results, showing qualitative and quantitative information about the tsunami, including tsunami wave interaction with ocean floor bathymetric features, and neighboring coastlines are available for educators and students. Also included are interactive maps depicting model and sea level data comparison plots, global maximum wave amplitude and tsunami propagation animations.

2011-01-01

102

The El Asnam 1980 October 10 inland earthquake: a new hypothesis of tsunami generation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Mediterranean Sea is not considered as a high seismic region. Only several earthquakes with magnitude above five occur each year and only a handful have consequences on human beings and infrastructure. The El Asnam (Algeria) earthquake of 1980 October 10 with an estimated magnitude Ms= 7.3 is one of the most destructive earthquakes recorded in northern Africa and more largely in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Although it is located inland, it is known to have been followed by a small tsunami recorded on several tide gauges along the southeastern Spanish Coast. In 1954, a similar earthquake having occurred at the same location induced a turbidity current associated to a submarine landslide, which is widely known to have cut submarine phone cables far from the coast. This event was followed by a small tsunami attributed to the landslide. Thus the origin of the tsunami of 1980 was promptly attributed to the same kind of submarine slide. As no evidence of such mass movement was highlighted, and because the tsunami wave periods does not match with a landslide origin in both cases (1954 and 1980), this study considers two rupture scenarios, that the coseismic deformation itself (of about 10 cm off the Algerian coast near Ténès) is sufficient to produce a low amplitude (several centimetres) tsunami able to reach the Spanish southeastern coast from Alicante to Algeciras (Gibraltar strait to the west). After a discussion concerning the proposed rupture scenarios and their respective parameters, numerical tsunami modelling is performed on a set of bathymetric grids. Then the results of wave propagation and amplification (maximum wave height maps) are discussed, with a special attention to Alicante (Spain) Harbour where the location of two historical tide gauges allows the comparison between synthetic mareograms and historical records showing sufficient signal amplitude. This study is part of the active tsunami hazard assessment in Mediterranean Sea especially concerning its occidental part, that is, the Algerian, Spanish and French coasts.

Roger, J.; Hébert, H.; Ruegg, J.-C.; Briole, P.

2011-06-01

103

TSUNAMI GENERATED BY THE VOLCANO ERUPTION ON JULY 12-13, 2003 AT MONTSERRAT, LESSER ANTILLES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A major collapse of a lava dome occurred at the Soufrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles), culminating late in the evening (11:35 PM local time) on July 12, 2003 (03:35 GMT on 13 July). This generated a tsunami, which was recorded on Montserrat 2-4 km from the generating area and Guadeloupe, 50 km from Montserrat. Results of field surveys are presented. Tsunami wave height on Montserrat may have been about 4 m according to the location of a strandline of charred trees and other f...

Efim Pelinovsky; Narcisse Zahibo; Peter Dunkley; Marie Edmonds; Richard Herd; Tatiana Talipova; Andrey Kozelkov; Irina Nikolkina

2004-01-01

104

Numerical simulations of tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented examp...

Ulvrova?, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

2014-01-01

105

Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented...

Ulvrova?, M.; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

2013-01-01

106

Warning and prevention based on estimates with large uncertainties: the case of low-frequency and large-impact events like tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Geoscientists deal often with hazardous processes like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc., and their research is aimed not only to a better understanding of the physical processes, but also to provide assessment of the space and temporal evolution of a given individual event (i.e. to provide short-term prediction) and of the expected evolution of a group of events (i.e. to provide statistical estimates referred to a given return period, and a given geographical area). One of the main issues of any scientific method is how to cope with measurement errors, a topic which in case of forecast of ongoing or of future events translates into how to deal with forecast uncertainties. In general, the more data are available and processed to make a prediction, the more accurate the prediction is expected to be if the scientific approach is sound, and the smaller the associated uncertainties are. However, there are several important cases where assessment is to be made with insufficient data or insufficient time for processing, which leads to large uncertainties. Two examples can be given taken from tsunami science, since tsunamis are rare events that may have destructive power and very large impact. One example is the case of warning for a tsunami generated by a near-coast earthquake, which is an issue at the focus of the European funded project NearToWarn. Warning has to be launched before tsunami hits the coast, that is in a few minutes after its generation. This may imply that data collected in such a short time are not yet enough for an accurate evaluation, also because the implemented monitoring system (if any) could be inadequate (f.i. one reason of inadequacy could be that implementing a dense instrumental network could be judged too expensive for rare events) The second case is the long term prevention from tsunami strikes. Tsunami infrequency may imply that the historical record for a given piece of coast is too short to capture a statistical sufficient number of large tsunamis, which entails that tsunami hazard has to be estimated by means of speculated worst-case scenarios, and their consequences are evaluated accordingly and usually result associated with large uncertainty bands. In case of large uncertainties, the main issues for geoscientists are how to communicate the information (prediction and uncertainties) to stakeholders and citizens and how to build and implement together responsive procedures that should be adequate. Usually there is a tradeoff between the cost of the countermeasure (warning and prevention) and its efficacy (i.e. its capability of minimizing the damage). The level of the acceptable tradeoff is an issue pertaining to decision makers and to local threatened communities. This paper, that represents a contribution from the European project TRIDEC on management of emergency crises, discusses the role of geoscientists in providing predictions and the related uncertainties. It is stressed that through academic education geoscientists are formed more to better their understanding of processes and the quantification of uncertainties, but are often unprepared to communicate their results in a way appropriate for society. Filling this gap is crucial for improving the way geoscience and society handle natural hazards and devise proper defense means.

Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

2013-04-01

107

GR@PPA Event Generator  

CERN Document Server

The history and the present status of the GR@PPA event generator are briefly reviewed. The development of GR@PPA started in 2000 in order to provide a framework of NLO event generators for hadron collision interactions. After the first release of the package (GR@PPA\\_4b) in 2002, which supported four bottom quark production processes, many multi-particle production processes have been added to the package: GR@PPA\\_ALL in 2004 and GR@PPA 2.7 in 2006. Now we are going to release a new package (GR@PPA 2.8), which supports single and double weak-boson production processes with an initial-state jet matching. Though the matrix elements presently included are still at the tree level, this new release is an important step towards constructing consistent NLO event generators.

Odaka, Shigeru

2010-01-01

108

GR@PPA Event Generator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The history and the present status of the GR@PPA event generator are briefly reviewed. The development of GR@PPA started in 2000 in order to provide a framework of NLO event generators for hadron collision interactions. After the first release of the package (GR@PPA\\_4b) in 2002, which supported four bottom quark production processes, many multi-particle production processes have been added to the package: GR@PPA\\_ALL in 2004 and GR@PPA 2.7 in 2006. Now we are going to relea...

Odaka, Shigeru

2010-01-01

109

The ALICE Event Generator Pool.  

CERN Document Server

A description and comparison of various commonly used event generators for very energetic hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented together with a description of the ALICE universal output format and some simple examples of how to install and run the programs. This report is intended to provide the necessary information for people who want to know the basic physics behind the various models, run the various generators and analyse the produced output.

Hencken, K; CERN. Geneva; Kharlov, Yu V; Kiselev, S; Ranft, J; Sadovsky, S; Samoylenko, V D; Shabratova, G; Zabrodin, E E; van Eijndhoven, N

1996-01-01

110

Waves of Destruction: Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Web companion to an episode of the PBS/WNET television series "Savage Earth" devoted to tsunamis. The homepage article provides a brief overview of the mechanism that creates tsunamis, the enormous energy they release, and the role of plate tectonics in earthquake and tsunami generation. Sidebar pages discuss tsunami monitoring and advance warning, and geologic investigations that reveal evidence of destructive tsunamis in the past. There is also an animation that shows how an earthquake at a subduction zone can cause the sea floor to snap upward abruptly, displacing water and generating a tsunami, and a video interview with a survivor of the 1946 tsunami that struck the Hawaiian Islands.

111

Assessment of the safety of Ulchin nuclear power plant in the event of tsunami using parametric study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous evaluations of the safety of the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant in the event of a tsunami have the shortcoming of uncertainty of the tsunami sources. To address this uncertainty, maximum and minimum wave heights at the intake of Ulchin NPP have been estimated through a parametric study, and then assessment of the safety margin for the intake has been carried out. From the simulation results for the Ulchin NPP site, it can be seen that the coefficient of eddy viscosity considerably affects wave height at the inside of the breakwater. In addition, assessment of the safety margin shows that almost all of the intake water pumps have a safety margin over 2 m, and Ulchin NPP site seems to be safe in the event of a tsunami according to this parametric study, although parts of the CWPs rarely have a margin for the minimum wave height

112

Tohoku, Japan Tsunami Sets us West Coast Into Ringing  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis can last a long time compared to the geophysical events that generate them. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami of March 11, 2011 was an extreme event that continued to disturb the Pacific Ocean for many days following its initiation. Historically Japan was considered a source of low tsunami wave energy for the US West Coast. However, damage in California from the last great Japan tsunami was second to that suffered during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Computer animations of the catastrophic Japan tsunami and other recent significant tsunamis combined with seismological techniques help to identify multiple paths of tsunami waves refracted and reflected by complex bathymetry across the Pacific Ocean basin. Using recent large tsunamigenic earthquakes we demonstrate that the long duration and damage noticed during the last great Japan tsunami in the farfield is a result of several factors. Waveguides acting as tsunami lenses and mirrors, including continental margins, direct the tsunami wave energy to diverse locations around the ocean basin; directionality affected by islands and seamounts, large reflections off of South America, bathymetric features far and near the area of impact and shelf geometry may delay and further amplify the main tsunami energy. This has direct implications on the prediction of tsunami impacts since the US West Coast appears to receive maximum waves much later than first wave arrivals.

Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Gica, E.; Legg, G.

2011-12-01

113

Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (tsunamis and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian Ocean, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either tsunamis or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between tsunami and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide tsunami which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as tsunami candidates.

Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.

2011-08-01

114

GEOMORPHIC EVIDENCE AND RELATIVE AND ABSOLUTE DATING RESULTS FOR TSUNAMI EVENTS ON CYPRUS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the Mediterranean area, almost 100 tsunamis were recorded in historical sources from Antiquity till present. Recordings often describe the consequences for human lives and buildings in coastal areas. However, little evidence for the geomorphic effects of tsunamis has been collected in thisregion. Tsunami run-up may destroy soil and vegetation. Tsunamis may further move extremely large volumes of coarse clastic material including individual boulders weighing more than 20 t. Trottoirs, supr...

Dieter Kelletat; Franziska Whelan

2002-01-01

115

NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

2009-01-01

116

TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For the program, see http://www.gein.noa.gr/English/tsunamis.htmThis list of tsunami information sources (115 pp, about 3,300 entries is also available on a diskette, at the Water Resources Center Archives, 410 O'Brien Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1718. Most of the publications are available in the Water Resources Center Archives or the Earth Sciences Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the great help of the staff of the Water Resources Center Archives in finding some difficult to obtain publications; in particular Paul S. Atwood for his help for those on websites and other computer sources. I want to thank John M. Wiegel for his continuous help in searching for sources on websites via computer search-engines.

Robert L. Wiegel

2006-01-01

117

Modeling for the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario-generation, propagation, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of tsunami modeling studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario. These modeling studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR tsunami source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The modeling studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to tsunami generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on tsunami initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture models are explored in modeling tsunami generation. These models calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Section 3 (Thio) presents a modeling study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation modeling where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), modeling of tsunami propagation and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model and NOAA’s Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) modeling tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to modeling of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the model used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the modeled tsunami for other selected locales in southern California. Importantly, section 6 provides a comparison of the effect of including horizontal displacements at the source described in section 1 and differences in bottom friction on wave heights and inundation in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Modeling described in section 7 (Lynett and Son) uses a higher order physical model to determine variations of currents during the tsunami and complex flow structures such as jets and eddies. Section 7 also uses sediment transport models to estimate scour and deposition of sediment in ports and harbors—a significant effect that was observed in southern California following the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Together, all of the sections in this report form the basis for damage, impact, and emergency preparedness aspects of the SAFRR tsunami scenario. Three sections of this report independently calculate wave height and inundation results using the source specified by Kirby and others (2013). Refer to figure 29 in section 3, figure 52 in section 4, and figure 62 in section 6. All of these results are relative to a mean high water (MHW) vertical datum. Slight differences in the results are observed in East Basin of the Port of Los Angeles, Alamitos Bay, and the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. However, given that these three modeling efforts involved different implementations of the source, different numerical wave propagation and runup models, and slight differences in the digital elevation models (DEMs), the similarity among the results is remarkable.

SAFRR Tsunami Modeling Working Group

2013-01-01

118

A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was perly, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

119

The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 30 December 2002 the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli, in the Tyrrhenian sea, Italy, was attacked by two tsunamis generated by landslides that took place on the north-west flank of the volcano. The landslides and the tsunamis represented the most impressive and threatening episodes of a strong effusive eruption, started on 28 December from a new vent which opened close to the north-east crater of the volcano. In spite of the intensified monitoring carried out in response to the er...

Tinti, S.; Manucci, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

2005-01-01

120

Generation of surface waves by an underwater moving bottom: Experiments and application to tsunami modelling  

CERN Document Server

We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.

Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PERMEABILITY OF ROCKS IN TSUNAMI GENERATION AND PROPAGATION BY SEISMIC FAULTING USING LINEARIZED SHALLOW – WATER WAVE THEORY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of permeability of rocks inside the ocean on Tsunami generation and Propagation is investigated. We study the nature of Tsunami build up and propagation using realistic curvilinear source models. The models are used to study the effect of permeability on tsunami amplitude amplification as a function on spreading velocity and rise time. Effect of permeability on Tsunami waveforms within the frame of the linearized shallow water wave theory for constant water depth are analyzed analytically using Transform methods. It is observed that in the region of highly permeable rocks the tsunami wave run is fast in comparison to low permeable rocks. The amplitude as a function of the propagated uplift length and width are analyzed. The cases of Tsunami-2011 (Japan, Tsunami- 2006 (Srilanka, and Tsunami-2006 (Madras have been demonstrated in the study.

PARUL SAXENA

2012-01-01

122

Detection of very long period seismic signals and acoustic gravity waves generated by large tsunamis : application to tsunami warning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[...] In this thesis, data from seismic and infrasound stations were analyzed in order to see effects of tsunamis of the great Sumatra-Andaman 2004 and Tohuku-Oki 2011 earthquakes. Data used are from seismic stations of the Global Seismic Network (GSN) around the Indian and Pacific oceans and from infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (IMS/CTBTO). In both data sets, seismic and infrasound, tsunami signals are observed in t...

Andriamiranto Raveloson

2011-01-01

123

Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5 September 2012 M(w) 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr-Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential. PMID:25404327

Dixon, Timothy H; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

2014-12-01

124

Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: Relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5 September 2012 Mw 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr–Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential. PMID:25404327

Dixon, Timothy H.; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor

2014-01-01

125

3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we will try to apply the code to a real life case i.e. the landslide tsunamis at the coast of the Stromboli island (Italy). SELECTED REFERENCES Choi, B.H. and D. C. Kim and E. Pelinovsky and S. B. Woo, 2007. Three dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island. Coastal Engineering 54,374 pp. 618-629. Chopakatla, S.C. and T.C. Lipmann and J.E. Richardson, 2008. Field verification of a computational fluid dynamics model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 134(2), pp. 71-80 Di Risio, M., P. De Girolamo, G. Bellotti, A. Panizzo, F. Aristodemo, M. G.Molfetta, and A. F. Petrillo (2009), Landslidegenerated tsunamis runup at the coast of a conical island: New physical model experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C01009, doi:10.1029/2008JC004858 Flow Science, Inc, 2007. FLOW-3D User's Manual.

Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio

2010-05-01

126

ASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI GENERATION POTENTIAL THROUGH RAPID ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC PARAMETERS Case study: Comparison of the Sumatra Earthquakes of 6 April and 25 October 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the research was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (Tdur), dominant periods (Td) and rupture durations greater than 50 seconds (T50Ex) for two large, shallow earthquakes, which occurred off the coast of Sumatra on 6 April and 25 October 2010. Although both earthquakes had similar parameters of magnitude and focal depth, the 25 October event (Mw=7.8) generated a tsunami while the 6 April event (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis of the above stated parameters helped understand the mec...

Madlazim

2013-01-01

127

Probabilistic Hazard for Seismically-Induced Tsunamis in Complex Tectonic Contexts: Event Tree Approach to Seismic Source Variability and Practical Feasibility of Inundation Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) rests on computationally demanding numerical simulations of the tsunami generation and propagation up to the inundated coastline. We here focus on tsunamis generated by the co-seismic sea floor displacement, which constitute the vast majority of the observed tsunami events, i.e. on Seismic PTHA (SPTHA). For incorporating the full expected seismic source variability, aiming at a complete SPTHA, a very large number of numerical tsunami scenarios is typically needed, especially for complex tectonic contexts, where SPTHA is not dominated by large subduction earthquakes only. Here, we propose a viable approach for reducing the number of simulations for a given set of input earthquakes representing the modelled aleatory uncertainties of the seismic rupture parameters. Our approach is based on a preliminary analysis of the SPTHA of maximum offshore wave height (HMax) at a given target location, and assuming computationally cheap linear propagation. We start with defining an operational SPTHA framework in which we then introduce a simplified Event Tree approach, combined with a Green's functions approach, for obtaining a first controlled sampling and reduction of the effective source parameter space size. We then apply a two-stage filtering procedure to the 'linear' SPTHA results. The first filter identifies and discards all the sources producing a negligible contribution at the target location, for example the smallest earthquakes or those directing most of tsunami energy elsewhere. The second filter performs a cluster analysis aimed at selecting groups of source parameters producing comparable HMax profiles for each earthquake magnitude at the given test site. We thus select a limited set of sources that is subsequently used for calculating 'nonlinear' probabilistic inundation maps at the target location. We find that the optimal subset of simulations needed for inundation calculations can be obtained basing on just the offshore HMax values, provided that the set of the offshore control points is representative of the inundation zone. The two-stage scenario filtering procedure is semi-automatic and it can be easily repeated for different target locations. We describe and test the performances of our approach on a case study in the Mediterranean, considering potential subduction earthquakes on a section of the Hellenic Arc, and for three target sites on the coast of eastern Sicily and one site on the coast of southern Crete. Comparing the filtered SPTHA results with the full set of inundation maps indicates that our approach allows a reduction factor of 75-80% of the numerical simulations needed for practical applications while preserving the consistency of results. The differences are indeed likely within potential epistemic uncertainties, not considered here, such as those related to tsunami generation and propagation models, bathymetric and topographic models, or other basic and less constrained unknowns related to earthquake activity rates or slip distribution probability.

Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Piatanesi, Alessio

2014-05-01

128

On generation and propagation of tsunamis in a shallow running ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A theory is presented of the generation and propagation of the two and the three dimensional tsunamis in a shallow running ocean due to the action of an arbitrary ocean floor or ocean surface disturbance. Integral solutions for both two and three dimensional problems are obtained by using the generalized Fourier and Laplace transforms. An asymptotic analysis is carried out for the investigation of the principal features of the free surface elevation. It is found that the propagation of the tsunamis depends on the relative magnitude of the given speed of the running ocean and the wave speed of the shallow ocean. When the speed of the running ocean is less than the speed of the shallow ocean wave, both the two and the three dimensional free surface elevation represent the generation and propagation of surface waves which decay asymptotically as t−12 for the two dimensional case and as t−1 for the three dimensional tsunamis. Several important features of the solution are discussed in some detail. As an application of the general theory, some physically realistic ocean floor disturbances are included in this paper.

Lokenath Debnath

1978-09-01

129

Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis  

CERN Document Server

1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

CERN. Geneva

2005-01-01

130

e+ e- event generator EPOCS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a Monte Carlo program EPOCS (Electron POsitron Collision Simulator), which generates e+e- events in high energy region that will be explored by TRISTAN project. Special emphasis is put on the effect of Z0 and possible top quark resonances. The user can control the simulation by selecting the energy and other parameters. Also he can easily incorpolate a new process and/or particles into the program. The central part of this report is a detailed description on the structure and the usage of the program. We would like to stress that the hadronization is based on a number of assumptions, which are made as clear as possible here. (author)

131

Replacement Sequence of Events Generator  

Science.gov (United States)

The soeWINDOW program automates the generation of an ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)-compliant sub-RSOE (Replacement Sequence of Events) by extracting a specified temporal window from an RSOE while maintaining page header information. RSOEs contain a significant amount of information that is not ITAR-compliant, yet that foreign partners need to see for command details to their instrument, as well as the surrounding commands that provide context for validation. soeWINDOW can serve as an example of how command support products can be made ITAR-compliant for future missions. This software is a Perl script intended for use in the mission operations UNIX environment. It is designed for use to support the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) instrument team. The tool also provides automated DOM (Distributed Object Manager) storage into the special ITAR-okay DOM collection, and can be used for creating focused RSOEs for product review by any of the MRO teams.

Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Daniel Wenkert Roy; Khanampompan, Teerpat

2008-01-01

132

Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi. However, in most other cases, the markers did not help protect the population from the March 2011 tsunami. The villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi have shown interest in passing on the messages through oral history and in school education. However, it is worth asking whether these villages would have heeded the messages of the stone markers if the rest of society had given them other forms of assurance against tsunamis besides their own vigilance, for instance, if they had a tsunami wall or a functioning modern tsunami warning systems. This historical example illustrates that, over the course of several generations, markers informing and warning about disasters are of limited effectiveness for local protection. Despite the historical record and the widespread awareness of the danger that has materialised on a recurrent basis, the local population has, by and large, taken risks with or without the presence of markers. Reliance on new technologies, deferring responsibility to the authorities, and pursuit of short-term economic interests are three potential reasons for this behaviour. On the other hand, the March 2011 tsunami was a thousand-year event; it is questionable whether the population can be asked to live in the constant fear of and preparation for such a rare event, in Japan and in similarly latently dangerous areas around the world. The Japanese tsunami stones provide a rare example of warning markers and allow a number of considerations to be made for markers in the context of repository projects: - The longevity of stone markers in Japan - up to one thousand years - illustrates the possibility of survival of markers over similar timescales, especially in regions that are not subject to devastations from natural catastrophes. - Visible markers contribute to keeping memory alive. - Memory does not guarantee safety. The current international position that a geological repository should be safe by itself is confirmed by this study. - Memory may save lives under special circumstances and it should be fostered. - More than memory, knowledge saves lives. Markers

133

The VOLNA code for the numerical modelling of tsunami waves: generation, propagation and inundation  

CERN Document Server

A novel tool for tsunami wave modelling is presented. This tool has the potential of being used for operational purposes: indeed, the numerical VOLNA code is able to handle the complete life-cycle of a tsunami (generation, propagation and run-up along the coast). The algorithm works on unstructured triangular meshes and, thus, can be run in arbitrary complex domains. It is often the case since natural coasts tend to be of fractal shape [Sapoval et al, 2004]. This paper contains the detailed description of the finite volume scheme implemented in the code. We explain the numerical treatment of the wet/dry transition. This point is crucial for accurate run-up computation. Most existing tsunami codes use semi-empirical techniques at this stage, which are not always sufficient. The main reason is that people evacuation is decided on the base of inundation maps which are produced with this type of numerical tools. Finally we present several realistic test cases that partially validate our algorithm. Comparisons wit...

Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

2010-01-01

134

The Tsunami Triggered by the El Asnam (Algeria) Earthquake of 1980: a New Hypothesis of Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

On the 10th of October 1980, a Mw=7.1 earthquake destroyed the town of El Asnam (actual Ech Cheliff, Northern Algeria) causing several thousands of casualties and leading to considerable economic losses for Algeria. This is the biggest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Africa. A lot of measurement campaigns have been immediately set up in order to constrain the fault rupture mechanisms principally using the numerous aftershocks. Then these studies furnish important information concerning principally the focal mechanisms in this area, the length and width of the rupture zone, the depth and the coseismic slip. But although the epicenter has been located about 45 km from the sea, and 15 km east of El Asnam, in the same area of the 1954 Orléansville earthquake (Mw=6.6), it is known to have triggered a small tsunami which was able to reach the south-eastern Spanish Coast in several locations where it has been recorded on tide gages. Thus six maregrams are available from Alicante to Algeciras Several previous studies present this tsunami as the result of a submarine mass failure as the 1954 event which led to the rupture of submarine phone cables. In this work we propose a rupture scenario based on previous studies results as geodetic measurements of vertical movements, aftershocks localization, focal mechanisms determination and identification of geological features among other things. We show that the seismic initial deformation itself, using Okada’s formulae, is able to disturb the sea surface near the Algerian Coast by several centimeters, even at this distance from the epicenter, and propagate a tsunami wave toward the Spanish Coast. The results are compared with historical records in terms of arrival times, polarity and wave amplitudes and discussed, especially concerning the integration of such inland earthquake in the catalog of the future Western Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System. This study was partially funded by the European project TRANSFER which aimed at constraining tsunamigenic sources and hazard zones in Mediterranean Sea more particularly, and by the French ANR project MAREMOTI under contract ANR-08-RISKNAT-05-01c which aims to assess the tsunami hazard for the French Territories.

Roger, J.; Hebert, H.; Briole, P.

2009-12-01

135

Elegent -- an elastic event generator  

CERN Document Server

Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD can not be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy sqrt(s). These distributions at ISR, SppS, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework.

Kašpar, Jan

2014-01-01

136

MODELING THE ASIAN TSUNAMI EVOLUTION AND PROPAGATION WITH A NEW GENERATION MECHANISM AND A NON-LINEAR DISPERSIVE WAVE MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common approach in modeling the generation and propagation of tsunami is based on the assumption of a kinematic vertical displacement of ocean water that is analogous to the ocean bottom displacement during a submarine earthquake and the use of a non-dispersive long-wave model to simulate its physical transformation as it radiates outward from the source region. In this study, a new generation mechanism and the use of a highly-dispersive wave model to simulate tsunami inception, propagation and transformation are proposed. The new generation model assumes that transient ground motion during the earthquake can accelerate horizontal currents with opposing directions near the fault line whose successive convergence and divergence generate a series of potentially destructive oceanic waves. The new dynamic model incorporates the effects of earthquake moment magnitude, ocean compressibility through the buoyancy frequency, the effects of focal and water depths, and the orientation of ruptured fault line in the tsunami magnitude and directivity.For tsunami wave simulation, the nonlinear momentum-based wave model includes important wave propagation and transformation mechanisms such as refraction, diffraction, shoaling, partial reflection and transmission, back-scattering, frequency dispersion, and resonant wave-wave interaction. Using this model and a coarse-resolution bathymetry, the new mechanism is tested for the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. A new flooding and drying algorithm that consider waves coming from every direction is also proposed for simulation of inundation of low-lying coastal regions.It is shown in the present study that with the proposed generation model, the observed features of the Asian tsunami such as the initial drying of areas east of the source region and the initial flooding of western coasts are correctly simulated. The formation of a series of tsunami waves with periods and lengths comparable to observations are also well simulated with the new generation model. Furthermore, the shoaling behavior of the tsunami waves during flooding of dry land was also simulated by the new run-up algorithm. Finally, the new generation and propagation models can explain the combined and independent effects of various factors in tsunami generation and transformation taking into consideration the properties of the ocean and the geologic disturbance.

Paul C. Rivera

2006-01-01

137

Learning from the victims: New physical and social science information about tsunamis from victims of the September 29, 2009 event in Samoa and American Samoa  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-one video interviews were carried out on the islands of Tutuila, American Samoa and Upolu, Samoa with survivors of, and responders to, the September 29, 2009 tsunami event. Those interviewed included local residents caught by the waves while attempting to flee to higher ground, those who intentionally ran into the water to save others, individuals who recognized the potential tsunami hazard due to the severity of the earthquake and attempted to warn others, aid workers, tourism managers, and others. The frank, often emotional, responses provide unfiltered insight into their level of understanding of the tsunami phenomenon, the level of preparedness of local residents, and challenges faced by aid workers.

Dudley, Walter C.; Whitney, Rosy; Faasisila, Jackie; Fonolua, Sharon; Jowitt, Angela; Chan-Kau, Marie

2011-07-01

138

International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

Mosher, D.C.

2009-01-01

139

Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (Tdur), dominant periods (Td) and exceeds duration (T50Ex) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.

Madlazim, Hariyono, E.

2014-09-01

140

MadEvent: automatic event generation with MadGraph  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and produce unweighted events in a standard output format. Several examples are given for processes that are relevant for physics studies at present and forthcoming colliders. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

Numerical modeling of landslide-generated tsunami using adaptive unstructured meshes  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslides impacting into or occurring under water generate waves, which can have devastating environmental consequences. Depending on the characteristics of the landslide the waves can have significant amplitude and potentially propagate over large distances. Linear models of classical earthquake-generated tsunamis cannot reproduce the highly nonlinear generation mechanisms required to accurately predict the consequences of landslide-generated tsunamis. Also, laboratory-scale experimental investigation is limited to simple geometries and short time-scales before wave reflections contaminate the data. Computational fluid dynamics models based on the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations can simulate landslide-tsunami generation at realistic scales. However, traditional chessboard-like structured meshes introduce superfluous resolution and hence the computing power required for such a simulation can be prohibitively high, especially in three dimensions. Unstructured meshes allow the grid spacing to vary rapidly from high resolution in the vicinity of small scale features to much coarser, lower resolution in other areas. Combining this variable resolution with dynamic mesh adaptivity allows such high resolution zones to follow features like the interface between the landslide and the water whilst minimising the computational costs. Unstructured meshes are also better suited to representing complex geometries and bathymetries allowing more realistic domains to be simulated. Modelling multiple materials, like water, air and a landslide, on an unstructured adaptive mesh poses significant numerical challenges. Novel methods of interface preservation must be considered and coupled to a flow model in such a way that ensures conservation of the different materials. Furthermore this conservation property must be maintained during successive stages of mesh optimisation and interpolation. In this paper we validate a new multi-material adaptive unstructured fluid dynamics model against the well-known Lituya Bay landslide-generated wave experiment and case study [1]. In addition, we explore the effect of physical parameters, such as the shape, velocity and viscosity of the landslide, on wave amplitude and run-up, to quantify their influence on the landslide-tsunami hazard. As well as reproducing the experimental results, the model is shown to have excellent conservation and bounding properties. It also requires fewer nodes than an equivalent resolution fixed mesh simulation, therefore minimising at least one aspect of the computational cost. These computational savings are directly transferable to higher dimensions and some initial three dimensional results are also presented. These reproduce the experiments of DiRisio et al. [2], where an 80cm long landslide analogue was released from the side of an 8.9m diameter conical island in a 50 × 30m tank of water. The resulting impact between the landslide and the water generated waves with an amplitude of 1cm at wave gauges around the island. The range of scales that must be considered in any attempt to numerically reproduce this experiment makes it an ideal case study for our multi-material adaptive unstructured fluid dynamics model. [1] FRITZ, H. M., MOHAMMED, F., & YOO, J. 2009. Lituya Bay Landslide Impact Generated Mega-Tsunami 50th Anniversary. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 166(1), 153-175. [2] DIRISIO, M., DEGIROLAMO, P., BELLOTTI, G., PANIZZO, A., ARISTODEMO, F.,

Wilson, Cian; Collins, Gareth; Desousa Costa, Patrick; Piggott, Matthew

2010-05-01

142

a Web-Based and Cloud Capable Tsunami Forecast Tool: Tweb  

Science.gov (United States)

With the move from historically desktop-based technologies towards the cloud, it was inevitable that some tsunami forecast applications would also follow this path. This talk describes Tweb, a web-based tsunami forecast application that is under development at the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research for use by domestic and international partners. While the Tweb tool will centralize forecast technology at a single data center, it will also build on existing distributed tools that allow for localized tsunami inundation product generation. Tweb will be an aggregator for these distributed generated tsunami products and will allow a central access point for tsunami event forecast tools and products. This talk describes the NOAA tsunami forecast methodology on which design of the Tweb application is based, the technologies, system architecture, challenges and implementation details of the application. We also discuss the use of Tweb as a model testbed, the distributed forecast tools and their integration into Tweb.

Burger, E. F.; Kamb, L.; Pells, C.; Nakamura, T.

2013-12-01

143

Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua  

Science.gov (United States)

On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

2014-12-01

144

Numerical study of tsunami generated by multiple submarine slope failures in Resurrection Bay, Alaska, during the MW 9.2 1964 earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations to study tsunami waves in Resurrection Bay, in south-central Alaska. The town of Seward, located at the head of Resurrection Bay, was hit hard by both tectonic and local landslide-generated tsunami waves during the MW 9.2 1964 earthquake with an epicenter located about 150 km northeast of Seward. Recent studies have estimated the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay during the earthquake to be about 211 million m3. Resurrection Bay is a glacial fjord with large tidal ranges and sediments accumulating on steep underwater slopes at a high rate. Also, it is located in a seismically active region above the Aleutian megathrust. All these factors make the town vulnerable to locally generated waves produced by underwater slope failures. Therefore it is crucial to assess the tsunami hazard related to local landslide-generated tsunamis in Resurrection Bay in order to conduct comprehensive tsunami inundation mapping at Seward. We use numerical modeling to recreate the landslides and tsunami waves of the 1964 earthquake to test the hypothesis that the local tsunami in Resurrection Bay has been produced by a number of different slope failures. We find that numerical results are in good agreement with the observational data, and the model could be employed to evaluate landslide tsunami hazard in Alaska fjords for the purposes of tsunami hazard mitigation. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.; Haeussler, P.J.

2009-01-01

145

MadEvent: Automatic Event Generation with MadGraph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a new multi-channel integration method and its implementation in the multi-purpose event generator MadEvent, which is based on MadGraph. Given a process, MadGraph automatically identifies all the relevant subprocesses, generates both the amplitudes and the mappings needed for an efficient integration over the phase space, and passes them to MadEvent. As a result, a process-specific, stand-alone code is produced that allows the user to calculate cross sections and ...

Maltoni, Fabio; Stelzer, Tim

2002-01-01

146

Evaluation on coolability of the reactor core in Monju by natural circulation under earthquake and subsequent tsunami event  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conclusion: ? This study clarified that the decay heat of the core can be safely removed in Monju by the natural circulations of the coolant sodium even during an SBO event induced by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, as far as the sodium coolant flow circuits are intact and secured. ? Moreover parametric numerical simulations revealed that the natural circulations will be maintained for a sufficiently long period of time and the safety of the reactor will be ensured even under wide range of varied conditions

147

Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at five sites from South Bay to Oara, corroborates this. At four of the sites a similar greywacke pebble bearing layer was found which was not present at test sites to the North and South of the peninsula (Kiwa Rd Campsites and Claverly respectively). These deposits contain diatoms indicating marine provenance. Surveys of Kaikoura peninsula households and businesses showed low levels of preparedness for a local source event. In regards to local-source tsunamis the district council has indicated that they "are unpredictable [and] it is impractical to include rules to mitigate their effects. Instead, the Council is committed to a Civil Defence network which provides an educative role and which sets in place a process for dealing with the results of any tsunami" (Kaikoura District Plan, 2010). Plans and an education strategy need to be formulated and implemented. They need to address considerations such as the fact that about 60% of those surveyed expect some sort of siren warning and the limitations inherent in such a warning system along with signage and public tsunami hazard maps and evacuation zones.

DuBois, J.

2012-04-01

148

Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

Eric L. Geist

2014-06-01

149

Development of an online tool for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need for an effective end-to-end tsunami early warning system in the region that connects the scientific components of warning with preparedness of institutions and communities to respond to an emergency. Essential to preparedness planning is knowledge of tsunami risks. In this study, development of an online tool named “INSPIRE” for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation is presented. The tool is designed to accommodate various accuracy levels of tsunami exposure data which will support the users to undertake preliminary tsunami risk assessment from the existing data with progressive improvement with the use of more detailed and accurate datasets. Sampling survey technique is introduced to improve the local vulnerability data with lower cost and manpower. The performance of the proposed methodology and the INSPIRE tool were tested against the dataset in Kamala and Patong municipalities, Phuket province, Thailand. The estimated building type ratios from the sampling survey show the satisfactory agreement with the actual building data at the test sites. Sub-area classification by land use can improve the accuracy of the building type ratio estimation. For the resulting loss estimation, the exposure data generated from detailed field survey can provide the agreeable results when comparing to the actual building damage recorded for the Indian Ocean tsunami event in 2004. However, lower accuracy exposure data derived from sampling survey and remote sensing can still provide a comparative overview of estimated loss.

Srivihok, P.; Honda, K.; Ruangrassamee, A.; Muangsin, V.; Naparat, P.; Foytong, P.; Promdumrong, N.; Aphimaeteethomrong, P.; Intavee, A.; Layug, J. E.; Kosin, T.

2014-05-01

150

Tsunamigenic Ratio of the Pacific Ocean earthquakes and a proposal for a Tsunami Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Pacific Ocean is the location where two-thirds of tsunamis have occurred, resulting in a great number of casualties. Once information on an earthquake has been issued, it is important to understand if there is a tsunami generation risk in relation with a specific earthquake magnitude or focal depth. This study proposes a Tsunamigenic Ratio (TR that is defined as the ratio between the number of earthquake-generated tsunamis and the total number of earthquakes. Earthquake and tsunami data used in this study were selected from a database containing tsunamigenic earthquakes from prior 1900 to 2011. The TR is calculated from earthquake events with a magnitude greater than 5.0, a focal depth shallower than 200 km and a sea depth less than 7 km. The results suggest that a great earthquake magnitude and a shallow focal depth have a high potential to generate tsunamis with a large tsunami height. The average TR in the Pacific Ocean is 0.4, whereas the TR for specific regions of the Pacific Ocean varies from 0.3 to 0.7. The TR calculated for each region shows the relationship between three influential parameters: earthquake magnitude, focal depth and sea depth. The three parameters were combined and proposed as a dimensionless parameter called the Tsunami Index (TI. TI can express better relationship with the TR and with maximum tsunami height, while the three parameters mentioned above cannot. The results show that recent submarine earthquakes had a higher potential to generate a tsunami with a larger tsunami height than during the last century. A tsunami is definitely generated if the TI is larger than 7.0. The proposed TR and TI will help ascertain the tsunami generation risk of each earthquake event based on a statistical analysis of the historical data and could be an important decision support tool during the early tsunami warning stage.

A. Suppasri

2012-01-01

151

Understanding the Response of the Ionosphere to Atmospheric Waves Generated by Tsunamis and Other Geophysical Disturbances  

Science.gov (United States)

We present results from the coupling of the ground-to-space atmospheric spectral gravity wave model of Drob et al., (2012) with the SAMI3/ESF first-principles ionosphere model of Huba et al., (2009). This coupled physics-based simulation capability provides a means to explore, understand, and characterize the various factors that determine the response of the ionosphere to atmospheric gravity waves generated by tsunamis and other geophysical seismo-acoustic phenomena. These factors include; 1) the wavelength, frequency content, and propagation direction of the ocean/ground motion; 2) the seasonal and geographic factors which determined the anisotropic atmospheric background wind filtering and thermospheric gravity-wave dissipation processes; 3) the seasonal, geographic, local-time, and solar flux conditions that determine the background electron density and ionosphere conductivity profiles; and 4) the relationship of the atmospheric perturbations with respect to the geomagnetic field. For example, by comparing the results of simulations with and without gravity wave-perturbations we explore the effect of zonal, meridional, and vertical gravity wave wind perturbations across a range of geomagnetic latitudes (and thus geomagnetic pitch angle) to the resulting plasma velocity perturbations along the corresponding geomagnetic fields lines, as well as to the subsequent perturbations of total electron content (TEC). For comparable atmospheric gravity wave amplitudes, we find TEC variations of ~ +/- 0.1TECU (1 TECU = 10^16 m^2) which are consistent with observations made during the 11 March 2001 tsunami. This work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

Drob, Douglas; Huba, Joseph; Broutman, David

2014-05-01

152

Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

Masami Sugiura

2013-01-01

153

The 'tsunami earthquake' of 1932 June 22 in Manzanillo, Mexico: seismological study and tsunami simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

We conduct a detailed seismological study of the large Colima, Mexico earthquake of 1932 June 3 and of its aftershocks of June 18 and 22. The latter (Event III) generated a tsunami more devastating than that of the main shock despite much smaller seismic magnitudes, thus qualifying as a so-called 'tsunami earthquake'. Relocation based on published arrival times shows that Event III took place up-dip of the main shock. The analysis of the spectral amplitude of mantle surface waves yields low-frequency moments of 24, 5.2 and 4 times 1027 dyn cm, respectively, with Event III featuring a moment growing with period, which expresses the source slowness characteristic of 'tsunami earthquakes'. This is confirmed by a deficient energy-to-moment ratio, as derived from high-frequency P waves recorded at Pasadena. Near-field hydrodynamic simulations show that the effects of the main shock's tsunami are well modelled by a standard seismic source, whereas the stronger tsunami from Event III can be modelled by rupture along a splay fault in a mechanically deficient material. All our results then fit the model for 'tsunami earthquake' aftershocks proposed for the Kuril Islands by Fukao in 1979.

Okal, Emile A.; Borrero, José C.

2011-12-01

154

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there are no tsunamis that are unusually large for the size of the earthquake that generated them, coastal communities remain at risk from these periodic hazards.We also use tsunami modelling and published information to estimate maximum inundation in Northern Algeria. Then, we generate a flooding map, which reveals the communities, buildings and infrastructure that are exposed to the tsunami hazard. This map shows that the majority of the people in Algiers and Oran live above 5 meters in elevation, and are hence not exposed to the hazard. Despite this, the coastline remains vulnerable to tsunami as earthquakes can damage poorly constructed buildings and other infrastructure, weakening it prior to the arrival of the tsunami. To increase resilience in the coastal zone, tsunami and earthquake awareness, education and preparedness must become a priority in the context of regional early warning programs.

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES

2012-01-01

155

Hadron production in Wroclaw neutrino event generator  

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Results from the Wroclaw Monte Carlo neutrino generator of events are reported. Predictions for charged hadron multiplicities, neutral pion and strange particle production are presented and compared with available data.

Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; Sobczyk, Jan T.

2006-01-01

156

HERWIG: an event generator for MSSM processes  

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The HERWIG event generator was widely used throughout the workshop, particularly in the emulation of Supersymmetric and Higgs processes in the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. We briefly review here its main features in this respect

Moretti, S.

2002-01-01

157

Hard probes and the event generator EPOS  

CERN Document Server

After a short presentation of the event generator EPOS, we discuss the production of heavy quarks and prompt photons which has been recently implemented. Whereas we have satisfying results for the charm, work on photons is still in progress.

Guiot, Benjamin

2014-01-01

158

Numerical simulations of earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago: effect of the Marie-Galante graben on the wave propagation  

Science.gov (United States)

Guadeloupe archipelago (i.e. Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Marie-Galante, Désirade, Les Saintes, Petite-Terre) is located in the northern Lesser Antilles arc. Like the other islands of this sector of the arc Guadeloupe archipelago is exposed to earthquake hazard originating from megathrust earthquakes (e.g. the Mw = 8.5, February, 8, 1843 earthquake, located North-East of Grande-Terre) and shallow depth (~ 10-20 km) normal faults activity (e.g. the Mw = 6.3, November, 21, 2004, Les Saintes earthquake). The 10 km depth, November, 21, 2004, Les Saintes earthquake was located on the Roseau fault, which belong to an en-echelon fault system along the inner volcanic arc. Though of minor impact for the population of the archipelago (i.e. no casualties and small damages), this event revealed the potential hazard of such type of tsunami in the region. In the present study we focus on the propagation of tsunami waves within the Marie-Galante graben (MGB). MGB is a deep structure (~ 2000 m deep) with its highest flanks either emerging or forming a shallow water coral reef plateform (depth < 100 m). Such features are recognized to generate wave breaking and reflexion. Therefore we investigate these effects during the propagation of waves generated from different tsunami scenarios: (i) a 1843 megathrust-type earthquake (Mw = 8.5), located in the same sector as the original; (ii) a 1839 megathrust earthquake-type (Mw = 8) with an epicentre located East of Martinique coast; (iii) and a normal-fault earthquake with an epicentre on a submarine transect of Morne-Piton fault system on the southern flank of MGB. For each scenario we provide results on the source features (i.e. source wavelength, height of water disturbance) but also on the velocity of the waves before they hit the MGB's flank. At last we present results for one scenario of a parametric study on the effect of the angle of incidence with the graben taking into account different positions of the source. Numerical simulations of the each tsunami sources were carried using the Tsunami Open and Progressive Initial Condition System (TOPICS), for the sources, and FUNWAVE 2, for the waves propagation, respectively.

Dondin, F. J.; Dorville, J. M.; Lebrun, J.; Marcaillou, B.; Zami, F.

2012-12-01

159

Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that recognize these characteristics, and then immediately alerts a tsunami warning center through the communications buoy when the processor senses one of these waves. In addition to the tsunami detection buoy system, an end-to-end tsunami warning system was developed that builds upon the country's existing disaster warning infrastructure. This warning system includes 1) components that receive, process, and analyze buoy, seismic and tide gauge data; 2) predictive tools and a consequence assessment tool set to provide decision support; 3) operation center design and implementation; and 4) tsunami buoy operations and maintenance support. The first buoy was deployed Oct. 25, 2006, approximately 200 nautical miles west of San Diego in 3,800 meters of water. Just three weeks later, it was put to the test during an actual tsunami event. On Nov. 15, 2006, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake rocked the Kuril Islands, located between Japan and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. That quake generated a small tsunami. Waves from the tsunami propagated approximately 4,000 nautical miles across the Pacific Ocean in about nine hours-- a speed of about 445 nautical miles per hour when this commercial buoy first detected them. Throughout that event, the tsunami buoy system showed excellent correlation with data collected by a NOAA DART buoy located 28 nautical miles north of it. Subsequent analysis revealed that the STB matched DART operational capabilities and performed flawlessly. The buoy proved its capabilities again on Jan. 13, 2007, when an 8.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the same region, and the STB detected the seismic event. As a result of the successes of this entire project, SAIC recently applied for and received a license from NOAA to build DART systems.

Lawson, R. A.

2007-12-01

160

Numerical simulation of a tsunami event during the 1996 volcanic eruption in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia  

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Full Text Available Karymskoye caldera lake is a nearly circular body of water with a diameter of approximately 4 km and a depth of up to 60 m. The sublacustrine, Surtseyan-type eruption in the lake on 2–3 January 1996 included a series of underwater explosions. A field survey conducted the following summer showed signs of tsunami wave runup around the entire coastline of the lake, with a maximum of 29 m runup at the north shore near the source of the eruption, and 2–5 m runup at locations on the east and south shore far away from the source.

The tsunami has been simulated using the numerical long wave model COULWAVE, with input from reconstructed realistic pre-eruption bathymetry. The tsunami source was chosen as suggested by Le Mehaute (1971 and Mirchina and Pelinovsky (1988. The initial wave was prescribed by a parabolic shape depression with a radius of R=200 m, and a height of 23 m at the rim of the parabola. Simulations were conducted to show principle directions for wave propagation, wave speed and arrival time for the leading wave group at the shore, and the distribution of wave height throughout the lake. Estimated result for wave runup are of the same order of magnitude as field measurements, except near the source of the eruption and at a few locations where analysis show significant wave breaking.

T. Torsvik

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE  

Science.gov (United States)

The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

2014-05-01

162

THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT  

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Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

H. Hébert

2013-01-01

163

Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?  

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Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

Dieter Kelletat

2005-01-01

164

Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) through numerical modeling of generic far-field events  

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Earthquakes occurring at the Pacific Rim can trigger tsunamis that propagate across the ocean and can produce significant damages far away from the source. In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are the most exposed to the far-field tsunami hazards, since they are not protected by any outer coral reef and since submarine slopes are less steep than in other islands. Between 1994 and 1996, four tsunamis have reached the bays of the archipelago, among them, the tsunami initiated by th...

He?bert, H.; Schindele?, F.; Heinrich, P.

2001-01-01

165

Optical dating of clastic deposits generated by an extreme marine coastal flood: The 1755 tsunami deposits in the Algarve (Portugal)  

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Identification of past tsunamis is important for risk assessment and management of coastal areas. Obtaining accurate and precise ages of sediments originating from such extreme marine coastal floods is crucial for a reliable estimation of the recurrence interval of these often devastating events. We present here the results of quartz optical dating and 14C dating of two sites (Boca do Rio and Martinhal) on the Algarve coast (southern Portugal). These sites contain deposits of the ...

Cunha, P.

2010-01-01

166

NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY POTENTIAL EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE KOMANDORSKY SEISMIC GAP IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLAND ARC  

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The Komandorsky seismic gap has distinctive boundaries and a length of 650 km. Its period of “seismic silence” comes close to the maximum recurrence interval for great earthquakes in the Aleutian Island Arc - the stress concentration here probably having reached the critical value. So, estimation of possible earthquake and tsunami characteristics within this gap becomes a significant problem. The closest analog of a similar gap is the area where the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman catastrophic event...

Kh Mazova, R.; Baranov, B. V.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Baranova, N. A.; Dozorova, K. A.; Chaykina, O. N.

2013-01-01

167

POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE COLOMBIA/ECUADOR SUBDUCTION MARGIN AND THE DOLORES-GUAYAQUIL MEGA-THRUST  

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The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in ma...

George Pararas-Carayannis

2012-01-01

168

Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea: a new tsunami catalogue  

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Full Text Available Data on tsunamis occurring in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea from antiquity up to the present were updated, critically evaluated and compiled in the standard format developed since the 90's for the New European Tsunami Catalogue. Twenty nine events were examined but three of them, supposedly occurring in 557 AD, 815 AD and 1341 or 1343, were very likely falsely reported. Most of the remaining 26 events were generated in Crimea, offshore Bulgaria as well as offshore North Anatolia. For each of the 26 events examined, 22 events were classified as reliable ones receiving a score of 3 or 4 on a 4-grade reliability scale. Most of them were caused by earthquakes, such as the key event 544/545 of offshore Varna, but a few others were attributed either to aseismic earth slumps or to unknown causes. The tsunami intensity was estimated using the traditional 6-grade scale and the new 12-grade scale introduced by Papadopoulos and Imamura (2001. From 544/545 up to now, only two reliable events of high intensity K ? 7 have been reported, which very roughly indicates that the mean repeat time is ? 750 years. Five reliable tsunamis of moderate intensity 4 ? K < 7 have been observed from 1650 up to the present, which implies a recurrence of 72 years on the average. Although these calculations were based on a very small statistical sample of tsunami events, the repeat times found are consistent with the theoretical expectations from size-frequency relations. However, in the Black Sea there is no evidence of tsunamis of very high intensity (K ? 10 such as the AD 365, 1303 and 1956 ones associated with large earthquakes occurring along the Hellenic arc and trench, Greece, or the 1908 one in Messina strait, Italy. This observation, along with the relatively low tsunami frequency, indicates that the tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is low to moderate but not negligible. The tsunami hazard in the Azov Sea is very low because of the very low seismicity but also because of the shallow water prevailing there. In fact, only three possible tsunami events have been reported in the Azov Sea.

G. A. Papadopoulos

2011-03-01

169

Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?  

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Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect, and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse. Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

S. Glimsdal

2013-06-01

170

Tsunami: Waves of Destruction  

Science.gov (United States)

This data tip describes the science behind the tsunamis caused by the great earthquake of December 26, 2004, which caused catastrophic damage and loss of life throughout the Indian Ocean basin. The discussion centers on how tsunamis are generated and how great quakes and resulting tsunamis occur at subducting plate boundaries. Links to more detailed information are embedded in the text. An exercise is included in which students plot the locations of cities around the Indian Ocean basin on a map of tsunami travel times. Discussion questions and links to additional information are also provided.

171

CEDAR: tools for event generator tuning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I describe the work of the CEDAR collaboration in developing tools for tuning and validating Monte Carlo event generator programs. The core CEDAR task is to interface the Durham HepData database of experimental measurements to event generator validation tools such as the UCL JetWeb system - this has necessitated the migration of HepData to a new relational database system and a Java-based interaction model. The "number crunching" part of JetWeb is also being upgraded, from t...

Buckley, Andy

2007-01-01

172

THE TSUNAMI HISTORY OF GUAM: 1849-1993  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The great (Mw 8.1) tsunamigenic earthquake of August 8, 1993, about 50 km to the east of Guam, has created renewed interest in the tsunami hazard for the island of Guam. We examine this hazard from two perspectives--historical and mechanistic. Guam has had only three tsunamis causing damage at more than one location--in 1849, 1892, and in 1993, and only two to six other locally-generated tsunamis which were observed on the island in the past 200 years. Five of these six events have low validi...

Lander, James F.; Whiteside, Lowell S.; Paul Hattori

2002-01-01

173

Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

2009-12-01

174

Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami  

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Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

R. Omira

2013-07-01

175

Tsunamis from nature to physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon

176

BOOK REVIEW: Landslides and Tsunamis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years the study of tsunamis has shifted away from theoretical modeling of tsunami source, wave propagation and run-up toward multidisciplinary investigations, with a clear emphasis on field studies. These studies produce a much more comprehensive understand of the various earth surface processes that generate tsunamis and the ways that tsunamis modify coastlines often destroying property and producing fatalities. This collection of papers highlights the varied approaches now being u...

Alastair G Dawson, Ed; Christopherf Waythomas, Ed; Barbara H Keating, Ed; Birkhauser Verlag A

2001-01-01

177

Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea: a new tsunami catalogue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data on tsunamis occurring in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea from antiquity up to the present were updated, critically evaluated and compiled in the standard format developed since the 90's for the New European Tsunami Catalogue. Twenty nine events were examined but three of them, supposedly occurring in 557 AD, 815 AD and 1341 or 1343, were very likely falsely reported. Most of the remaining 26 events were generated in Crimea, offshore Bulgaria as well as offshore North Anatolia. For each of...

Papadopoulos, G. A.; Diakogianni, G.; Fokaefs, A.; Ranguelov, B.

2011-01-01

178

Tsunamis and geophysical warnings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Meeting report Julian Hunt, Grant Kopec and Karen Aplin report on new techniques and practical approaches before, during and after devastating events such as tsunamis. © 2010 Royal Astronomical Society.

Hunt, J.; Kopec, G.; Aplin, K.

2010-01-01

179

Response of Coastal Structures against Earthquake Forces Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Tsunami Run-Up Forces  

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The catastrophic tsunamis generated by the great Indonesia earthquake triggered on December 26th, 2004, warned the coastal community on preparedness and constructing safe structures to resist against such events. Earthquake occurs suddenly without warning and bulk of destruction takes place within a short period of time. Similarly, when tsunami strikes, there will be a tremendous loss and damage in coastal regions. Apart from having a sound warning system in case of tsunamis, it is necessary ...

Prof.P.Kodanda Ramarao,; Dr.U.Ranga Raju,; Rama Mohan Rao, Dr K.; Reddy, Dr S. R. K.

2013-01-01

180

SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gne...

Phillip Watts

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume archives the reports from the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics II'' held during the week March 15, 1999 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It was the second meeting on the subject following a first one in last September. This workshop has been initiated to establish a firm collaboration between theorists and experimentalists involved in RHIC spin physics with the aim of developing a reliable, high-precision event generator for RHIC spin physics. Needless to say, adequate event generators are indispensable tools for high energy physics programs in general, especially in the process of: planning the experimental programs; developing algorithms to extract the physics signals of interest; estimating the background in the extracted results, and connecting the final particle kinematics to the fundamental i.e. partonic level processes. Since RHIC is the first polarized collider, dedicated efforts are required to obtain a full-fledged event generator which describes spin dependent reactions in great detail

182

VALIDATION OF THE JRC TSUNAMI PROPAGATION AND INUNDATION CODES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last years several numerical codes have been developed to analyse tsunami waves. Most of these codes use a finite difference numerical approach giving good results for tsunami wave propagation, but with limitations in modelling inundation processes. The HyFlux2 model has been developed to simulate inundation scenario due to dam break, flash flood and tsunami-wave run-up. The model solves the conservative form of the two-dimensional shallow water equations using a finite volume method. The implementation of a shoreline-tracking method provides reliable results. HyFlux2 robustness has been tested using several tsunami events. The main aim of this study is code validation by means of comparing different code results with available measurements. Another objective of the study is to evaluate how the different fault models could generate different results that should be considered for coastal planning. Several simulations have been performed to compare HyFlux2 code with SWAN-JRC code and the TUNAMI-N2. HyFlux2 has been validated taking advantage of the extensive seismic, geodetic measurements and post-tsunami field surveys performed after the Nias March 28th tsunami. Although more detailed shallow bathymetry is needed to assess the inundation, diverse results in the wave heights have been revealed when comparing the different fault mechanism. Many challenges still exist for tsunami researchers especially when concern to early warning systems as shown in this Nias March 28th tsunami.

N. Zamora

2014-07-01

183

Tsunami and Earthquake Research at the USGS  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal provides access to information on United States Geological Survey (USGS) research and resources on tsunamis and earthquakes. Materials include news and events in USGS tsunami research, an overview of the program, and basic information on the life of a tsunami. There are also links to individual research projects. The site also features an extensive set of tsunami animations of real and hypothetical events, and links to VRML models of real and hypothetical events.

2011-07-20

184

Once and Future Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Long before the devastating December 2004 Indian Ocean event, tsunamis had already been implicated in the widespread death and destruction in Java and Sumatra following the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa. Tsunamis are also blamed for the collapse of the ancient Minoan civilization on Crete. These waves are capable of overrunning almost any coastline in the world and exacting a serious toll on both property and life. This interactive world map lets users explore key tsunamis dating from 3.5 billion years ago, along with a hypothetical future event that might take place in the Atlantic Ocean near the Canary Islands.

2011-04-29

185

NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria  

Science.gov (United States)

New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

2008-01-01

186

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PACIFIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or pre- computed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite.Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic.This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps. As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

Garry Rogers

2008-01-01

187

Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

2014-10-01

188

Chronology of historical tsunamis in Mexico and its relation to large earthquakes along the subduction zone  

Science.gov (United States)

The chronology of historical earthquakes along the subduction zone in Mexico spans a time period of approximately 400 years. Although the population density along the coast of Mexico has always been low, relative to that of central Mexico, several of the large subduction earthquakes reports include references to the presence of tsunamis invading the southern coast of Mexico. Here we present a chronology of historical tsunamis affecting the Pacific coast of Mexico and compare this with the historical record of subduction events and to the existing Mexican and worldwide catalogs of tsunamis in the Pacific basin. Due to the geographical orientation of the Pacific coat of Mexico, tsunamis generated on the other subduction zones of the Pacific have not had damaging effects in the country. Among the tsunamis generated by local earthquakes, the largest one by far is the one produced by the earthquake of 28 March 1787. The reported tsunami has an inundation area that reaches for over 6 km inland. The length of the coast where the tsunami was reported extends for over 450 km. In the last 100 years two large tsunamis have been reported along the Pacific coast of Mexico. On 22 June 1932 a tsunami with reported wave heights of up to 11 m hit the coast of Jalisco and Colima. The town of Cuyutlan was heavily damaged and approximately 50 people lost their lives do to the impact of the tsunami. This unusual tsunami was generated by an aftershock (M 6.9) of the large 3 June 1932 event (M 8.1). The main shock of 3 June did not produce a perceptible tsunami. It has been proposed that the 22 June event is a tsunami earthquake generated on the shallow part of the subduction zone. On 16 November 1925 an unusual tsunami was reported in the town of Zihuatanejo in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. No earthquake on the Pacific rim occurs at the same time as this tsunami and the historical record of hurricanes and tropical storms do not list the presence of a meteorological disturbance that could explain a surge wave of the height reported. Here we investigate the morphology of the trench in this region to analyze whether a local landslide on the trench slope or in the continental shelf could be the cause of this tsunami.

Suarez, G.; Mortera, C.

2013-05-01

189

A mathematical model for Tsunami generation using a conservative velocity-pressure hyperbolic system  

CERN Document Server

By using the Hugoniot curve in detonics as a Riemann invariant of a velocity-pressure model, we get a conservative hyperbolic system similar to the Euler equations. The only differences are the larger value of the adiabatic constant (= 8.678 instead of 1.4 for gas dynamics) and the mass density replaced by a strain density depending on the pressure. The model is not homogeneous since it involves a gravity and a friction term. After the seismic wave reaches up the bottom of the ocean, one gets a pressure wave propagating toward the surface, which is made of a frontal shock wave followed by a regular decreasing profile. Since this regular profile propagates faster than the frontal shock waves, the amplitude of the pressure wave is strongly reduced when reaching the surface. Only in the case of a strong earth tremor the residual pressure wave is still sufficient to generate a water elevation with a sufficient wavelengths enable to propagate as a SaintVenant water wave and to become a tsunami when reaching the sh...

Roux, Alain-Yves Le

2009-01-01

190

Tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides of variable volume: analytical solutions for a basin of variable depth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides of a variable volume in a basin of variable depth is studied within the shallow-water theory. The problem of landslide induced tsunami wave generation and propagation is studied analytically for two specific convex bottom profiles (h ~ x4/3 and h ~ x4. In these cases the basic equations can be reduced to the constant-coefficient wave equation with the forcing determined by the landslide motion. For certain conditions on the landslide characteristics (speed and volume per unit cross-section the wave field can be described explicitly. It is represented by one forced wave propagating with the speed of the landslide and following its offshore direction, and two free waves propagating in opposite directions with the wave celerity. For the case of a near-resonant motion of the landslide along the power bottom profile h ~ x? the dynamics of the waves propagating offshore is studied using the asymptotic approach. If the landslide is moving in the fully resonant regime the explicit formula for the amplitude of the wave can be derived. It is demonstrated that generally tsunami wave amplitude varies non-monotonically with distance.

I. Didenkulova

2010-11-01

191

Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

J. Wächter

2012-06-01

192

Magnitude and impact from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in the coast of Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

The giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan generated a tsunami that propagated around the Pacific Ocean. The first waves arrived to the Chilean coast twenty one hours later. The Japanese tsunami was recorded instrumentally in Chile by means of the network of sea level stations and Chile DART buoy, nevertheless its real magnitude and impact was empirical observed on numerous coastal settlements where inundation and minor damage were reported. We began a post tsunami survey a week after the event, visiting the main affected areas. For two months we traveled approximately 2700 km along the coast, between Arica (18.4° S) and Chiloe (41.9° S). Using surveying equipment such as total stations, geodesic GPS and laser rangefinders, we measured the height of the tsunami wave along the coast. Using the testimony of people, videos, and marks left by the main tsunami flow on harbors, piers, houses and buildings as indicators of water level, evidence of the effect of the tsunami on the coastline was exhaustively recorded. The maximum tsunami heights were recorded in Dichato (36.5° S) reaching almost 5 meters. Complementing the field data, we characterized the tide gauge records and compared the heights of 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Chile, with the behavior of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean tsunamis. This allows us to discriminate the local influences of coastal morphology independently of the tsunami origin. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

Lagos, M.; Haro, J.

2011-12-01

193

EVALUATION OF THE THREAT OF MEGA TSUNAMI GENERATION FROM POSTULATED MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF ISLAND STRATOVOLCANOES ON LA PALMA, CANARY ISLANDS, AND ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive flank failures of island stratovolcanoes are extremely rare phenomena and none have occurred within recorded history. Recent numerical modeling studies, forecasting mega tsunami generation from postulated, massive slope failures of Cumbre Vieja in La Palma, Canary Islands, and Kilauea, in Hawaii, have been based on incorrect assumptions of volcanic island slope instability, source dimensions, speed of failure and tsunami coupling mechanisms. Incorrect input parameters and treatment of...

George Pararas-Carayannis

2002-01-01

194

The Grand Banks landslide-generated tsunami of November 18, 1929: analysis and numerical modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

On November 18, 1929, a M = 7.2 earthquake occurred at the southern edge of the Grand Banks (at the mouth of the Laurentian Channel), 250 km south of Newfoundland. The earthquake was accompanied by a catastrophic tsunami, which was observed along the Atlantic coast of Canada and the U.S. The waves also crossed the Atlantic and were recorded on the coasts of Portugal and the Azores Islands. The earthquake triggered a huge submarine slump (200 km3), which transformed into a turbid flow of clay, silt, and sand that moved eastward up to 1,500 km at speeds of up to 100 km/hr, breaking 12 telegraph cables. The slump was the main source of the most catastrophic tsunami in Canadian history (27 people killed). Tsunami waves had amplitudes of 2 to 7 m and runup up to 13 m along the coast of the Burin Peninsula (Newfoundland). To simulate this tsunami we used a viscous shallow-water model. The slide was assumed to be a thin, viscous, incompressible fluid layer; water was inviscid and incompressible. A shallow-water approximation was used for both the slide and water waves. The parameters of the slide were the following: slide area = 25,000 km2, thickness = 5 m, volume = 125 km3, density = 2.0 g cm-3, kinematic viscosity = 0.01, and drag coefficient = 0.0025, slide motion time = 1000 s. The preliminary results of numerical modeling are encouraging; computed and observed tsunami arrival times are in reasonable agreement. Further progress may be achieved if we are able to determine more precisely the slide parameters (slide thickness, volume, shape, density) and able to find additional tide gauge records of the 1929 tsunami to compare actual observations with simulated records. Based on actual data we plan to address the inverse tsunami problem.

Bornhold, B. D.; Fine, I. V.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Thomson, R. E.; Kulikov, E. A.

2003-04-01

195

Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

2011-07-01

196

Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

Chock, G.

2013-12-01

197

Combined Effects of Tectonic and Landslide-Generated Tsunami Runup at Seward, Alaska During the M W 9.2 1964 Earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We apply a recently developed and validated numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup to study the inundation of Resurrection Bay and the town of Seward by the 1964 Alaska tsunami. Seward was hit by both tectonic and landslide-generated tsunami waves during the M_W 9.2 1964 megathrust earthquake. The earthquake triggered a series of submarine mass failures around the fjord, which resulted in landsliding of part of the coastline into the water, along with the loss of the port facilities. These submarine mass failures generated local waves in the bay within 5 min of the beginning of strong ground motion. Recent studies estimate the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay to be about 211 million m3 (Haeussler et al. in Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 269-278, 2007). The first tectonic tsunami wave arrived in Resurrection Bay about 30 min after the main shock and was about the same height as the local landslide-generated waves. Our previous numerical study, which focused only on the local landslide-generated waves in Resurrection Bay, demonstrated that they were produced by a number of different slope failures, and estimated relative contributions of different submarine slide complexes into tsunami amplitudes (Suleimani et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 166:131-152, 2009). This work extends the previous study by calculating tsunami inundation in Resurrection Bay caused by the combined impact of landslide-generated waves and the tectonic tsunami, and comparing the composite inundation area with observations. To simulate landslide tsunami runup in Seward, we use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (J Phys Oceanogr 24(3):559-572, 1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations. The input data set includes a high resolution multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR topography grid of Resurrection Bay, and an initial thickness of slide material based on pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry difference maps. For simulation of tectonic tsunami runup, we derive the 1964 coseismic deformations from detailed slip distribution in the rupture area, and use them as an initial condition for propagation of the tectonic tsunami. The numerical model employs nonlinear shallow water equations formulated for depth-averaged water fluxes, and calculates a temporal position of the shoreline using a free-surface moving boundary algorithm. We find that the calculated tsunami runup in Seward caused first by local submarine landslide-generated waves, and later by a tectonic tsunami, is in good agreement with observations of the inundation zone. The analysis of inundation caused by two different tsunami sources improves our understanding of their relative contributions, and supports tsunami risk mitigation in south-central Alaska. The record of the 1964 earthquake, tsunami, and submarine landslides, combined with the high-resolution topography and bathymetry of Resurrection Bay make it an ideal location for studying tectonic tsunamis in coastal regions susceptible to underwater landslides.

Suleimani, Elena; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Hansen, Roger

2011-06-01

198

Combined effects of tectonic and landslide-generated Tsunami Runup at Seward, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We apply a recently developed and validated numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup to study the inundation of Resurrection Bay and the town of Seward by the 1964 Alaska tsunami. Seward was hit by both tectonic and landslide-generated tsunami waves during the Mw 9.2 1964 mega thrust earthquake. The earthquake triggered a series of submarine mass failures around the fjord, which resulted in land sliding of part of the coastline into the water, along with the loss of the port facilities. These submarine mass failures generated local waves in the bay within 5 min of the beginning of strong ground motion. Recent studies estimate the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay to be about 211 million m3 (Haeussler et al. in Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 269-278, 2007). The first tectonic tsunami wave arrived in Resurrection Bay about 30 min after the main shock and was about the same height as the local landslide-generated waves. Our previous numerical study, which focused only on the local land slide generated waves in Resurrection Bay, demonstrated that they were produced by a number of different slope failures, and estimated relative contributions of different submarine slide complexes into tsunami amplitudes (Suleimani et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 166:131-152, 2009). This work extends the previous study by calculating tsunami inundation in Resurrection Bay caused by the combined impact of landslide-generated waves and the tectonic tsunami, and comparing the composite inundation area with observations. To simulate landslide tsunami runup in Seward, we use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (J Phys Oceanogr 24(3):559-572, 1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations. The input data set includes a high resolution multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR topography grid of Resurrection Bay, and an initial thickness of slide material based on pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry difference maps. For simulation of tectonic tsunami runup, we derive the 1964 coseismic deformations from detailed slip distribution in the rupture area, and use them as an initial condition for propagation of the tectonic tsunami. The numerical model employs nonlinear shallow water equations formulated for depth-averaged water fluxes, and calculates a temporal position of the shoreline using a free-surface moving boundary algorithm. We find that the calculated tsunami runup in Seward caused first by local submarine landslide-generated waves, and later by a tectonic tsunami, is in good agreement with observations of the inundation zone. The analysis of inundation caused by two different tsunami sources improves our understanding of their relative contributions, and supports tsunami risk mitigation in south-central Alaska. The record of the 1964 earthquake, tsunami, and submarine landslides, combined with the high-resolution topography and bathymetry of Resurrection Bay make it an ideal location for studying tectonic tsunamis in coastal regions susceptible to underwater landslides. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Hansen, R.

2011-01-01

199

Generation and Propagation of Tsunami by a Moving Realistic Curvilinear Slide Shape with Variable Velocities in Linearized Shallow-Water Wave Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of tsunami evolution during its generation under the effect of the variable velocities of realistic submarine landslides based on a two-dimensional curvilinear slide model is investigated. Tsunami generation from submarine gravity mass flows is described in three stages. The first stage represented by a rapid curvilinear down and uplift faulting with rise time. The second stage represented by a unilaterally propagation in the positive x direction to a significant length to produce curvilinear two-dimensional models represented by a depression slump, and a displaced accumulation slide model. The last stage represented by the time variation in the velocity of the accumulation slide (block slide. By using transforms method, Laplace in time and Fourier in space, tsunami waveforms within the frame of the linearized shallow water theory for constant water depth are analyzed analytically for the movable source model. Effect of the water depths on the amplification factor of the tsunami generation by the submarine slump and slide for different propagation lengths and widths has been studied and the results are plotted. Comparison of tsunami peak amplitudes is discussed for different propagation lengths, widths and water depths. In addition, we demonstrated the tsunami propagation waveforms after the slide stops moving at different propagation times.

Sarwat Nageeb Hanna

2010-07-01

200

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

Rodrigo González González

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Tools for event generator tuning and validation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I describe the current status of MCnet tools for validating the performance of event generator simulations against data, and for tuning their phenomenological free parameters. For validation, the Rivet toolkit is now a mature and complete system, with a large library of prominent benchmark analyses. For tuning, the Professor system has recently completed its first tunes of Pythia 6, with substantial improvements on the existing default tune and potential to greatly aid the s...

Buckley, Andy

2008-01-01

202

Searching for Tsunami deposits along the Lebanese Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

Lebanon has a long coastline making it prone to tsunami waves generated from many distant or nearby sources within the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Important Tsunamigenic sources are frequent in the Hellenic Trench, but the Levantine Basin also has a number of important active submarine faults such as the Cypriot subduction zone or the offshore faults associated with the Levant Fault System: the Mount-Lebanon Thrust system or the offshore Carmel Fault, all potential tsunami-sources. A relatively small number of historical earthquakes associated with these faults resulted in tsunami events mentioned in the historical record of the region. The best known and most destructive of all these is the AD 551 earthquake on the offshore Mount-Lebanon Thrust. It resulted in a well-described historical tsunami event that affected many localities over the Lebanese coast. Submarine landslides and/or marine volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean also may have resulted in similar events. In order to better understand the tsunami hazard in the eastern Mediterranean in general and over the Lebanese coast in particular, and to establish a geology-based catalog of tsunami events in the area we surveyed the shoreline of Lebanon searching for indicators of potential tsunami deposits or morphological signatures. This task is challenged by the extensive urban development of the Lebanese coast that left very few unmodified coastal areas. Many interesting sites wit potential tsunami traces were identified. Dislocated large boulders are frequently observed over the Lebanese coastline. A number of these can be the remnants of old tsunami events. Few sites with abundant marine shells and pumice were identified that can also be related to tsunami events. In the beach deposits of the Damour area, south of Beirut we excavated one first 15m long, 7m wide and 4 to 5m deep trench. The trench shows a beachface setting with different sedimentary units. Preliminary results from on-going sedimentological and mineraological analysis enable the sub-division of the sections into three different units. A sedimentary unit made of fine layers of dark, heavy-mineral-laden sand show intense convolutions and deformation structures and is associated with randomly distributed pebbles and pumice material. A very similar sedimentary unit was also found in other sections along the Lebanese coast and can thus be characteristic of the same natural event. Sampled charcoal material is also being dated. We highly suspect the presence of at least one tsunami deposit in the Damour section. The presence of liquefaction structures suggests earthquake related deformations.

Elias, A. R.; Tapponnier, P.; Switzer, A. D.; Jessika, N.

2012-12-01

203

Along-strike variations in the Nankai shallow décollement properties and their implications for tsunami earthquake generation  

Science.gov (United States)

of slow tsunami earthquakes at subduction zones propagates along a shallow plate-boundary fault (i.e., décollement) nearly all the way to the trench. Seismic reflection profiles reveal that the shallow décollements have variable reflection characteristics in the Nankai subduction zone, allowing us to divide the subduction zone into impedance-decreasing (inferred to be fluid-rich) and impedance-increasing (fluid-poor) décollement regions. The fluid-rich décollement regions with reverse-polarity reflections may play a role as conditionally stable patches because of elevated fluid pressures. In contrast, the fluid-poor décollement regions with normal-polarity reflections could be unstable seismogenic patches with no unusual fluid pressures. We propose that when megathrust earthquakes nucleate at shallow depth, the small unstable fluid-poor patches are prone to slip. They may also accelerate (velocity-weakening) adjacent large, conditionally stable patches, generating large shallow slip and large tsunamis. As a result, along-strike contrast of fault properties can involve large tsunami earthquakes along the Nankai shallow megathrust fault.

Park, Jin-Oh; Naruse, Hajime; Bangs, Nathan L.

2014-10-01

204

Earthquake and submarine landslide tsunamis: how can we tell the difference? (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Several major recent events have shown the tsunami hazard from submarine mass failures (SMF), i.e., submarine landslides. In 1992 a small earthquake triggered landslide generated a tsunami over 25 meters high on Flores Island. In 1998 another small, earthquake-triggered, sediment slump-generated tsunami up to 15 meters high devastated the local coast of Papua New Guinea killing 2,200 people. It was this event that led to the recognition of the importance of marine geophysical data in mapping the architecture of seabed sediment failures that could be then used in modeling and validating the tsunami generating mechanism. Seabed mapping of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake rupture zone demonstrated, however, that large, if not great, earthquakes do not necessarily cause major seabed failures, but that along some convergent margins frequent earthquakes result in smaller sediment failures that are not tsunamigenic. Older events, such as Messina, 1908, Makran, 1945, Alaska, 1946, and Java, 2006, all have the characteristics of SMF tsunamis, but for these a SMF source has not been proven. When the 2011 tsunami struck Japan, it was generally assumed that it was directly generated by the earthquake. The earthquake has some unusual characteristics, such as a shallow rupture that is somewhat slow, but is not a 'tsunami earthquake.' A number of simulations of the tsunami based on an earthquake source have been published, but in general the best results are obtained by adjusting fault rupture models with tsunami wave gauge or other data so, to the extent that they can model the recorded tsunami data, this demonstrates self-consistency rather than validation. Here we consider some of the existing source models of the 2011 Japan event and present new tsunami simulations based on a combination of an earthquake source and an SMF mapped from offshore data. We show that the multi-source tsunami agrees well with available tide gauge data and field observations and the wave data from offshore buoys, and that the SMF generated the large runups in the Sanriku region (northern Tohoku). Our new results for the 2011 Tohoku event suggest that care is required in using tsunami wave and tide gauge data to both model and validate earthquake tsunami sources. They also suggest a potential pitfall in the use of tsunami waveform inversion from tide gauges and buoys to estimate the size and spatial characteristics of earthquake rupture. If the tsunami source has a significant SMF component such studies may overestimate earthquake magnitude. Our seabed mapping identifies other large SMFs off Sanriku that have the potential to generate significant tsunamis and which should be considered in future analyses of the tsunami hazard in Japan. The identification of two major SMF-generated tsunamis (PNG and Tohoku), especially one associated with a M9 earthquake, is important in guiding future efforts at forecasting and mitigating the tsunami hazard from large megathrust plus SMF events both in Japan and globally.

Tappin, D. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J.; Geller, R. J.; Masterlark, T.; Kirby, J. T.; Ma, G.; Shi, F.

2013-12-01

205

Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

M. A. Baptista

2009-01-01

206

Integrated warning system for tsunami and storm surges in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsunami and storm surges result in unusual oscillation of seal level, flooding the coastal zones and constitute the major marine disasters in China. Damage by storm surges occurs frequently. According to statistics there are 14 storm surge events exceeding 1 every year on the average. Six of them are typhoon surges and the other eight are extra-tropical surges. In general, in China, there is one severe disaster of storm surge every two years. Monitoring, forecasting and warning for storm surges, including the drop of water level, are the major part of the operational oceanographic services in China. Such a warning system has been set up and is operated by the State Oceanic Administration since 1974. The results of the historical study of tsunami in the last few years pointed out that the anomaly of sea level generated by tele-tsunamis originating in the Pacific Ocean Basin is less than 30 cm on the mainland coast, but local tsunami in the China Seas can be very dangerous. For example, more than 50,000 people were killed by a tsunami in Taiwan and in Taiwan Strait in 1781. It resulted in more deaths than any other tsunami in recorded history. However, the frequency of tsunami disaster is very low for the coast of China, averaging only one every 100 years. It is impossible to set up an independent tsunami warning system in China. It is more practical to set up an integrated warning system on tsunami and on storm surges consisting of: A sea level observing network with rg of: A sea level observing network with real time sea level data acquisition capability; A monitoring system of weather causing the storm surges and of seismic stations monitoring tsunamigenic earthquakes; A tidal prediction scheme for operational use; A forecasting scheme for storm surges and tsunami analysis; The means for warning dissemination. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

207

New developments in event generator tuning techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data analyses in hadron collider physics depend on background simulations performed by Monte Carlo (MC) event generators. However, calculational limitations and non-perturbative effects in strong interactions require approximate models with adjustable parameters. In fact, we need to simultaneously adjust (''tune'') many phenomenological parameters in a high-dimensional parameter-space in order to make the MC generator predictions fit the data. I will present extensions and improvements of the systematic approach to MC tuning, called PROFESSOR (PROcedure For Estimating SyStematic errORs), whose key idea is to construct a fast analytic model of a MC generator response under parameter variations which can then be easily fitted to data. Among the improvements are a robust estimate of tuning uncertainties as well as a graphical user interface that allows for interactive exploration of the behaviour of observables under shifts in parameter space.

208

Analysis of the tsunami generated by the MW 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine possible sources of a small tsunami produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, recorded at a single tide gauge station situated at the opening to San Francisco Bay. Coseismic vertical displacement fields were calculated using elastic dislocation theory for geodetically constrained horizontal slip along a variety of offshore fault geometries. Propagation of the ensuing tsunami was calculated using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model that takes into account the effects of bottom friction. The observed amplitude and negative pulse of the first arrival are shown to be inconsistent with small vertical displacements (~4-6 cm) arising from pure horizontal slip along a continuous right bend in the San Andreas fault offshore. The primary source region of the tsunami was most likely a recently recognized 3 km right step in the San Andreas fault that is also the probable epicentral region for the 1906 earthquake. Tsunami models that include the 3 km right step with pure horizontal slip match the arrival time of the tsunami, but underestimate the amplitude of the negative first-arrival pulse. Both the amplitude and time of the first arrival are adequately matched by using a rupture geometry similar to that defined for the 1995 MW (moment magnitude) 6.9 Kobe earthquake: i.e., fault segments dipping toward each other within the stepover region (83??dip, intersecting at 10 km depth) and a small component of slip in the dip direction (rake=-172??). Analysis of the tsunami provides confirming evidence that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake initiated at a right step in a right-lateral fault and propagated bilaterally, suggesting a rupture initiation mechanism similar to that for the 1995 Kobe earthquake.

Geist, E.L.; Zoback, M.L.

1999-01-01

209

Field survey of the March 28, 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake and Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On the evening of March 28, 2005 at 11:09 p.m. local time (16:09 UTC), a large earthquake occurred offshore of West Sumatra, Indonesia. With a moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.6, the event caused substantial shaking damage and land level changes between Simeulue Island in the north and the Batu Islands in the south. The earthquake also generated a tsunami, which was observed throughout the source region as well as on distant tide gauges. While the tsunami was not as extreme as the tsunami of December 26th, 2004, it did cause significant flooding and damage at some locations. The spatial and temporal proximity of the two events led to a unique set of observational data from the earthquake and tsunami as well as insights relevant to tsunami hazard planning and education efforts. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

Borrero, J.C.; McAdoo, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dengler, L.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Higman, B.; Hidayat, R.; Moore, A.; Kongko, W.; Lukijanto; Peters, R.; Prasetya, G.; Titov, V.; Yulianto, E.

2011-01-01

210

Near-source observations and modeling of the Kuril Islands tsunamis of 15 November 2006 and 13 January 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two major earthquakes near the Central Kuril Islands (Mw=8.3 on 15 November 2006 and Mw=8.1 on 13 January 2007 generated trans-oceanic tsunamis recorded over the entire Pacific Ocean. The strongest oscillations, exceeding several meters, occurred near the source region of the Kuril Islands. Tide gauge records for both tsunamis have been thoroughly examined and numerical models of the events have been constructed. The models of the 2006 and 2007 events include two important advancements in the simulation of seismically generated tsunamis: (a the use of the finite failure source models by Ji (2006, 2007 which provide more detailed information than conventional models on spatial displacements in the source areas and which avoid uncertainties in source extent; and (b the use of the three-dimensional Laplace equation to reconstruct the initial tsunami sea surface elevation (avoiding the usual shallow-water approximation. The close agreement of our simulated results with the observed tsunami waveforms at the open-ocean DART stations support the validity of this approach. Observational and model findings reveal that energy fluxes of the tsunami waves from the source areas were mainly directed southeastward toward the Hawaiian Islands, with relatively little energy propagation into the Sea of Okhotsk. A marked feature of both tsunamis was their high-frequency content, with typical wave periods ranging from 2–3 to 15–20 min. Despite certain similarities, the two tsunamis were essentially different and had opposite polarity: the leading wave of the November 2006 trans-oceanic tsunami was positive, while that for the January 2007 trans-oceanic tsunami was negative. Numerical modeling of both tsunamis indicates that, due to differences in their seismic source properties, the 2006 tsunami was more wide-spread but less focused than the 2007 tsunami.

A. B. Rabinovich

2008-01-01

211

The 1755 Lisbon tsunami; evaluation of the tsunami parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami generated by the 1755.01.11 earthquake affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco and was observed all over the North Atlantic coasts. The catastrophic dimensions of that phenomenon had a tremendous impact on the city of Lisbon and on several villages along the south coast of Portugal. The earthquake was felt all over Europe and the seismic intensity was estimated as X-XI (Mercalli Intensity Scale) at Lisbon and Southwest Portugal (Cape S. Vicente). The most destructive waves were observed along the coast of Portugal, specially in Lisbon, in the area of the S. Vicente Cape, along the Gulf of Cadiz and Northwest Morocco. Throughout historic times, earthquakes have periodically affected the city of Lisbon causing severe damage and casualties. In spite of that, the city kept growing, so the extension of damage and the loss of human lives in 1755, was quite impressive. The down town of Lisbon was flooded by the rising of the waters of the river Tagus and most historical documents reported waves of 6 m height. At Cape S. Vicente (Southwest Portugal) the run-up height, evaluated from historical data, is greater than 15 m. The eye witness accounts from Spain and Morocco reported wave heights greater than 10 m and large flooded areas along the Gulf of Cadiz and in several harbours in Morocco, e.g. Safi and Agadir. In the city of Lisbon, the number of casualties due exclusively to the tsunami, is estimate around 900, and the penetration of the waters is evaluated to be 250 m. Most of the available literature concerning the 1755 earthquake is based on the compilation of Pereira de Sousa (1919) and, sometimes, incorporates both well established historical records and non reliable information. As the 1755 event evaluation is crucial to a quantitative approach of the tsunami hazard and risk assessment in Portugal, a new examination of the historical records was needed before the establishment of reliable tsunami parameters that can be used both in numerical models of tsunami propagation and in geodynamic studies. In this paper, we present a new compilation of almost all the available historical data from the countries affected by the tsunami. In the analysis of these records, the following tsunami parameters are inferred: travel time, polarity of the first movement, maximum run-up height, period, number of waves, duration of the sea disturbance and extent of flooding.

Baptista, M. A.; Heitor, S.; Miranda, J. M.; Miranda, P.; Victor, L. Mendes

1998-01-01

212

Tsunamis and Earthquakes (Local Tsunamis in the Pacific Northwest)  

Science.gov (United States)

On the Pacific Northwest an oceanic tectonic plate (Juan de Fuca) is being pulled and driven (subducted) beneath the North American continental plate. Earthquakes generated along that fault may produce local tsunamis. Local tsunamis are those generated by earthquakes near the coast. This site provides links to external webpages describing the physics behind a tsunami. Resources featured in the links include glossary of terms and photo galleries.

213

A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatrarious simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

214

Tsunamis in Cuba?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Hait as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

215

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake’s location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and pre- computed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides.The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Paul Whitmore

2009-01-01

216

Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors  

Science.gov (United States)

The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right) tsunami induced currents and surface agitation. The small jetty indicated with the arrow is overtopped in the second image (indicated by the oval)

Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

2012-12-01

217

Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel  

Science.gov (United States)

Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to tsunami warning operations, such as those about earthquake magnitudes, how earthquakes are located, where and how often earthquakes occur, and fault rupture length. The second group uses the PTWC-developed tsunami forecast model, RIFT (Wang et al., 2012), to show how various historic tsunamis propagated through the world's oceans. These animations illustrate important concepts about tsunami behavior such as their speed, how they bend around and bounce off of seafloor features, how their wave heights vary from place to place and in time, and how their behavior is strongly influenced by the type of earthquake that generated them. PTWC's YouTube channel also includes an animation that simulates both seismic and tsunami phenomena together as they occurred for the 2011 Japan tsunami including actual sea-level measurements and proper timing for tsunami alert status, thus serving as a video 'time line' for that event and showing the time scales involved in tsunami warning operations. Finally, PTWC's scientists can use their YouTube channel to communicate with their colleagues in the research community by supplementing their peer-reviewed papers with video 'figures' (e.g., Wang et al., 2012).

Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

2013-12-01

218

Sensitivity of tsunami wave profiles and inundation simulations to earthquake slip and fault geometry for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we develop stochastic random-field slip models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and conduct a rigorous sensitivity analysis of tsunami hazards with respect to the uncertainty of earthquake slip and fault geometry. Synthetic earthquake slip distributions generated from the modified Mai-Beroza method captured key features of inversion-based source representations of the mega-thrust event, which were calibrated against rich geophysical observations of this event. Using original and synthesised earthquake source models (varied for strike, dip, and slip distributions), tsunami simulations were carried out and the resulting variability in tsunami hazard estimates was investigated. The results highlight significant sensitivity of the tsunami wave profiles and inundation heights to the coastal location and the slip characteristics, and indicate that earthquake slip characteristics are a major source of uncertainty in predicting tsunami risks due to future mega-thrust events.

Goda, Katsuichiro; Mai, Paul Martin; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Mori, Nobuhito

2014-12-01

219

Event generation with SHERPA 1.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

Gleisberg, T.; Hoche, Stefan.; Krauss, F.; Schoenherr, M.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Winter, J.

2008-12-18

220

The Human Impact of Tsunamis: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the im...

Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

NOAA Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Web site developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on issues surrounding tsunamis. It provides an extensive selection of links to information on how tsunamis are created, hazards associated with them, and how individuals and communities can prepare and respond to a tsunami. There is also information about the NOAA's role in tsunami warnings and preparedness, including locations of warning centers in the Pacific Ocean Basin, observations and data, forecasts, and hazard-assessment research and modeling.

222

O'Mega & WHIZARD: Monte Carlo Event Generator Generation For Future Colliders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I describe the optimizing matrix element generator O'Mega and Wolfgang Kilian's event generator generator WHIZARD. These tools cooperate in the automated production of efficient unweighted event generators for linear collider physics.

Ohl, Thorsten

2000-01-01

223

The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist concerns about tsunami hazard signs. Over the seventeen-year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 84 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 89 percent and knowing what the Cascadia subduction zone is from 16 to 57 percent. In 2009, the RCTWG was recognized by the Western States Seismic Policy Council (WSSPC) with an award for innovation and in 2010, the RCTWG-sponsored class "Living on Shaky Ground" was awarded WSSPC's overall Award in Excellence. The RCTWG works closely with CGS and Cal EMA on a number of projects including tsunami mapping, evacuation zone planning, siren policy, tsunami safety for boaters, and public education messaging. Current projects include working with CGS to develop a "playbook" tsunami mapping product to illustrate the expected effects from a range of tsunami source events and assist local governments in focusing future response actions to reflect the range expected impacts from distant source events. Preparedness efforts paid off on March 11, 2011 when a tsunami warning was issued for the region and significant damage occurred in harbor regions of Del Norte County and Mendocino County. Full-scale evacuations were carried out in a coordinated manner and the majority of the commercial fishing fleet in Crescent City was able to exit the harbor before the tsunami arrived.

Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

2012-12-01

224

Tsunamis of the northeast Indian Ocean with a particular focus on the Bay of Bengal region—A synthesis and review  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004 IOT) challenged assumptions about the level of regional hazard. Significantly, there has been some debate about the hypothesis that the northern Bay of Bengal may be capable of generating large tsunamis similar to the 2004 IOT. To test this hypothesis, we documented historical and palaeotsunamis in the northeast Indian Ocean. Using multiple sources, we identified 135 purported tsunamis. After completing a process of validity assessment, we categorised 31 definite tsunamis, 27 probable tsunamis, 51 doubtful tsunamis and 20 events that only caused a seiche or disturbance in an inland river. Six of the purported events were identified as either cyclones or earthquakes without any associated tsunamis. Using the reported list of 135 events, we identified different tsunamigenic regions and explored the temporal distribution of past events, with the oldest event dated to around 38,000BC (although the dated material is most likely reworked and this was probably a Holocene event). The second oldest event dated to 3000-2000BC. Historical records indicate that only one definite tsunami, occurring in AD1762, was generated in the northern Bay of Bengal. We encountered a number of significant challenges in reviewing and analysing data contained within the documents and sources we consulted. Statistical analysis of tsunami data from AD1710 to AD2010 suggests that the occurrence of a tsunami affecting the coasts of Bangladesh and Myanmar is 0.99% in any given year, and 63% in a century. We recognise that this incomplete tsunami dataset limits the capacity to fully quantify the hazard. As such, we recommend further 'deep' archival research coupled with regional palaeotsunami studies to gain a more sophisticated understanding of the hazard.

Alam, Edris; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James

2012-08-01

225

The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

2011-12-01

226

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TSUNAMI GENERATION IN CHINA'S BOHAI SEA FROM DIRECT GEOTECTONIC AND COLLATERAL SOURCE MECHANISMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Bohai Sea borders northeastern China's most populous and highest economic valuecoastal areas where several megacities are located. Critical infrastructure facilities exist or areunder construction, including a nuclear power plant and super port facilities. Large reserves of oilhave been discovered and a number of offshore oil platforms have been built. The extent ofdevelopment along coastal areas requires a better assessment of potential tsunami risks. Althoughtsunamis do not pose as much...

Pararas Carayannis, G.

2009-01-01

227

Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD  

CERN Document Server

We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

Reuter, J; Nejad, B Chokoufe; Kilian, W; Ohl, T; Sekulla, M; Weiss, C

2014-01-01

228

Precision event generation for the LHC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to maximize the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, precise predictions are needed for a multitude of Standard Model reactions. Signals for new physics may be hidden in overwhelming backgrounds, which have to be controlled in order to find anomalies withstanding detailed scrutiny. Tremendous progress was made in recent years to improve the theoretical description of these backgrounds using next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD. This talk reviews some of the essential aspects of modern multi-jet NLO calculations and presents results in comparison to recent LHC data. The need for theoretical predictions at the particle level has spurred the development of so-called matching algorithms, which connect NLO parton-level results and parton showers as part of general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators. The theoretical challenges of these methods for large jet multiplicity are discussed with particular emphasis on the correct treatment of subleading colour and soft gluon effects.

229

Possible sources of the tsunami observed in the northwestern Indian Ocean following the 2013 September 24 Mw 7.7 Pakistan inland earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We report and analyse the tsunami recorded in the northwestern Indian Ocean at the Makran region following the Mw 7.7 Pakistan inland strike-slip earthquake on 2013 September 24. We analyse eleven tide gauge records as well as one DART record of this tsunami and perform numerical modelling of the tsunami that would be triggered by a range of possible sources. The tsunami registered a maximum wave height of 109 cm at the Qurayat tide gauge station (Oman). The dominant period of the tsunami was around 12 min, although wavelet analysis showed that parts of the tsunami energy were partitioned into a slightly wider period range of 7 and 16 min. Tsunami backward ray tracing showed that the tsunami source was possibly located offshore Jiwani (Pakistan) and that the tsunami was most likely triggered by the main shock. The aftershocks are distributed in the inland region and the coseismic vertical and horizontal displacements are also limited inland implying that the tsunami was generated by secondary sources triggered by the earthquake. Different possible tsunami sources including a mud volcano at the location of the newly generated island, and a mud volcano or diapir at offshore deep water were examined through numerical modelling and all failed to reproduce the observed waveforms. Numerical modelling showed that a submarine slump with a source dimension of about 10-15 km and a thickness of about 100 m located at 61.49°E and 24.62°N, that is, about 60-70 km off the Jiwani coast (Pakistan), seems capable of reasonably reproducing the wave amplitudes and periods of the observed tsunami waveforms. This event was the second instrumentally recorded tsunami in the region, after the Makran tsunami of 1945 November, and provides evidence for a hazard from landslide/slump-generated waves following seismic activity in the area.

Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

2014-11-01

230

Elegent—An elastic event generator  

Science.gov (United States)

Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD cannot be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy ?{s}. These distributions at ISR, Spp¯S, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework. Catalogue identifier: AERT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10551 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126316 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any in principle, tested on x86-64 architecture. Operating system: Any in principle, tested on GNU/Linux. RAM: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 20MB Classification: 11.6. External routines: ROOT, HepMC Nature of problem: Monte-Carlo simulation of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions Solution method: Implementation of some of the most prominent phenomenological/theoretical models providing cumulative distribution function that is used for random event generation. Running time: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 1 h.

Kašpar, J.

2014-03-01

231

Tsunami Hazard Assessment along the Coast of Oman from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal areas of Oman are exposed to tsunami threat associated with earthquakes generated in two major subduction zones, namely Makran and Sumatra. Both zones were responsible of triggering tsunamis that reached/impacted Oman coast. The Mw8.1 earthquake event of 1945, occurred in Makran zone, has caused a tsunami that was reported to affect the coast of Oman. The Mw9.2 Indian Ocean event of 2004 triggered a tsunami that was recorded in various tide-gauges stations of Oman with wave amplitude reaching ~1.7m in the port of Salalah. This work aims to assess tsunami hazard along the Oman coast considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic approach uses particular source scenarios (most credible and/or worst case) from Makran and Sumatra subduction zones and computes the tsunami coastal impact through numerical modeling of expected waveforms, maximum wave heights distribution, and site-specific inundations. While, probabilistic approach includes the contribution of small and large sources and employs the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment together with the numerical modeling to evaluate the likelihood that a certain level of tsunami threat is exceeded at a certain location of Oman coast within a certain period of time. We present deterministic results in terms of regional scale distribution of maximum wave heights, tsunami waveforms computation, and inundation maps for a selected coastal area. For probabilistic assessment, we derive 250- and 500-years probability hazard exceedance maps and hazard curves for the Oman coast. The hazard maps consist of computing the likelihood that tsunami waves exceed a specific amplitude for the entire coast of Oman, and the hazard curves describe the variation of cumulative probabilities as function of wave amplitudes at some critical coastal points. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of obtained results for tsunami mitigation in Oman. Keywords: Tsunami, Oman, Deterministic approach, Probabilistic approach.

El-Hussain, Issa; Baptista, Maria; Omira, Rachid; Al-Rawas, Ghazi; Deif, Ahmed; Al-Habsi, Zaid; Al-Jabri, Khalifa

2014-05-01

232

TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc., the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

Roger, J.

2010-01-01

233

A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard...

Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

2009-01-01

234

Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)  

Science.gov (United States)

The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures on inundation and outflow flow velocities. Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events. On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the south coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. This event was observed by eyewitnesses on board the sole surviving fishing boat, which managed to ride the tsunami. The mega-tsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross-section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt in a two dimensional physical laboratory model. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) provided instantaneous velocity vector fields of decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. Three dimensional source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance numerical landslide tsunami models. This lecture encompasses multi-hazard aspects and implications of recent tsunami and cyclonic events around the world such as the November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in the Philippines.

Fritz, Hermann M.

2014-05-01

235

The Messina straits tsunami of december 28, 1908: a critical review of experimental data and observations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami which occurred on December 28, 1908, in the Straits of Messina is examined. A wide set of data coming from a number of sources was collected and reviewed in order to get a picture as clear as possible of the generation and evolution of the event. The tsunami magnitude is estimated according to the Murty-Loomis scale, based upon the evaluation of the initial wave disturbance energy

236

What is the fault that has generated the earthquake on 8 September 1905 in Calabria, Italy? Source models compared by tsunami data  

Science.gov (United States)

The earthquake that the 8 September 1905 hit Calabria in southern Italy was the second Italian earthquake for magnitude in the last century. It destroyed many villages along the coast of the Gulf of Sant'Eufemia, caused more than 500 fatalities and has also generated a tsunami with non-destructive effects. The historical reports tell us that the tsunami caused major damage in the villages of Briatico, Bivona, Pizzo and Vibo Marina, located in the south part of the Sant'Eufemia gulf and minor damage to Tropea and to Scalea, this one being village located about 100 km far from the epicenter. Other reports include accounts of fishermen at sea during the tsunami. Further, the tsunami is visible on tide gauge records in Messina, Sicily, in Naples and in Civitavecchia, a harbour located to the north of Rome (Platania, 1907) In spite of the attention devoted by researchers to this case, until now, like for other tsunamigenic Italian earthquakes, the genetic structure of the earthquake is still not identified and debate is still open. In this context, tsunami simulations can provide contributions useful to find the source model more consistent with observational data. This approach was already followed by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002), who carried out numerical simulations of tsunamis from a number of local sources. In the last decade studies on this seismogenic area were int ensified resulting in new estimates for the 1905 earthquake magnitude (7.1 according to the CPTI11 catalogue) and in the suggestion of new source models. By using an improved tsunami simulation model, more accurate bathymetry data, this work tests the source models investigated by Piatanesi and Tinti (2002) and in addition the new fault models proposed by Cucci and Tertulliani (2010) and by Loreto et al. (2013). The simulations of the tsunami are calculated by means of the code, UBO-TSUFD, that solves the linear equations of Navier-Stokes in approximation of shallow water with the finite-difference technique, while the initial conditions are calculated via Okada's formula. The key-result used to test the models against the data is the maximum height of the tsunami calculated close to the shore at a minimum depth of 5m corrected using the values of the initial coseismic field deformation.

Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Facchin, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

237

Submarine Landslides, Seafloor Roughness, and Tsunami Hazard on Convergent Margins  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of multibeam bathymetry and 3D seismic data from seismically active convergent margins suggests that frequent and low volume erosive events preclude the formation of large, geomorphically expressed landslides. Regions smooth in appearance may not have significant landslide-derived tsunami hazard, although the seismic tsunami hazard may very well remain high. We examined bathymetry data from five convergent margins, and found that regions with frequent seismic activity were significantly smoother that those with longer recurrence intervals. The seafloor on margins that have much less frequent seismicity or the potential for producing `tsunami earthquakes' (where the size a post-seismic tsunami is disproportionately large compared to the corresponding earthquake) tend to be a significantly rougher. We quantify roughness by measuring aspect and gradient variance on slopes with a high surface to planimetric area ratio. Large landslides (Makran (Pakistan) margins have the smoothest slopes, and Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea, and Oregon have the roughest slopes. There has been some debate over the nature of tsunamis generated in Nicaragua (1992), PNG (1998), and Oregon (1700), and these data suggest that coseismic landsliding could be partially responsible for increasing the tsunami amplitude. Another option could be a slow source mechanism that limits shaking and large coseismic slope failures, preserving landslides caused at an earlier time.

McAdoo, B. G.; Minder, J.; Moore, J. C.; Ranero, C. R.; Weinrebe, W.

2002-12-01

238

Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante / Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de o [...] ndas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which p [...] rovides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

Rodrigo, González González; Modesto, Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel, Montoya Rodríguez.

2012-01-01

239

MadGraph/MadEvent. The new web generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new web-based version of the automatized process and event generator MadGraph/MadEvent is now available. Recent developments are: New models, notably MSSM, 2HDM and a framework for addition of user-defined models, inclusive sample generation and on-line hadronization and detector simulation. Event generation can be done on-line on any of our clusters. (author)

240

Scenarios for earthquake-generated tsunamis on a complex tectonic area of diffuse deformation and low velocity: The Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean  

Science.gov (United States)

The tsunami impact on the Spanish and North African coasts of the Alboran Sea generated by several reliable seismic tsunamigenic sources in this area was modeled. The tectonic setting is complex and a study of the potential sources from geological data is basic to obtain probable source characteristics. The tectonic structures considered in this study as potentially tsunamigenic are: the Alboran Ridge associated structures, the Carboneras Fault Zone and the Yusuf Fault Zone. We characterized 12 probable tsunamigenic seismic sources in the Alboran Basin based on the results of recent oceanographical studies. The strain rate in the area is low and therefore its seismicity is moderate and cannot be used to infer characteristics of the major seismic sources. These sources have been used as input for the numerical simulation of the wave propagation, based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite-difference technique. We calculated the Maximum Wave Elevations, and Tsunami Travel Times using the numerical simulations. The results are shown as maps and profiles along the Spanish and African coasts. The sources associated with the Alboran Ridge show the maximum potential to generate damaging tsunamis, with maximum wave elevations in front of the coast exceeding 1.5. m. The Carboneras and Yusuf faults are not capable of generating disastrous tsunamis on their own, although their proximity to the coast could trigger landslides and associated sea disturbances. The areas which are more exposed to the impact of tsunamis generated in the Alboran Sea are the Spanish coast between Malaga and Adra, and the African coast between Alhoceima and Melilla. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gonzalez, M.; Olabarrieta, M.; Carreno, E.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Tsunami observations in the open ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Deep-sea tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in the creation of an effective tsunami warning system. The paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the beginning (about 50 years ago) to the present day. It describes modern tsunami monitoring systems, including the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART), innovative Japanese bottom cable projects, and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with those recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom presure observations is exemplified based on analysis of distant (22000 km) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

Rabinovich, A. B.

2014-09-01

242

Tsunami wave energy  

CERN Document Server

In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both dispersive and non-dispersive shallow-water equations with an energy equation. It is shown that dispersive effects only appear at higher order in the energy budget. Then we solve the Cauchy-Poisson problem of tsunami generation for the linearized water wave equations. Exchanges between potential and kinetic energies are clearly revealed.

Dutykh, Denys

2008-01-01

243

TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

B. Theilen-Willige

2006-01-01

244

Tsunami Propagation Database for the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-computed tsunami scenario databases are common tools to develop long- or short-term forecasting methodologies and hazard assessment approaches for tsunami-prone regions worldwide. The benefits of such databases include the possibility of probabilistic studies (Gonzalez et al., 2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, Article Number: C11023), inundation mapping (Barberopoulou et al., 2011, Pure Appl. Geophys. 168(11), 2133-2146), or real-time forecasting (Wei et al., 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(4), Article Number: L04609). As a result, several tsunami propagation databases have been developed including one by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), and another by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Pre-computed tsunami scenario databases utilize different approaches. PMEL's tsunami propagation database is based on the concept of a pre-computed tsunami scenarios consisting of propagation results from 100km x 50km fault planes with a slip value of 1m referred to as tsunami source functions. PMEL's source functions are placed along the subduction zones in several rows, covering known faults throughout the major ocean basins. Linearity of the tsunami propagation in the open ocean allows scaling and/or combination of the pre-computed tsunami source functions to generate a desired scenario. The BOM database considers five earthquakes with magnitudes changing from 7.0 to 9.0 at each location with 100km intervals along the subduction zone. However, to date, no similar approach has been computed along the subduction zones in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, even though, historically, there have been a considerable number of tsunami events which caused damage in the region (Ambraseys and Synolakis, 2010, J. Earthquake Eng. 14 (3), 309-330, Article Number: PII 919600673). A new project was initiated between Greece and Turkey supported by General Secretariat for Research & Technology, The Ministry for Development (GSRT) of Greece and The Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK) of Turkey in order to establish a tsunami propagation database primarily in the Aegean Sea but with a natural extension to the Mediterranean Sea. In this project, we placed unit sources of different lengths and widths, considering the local tectonics of the region (Papazachos, 1996, Ann. Geofis. 395, 891-903), i.e., 100km x 50km and 50km x 25km, along the subduction zones and at the proximity of historical events. We also located some historical sources as discussed in previous studies (Ebeling et al., 2012, Tectonophysics 530, 225-239). Model runs for this new propagation database are nearly completed, and preliminary inundation maps were developed for two coastal towns, one in each country. We extensively use the tsunami community modeling tool Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) which is designed for ease of use, and allows dissemination of results to the community while addressing concerns associated with proprietary issues of bathymetry and topography (Titov et al., 2011, Pure Appl. Geophys. 168(11), 2121-2131). We will discuss initial outcomes of the project including modeling of some historical tsunami events. Once finalized, we hope that this database will be extremely useful in developing tsunami-resilient communities in the region using both long- and short-term forecasting.

Kanoglu, U.; Hoto, O.; Kalligeris, N.; Flouri, E.; Aydin, B.; Moore, C. W.; Synolakis, C. E.

2012-12-01

245

Earthquake and Tsunami Potential of the Hikurangi Subduction Thrust, New Zealand: Insights from Paleoseismology, GPS, and Tsunami Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hikurangi subduction margin, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North Island of New Zealand, poses a major seismic and tsunami hazard to the New Zealand region, but its seismic and tsunami potential is largely unknown because of New Zealand's short (< 170 years historical record of seismicity. This article discusses the implications of results from GPS, paleoseismology, and tsunami modeling studies for understanding Hikurangi subduction earthquake and tsunami potential. Paleoseismic and geodetic data indicate that earthquakes of MW 8.0 and larger are certainly plausible at the Hikurangi margin. Paleoseismic evidence for large megathrust earthquakes beneath Hawke Bay in central Hikurangi demonstrates that large seismic slip may occur within an area that currently slips in episodic slow slip events. This result has important implications for seismic hazards at subduction margins elsewhere. Strong similarities between the subduction zones of the Hikurangi margin and the Japan Trench suggest that a giant MW 9.0 earthquake similar to the 2011 T?hoku-Oki earthquake may be possible for the Hikurangi margin. Such an event would generate a large tsunami that would inundate much of the east coast of the North Island. Understanding of the earthquake potential of the Hikurangi megathrust is only in its infancy, and we recommend a number of studies to increase knowledge.

Laura M. Wallace

2014-06-01

246

Observed and Modeled Tsunami Currents on California's North Coast  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, a pilot project was implemented in Humboldt Bay, near Eureka, California to measure the currents produced by tsunamis. This area is susceptible to both near- and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located about 100km north of Humboldt Bay, suffered 20 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional 16 million from the 2011 Tohoku-oki (Japan) tsunami. We deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600kHz 2D Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) with a one-minute sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the NOAA tide gauge site. The instrument recorded the tsunami produced by the Mw 8.8 Chilean earthquake on February 27, 2010 as well as the Mw 9.0 Japanese earthquake on March 11, 2011. Currents from the 2010 tsunami persisted in Humboldt Bay for at least 30hrs with a peak current amplitude of 0.3m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 86hrs with a peak amplitude of 1.2m/s. Strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level as recorded on the NOAA tide gauge, about 90min after the initial wave arrival. Tsunami currents associated with ebb tides (tidal currents flowing out of the bay) were about 25% larger than currents associated with flood tides. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event; the 2011 tsunami pulled one boat away from its moorings at the marina about six kilometers away from the instrument site. Although we have no instrument in Crescent City, we were able to estimate currents for the first three and a half hours of the Japan tsunami using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master building across from the entrance to the boat basin, about 70m away from the NOAA tide gauge site. Most of the damage occurred within this time window. The strongest currents reached 4.5m/s and six cycles exceeded 4m/s in the three and a half hours of data. We used the MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunamis) model to compare measured currents to numerical predictions. MOST does a reasonably good job of predicting peak amplitudes for the 2010 and 2011 events in Humboldt Bay and the 2011 tsunami in Crescent City. For Humboldt Bay, the model does a good job of replicating the first four hours of the signal although the ebb currents are slightly underestimated. The model predictions break down for the later part of the signal. This project shows that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami currents for small to moderate events. Data from this project will be used to validate and/or calibrate MOST so that realistic tsunami current hazard maps can be generated for California for use by harbor managers.

Admire, A. R.; Dengler, L.; Crawford, G. B.; uslu, B. U.; Montoya, J.; Wilson, R. I.

2011-12-01

247

Tsunami waves of seismic origin: The modern state of knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This review summarizes the concepts of seismogenic tsunami waves. Principles of short-term tsunami forecasting and tsunami recording systems are discussed. The traditional approach to describing tsunami generation by earthquakes is outlined and its drawbacks are analyzed. The main and secondary effects are distinguished which are responsible for the formation of waves by underwater earthquakes. The existing numerical codes of tsunami dynamics are described.

Nosov, M. A.

2014-09-01

248

FREESCO: Statistical event generator for nuclear collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nucleus-nucleus collisions above a few tens of MeV/N, a large number of multifragment channels are open and modern detector systems can detect nearly all the charged fragments produced. Therefore, large samples of complete events must be calculated. A well-defined, least biased reference model results from assuming that the disassembly occurs statistically. (orig.)

249

Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis originating near PR are a near-field hazard for as they can reach coastal areas within minutes of a generating event. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have been identified. To mitigate these risks to communities, the PR Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000 with funding from FEMA, the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) and the PR State Emergency Management Agency (PRSEMA). With the support of NTHMP and TsunamiReady (TR), PR continues to seek to mitigate possible tsunami damages and increase community resilience by helping communities meet the TR guidelines by providing them inundation maps, helping them develop evacuation maps and emergency plans, assisting them with community outreach efforts and conducting evacuation drills. Currently 6 of 44 tsunami threatened communities in PR have been recognized as TsunamiReady. As part of this process, the PRSN, PRSEMA and various communities participated in the LANTEX 2009 tsunami exercise. This exercise took place on April 2, 2009 and was based on a scenario in which an earthquake northeast of PR generates a major tsunami which impacts PR and the USVI and threatens the states along the continental US eastern coast. The municipality of Mayagüez, a TsunamiReady community since 2006, participated in the exercise by activating its Emergency Operations Center , conducting evacuation drills in schools located within its tsunami exposed area, and activating its warning siren. This presentation highlights findings of UPRM social scientists collaborating with the PRTWMP who conducted a sample survey of residents of the Mayagüez tsunami evacuation area to serve as an assessment of the effectiveness of TsunamiReady outreach efforts and of the drill's warning efforts. 166 20-30 minute interviews were conducted during the month of April. Questions explored residents' perceptions of coastal hazards they may face; knowledge about tsunamis and how to react to them; use of mass media to obtain information about potential hazards; tsunami preparation efforts, including knowledge of the existence and location of assembly areas; and whether and how they received and understood the drill's warning messages. The sample's answers to the risk perception questions is compared to those obtained for the same questions from a sample of residents of storm surge areas in 8 municipalities along PR's west coast. This allows comparing tsunami hazard awareness among individuals exposed to the Tsunami Ready program efforts with that of residents of municipalities that are not part of it. This effort serves as an example of the multidisciplinary collaboration between physical and social scientists needed to increase the effectiveness and value of scientific knowledge as a tool to mitigate damages from natural hazards.

Diaz, W.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2009-12-01

250

A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

Wijetunge, J. J.

2014-05-01

251

Shallow Megathrust Rupture Propagation of Some Large and Giant Earthquakes: Its Tsunami Potential and Identification from Spectral Energy Content  

Science.gov (United States)

Rare, slow-rupturing tsunami earthquakes are known to occur in the shallowest megathrust environment that both slows rupture propagation and enhances tsunami potential, while other megathrust earthquakes remain deeper, rupturing more rapidly and having reduced tsunami potential due to diminished vertical seafloor displacement. However, we postulate that the massive transoceanic tsunamis of some giant earthquakes are caused by total megathrust rupture, where coseismic slip extends beyond the normal seismogenic range, and into the near-trench tsunami earthquake environment. Such ruptures drastically enhance seafloor excitation and causing massive tsunami generation. Examples include the 2004 MW 9.1 Sumatran, the 1964 MW 9.2 Alaskan, and the 1960 MW 9.5 Chile earthquakes. For recent events, the spatial extent of rupture into the near-trench is observable through seismologic modeling of fault rupture, and the distribution of early aftershocks. An ideal case-example supporting this hypothesis is the clear change in shallow rupture behavior between the 2004 MW 9.1 and 2005 MW 8.7 Sumatran earthquakes, with the latter reaming deeper and having only modest tsunami excitation. We find that through examination of the rupture energy of recent very large earthquakes we can identify rupture that pervades the shallow trench by the event’s relative deficiency in high-frequency radiated seismic energy, similar to tsunami earthquakes. Testing both bulk spectral energy ratios, and deviations in the high-frequency energy growth during rupture, we identify the Sumatran 2004 event as deficient, while the 2005 Sumatran and 2010 Chile earthquakes appear in the normal range similar to smaller events, identifying them as having normal megathrust ruptures. Unlike finite-fault modeling using seismic waveforms and imaging of early aftershocks, which can also identify near-trench rupture, earthquake energy determinations can be made in near real-time (often within 10 minutes of rupture initiation), making it a useful tool for rapid tsunami hazard assessment.

Newman, A. V.; Convers, J. A.

2010-12-01

252

Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"  

Science.gov (United States)

With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

2014-12-01

253

Near-source observations and modeling of the Kuril Islands tsunamis of 15 November 2006 and 13 January 2007  

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Two major earthquakes near the Central Kuril Islands (Mw=8.3 on 15 November 2006 and Mw=8.1 on 13 January 2007) generated trans-oceanic tsunamis recorded over the entire Pacific Ocean. The strongest oscillations, exceeding several meters, occurred near the source region of the Kuril Islands. Tide gauge records for both tsunamis have been thoroughly examined and numerical models of the events have been construc...

Rabinovich, A. B.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Fine, I. V.; Thomson, R. E.; Ivelskaya, T. N.; Kulikov, E. A.

2008-01-01

254

SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS  

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Full Text Available Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gneration. The 1998 Papua New Guyinea event sparked much controbersy regarding the landslide tsunami hypothesis despite a preponderance of the evidence in favor of one simple and consistent explanation of the tsunami source. Part of the difficulty was the unanticipated distinction between slide and slump tsunami sources. Significant controversies still exist over other aspects of the Papua New Guinea event. The landslide hypothesis will become widely acceepted once direct measurements of underwater landslide events are made. These measurements will likely be integrated into a local tsunami warning system.

Phillip Watts

2001-01-01

255

Rapid tsunami models and earthquake source parameters: Far-field and local applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid tsunami models have recently been developed to forecast far-field tsunami amplitudes from initial earthquake information (magnitude and hypocenter). Earthquake source parameters that directly affect tsunami generation as used in rapid tsunami models are examined, with particular attention to local versus far-field application of those models. First, validity of the assumption that the focal mechanism and type of faulting for tsunamigenic earthquakes is similar in a given region can be evaluated by measuring the seismic consistency of past events. Second, the assumption that slip occurs uniformly over an area of rupture will most often underestimate the amplitude and leading-wave steepness of the local tsunami. Third, sometimes large magnitude earthquakes will exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity such that tsunami sources will be composed of distinct sub-events that can cause constructive and destructive interference in the wavefield away from the source. Using a stochastic source model, it is demonstrated that local tsunami amplitudes vary by as much as a factor of two or more, depending on the local bathymetry. If other earthquake source parameters such as focal depth or shear modulus are varied in addition to the slip distribution patterns, even greater uncertainty in local tsunami amplitude is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude. Because of the short amount of time available to issue local warnings and because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with local, model-based forecasts as suggested by this study, direct wave height observations and a strong public education and preparedness program are critical for those regions near suspected tsunami sources.

Geist, E.L.

2005-01-01

256

Identification of Forerunners and Transmission of Energy to Tsunami Waves Generated by Instanteneous Ground Motion on a Non-Uniformly Sloping Beach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of generation and propagation of tsunami waves is mainly focused on plane beach, there are very few analytical works where wave generation is considered on non-uniformly sloping beach and as a result those works might have failed to capture important facts which are influenced by bottom-slope of the beach. Some researchers provided solution to the forced long linear waves but on a beach with uniform slope while the importance of including variable bottom topography is mentioned by few researchers but they also stayed away from considering continuous variability of the ocean bed as they were studying runup problem. This paper analyzes tsunami waves which are generated by instantaneous bottom dislocation on a ocean floor with variable slope of the form y=-qxr, q > 0, r > 0. Attempts are made to find analytical solution of the problem and along the way tsunami forerunners are identified while investigating the short time wave behavior, not found even with constant slope beaches. In our study a rather significant phenomenon with regard to energy transmission to the waves at steady-state are observed with some notable features.

Arghya Bandyopadhyay

2013-03-01

257

Modelling tsunamis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

258

Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; and others

2012-01-01

259

A tsunami PSA methodology and application for NPP site in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. ? Tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. ? Procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. ? A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. ? Accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. - Abstract: A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. In this study, tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. In the case of system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the s developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real Nuclear Power Plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which located in east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. But for more accurate tsunami PSA result, there are many researches needed for evaluation of hydrodynamic force, effect of debris, structural failure probability of break water structure and intake structure, functional failure criteria for offsite power.

260

SATELLITE TRANSMITTED FLOOD ALERTS TO REDUCE FATALITIES AND INJURIES ON THE ISLAND OF HAWAII ASSOCIATED WITH LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS  

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Tsunami detection instruments were installed along remote shoreline campgrounds of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in August of 2009. Components include water sensing devices at elevations of about 10 feet above sea level located at distances of about 200 feet from the shoreline and satellite communicators located further inland at higher elevations that will send daily status reports and flood alerts from the water sensors as they occur to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Honolulu. Such ...

Walker, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evaluation of the imminence of a tsunami based on real-time seismic source parameter estimates - a Bayesian network approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami early warnings are based on co-seismic evidences being the earliest available information from a hazardous earthquake with the potential of causing a tsunami. Evaluations are generally done by applying rules derived from historic observation and making use of seismological expertise regarding regional tectonic contexts, faulting styles, occurrence frequency of large earthquakes and more. However, the co-seismic generation of a tsunami as well as the estimation of a potentially tsunamigenic event is prone to various uncertainties. As Bayesian networks (BNs) allow for integration and quantification of the uncertainties within the framework of probabilistic graphical models, we propose the usage of BNs for evaluating the imminence of a tsunami based on real-time seismic source parameter estimates. Earthquake parameter estimates (including uncertainties) are evaluated in real-time and the probabilities of tsunami threat levels are calculated and updated whenever new co-seismic evidence is available. The fast and efficient method gives an important additional information for the staff members at tsunami warning centers as it provides a probabilistic overview on the imminence of a tsunami for some particular costal region. In our work, we have developed a preliminary BN tsunami warning system for the region of Sumatra by extracting knowledge from a set of formulas describing the physical process from earthquake rupture to sea-floor deformation to tsunami wave propagation and finally shoaling at the coast. The physical knowledge was transformed by ancestral sampling to a synthetic database and thereof BNs were learned for several sites of interest along the Sumatran coast and the fore-arc islands. To determine the conditional probability of the tsunami amplitude a set of seven co-seismic variables was defined: epicenter, centroid, magnitude, hypocentral depth, rupture direction, rupture length and width. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by case studies of recent tsunamigenic earhtquakes offshore Sumatra with particular focus on the probabilistically sound treatment of uncertainties relevant to tsunami early warning problem.

Blaser, Lilian; Ohrnberger, Matthias; Scherbaum, Frank

2010-05-01

262

Event Generator Validation and Systematic Error Evaluation for Oscillation Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

In this document I will describe the validation and tuning of the physics models in the GENIE neutrino event generator and briefly discuss how oscillation experiments make use of this information in the evaluation of model-related systematic errors.

Gallagher, H.

2009-09-01

263

Simulation of Cosmogenic Neutrino Spectra with the GZKFast Event Generator  

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GZKFast is a low-cost astrophysical event generator designed to simulate photohadron processes resulting from ultra high energy cosmic ray fluxes. GZKFast is an easy to use event generator which specifically addresses issues relevant to cosmogenic neutrinos and the ultra high energy (UHE) neutrino spectrum. GZKFast injects UHE particles into a simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) using a Monte Carlo approach. The interaction of each particle is simulated and the resul...

Cairns, John A.

2007-01-01

264

The Source Mechanism of 1939 Black Sea Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The Black sea is surrounded by Turkey at South, Bulgaria, Romania and Moldovia at west, Russia and Ukraine at North, Georgia at East. The Great Erzincan Earthquake occurred on December 26, 1939 at 23:57 (GMT) in Turkey. This earthquake is remarkable not only because of its devastating casualties (39000), but also because of the tsunami generation in the Black sea [Richter, 1958]. The recorded epicenter coordinates (39.51oE, 39.80oN) was on land and approximately 60 km away from the south coast of the Black sea. The earthquake was shallow (26 km). The surface magnitude was 8 (maximal value for tsunami-generic earthquake in the Black Sea), and intensity of the earthquake was 11-12 [Nikonov, 1997]. Tsunami waves were observed at south coast of the Black sea near Fatsa, Ordu and Giresun towns in Turkey and recorded at North coast near Sebastopol, Yalta, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, and at East near poti and Batumi. The sea receded 50m, and then advanced 20m near Fatsa town. The sea also receded 50-60 m in Giresun, moreover in Ordu, the eyewitnesses at the harbor observed that sea initially was calm, then receded about 15 m. and returned its original position in 5-10 minutes [Altynok and Ersoy, 2000]. The tsunami crossed the Black Sea and was recorded on tide-gauges in Soviet harbors with height 50 cm in Sevastopol and Novorossiysk, and 40 cm in Tuapse. The intensity of this tsunami can be considered as intensity III-V according to new tsunami intensity scale of [Papadopoulos and Imamura, 2001]. Since the epicenter of the earthquake is far from the sea, the source mechanism of this tsunami is uncertain. The wave might have originated by either directly from rupture, or by the secondary fault in the Black sea, or by a submarine landslide triggered by the earthquake. The available data of tide gauge measurements, and observations can be used to compare the model results with different source mechanisms and initial conditions. The initial wave with different assumptions of source mechanisms for 1939 event are used in simulation. The arrival times of the tsunami waves, the initial sign of the wave form, the wave period and the nearshore tsunami amplitudes are computed at selected coastal stations. The computed tsunami records at the coastal locations are compared with the available data. The comparison of the observational, instrumental and numerical data at the shore locations are used for analysis and comparison of the assumed source mechanisms. The probable source mechanism of 1939 Black sea Tsunami is also discussed. Altynok, Y. and _. Ersoy (2000), Tsunamis observed on and near the Turkish coast. Natural Hazards, 21, 185-20. Nikonov, A. A. (1997), Tsunami occurrence on the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Izvestiya, Physics of Solid Earth, 33, 72 - 87. Papadopoulos, G.A. and F. Imamura (2001), A proposal for a new tsunami intensity scale, Proceedings of International Tsunami Symposium 2001, Seattle, Washington, Aug. 7 -10, 2001, 569- 577. Richter C. F. (1958), Elementary Seismology, W. H, Freeman and Co., San Francisco, California, 1958

Yalciner, A. C.; Pelinovsky, E. N.

2004-05-01

265

Integrating Caribbean Seismic and Tsunami Hazard into Public Policy and Action  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caribbean has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 80 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Almost 90% of all these historical tsunamis have been associated with earthquakes. Just since 1842, 3510 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along the Caribbean shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. Most of the countries also have a very high exposure to earthquakes. Given the elevated vulnerability, it is imperative that government officials take steps to mitigate the potentially devastating effects of these events. Nevertheless, given the low frequency of high impact earthquakes and tsunamis, in comparison to hurricanes, combined with social and economic considerations, the needed investments are not made and disasters like the 2010 Haiti earthquake occur. In the absence of frequent significant events, an important driving force for public officials to take action, is the dissemination of scientific studies. When papers of this nature have been published and media advisories issued, public officials demonstrate heightened interest in the topic which in turn can lead to increased legislation and funding efforts. This is especially the case if the material can be easily understood by the stakeholders and there is a local contact. In addition, given the close link between earthquakes and tsunamis, in Puerto Rico alone, 50% of the high impact earthquakes have also generated destructive tsunamis, it is very important that earthquake and tsunami hazards studies demonstrate consistency. Traditionally in the region, earthquake and tsunami impacts have been considered independently in the emergency planning processes. For example, earthquake and tsunami exercises are conducted separately, without taking into consideration the compounding effects. Recognizing this deficiency, the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) which was established in 2005, decided to include the tsunami and earthquake impacts for the upcoming March 20, 2013 regional CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX tsunami exercise. In addition to the tsunami wave heights predicted by the National Weather Service Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii, the USGS PAGER and SHAKE MAP results for the M8.5 scenario earthquake in the southern Caribbean were also integrated into the manual. Additionally, in recent catastrophic planning for Puerto Rico, FEMA did request the local researchers to determine both the earthquake and tsunami impacts for the same source. In the US, despite that the lead for earthquakes and tsunamis lies within two different agencies, USGS and NOAA/NWS, it has been very beneficial that the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program partnership includes both agencies. By working together, the seismic and tsunami communities can achieve an even better understanding of the hazards, but also foster more actions on behalf of government officials and the populations at risk.

von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

2012-12-01

266

SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE M-9 TSUNAMI EVENT BETWEEN RAMESWARAM AND THOOTHUKUDI, GULF OF MANNAR, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26th December, 2004, a massive earthquake occurred NW of Sumatra in the seismically active zone close to Sunda Trench at a water depth of about 1300m and with an epicenter located at a shallow depth of 10km below the ocean floor. This earthquake triggered tsunami waves in the Indian Ocean and hit most of the Tamilnadu coast, with wave height varying from 3 to 10m. In the study area dunes were breached. Erosional channels were created. Inundation in the study area ranges between 10 and 600m from the shoreline. The inundated sediment thickness varies from 1 to 30cm and was well preserved. Sediments thickness gets reduced landwards and occurs as set of layers. The sediments were fresh, grey to dark grey in color.

S.R.Singarasubramanian

2006-01-01

267

Laboratory investigations of the effects of geologic heterogeneity on groundwater salinization and flush-out times from a tsunami-like event  

Science.gov (United States)

This intermediate scale laboratory experimental study was designed to improve the conceptual understanding of aquifer flushing time associated with diffuse saltwater contamination of coastal aquifers due to a tsunami-like event. The motivation comes from field observations made after the tsunami in December, 2004 in South Asia. The focus is on the role and effects of heterogeneity on flushing effectiveness. A scheme that combines experimentation in a 4.8 m long laboratory tank and numerical modeling was used. To demonstrate the effects of geologic heterogeneity, plume migration and flushing times were analyzed in both homogeneous and layered media and under different boundary conditions (ambient flow, saltwater infiltration rate, freshwater recharge). Saltwater and freshwater infiltrations imitate the results of the groundwater salinization from the tsunami and freshening from the monsoon rainfall. The saltwater plume behavior was monitored both through visual observations (digital photography) of the dyed salt water and using measurements taken from several electrical conductivity sensors installed through the tank walls. The variable-density, three dimensional code HST3D was used to simulate the tank experiments and understand the fate and movement of the saltwater plume under field conditions. The results from the tank experiments and modeling demonstrated that macro-scale heterogeneity significantly influenced the migration patterns and flushing times of diffuse saltwater contamination. Ambient flow had a direct influence on total flush-out time, and heterogeneity impacted flush-out times for the top part of the tank and total flush-out times. The presence of a continuous low-permeability layer caused a 40% increase in complete flush-out time due to the slower flow of salt water in the low-permeability layer. When a relatively small opening was introduced in the low-permeability layer, salt water migrated quickly into a higher-permeable layer below causing a reduction in flush-out time. Freshwater recharge caused an early dilution of salt water in the top part of the tank in the case of a layered media, but also pushed the saltwater plume into the low-permeability layer which led to increased total flush-out times.

Vithanage, M.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K. H.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Obeysekera, J.

2012-08-01

268

SEVERAL TSUNAMI SCENARIOS AT THE NORTH SEA AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES AT THE GERMAN BIGHT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tsunamis occurred in the past at the North Sea, but not frequently. There are historical and geological records of several tsunamis: the Storegga tsunami caused sediment deposits in Scotland 8,000 years ago and records of at least six earthquake-generated tsunamis exist from 842 to 1761 AC. The highest tsunami height witnessed at the German Bight is comparable to the maximum storm surge recorded and could thus cause similar or higher damage. However, there is little research on tsunami modeli...

Silvia Chacón-Barrantes; Rangaswami Narayanan; Roberto Mayerle

2013-01-01

269

The 29 September 2009 Samoa tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The 29 September 2009 Samoa tsunami provided an unexpected exercise for the NOAA's tsunami forecast system, undergoing operational testing at U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs). Both TWCs and staff of the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory exercised the forecast system to provide tsunami prediction for the Pacific U.S. coastal communities where forecast models have already been developed. The forecast model from a tsunameter-constrained tsunami source, giving the U.S. coastlines more than three and half hours of lead time to respond to the approaching tsunami waves. Even with this unusual and complex earthquake source, the forecast provided required accuracy for important emergency management decisions. During the event, a high-resolution inundation model was quickly developed to compute the tsunami inundation in Samoa Islands - particularly in Tutuila Island. This allowed for the first test of the real-time inundation forecast capability of the system. In addition, the model inundation estimates provided valuable guidance for disaster recovery activities and for the post-tsunami survey guidance. The results illustrate recent improvements and new capabilities of the tsunami forecast system. The problems and lessons learned for both far-field and local tsunami forecast will be discussed.

Titov, Vasily V.; Chamberlin, Chris; Wei, Yong; Moore, Christopher; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku

2010-05-01

270

An amalgamated meter-thick sedimentary package enabled by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in El Garrapatero, Galapagos Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunamis and storms instigate sedimentological and geomorphological changes to the coastal system, both long-term and ephemeral. To accurately predict future coastal hazards, one must identify the records that are generated by the processes associated with these hazards and recognize what will be preserved. Using eyewitness accounts, photographs, and sedimentology, this study documents pre- and post-tsunami conditions and constrains the timing and process of depositional events during and following the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami in the coastal system at El Garrapatero, Galapagos Islands. While the tsunami acted as both an erosional and depositional agent, the thick, fan-like sand sheet in El Garrapatero was primarily emplaced by overwash deposition during high tide from swell waves occurring between 19-25 March and 17-22 April 2011. The swell waves were only able to access the terrestrial coastal system via a channel carved by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami through the barrier sand dune. This combined deposit could result in an overestimation of the hazard if interpreted to be the result of only one event (either tsunami or wind-generated waves). An analogous sand layer, younger than 1390-1530 cal yr BP, may record a similar, prior event.

Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel; Arreaga, Patricia; Rivera-Hernandez, Frances; Weiss, Robert; Lynett, Patrick

2013-07-01

271

Tsunami Hazard in the Algerian Coastline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Algerian coastline is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian tectonic plates. The collision between these two plates is approximately 4 to 7 mm/yr. The Alps and the tellian Atlas result from this convergence. Historical and present day data show the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitude up to 7 degrees on Richter scale in the northern part of the country. Cities were destroyed and the number of victims reached millions of people. Recently, small seismic waves generated by a destructive earthquake (Epicenter: 36.90N, 3.71E; Mw=6.8; Algeria, 2003, NEIC) were recorded in the French and Spanish coasts. This event raised again the issue of tsunami hazard in western Mediterranean region. For the Algerian study case, the assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard is a matter of great interest because of fast urban development of cities like Algiers. This study aims to provide scientific arguments to help in the elaboration of the Mediterranean tsunami alert program. This is a real complex issue because (1) the western part of the sea is narrow, (2) constructions on the Algerian coastline do not respect safety standards and (3) the seismic hazard is important. The present work is based on a numerical modeling approach. Firstly, a database is created to gather and list information related to seismology, tectonic, abnormal sea level's variations recorded/observed, submarine and coastal topographic data for the western part of the Mediterranean margin. This database helped to propose series of scenario that could trigger tsunami in the Mediterranean sea. Seismic moment, rake and focal depth are the major parameters that constrain the modeling input seismic data. Then, the undersea earthquakes modeling and the seabed deformations are computed with a program adapted from the rngchn code based on Okada's analytic equations. The last task of this work consisted to calculate the initial water surface displacement and simulate the triggered tsunami. Generation and propagation of induced seismic waves were estimated with another program adapted from the swan code for the resolution of the hydrodynamic shallow water equations. The results obtained will be firstly presented. Then, based on seismic waves travel times and run up height values, a large discussion will focus on the tsunami alert program for cities marked by fast urban development.

Amir, L. A.

2008-05-01

272

Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

273

Animation of the July 17, 1998, Papua New Guinea Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On July 17, 1998, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the richter scale caused a tsunami along the coast of Papua New Guinea, wiping out two villages. The US Geological Survey (USGS) provides a model of the tsunami along with background information and news stories about the event. The animation is available in four formats and resolutions. Those who want to learn more about tsunamis can take advantage of the site's links under the heading General Information about Tsunamis.

274

A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

2015-01-01

275

ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE / DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami com [...] o una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warnin [...] g system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

Gabriel, Alvarez; Jorge, Ramirez; Lorena, Paredes; Miguel, Canales.

2010-12-01

276

TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc.), the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves...

Roger, J.; Accary, F.

2010-01-01

277

What Causes Tsunamis?  

Science.gov (United States)

On December 26, 2004, a disastrous tsunami struck many parts of South Asia. The scope of this disaster has resulted in an outpouring of aid throughout the world and brought attention to the science of tsunamis. "Tsunami" means "harbor wave" in Japanese, and the Japanese have a long history of tsunamis. The word "tsunami" brings to mind one…

Mogil, H. Michael

2005-01-01

278

New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon  

Science.gov (United States)

Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

2012-12-01

279

Improved tsunami impact assessments: validation, comparison and the integration of hydrodynamic modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

As communities become increasingly aware of the risks posed by tsunamis, it is important to develop methods for predicting the damage they can cause to the built environment. This will provide the information needed to make informed decisions regarding land-use, building codes, and evacuation. At present, a number of tsunami-building vulnerability assessment models are available, however, the relative infrequency and destructive nature of tsunamis has long made it difficult to obtain the data necessary to adequately validate and compare them. Further complicating matters is that the inundation of a tsunami in the built environment is very difficult model, as is the response of a building to the hydraulic forces that a tsunami generates. Variations in building design and condition will significantly affect a building's susceptibility to damage. Likewise, factors affecting the flow conditions at a building (i.e. surrounding structures and topography), will greatly affect its exposure. This presents significant challenges for practitioners, as they are often left in the dark on how to use hazard modeling and vulnerability assessment techniques together to conduct the community-scale impact studies required for tsunami planning. This paper presents the results of an in-depth case study of Yuriage, Miyagi Prefecture - a coastal city in Japan that was badly damaged by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. The aim of the study was twofold: 1) To test and compare existing tsunami vulnerability assessment models and 2) To more effectively utilize hydrodynamic models in the context of tsunami impact studies. Following the 2011 Tohoku event, an unprecedented quantity of field data, imagery and video emerged. Yuriage in particular, features a comprehensive set of street level Google Street View imagery, available both before and after the event. This has enabled the collection of a large dataset describing the characteristics of the buildings existing before the event as well the subsequent damage that they sustained during. These data together with the detailed results from hydrodynamic models have been used to provide the building, damage and hazard data necessary to rigorously test and compare existing vulnerability assessments techniques. The result is a much-improved understanding of the capabilities of existing vulnerability assessment techniques, as well as important improvements to their assessment framework This provides much needed guidance to practitioners on how to conduct tsunami impact assessments in the future. Furthermore, the study introduces some new methods of integrating hydrodynamic models into vulnerability assessment models, offering guidance on how to more effectively model tsunami inundation in the built environment.

Tarbotton, C.; Walters, R. A.; Goff, J. R.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Turner, I. L.

2012-12-01

280

The 1945 Balochistan earthquake and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran subduction zone  

Science.gov (United States)

Iran and Pakistan are countries quite frequently affected by destructive earthquakes. For instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30'000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, but a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Additionally, some recent publications raise the question of the possiblity of rare but huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We first model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights, and then generate various synthetic earthquake and tsunami catalogs including the possibility of large events in order to asses the tsunami hazard at the affected coastal regions. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by the use of an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast.

Höchner, Andreas; Babeyko, Andrey; Zamora, Natalia

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Presumption of accident progression of Fukushima Dai-ichi and comparison of event sequences among NPSs affected by Tsunami  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to contribute to an improvement of accident managements and station blackout countermeasures for NPSs in Japan after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs), Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has analyzed the progress of the accident scenarios and situation of reactor of the unit 1, 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS based on the information such as fragmentary plant chronologies, parameters and information disclosed by TEPCO and tried to figure out the rational explanation of behavior of each plant. In addition, JNES has compared and categorized the event sequences by using event tree method based on the event progression of Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, Tokai Dai-ni and Onagawa NPSs in order to extract important events and key factors from the viewpoint of prevention of core damage events and impact to event progression. (author)

282

Response of Coastal Structures against Earthquake Forces Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Tsunami Run-Up Forces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The catastrophic tsunamis generated by the great Indonesia earthquake triggered on December 26th, 2004, warned the coastal community on preparedness and constructing safe structures to resist against such events. Earthquake occurs suddenly without warning and bulk of destruction takes place within a short period of time. Similarly, when tsunami strikes, there will be a tremendous loss and damage in coastal regions. Apart from having a sound warning system in case of tsunamis, it is necessary to build Earthquake–Tsunami Resistant (ETR shelters, where residents living in coastal plain regions cannot move to farther distances before tsunami arrives the coast. Hence it is necessary to establish analytical methods for obtaining the response of coastal structures subjected to earthquake forces considering soil-structure interaction and also against tsunami run-up forces. A three storied shelter building with four different cases of structural configurations and another typical structure, an elevated water tank of 6 lakh liters capacity are chosen for the analysis. A comparative study is made on the response of these structures against earthquake forces, when they rest on different soil/rock media. In the analysis, IS 1893-2002 seismic code for determining the base shear values against earthquake loads and FEMA 55 to calculate hydrodynamic and impact forces against tsunami impact are used. From the results, it is observed that the refuge shelters that are chosen are more vulnerable to high tide tsunami loads compared to earthquake loads. In general, it is noticed that Base shears and Displacements increase with the decreases in stiffness of the soil and this increase attributes more due to rocking effect of the soil. Buildings with open storey at bottom and upper stories with heavy mass give significant rise to time period of these structures causing early failures during an earthquake before tsunami arrives. In this study, a useful guideline is evaluated demarcating the heights below which earthquake forces and above which tsunami forces are predominant in the structure.

Prof.P.Kodanda Ramarao,

2013-06-01

283

Producing Hard Processes Regarding the Complete Event: The EPOS Event Generator  

CERN Document Server

Jet cross sections can be in principle compared to simple pQCD calculations, based on the hypothesis of factorization. But often it is useful or even necessary to not only compute the production rate of the very high pt jets, but in addition the "rest of the event". The proposed talk is based on recent work, where we try to construct an event generator fully compatible with pQCD which allows to compute complete events, consisting of high pt jets plus all the other low pt particles produced at the same time. Whereas in "generators of inclusive spectra" like Pythia one may easily trigger on high pt phenomena, this is not so obvious for "generators of physical events", where in principle one has to generate a very large number of events in order to finally obtain rare events (like those with a very high pt jet). We recently developped an independnat block method which allow us ta have a direct access to dedicated variables 1. We will present latest results concerning this approach.

Porteboeuf, S; Werner, K

2010-01-01

284

Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined plane  

CERN Document Server

In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the collapse of initially dry granular media into water and the subsequent impulse waves. We systematically characterize the influence of the slope angle and the granular material on the initial amplitude of the generated leading wave and the evolution of its amplitude during the propagation. The experiments show that whereas the evolution of the leading wave during the propagation is well predicted by a solution of the linearized Korteweg-de Vries equation, the generation of the wave is more complicated to describe. Our results suggest that the internal properties of the granular media and the interplay with the surrounding fluid are important parameters for the generation of waves at low velocity impacts. Moreover, the amplitude of the leading wave reaches a maximum value at large slope angle. The runout distance of the collapse is also shown to be smaller in the presence of water than under totally dry conditions. This study provides a first insight into tsunam...

Viroulet, Sylvain; Kimmoun, Olivier

2014-01-01

285

Near-field tsunami forecasting using offshore tsunami data from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

Real-time tsunami forecasting is one of the effective ways to mitigate tsunami disasters. Transmission of a tsunami warning based on rapid and accurate tsunami forecasting to coastal communities helps the residents to make the decisions about their evacuation behaviors. Offshore tsunami data take an important role in tsunami forecasting. Tsunamis can be detected at offshore stations earlier than at coastal sites, and the data provide direct information about the impeding tsunamis. When the 2011 Tohoku earthquake occurred, the large tsunamis were clearly observed at various offshore observatories around Japan, such as cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges (OBPGs), GPS buoys and DART. In this study, we retrospectively applied an algorithm of near-field tsunami forecasting (Tsushima et al., 2009, 2012, JGR) to the offshore tsunami data from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake to examine how the algorithm contributes to tsunami forecasting of M9 earthquakes. Our tsunami forecasting algorithm is based on a source estimation. For the algorithm, offshore tsunami waveform data are inverted for spatial distribution of an initial sea-surface displacement, and then coastal tsunami waveforms are synthesized from the estimated source and pre-computed Green's functions by a linear superposition. No assumptions concerning the fault geometry and the size of an earthquake are required in the algorithm. The predictions are repeated by progressively updating the offshore tsunami waveform data. Because individual predictions can be calculated within a few minutes, tsunami predictions can be updated at short intervals of time, thus providing successive tsunami predictions with improved accuracy. We retrospectively applied our algorithm to the tsunami data recorded at 13 offshore stations (6 OBPGs, 6 GPS buoys, and 1 DART) during the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. As a result of the application made 20 minutes after the earthquake, tsunamis with heights of 5-10 m were forecasted at the coastal sites near the source area (northern Tohoku) where the sea-level increase due to the actual tsunami began to exceed 1 m after an elapsed time of 25-30 minutes. These good predictions were owing to the observation at the near-field stations, especially OBPGs. Many offshore stations are located between these coastal sites and the source area with enough azimuthal coverage to constrain the estimated source strongly. Retrospective tsunami forecast made 30 minutes after the earthquake shows that predicted tsunami waveforms agree with the observations at the coastal sites to the north of the source (Hokkaido) where the actual tsunami arrives 50 minutes after the earthquake. These results suggest a possibility that our forecasting method could have contributed to the issuing of reliable near-field tsunami warning for M9 earthquakes. On the other hand, the predictions do not match the observations at the coasts to the south of the source (southern Tohoku to Kanto). This may be because the coverage of offshore stations is relatively poor there. Addition of offshore stations is one of the solutions of the problem. We also present a method of tsunami forecasting based on joint use of offshore tsunami and onshore GPS data and its application to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The method is effective to improve tsunami predictions in the earlier period after an earthquake.

Tsushima, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirata, K.; Baba, T.; Ohta, Y.; Iinuma, T.; Hino, R.; Tanioka, Y.; Sakai, S.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Maeda, K.

2012-12-01

286

What Is a Tsunami?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Story Smile Style Game WHAT? What is a tsunami? Tsunamis are giant sea waves. They can be ... will destroy anything in their way. Why are tsunamis so destructive? During a normal storm or hurricane, ...

287

Global Quick Scan of the Vulnerability of Groundwater systems to Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh groundwater resources in deltaic areas are used for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. These resources in the coastal zone are threatened by salinization of the aquifers due to global change (increase of groundwater extraction due to population growth), climate change (including sea level rise), as well as natural disasters such as floods and tsunamis. Studies of how the coastal fresh groundwater resources are affected by the latter phenomena are often done a posteriori, especially the studies related to tsunami effects (e.g. the 2003 Sumatra Tsunami). Then it is often too late to take appropriated measures to counteract the negative effects (e.g. on drinking water supply). These complex studies are time consuming, and need data which might not be available at the time of the disaster when a fast reaction of the water authorities is needed, e.g. to facilitate a quick and easy to access fresh water supply system. In our study we present a Global Quick Scan of the vulnerability of the deltaic fresh groundwater resources to tsunamis. We created a global database including the data needed to generate fast and simple models on the salinization of groundwater systems in the coastal zone. These quantifications give water manager a first approximation of the effects that a tsunami would have on the salinization of the fresh groundwater. The data collected in this database has been used to generate a map showing the areas with coastal groundwater systems vulnerable to tsunami effects, as well as a dataset of 500 2D models representing the physical characteristics of the most frequent coastal groundwater systems in tsunami vulnerable areas. These 2D models simulate the loss in fresh groundwater volume of the system and the characteristic time of a system before it recovers 90% of the fresh groundwater that was available previous to the tsunami event. A similar approach could be adopted for assessing the effect of sea level rise and future increased groundwater extractions on vulnerable coastal groundwater systems worldwide.

Oude Essink, Gualbert; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Zamrsky, Daniel

2014-05-01

288

General-purpose event generators for LHC physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

289

General-purpose event generators for LHC physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

Buckley, Andy [PPE Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH25 9PN (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gieseke, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grellscheid, David [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Loennblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nurse, Emily [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Richardson, Peter [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seymour, Michael H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sjoestrand, Torbjoern [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Skands, Peter [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Webber, Bryan, E-mail: webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

290

General-purpose event generators for LHC physics  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Gieseke, Stefan; Grellscheid, David; Höche, Stefan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Lönnblad, Leif; Nurse, Emily; Richardson, Peter; Schumann, Steffen; Seymour, Michael H.; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Skands, Peter; Webber, Bryan

2011-07-01

291

THE TSUNAMI HISTORY OF GUAM: 1849-1993  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The great (Mw 8.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of August 8, 1993, about 50 km to the east of Guam, has created renewed interest in the tsunami hazard for the island of Guam. We examine this hazard from two perspectives--historical and mechanistic. Guam has had only three tsunamis causing damage at more than one location--in 1849, 1892, and in 1993, and only two to six other locally-generated tsunamis which were observed on the island in the past 200 years. Five of these six events have low validities and may not be reports of true tsunami. On the other hand, dozens of storm surges related to typhoons have caused millions of dollars of damage on Guam. The island of Guam is located west of the Marianas Trench. The trench is caused by the subduction of old, cold, and dense lithosphere of the Pacific plate under the Philippine plate. Steeply dipping old material is unlikely to trigger tsunamis because (1 the two plates are decoupled and (2 the motion is too slow to allow large amounts of stress to build up before earthquakes occur, resulting in less violent earthquakes. A small section of the Marianas Trench near Guam, however, has shallow subduction. This is where the 1993 event occurred, and a quiet area south of this may be the site of a similar future tsunamigenic earthquake. Most of the damage from a local tsunami would occur on the relatively unpopulated east coast; the likelihood of a local tsunami from the west is minimal. However, a repeat of the 1848 tsunami with a southern source could affect both the east and west coasts. The 1993 earthquake occurred coincident with the passage of Typhoon Steve. We show that this may not be coincidental as there is a substantial statistical correlation between earthquakes and typhoons at Guam. The close encounter of a typhoon with Guam doubles the probability of an earthquake with magnitude greater than 5.0 occurring on that day.

James F. Lander

2002-01-01

292

Tsunami watch and warning in Fiji  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tsunami warning system needs further development in Fiji. The MRD earthquake and tsunami plan of action needs to be tested and appropriate authorities drilled in putting this plan into practice. It also needs to be supplemented with an alarm system such that people near the coasts, especially in built-up areas such as Suva can be made aware of impending tsunami danger. The plan of action becomes virtually ineffective when dealing with locally generated tsunamis and for this we have to rely on public education as it is not yet possible or practical to devise a warning system which can be activated within adequate time. 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

293

Hadron level event generation at NLO accuracy with Sherpa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sherpa is a fully equipped tool for hadron level event generation for collider experiments. Using automated tree-level matrix element generators for the hard interaction and an automated matching with parton showers via the CKKW method, its accuracy is essentially limited to LO+NLL. Therefore, the next step is to extend the framework for computations at NLO accuracy in the hard interaction. While automatic generation of dipole subtraction terms is already available, the virtual contribution either is limited to a set of hard coded processes or needs to be fed in externally. Further, the parton showers need to be attached consistently, suitable also for multileg matching. In the talk a short review of the status of the framework for hadron level event generation at NLO+NLL accuracy will be given.

294

Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations  

Science.gov (United States)

The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

HIRES Collaboration

295

COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002) covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002) massive text table (pp. 124-141) entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast...

Alan Ruffman

2005-01-01

296

Source and progression of a submarine landslide and tsunami: The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake at Valdez  

Science.gov (United States)

many subduction zone earthquakes, the deadliest aspects of the 1964 M = 9.2 Alaska earthquake were the tsunamis it caused. The worst of these were generated by local submarine landslides induced by the earthquake. These caused high runups, engulfing several coastal towns in Prince William Sound. In this paper, we study one of these cases in detail, the Port Valdez submarine landslide and tsunami. We combine eyewitness reports, preserved film, and careful posttsunami surveys with new geophysical data to inform numerical models for landslide tsunami generation. We review the series of events as recorded at Valdez old town and then determine the corresponding subsurface events that led to the tsunami. We build digital elevation models of part of the pretsunami and posttsunami fjord-head delta. Comparing them reveals a ~1500 m long region that receded 150 m to the east, which we interpret as the primary delta landslide source. Multibeam imagery and high-resolution seismic reflection data identify a ~400 m wide chute with hummocky deposits at its terminus, which may define the primary slide path. Using these elements we run hydrodynamic models of the landslide-driven tsunamis that match observations of current direction, maximum inundation, and wave height at Valdez old town. We speculate that failure conditions at the delta front may have been influenced by manmade changes in drainage patterns as well as the fast retreat of Valdez and other glaciers during the past century.

Parsons, Tom; Geist, Eric L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Lee, Homa J.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lynett, Patrick; Hart, Patrick E.; Sliter, Ray; Roland, Emily

2014-11-01

297

Unusually large earthquakes inferred from tsunami deposits along the Kuril trench  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pacific plate converges with northeastern Eurasia at a rate of 8-9 m per century along the Kamchatka, Kuril and Japan trenches. Along the southern Kuril trench, which faces the Japanese island of Hokkaido, this fast subduction has recurrently generated earthquakes with magnitudes of up to ???8 over the past two centuries. These historical events, on rupture segments 100-200 km long, have been considered characteristic of Hokkaido's plate-boundary earthquakes. But here we use deposits of prehistoric tsunamis to infer the infrequent occurrence of larger earthquakes generated from longer ruptures. Many of these tsunami deposits form sheets of sand that extend kilometres inland from the deposits of historical tsunamis. Stratigraphic series of extensive sand sheets, intercalated with dated volcanic-ash layers, show that such unusually large tsunamis occurred about every 500 years on average over the past 2,000-7,000 years, most recently ???350 years ago. Numerical simulations of these tsunamis are best explained by earthquakes that individually rupture multiple segments along the southern Kuril trench. We infer that such multi-segment earthquakes persistently recur among a larger number of single-segment events.

Nanayama, F.; Satake, K.; Furukawa, R.; Shimokawa, K.; Atwater, B.F.; Shigeno, K.; Yamaki, S.

2003-01-01

298

Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report

299

Simulation of space-borne tsunami detection using GNSS-Reflectometry applied to tsunamis in the Indian Ocean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009, a feasibility study on a future tsunami detection system from space has been carried out. The Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R is an innovative way of using reflected GNSS signals for remote sensing, e.g. sea surface altimetry. In contrast to conventional satellite radar altimetry, multiple height measurements within a wide field of view can be made simultaneously. With a dedicated Low Earth Orbit (LEO constellation of satellites equipped with GNSS-R, densely spaced sea surface height measurements could be established to detect tsunamis. This simulation study compares the Walker and the meshed comb constellation with respect to their global reflection point distribution. The detection performance of various LEO constellation scenarios with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo as signal sources is investigated. The study concentrates on the detection performance for six historic tsunami events in the Indian Ocean generated by earthquakes of different magnitudes, as well as on different constellation types and orbit parameters. The GNSS-R carrier phase is compared with the PARIS or code altimetry approach. The study shows that Walker constellations have a much better reflection point distribution compared to the meshed comb constellation. Considering simulation assumptions and assuming technical feasibility it can be demonstrated that strong tsunamis with magnitudes (M ?8.5 can be detected with certainty from any orbit altitude within 15–25 min by a 48/8 or 81/9 Walker constellation if tsunami waves of 20 cm or higher can be detected by space-borne GNSS-R. The carrier phase approach outperforms the PARIS altimetry approach especially at low orbit altitudes and for a low number of LEO satellites.

R. Stosius

2010-06-01

300

Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there...

ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES; Cisternas, A.; -l Vigneresse, J.; Dudley, W.; Mc Adoo, B.

2012-01-01

302

TOWARD INDONESIAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BY USING RAPID RUPTURE DURATIONS CALCULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indonesia has an Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purpose of this study is to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea and Pacific Ocean using a direct procedure and software developed Lomax and Michelini for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential by deriving two simple measures from vertical component broadband P-wave velocity record. The first is the high-frequency apparent rupture duration, Tdur which may be related to can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L, depth (z, and shear modulus (?. The second is a confirmation of the earlier finding by Lomax and Michelini, namely that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and Depth. We analyzed at least 510 vertical seismogram recorded by GEOFON-IA and IRIS-DMC networks. Our analysis shows that the seismic potency, LWD, which is more obviously related to capability to generate a tsunami than former. The larger Tdur the larger is the seismic potency LWD because Tdur is proportional to L/vr (with vr – rupture velocity. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 3 to 8 min after the P-onset.

M. Adlazim

2011-01-01

303

Grey-box GUI Testing: Efficient Generation of Event Sequences  

CERN Document Server

Graphical user interfaces (GUIs), due to their event driven nature, present a potentially unbounded space of all possible ways to interact with software. During testing it becomes necessary to effectively sample this space. In this paper we develop algorithms that sample the GUI's input space by only generating sequences that (1) are allowed by the GUI's structure, and (2) chain together only those events that have data dependencies between their event handlers. We create a new abstraction, called an event-dependency graph (EDG) of the GUI, that captures data dependencies between event handler code. We develop a mapping between EDGs and an existing black-box user-level model of the GUI's workflow, called an event-flow graph (EFG). We have implemented automated EDG construction in a tool that analyzes the bytecode of each event handler. We evaluate our "grey-box" approach using four open-source applications and compare it with the current state-of-the-art EFG approach. Our results show that using the EDG reduc...

Arlt, Stephan; Bertolini, Cristiano; Memon, Atif M; Schäf, Martin

2012-01-01

304

EL TERREMOTO Y POSTERIOR TSUNAMI DEL 26 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2004 EN INDONESIA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english A short compilation of the cause, characteristics and effects of the tsunami generated on the 26 of December of 2004 in Indonesia is presented here. The general context of generation of this phenomena is illustrated together with the tectonic environment in which this tsunami in particular was produ [...] ced. Finally, a brief introduction to tsunamis in Colombia including tsunami cases and areas of higher tsunami hazard is considered.

BEATRIZ ELENA, ESTRADA ROLDÁN; JOSEF, FARBIARZ FARBIARZ.

2005-03-01

305

EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS-VOLUME 11  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains the report of the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics'' held on September 21-23, 1998 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A major objective of the workshop was to establish a firm collaboration to develop suitable event generators for the spin physics program at RHIC. With the completion of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a polarized collider a completely new domain of high-energy spin physics will be opened. The planned studies address the spin structure of the nucleon, tests of the standard model, and transverse spin effects in initial and final states. RHIC offers the unique opportunity to pursue these studies because of its high and variable energy, 50 (le) ?s (le) 500 GeV, high polarization, 70%, and high luminosity, 2 x 1032 cm-2 sec-1 or more at 500 GeV. To maximize the output from the spin program at RHIC, the understanding of both experimental and theoretical systematic errors is crucial. It will require full-fledged event generators, to simulate the processes of interest in great detail. The history of event generators shows that their development and improvement are ongoing processes taking place in parallel to the physics analysis by various experimental groups. The number of processes included in the generators has been increasing and the precision of their predictions has been being improved continuously. Our workshop aims at getting this procesOur workshop aims at getting this process well under way for the spin physics program at RHIC, based on the fist development in this direction, SPHINX. The scope of the work includes: (1) update of the currently existing event generator by including the most recent parton parameterizations as a library and reflecting recent progress made for spin-independent generators, (2) implementation of new processes, especially parity violating effects in high energy pp collisions, (3) test of the currently available event generator by comparing to existing experimental data and analytical calculations for the unpolarized case, and (4) search for ways to improve the treatment of polarization for the fragmentation phase

306

COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002 covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002 massive text table (pp. 124-141 entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast and Caribbean tsunami compilations contained in Lander and Lockridge's 1989 National Geophysical Data Center volume United States Tsunamis (including United States Possessions 1690-1988.The Lockridge et al. (2002 compilation contains a small error with respect to the 1929 "Grand Banks" Earthquake and Tsunami of which I may be cause in part. In addition the tsunami histories of oceans without a tsunami warning system will be now receiving much closer attention, including historic events in the Atlantic Ocean given the events of December 26, 2004 and March 18, 2005 in the Indian Ocean; both the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans have no tsunami warning system and have an incomplete tsunami history.

Alan Ruffman

2005-01-01

307

Tsunami and its Hazard in the Indian and Pacific Oceans: Introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused an estimated 230,000 casualties, the worst tsunami disaster in history. A similar-sized tsunami in the Pacific Ocean, generated by the 1960 Chilean earthquake, commenced international collaborations on tsunami warning systems, and in the tsunami research community through the Tsunami Commission of International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. The IUGG Tsunami Commission, established in 1960, has been holding the biannual International Tsunami Symposium (ITS). This volume contains selected papers mostly presented at the 22nd ITS, held in the summer of 2005. This introduction briefly summarizes the progress of tsunami and earthquake research as well as international cooperation on tsunami warning systems and the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Brief summaries of each paper are also presented.

Satake, K.; Okal, E. A.; Borrero, J. C.

2007-03-01

308

Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground-motion measurements were available. Development of a global tsunami-warning system utilizing an expanded network of coastal GPS stations was under consideration at the time of reporting the information for this article.

Song, Y. Tony

2009-01-01

309

Assessing historical rate changes in global tsunami occurrence  

Science.gov (United States)

The global catalogue of tsunami events is examined to determine if transient variations in tsunami rates are consistent with a Poisson process commonly assumed for tsunami hazard assessments. The primary data analyzed are tsunamis with maximum sizes >1 m. The record of these tsunamis appears to be complete since approximately 1890. A secondary data set of tsunamis >0.1 m is also analyzed that appears to be complete since approximately 1960. Various kernel density estimates used to determine the rate distribution with time indicate a prominent rate change in global tsunamis during the mid-1990s. Less prominent rate changes occur in the early- and mid-20th century. To determine whether these rate fluctuations are anomalous, the distribution of annual event numbers for the tsunami catalogue is compared to Poisson and negative binomial distributions, the latter of which includes the effects of temporal clustering. Compared to a Poisson distribution, the negative binomial distribution model provides a consistent fit to tsunami event numbers for the >1 m data set, but the Poisson null hypothesis cannot be falsified for the shorter duration >0.1 m data set. Temporal clustering of tsunami sources is also indicated by the distribution of interevent times for both data sets. Tsunami event clusters consist only of two to four events, in contrast to protracted sequences of earthquakes that make up foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequences. From past studies of seismicity, it is likely that there is a physical triggering mechanism responsible for events within the tsunami source 'mini-clusters'. In conclusion, prominent transient rate increases in the occurrence of global tsunamis appear to be caused by temporal grouping of geographically distinct mini-clusters, in addition to the random preferential location of global M >7 earthquakes along offshore fault zones.

Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

2011-10-01

310

Modern Hardware Architectures for Tsunami Wave Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Strongest earthquake of December 26, 2004 generated catastrophic tsunami in Indian Ocean. This shows that, in spite of recent technology progress, population at coastal zone is not protected against tsunami hazard. Here, we address the problem of tsunami risks mitigation. Note that prediction of tsunami wave parameters at certain locations should be made as early as possible to provide enough time for evacuation. Therefore, fast tsunami propagation code that can calculate tsunami evolution from estimated model source becomes critical for timely evacuation decision for many coastal communities in case of a strong tsunami. Numerical simulation of tsunami wave is very important task for risk evaluation, assessment and mitigation. Here we discuss a part of MOST [1] (Method of Splitting Tsunami) software package, which has been accepted by the USA National Ocean and Atmosphere Administration as the basic tool to calculate tsunami wave propagation and evaluation of inundation parameters. Our main objectives are speed up the sequential program, and adaptation of this program for shared memory systems (OpenMP) and CELL architecture. For caring out this research we use SMP server and a system build on IBM CELL BE CPU. We perform optimization of the existing parallel and sequential code for the task of tsunami wave propagation modeling as well as an adaptation of this code for systems based on CELL BE processors. We achieve 10 times performance gain for SMP system using OpenMP technology compared to sequential application and about 50 times performance gain for single CELL BE CPU. Thus, we show that significant acceleration for this program is possible. The results also show that non-standard equipment for HPC like Sony PlayStation3 could be used for solving this kind of problems. 1. Chawla, A., J. Borrero and V. Titov, (2008), Evaluating wave propagation and inundation characteristics of the MOST tsunami model over a complex 3D beach, Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, v. 10, 261-267 (in press).

Lavrentiev, M., Jr.; Romanenko, A.; Titov, V.; Vazhenin, A.

2009-04-01

311

Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24) tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16) events of the seismic origin, five (5) events of volcanic origin and three (3) events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamige...

Zahibo, N.; Pelinovsky, E. N.

2001-01-01

312

How to learn and develop from both good and bad lessons- the 2011Tohoku tsunami case -  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2011 Tohoku tsunami revealed Japan has repeated same mistakes in a long tsunami disaster history. After the disaster Japanese remember many old lessons and materials: an oral traditional evacuation method 'Tsunami TENDENKO' which is individual independent quick evacuation, a tsunami historical memorial stone "Don't construct houses below this stone to seaside" in Aneyoshi town Iwate prefecture, Namiwake-shrine naming from the story of protect people from tsunami in Sendai city, and so on. Tohoku area has created various tsunami historical cultures to descendent. Tohoku area had not had a tsunami disaster for 50 years after the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The 2010 Chilean tsunami damaged little fish industry. People gradually lost tsunami disaster awareness. At just the bad time the magnitude (M) 9 scale earthquake attacked Tohoku. It was for our generations an inexperienced scale disaster. People did not make use of the ancestor's lessons to survive. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami attacked just before 7 years ago. The magnitude scale is almost same as M 9 scale. Why didn't Tohoku people and Japanese tsunami experts make use of the lessons? Japanese has a character outside Japan. This lesson shows it is difficult for human being to learn from other countries. As for Three mile island accident case in US, it was same for Japan. To addition to this, there are similar types of living lessons among different hazards. For examples, nuclear power plantations problem occurred both the 2012 Hurricane Sandy in US and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Both local people were not informed about the troubles though Oyster creek nuclear power station case in US did not proceed seriously all. Tsunami and Hurricane are different hazard. Each exparts stick to their last. 1. It is difficult for human being to transfer living lessons through next generation over decades. 2. It is difficult for human being to forecast inexperienced events. 3. It is usually underestimated the danger because human being have a tendency to judge based on own experience. 4. It is difficult for human being to make use of lessons from different countries because human being would not like to think own self suffer victim for a self-preservation mind. 5. It is usual for experts not to pay attention to other fields even if similar case occurs in different fields. We started collecting 18 hazards of such historical living lessons all over the world before the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. We adapted to this project collecting lessons from Tohoku tsunami and will publish for small children in developing countries in March 2013. This will be translated in at least 10 languages. This disaster lessons guide books are free. We will introduce some lessons in the presentations. We believe education is one of useful countermeasures to prevent from repeating same mistakes and transfer directly living lessons to new generations.

Sugimoto, Megumi; Okazumi, Toshio

2013-04-01

313

On the feasibility of new tsunami warning system by measuring the low frequency T phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely known that, before a tsunami attacked a coast, loud sounds like thunders were heard in coastal areas and/or vessels in the ocean felt sea shocks. Sea shocks are violent shocks with long durations felt by ocean vessels at the moment of submarine earthquakes. The cause of sea shocks is thought to be the T phase. Tsunami-producing earthquakes, large and shallow focus seismic events occurring at sea can generate the T phase, that is, seismic waves generated by their conversion at an ocean bottom, propagate over large distance at the speed of the sound wave in the sea water along the SOFAR channel. Many studies have been done about the use of the T phase for tsunami warnings. For example, in this paper, considering the compressibility of the sea water, it is shown that another mechanism can also generate the low frequency T phase. It is also shown that the low frequency T phase carries the information of the magnitude and the duration of the displacement of the ocean bottom and is useful for tsunami warnings, in particular, for near shore tsunami warnings. 3 refs, 8 figs

314

Catastrophic geomorphic effects of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki Tsunami, Sanriku coastline, northeastern Honshu, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sanriku coastline of northeastern Honshu, Japan, consists of multiple embayments, or inlets into the Kitakami Mountains. This produces a "ria" (drowned river valley) configuration that is particularly susceptible to the enhancement of erosion effects from tsunamis generated at the very active Pacific-Asiatic plate-boundary subduction zone lying approximately 200 km to the east. A preliminary post-Tohoku tsunami survey of areas with minimal artificial construction of sea walls and other coastal defense works revealed that the highest intensity erosion of channels and hill slopes occurred in the narrowest coastal embayments, particularly those with funnel-shaped inlets that open most directly to incident tsunami wave crests. At Aneyoshi, Miyako-Shi, where wave run-up heights achieved 40.5 meters (the highest recorded for the March 11 event), there was spectacular erosion of valley sides, transport and deposition of coarse gravel, and scour-hole generation around large boulders. As at Tokura, just south of Shizugawa (Minamisanriku), regolith and vegetation, including trees, were stripped off hillsides, exposing and scouring bare rock. Inundation levels at these sites show an approximate correspondence to levels reached by the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku tsunami event. Combining this observation with local evidence of older tsunami events, e.g., the 1611 Keicho-Sanriku tsunami and the 869 Jogan tsunami, leads to the suggestion that century-scale repetition of very high-energy tsunami events constitutes a critical factor in long-term coastal erosion for northeastern Honshu, Japan. These preliminary observations are consistent with a threshold phenomenon, whereby the energy expenditures by the incidence tsunami waves must be high enough to exceed resistance factors imposed by vegetation-stabilized regolith on hillsides. When the threshold is exceeded, on the approximate order of once per century, catastrophic erosion and deposition are generated in the local zone of tsunami impact. These effects are all remarkably similar to what is observed for catastrophic fluvial erosion in bedrock channels (e.g., Baker, 1977). Reference: Baker, V.R. (1977) Stream channel response to floods with examples from central Texas, Geol. Soc. America Bull., 88, 1057 1070.

Baker, V. R.; Goto, K.; Komatsu, G.; Matsui, T.; Mcguire, L.; Oguchi, T.; Pelletier, J. D.

2011-12-01

315

Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing  

Science.gov (United States)

Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through (Synolakis et al., 2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165(11-12), 2197-2228), and with a Boussinesq model, to illustrate the role focusing can play for different initial conditions, and to show the robust nature of focusing with respect to dispersion. We also show how the focusing effect might have played a role in the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events, and also the 11 March 2011 Great Japan earthquake and tsunami. Our results strongly imply that focusing increases the shoreline amplification of the tsunami.; Schematic of focusing; initial displacement (upper left), wave evolution (upper right, lower left), maximum wave amplitude with focusing (lower right).

Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

2012-12-01

316

Introduction to "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World: Volume II. Tsunamis from 1755 to 2010"  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen papers on past and recent destructive tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World." Three papers discuss deep-sea (DART) and coastal tsunami observations, warning systems and risk management in the Pacific Ocean. Four papers examine the 1755 Lisbon, 1964 Alaska, 2003 Algeria, and 2011 Haiti tsunamis. Four more papers, as well as some papers in Volume I, report on various aspects of the 2010 Chile tsunami. Two papers present some results of field survey and modelling investigation of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, tsunami. Three papers report on modelling efforts of tsunami generation by earthquake and landslide, and of tsunami propagation. Finally, two papers discuss hazard assessment using a probabilistic approach.

Satake, Kenji; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Borrero, José C.

2013-09-01

317

MODELING OF THE 1755 LISBON TSUNAMI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The generation and propagation of the November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated tsunami is of current interest to the IOCARIBE Tsunami Scientific Steering Committee.The November 1, 1755 Lisbon earthquake generated a tsunami with a period of one hour and amplitudes of 20 meters at Lisbon and along the African and south European coasts, of 4 meters along the English coast, and of 7 meters at Saba in the Caribbean after 7 hours of travel. The modeling was performed using the SWAN code whi...

Mader, Charles L.

2001-01-01

318

NiMax system for hadronic event generators in HEP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have suggested a new approach to the development and use of Monte Carlo event generators in high-energy physics (HEP). It is a component approach, when a complex numerical model is composed of standard components. Our approach opens a way to organize a library of HEP model components and provides a great flexibility for the construction of very powerful and realistic numerical models. To support this approach we have designed the NiMax software system (framework) written in C++

319

Tsunami Hazard Evaluation for the East Coast of Korea by using Empirical Data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a tsunami hazard curve was determined for a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) induced tsunami event in Nuclear Power Plant site. A Tsunami catalogue was developed by using historical tsunami record which happen before 1900 and instrumental tsunami record after 1900. For the evaluation of return period of tsunami run-up height, power-law, uppertruncated power law and exponential function were considered for the assessment of regression curves and compared with each result. Although the total tsunami records were only 9 times at the east coast of Korea during tsunami catalogue, there was no such research like this about tsunami hazard curve evaluation and this research lay a cornerstone for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) in Korea

320

A FIELD SURVEY OF THE 2011 TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMI IN MIYAKO CITY, IWATE PREFECTURE  

Science.gov (United States)

A field survey of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami was conducted in Miyako city, Iwate prefecture. Tsunami height distribution and structural damages were discussed through survey results. The height of tsunami traces in Miyako ranged from 5-10 m of the inundation heights, 10-20 m of the runup heights. Although the flooded area of 2011 event is larger than the past tsunami events, the seawall along coastline worked the reduction effect of tsunami energy. Structures with reinforced concrete was no damage except for the case which drifting debris collided with structures. Also steel structures was no damage as long as a tsunami height does not exceed the height of structure.

Shigihara, Yoshinori; Arita, Mamoru; Hasebe, Masanobu; Okubo, Yosuke

 
 
 
 
321

Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation. Two of the LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) [1] and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) [2] could be emplaced in ``Unirea'' salt mine from Sl?nic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously [3]. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE (G_enerates E_vents for N_eutrino I_nteraction E_xperiments) [4]. GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.

Chesneanu, Daniela

2010-11-01

322

e+e- event generator EPOCS user's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPOCS(Electron POsitron Collision Simulator) is a Monte-Carlo event generator for high energy e+e- annihilation. This program generates events based on the standard model, i.e., quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and electro-weak theory. It works at the center-of-mass energy below W+W- production, i.e., in the energy region of TRISTAN, SLC and LEP. For these high energy machines one of the important subjects is the exploration for the top quark. The production and hadronization of the top quark is included in EPOCS. Besides the top quark, we expect 'new' physics in this high energy region. EPOCS has enough flexibility for users to cope with a new idea. Users can register a new particle, modify the built-in particle data, define new primary interactions and so on. The event generator has a number of parameters, both physical parameters and control parameters. Users can control most of these parameters in EPOCS at will. (author)

323

PROCESS MONITORING FOR SAFEGUARDS VIA EVENT GENERATION, INTEGRATION, AND INTERPRETATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a recognized safeguards benefit from using process monitoring (PM) on nuclear facilities to complement nuclear materials accountancy. We introduce a model-based approach for PM in which the assessment regarding the state of the monitored system is conducted at a system-centric level. The proposed architecture integrates both time-driven and event-driven data integration and analysis for decision-making. While the time-driven layers of the proposed architecture encompass more traditional PM methods based on time series data and analysis, the event-driven layers encompass operation monitoring methods based on discrete event data integration and analysis. By integrating process- and operation-related information and methodologies within an unified modeling and monitoring framework that includes not only current but also past plant behaviors, the task of anomaly detection is greatly improved because this decision-making approach can benefit from not only known time-series relationships among measured signals but also from known event sequence relationships among generated events. Building from the proposed system-centric PM architecture, we briefly introduce methods that can be used to implement its different components. The application of the proposed approach is then demonstrated via simulation experiments.

Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo

2010-07-01

324

Learning from Fukushima. A holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two devastating tsunamis in the 21st century were caused by large megathrust earthquakes on tectonic plate boundaries; the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 and the Great Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Both of these events have led to a focus on tsunamis caused by megathrusts when assessing risks to coastal nuclear power plants. From a longer time perspective, however, such earthquakes are not the only - or even the most significant - sources of large tsunamis. It is important that the key lesson from the impact of the Great Tohoku earthquake and associated tsunami on the Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant - that unexpected combinations of events can cause complete failure of defence in depth - is not lost by looking in too much detail at these particular incidents. Instead a wider assessment of events that can give rise to giant waves and major inundation should be considered. (author)

325

TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean...

Zygmunt Kowalik; Tatiana Proshutinsky; Andrey Proshutinsky

2006-01-01

326

Evaluation of tsunami vulnerability along northeast coast of India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 with a moment magnitude of 9.3 Mw caused colossal damage to the south-southeastern Indian coast and Andaman-Nicobar group of Islands. However, the northeastern coastline bordering the northwestern Bay of Bengal remained unaffected although a tidal station located in the region recorded the highest water level (~2.5 m) for the entire east coast of India on the eventful day. As a part of hazard mitigation and planning for the northeastern coast, four major settlements, viz., Gopalpur, Puri, Paradip and Digha were evaluated for tsunami vulnerability. Inundation and run-up scenarios were generated for Bay of Bengal earthquake sources such as Arakan-1762, Car Nicobar-1881, North Andaman-1941 and Sumatra 2004 using TUNAMI N2 model. The paper describes computed run-up heights and landward inundation for 20-25 km coastal stretch with different geomorphologies and topographical characteristics. Simulation results indicate that the model is able to generate a comparable run-up of 2-4.5 m for 2004 Sumatra event for Paradip region while at other locations of the coastline, it was largely unnoticed as the inundation remained within the beach limit; however water entered inland mainly through the waterways and inundated low-lying areas. It is concluded that northeast coast of India is relatively safe from the tsunami originating in Bay of Bengal region.

Mishra, Pravakar; Usha, Tune; Ramanamurthy, M. V.

2014-05-01

327

Numerical modeling of tsunami waves generated by the flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands): Tsunami source and near field effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we study waves generated by the potential collapse of the west flank of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV; La Palma, Canary Island, Spain) through numerical simulations performed in two stages: (i) the initial slide motion and resulting free surface elevation are first calculated using a 3D Navier-Stokes model; (ii) generated waves are then input into a 2D (horizontal) Boussinesq model to further simulate propagation to the nearby islands. Unlike in earlier work on CVV, besides a similar extreme slide volume scenario of 450 km3, in our simulations: (i) we consider several slide scenarios featuring different volumes (i.e., 20, 40, 80 km3), which partly result from a geotechnical slope stability analysis; (ii) we use a more accurate bathymetry; and (iii) an incompressible version of a multiple-fluid/material Navier-Stokes model. We find wave trains for each scenario share common features in terms of wave directivity, frequency, and time evolution, but maximum elevations near CVV significantly differ, ranging from 600 to 1200 m (for increasing slide volume). Additionally, our computations show that significant energy transfer from slide to waves only lasts for a short duration (order 200 s), which justifies concentrating our best modeling efforts on the early slide motion phase. The anticipated consequences of such wave trains on La Palma and other Canary Islands are assessed in detail in the paper.

Abadie, S. M.; Harris, J. C.; Grilli, S. T.; Fabre, R.

2012-05-01

328

The origin of the 1883 Krakatau tsunamis  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hypotheses proposed to explain possible causes of the Aug. 27, 1883 Krakatau tsunamis were analyzed: (1) large-scale collapse of the northern part of Krakatau island (Verbeek, 1884), (2) submarine explosion (Yokoyama, 1981), and (3) emplacement of pyroclastic flows (Latter, 1981). A study of timings of the air and sea waves between Krakatau and Batavia, showing that no precise sea wave travel times can be obtained, and a study of the tide and pressure gage records made on August 27, indicating that the air and sea waves were propagated from the focus of eruption on Krakatau island, suggest that neither hypothesis 2 or 3 are sufficiently substantiated. In addition, the event that caused the major air and sea wave was preceded (by 40 min) by a similar, smaller event which generated the second largest tsunami and an air wave. It is concluded that the most likely mechanism for the eruption is a Mt. St. Helens scenario, close to the hypothesis of Verbeek, in which collapse of part of the original volcanic edifice propagated a major explosion.

Francis, P. W.

1985-01-01

329

Far-field tsunami risk from mega-thrust earthquakes in the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

In the wake of the 2004 Great Sumatran tsunami, we present numerical simulations of a number of scenarios for tsunamis generated by potential mega-earthquakes on the shores of the Indian Ocean. Our sources include (1) a repeat of the 1833 Southern Sumatra earthquake estimated to have reached magnitude 9 and whose probability of reccurence is perceived as enhanced by stress transfer arguments; (2) a major event along the Andaman-Burma plate boundary, recently identified as the locus of a large earthquake in 1762 [Sieh, pers.comm.; also experiencing stress-transfer from the northern end of the 2004 Sumatran rupture]; (3) a magnitude 8.5 earthquake in the Makran, modeled as simultaneously rupturing the faults of the 1851, 1945, and 1765 events. We use the model MOST to calculate far-field evolution of free- surface wave generated by transfering the seafloor displacement directly to the ocean surface. MOST has been repeatedly shown to model the 2004 megatsunami propagation realistically. We also examine the robustness of our simulations with respect to variations in source parameters, such as latitude/longitude, focal mechanism and heterogeneity of slip distribution on the fault plane; we conclude that the far-field evolution is generally insensitive to this level of details, as long as the integrated parameter, i.e., the seismic moment, remains constant. However, the presence of very shallow bathymetry over the source region does substantially reduce the tsunami excitation in the far-field, as illustrated during the 2005 Nias earthquake; for the same reason, the tsunami from the Andaman/Burma source (2) attenuates rapidly as it propagates outside the Bay of Bengal. By contrast, the South Sumatra scenario (1) generates a tsunami with stronger impact than in 2004 on the SW Indian Ocean Islands of the Mascarenes and on Madagascar. The Makran tsunami (3) strongly affects Western India, the Maldives, and the Seychelles, as well as the Kerguelen Islands.

Synolakis, C.; Okal, E. A.

2006-12-01

330

A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

2014-11-01

331

Dispersive mudslide-induced tsunamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nonlinear nested model for mudslide-induced tsunamis is proposed in which three phases of the life of the wave, i.e. the generation, far-field propagation and costal run-up are described by means of different mathematical models, that are coupled through appropriate matching procedures. The generation and run-up dynamics are simulated through a nonlinear shallow-water model with movable lateral boundaries: in the generation region two active layers are present, the lower one describing the slide descending on a sloping topography. For the intermediate phase, representing wave propagation far from the generation region, the hydrostatic assumption is not assumed as appropriate in general and, therefore, a nonlinear model allowing for weak phase dispersion, namely a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, is used. This choice is made in order to assess the relevance of dispersive features such as solitary waves and dispersive tails. It is shown that in some realistic circumstances dispersive mudslide-induced tsunami waves can be produced over relatively short, distances. In such cases the use of a hydrostatic model throughout the whole tsunami history turns out to give erroneous results. In particular, when solitary waves are generated during the tsunami propagation in the open sea, the resulting run-up process yields peculiar wave forms leading to amplified coastal inundations with respect to a mere hydrostatic context.

A. Rubino

1998-01-01

332

Tsunami Forecast by Joint Inversion of Real-Time Tsunami Waveforms and Seismic or GPS Data: Application to the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model-data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

Wei, Yong; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

2014-12-01

333

State Emergency Response and Field Observation Activities in California (USA) during the March 11, 2011, Tohoku Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

This poster will present an overview of successes and challenges observed by the authors during this major tsunami response event. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami was the most costly to affect California since the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and ensuing tsunami. The Tohoku tsunami caused at least $50 million in damage to public facilities in harbors and marinas along the coast of California, and resulted in one fatality. It was generated by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake which occurred at 9:46PM PST on Thursday, March 10, 2011 in the sea off northern Japan. The tsunami was recorded at tide gages monitored by the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), which projected tsunami surges would reach California in approximately 10 hours. At 12:51AM on March 11, 2011, based on forecasted tsunami amplitudes, the WCATWC placed the California coast north of Point Conception (Santa Barbara County) in a Tsunami Warning, and the coast south of Point Conception to the Mexican border in a Tsunami Advisory. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) activated two Regional Emergency Operation Centers (REOCs) and the State Operation Center (SOC). The California Geological Survey (CGS) deployed a field team which collected data before, during and after the event through an information clearinghouse. Conference calls were conducted hourly between the WCATWC and State Warning Center, as well as with emergency managers in the 20 coastal counties. Coordination focused on local response measures, public information messaging, assistance needs, evacuations, emergency shelters, damage, and recovery issues. In the early morning hours, some communities in low lying areas recommended evacuation for their citizens, and the fishing fleet at Crescent City evacuated to sea. The greatest damage occurred in the harbors of Crescent City and Santa Cruz. As with any emergency, there were lessons learned and important successes in managing this event. Forecasts by the WCATWC were highly accurate. Exercises and workshops have enhanced communications between state and local agencies, and emergency managers are more educated about what to expect. Areas for improvement include keeping people out of the hazard area; educating the non-English speaking community; and reinforcing the long duration and unpredictable peak damaging waves of these events to emergency managers. The Governor proclaimed a state of emergency in six counties and the President declared a major disaster on April 18, 2011, allowing federal assistance to support repairs and economic recovery. Detailed evaluation of local maritime response activities, harbor damage, and measured and observed tsunami current velocity data will help the California Tsunami Program develop improved tsunami hazard maps and guidance for maritime communities. The state program will continue to emphasize the importance of both tsunami warnings and advisories, the unpredictable nature of each tsunami, and encourage public understanding of tsunamis to prepare and protect themselves in the future.

Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Goltz, J.; Fenton, J.; Long, K.; Dengler, L.; Rosinski, A.; California Tsunami Program

2011-12-01

334

Application of new numerical methods for near-real time tsunami height prediction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interactive tsunami modeling system (ITMS) for the numerical simulation of tsunami generation and propagation in the ocean with real bathymetry has been elaborated at Novosibirsk Computing Center. It was developed to be a simulation subsystem within regional tsunami warning center's software, so the following factors have been taken into account: 1) all numerical models in the system are to be united by an easy-to-use graphical interface; 2) the system should work in two modes - pre-event mode, and real-time mode; 3) the output of computations in the real-time mode should appear on the screen during computations, not waiting for the end of modeling; 4) the results of simulation should be suitable for the operative analysis and decision making. 3 refs, 7 figs

335

Distribution of runup heights of the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

A massive earthquake with magnitude 9.3 occurred on December 26, 2004 off the northern Sumatra generated huge tsunami waves affected many coastal countries in the Indian Ocean. A number of field surveys have been performed after this tsunami event; in particular, several surveys in the south/east coast of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Malaysia, and Thailand have been organized by the Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers from January to August 2005. Spatial distribution of the tsunami runup is used to analyze the distribution function of the wave heights on different coasts. Theoretical interpretation of this distribution is associated with random coastal bathymetry and coastline led to the log-normal functions. Observed data also are in a very good agreement with log-normal distribution confirming the important role of the variable ocean bathymetry in the formation of the irregular wave height distribution along the coasts.

Choi, Byung Ho; Hong, Sung Jin; Pelinovsky, Efim

2006-07-01

336

A program to acquire deep ocean tsunami measurements in the North Pacific  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deep ocean tsunami measurements are needed to provide open ocean boundary conditions for testing numerical models in hindcast studies, and for improving our understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Jacob (1984) has identified a portion of the Aleutian Trench which includes the Shumagin Island group as a seismic gap (the Shumagin Gap); he has computed estimates which indicate that the probability of a great earthquake occurrence (Mw > 7.8) is significantly higher for this region than any other in the U.S. Because tsunamigenic earthquakes along a major portion of the seismically active Aleutian trench threaten Hawaii and the U.S. west coast, and because a large tsunami is possible in the event of a great earthquake in the Shumagin Gap, this region has become the focus of a long-term monitoring program by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

337

Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability. PMID:24601922

Soulé, Bastien

2014-04-01

338

Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

2010-08-01

339

Modeling of the 2011 Tohoku Near-field Tsunami from Finite-fault Inversion of Seismic Waves  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mw 9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake ruptured the megathrust fault offshore of northeastern Honshu and generated a devastating near-field tsunami that caused over 24,000 casualties in Japan. While both the earthquake and tsunami caused extensive infrastructure damage in the region, most of the casualties were caused by inundation of coastal towns and villages. The extensive global seismic networks, dense geodetic instruments, well-positioned water level stations, and comprehensive post-event surveys along the northeast Japan coasts provide datasets of unprecedented quality and coverage for investigation of the tsunami source mechanism and near-field wave characteristics. We utilize the shock-capturing, dispersive wave model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of Ocean WAVEs) to reconstruct the tsunami from a finite-fault solution based on teleseismic P-wave inversion. The depth-integrated model describes dispersive waves through non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for tsunami generation from time histories of seafloor deformation and transfer of kinetic energy to the water mass. These model capabilities are important for the timing and evolution of the tsunami waves near the earthquake source. The finite-fault model produces seafloor uplift patches at the epicenter and near the trench that are crucial in reproducing the near-field tsunami recorded by coastal and deep-water buoys around the source as well as runup variation along east Japan coasts. The model tsunami allows investigation of the generation mechanism in terms of the rupture process and the ocean wave dynamics over the continental margin. A confluence of physical processes associated with the rupture and the bathymetry and topography led to the devastating impact of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami along the northeastern Japan coasts. The large slip near the trench produced a long-crested wave directed toward the continental shelf. The superposition of this long-crested wave with the radial wave from the epicentral vicinity produced 6 m of recorded wave amplitude, and together with local topographic effects, caused large runup heights on the rugged coasts of Iwate. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes on the continental shelf and areas prone to tsunami hazards. Coupling of coastal resonance at Sendai Bay with large-scale standing edge waves over the continental margin produced a series of large-amplitude waves that result in the extensive inundation on the Sendai plain. This case study has improved our understanding of near-field tsunami waves and validated the modeling capability to predict their impacts for hazard mitigation and emergency management.

Yamazaki, Y.; Cheung, K.; Lay, T.

2012-12-01

340

Foam: A General-Purpose Cellular Monte Carlo Event Generator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A general purpose, self-adapting, Monte Carlo (MC) event generator (simulator) is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be $n$-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called ``foam'', is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be di...

Jadach, S.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

2011-11-01

342

The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis)...

Dall Osso, F.; Dominey-howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

2014-01-01

343

Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Method and Application to an NPP in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period was evaluated with empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipment and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in a Nuclear Power Plant. For the system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event was developed according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real nuclear power plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which is located on the east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) working procedure was established and an example calculation was performed for one nuclear power plant in Korea

344

Stakeholder-driven geospatial modeling for assessing tsunami vertical-evacuation strategies in the U.S. Pacific Northwest  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent tsunami disasters, such as the 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events, demonstrate the significant life loss that can occur from tsunamis. Many coastal communities in the world are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards that may inundate low-lying areas only minutes after a tsunami begins. Geospatial integration of demographic data and hazard zones has identified potential impacts on populations in communities susceptible to near-field tsunami threats. Pedestrian-evacuation models build on these geospatial analyses to determine if individuals in tsunami-prone areas will have sufficient time to reach high ground before tsunami-wave arrival. Areas where successful evacuations are unlikely may warrant vertical-evacuation (VE) strategies, such as berms or structures designed to aid evacuation. The decision of whether and where VE strategies are warranted is complex. Such decisions require an interdisciplinary understanding of tsunami hazards, land cover conditions, demography, community vulnerability, pedestrian-evacuation models, land-use and emergency-management policy, and decision science. Engagement with the at-risk population and local emergency managers in VE planning discussions is critical because resulting strategies include permanent structures within a community and their local ownership helps ensure long-term success. We present a summary of an interdisciplinary approach to assess VE options in communities along the southwest Washington coast (U.S.A.) that are threatened by near-field tsunami hazards generated by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes. Pedestrian-evacuation models based on an anisotropic approach that uses path-distance algorithms were merged with population data to forecast the distribution of at-risk individuals within several communities as a function of travel time to safe locations. A series of community-based workshops helped identify potential VE options in these communities, collectively known as "Project Safe Haven" at the State of Washington Emergency Management Division. Models of the influence of stakeholder-driven VE options identified changes in the type and distribution of at-risk individuals. Insights from VE use and performance as an aid to evacuations from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami helped to inform the meetings and the analysis. We developed geospatial tools to automate parts of the pedestrian-evacuation models to support the iterative process of developing VE options and forecasting changes in population exposure. Our summary presents the interdisciplinary effort to forecast population impacts from near-field tsunami threats and to develop effective VE strategies to minimize fatalities in future events.

Wood, N. J.; Schmidtlein, M.; Schelling, J.; Jones, J.; Ng, P.

2012-12-01

345

MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons. The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island.

R. Paris

2014-05-01

346

Tsunami diaries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inspired by recent discussion on how Serbian media influenced allegedly indifferent reaction of the public to the aftermath of tsunami, this paper examines the role of electronic media in Serbia, television in particular, in regard to their function as a central communication channel for acquiring knowledge about world surroundings. With a premise of having cultural and discursive power, Dnevnik, the central news program of the Serbian public broadcaster, is taken as a paradigmatic media text for analysis in order to examine ways in which global affairs and phenomena are portrayed and structured in television representation of reality. It is suggested that it is fair to conclude that world affairs are marginalized within the representational frame of news broadcasts, and that the media discourse could be depicted as dominantly introverted when it comes to global flow of information and cultural meanings, which is significant regarding cultural perception of world realities among Serbian audiences.

Radovi? Sr?an

2005-01-01

347

Allens Temporal Algebra Used Between Login –Logout Event Generation Probability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In any system like small or large that normal processes consists of login and logout as a main process .In between that two main process lot of sub process like system wise and user wise will be generated according to user to user or os to os .Let we find the probability of usage with unknown attack solutions. As usual system process are called Internal and induce or connected processes are external.By using allen algebra we can analysis the temporal event. Auditing provides a way for an administrator to detect an attack that has already occurred or is in progress. In addition, auditing can help a developer to debug security-related problems. For example, if an error in the configuration of the authorization or checking policy accidentally denies access to an authorized user, a developer can quickly discover and isolate the cause of this error by examining the event log. Good system and network security starts with a good understanding of an organization’s operating environment. Organizations that have a good understanding of their operating environment and that environment’s limitations and vulnerabilities – should be able to secure their system relatively easily. Maintaining a high level of system security, however, is an on-going process that requires continued vigilance and solid organizational policies and procedures. Pro-active system administrators not only keep their systems patched, but also continuously monitor system and network logs and system resource usage reports for interesting events.

S.Murugan

2011-02-01

348

IMPACT OF TSUNAMI 2004 IN COASTAL VILLAGES OF NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACTA quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Nagapattinam coast of southern India on December 26, 2004 at around 9.00 am (IST. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats, prawn culture ponds, soil and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The study was carried out in the Tsunami affected villages in the coastal Nagapattinam with the help of remote sensing and geographical information science tools. Through the use of the IRS 1D PAN and LISS 3 merged data and quick bird images, it was found that 1,320 ha of agricultural and non-agricultural lands were affected by the tsunami. The lands were affected by soil erosion, salt deposition, water logging and other deposited sediments and debris. The maximum run-up height of 6.1 m and the maximum seawater inundation distance of 2.2 km were observed at Vadakkupoyyur village in coastal Nagapattinam.Pre and Post Tsunami survey on soil quality showed an increase in pH and EC values, irrespectiveof distance from the sea. The water reaction was found to be in alkaline range (> 8.00 in most of the -1wells. Salinity levels are greater than 4 dS m in all the wells except the ring well. The effect of summer rainfall on soil and water quality showed the dilution of soluble salts. Pumping of water has reduced the salinity levels in the well water samples and as well as in the open ponds. Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent to know the relative tsunami hazard for this coastal Nagapattinam. So, the Tsunami hazard maps are generated using a geographical information systems (GIS approach and the results showed 20.6 per cent, 63.7 per cent and 15.2 per cent of the study area fall under high hazard, medium hazard and low hazard category respectively.

R. Kumaraperumal

2007-01-01

349

Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Recordings Of The 29 September 2009 Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

On 29 September 2009 a M8.3 earthquake on the Australian-Pacific plate boundary generated a tsunami that caused widespread damage in Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. Peak to trough wave heights of 314 cm were recorded 250 km from the epicenter at Pago-Pago, American Samoa approximately 20 minutes after the event. NOAA's West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center predicted the tsunami would arrive at Tofino, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, at 05:12 UTC, 30 September 2009. The Plate Boundary Observatory has installed 74 borehole strainmeters along the western United States for the purpose of recording short-term strain transients associated with plate boundary deformation. Two of these strainmeters, Ucluelet and Bamfield, are located on the west coast of Vancouver Island within a few hundred meters of the shore. A third, Port Alberni, is located at the eastern end of Port Alberni Inlet, ~ 50 km inland. The Ucluelet and Bamfield strainmeters recorded signals associated with the arriving tsunami at times consistent with that recorded by tide gauges at Tofino and Bamfield, ~05:45 UTC. A much smaller signal was recorded about 24 minutes later at Port Alberni. The tsunami strain signals were below the detection level of PBO GPS on the Oregon coast and seismometers in the strainmeter boreholes. Strainmeters, or lower coast tiltmeters, could potentially, provide a reliable onshore detection of a tsunami. In this presentation we document the nature and frequency content of the tsunami signal as recorded by PBO strainmeters and compare these strain measurements against the crustal loading signature predicted by water height changes at nearby tide gauges

Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Borsa, Adrian; Jackson, Mike

2010-05-01

350

Plate Boundary Observatory Strain Recordings of the February 27, 2010, M8.8 Chile Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

In the hours that followed the February 27, 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake a tsunami swept across the Pacific Ocean causing alerts to be issued from Antarctica to Alaska. PBO borehole strainmeters, at Ucluelet, Bamfield and Port Alberni, on Vancouver Island, Canada, recorded the arrival of the tsunami along the British Columbia coastline. In this presentation we describe the nature of the strain signal generated by the February 27, 2010 tsunami and compare it to seismic, GPS, pore-pressure, barometric pressure and tide gauge measurements made at or near the PBO borehole installations. The Ucluelet and Bamfield strainmeters, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, recorded the arriving waves ~ 16.5 hours after the M8.8 earthquake. The Port Alberni strainmeter, located on the northeast end of Alberni Inlet, a 1-2 km wide and 40 km long fjord recorded the first waves ~45 minutes later. The Ucluelet and Bamfield strainmeter arrival times are consistent with tide gauge measurements made at Tofino, 30 km north of Ucluelet. Areal strain amplitudes of up to 15 to 20 nanostrain were recorded at the three strainmeters and significant tsunami oscillations persisted for days. A PBO strainmeter 2.5 km from the Oregon coast did record a tsunami related signal though it was much smaller than at the three Vancouver Island sites. The Oregon site thus provides information on the attenuation of the signal with distance from the coastline. The ability of the strainmeters to record the tsunami signals following the 2010 M8.8 Chile and 2009 M8.1 Samoa events suggest they, or possibly less costly borehole tiltmeters, could be used as land-based instruments to record tsunami arrival times and provide estimates of wave heights.

Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, Dave; Borsa, Adrian; Jackson, Mike

2010-05-01

351

Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)  

Science.gov (United States)

HYDJET++ is a Monte Carlo event generator for simulation of relativistic heavy ion AA collisions considered as a superposition of the soft, hydro-type state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. This model is the development and continuation of HYDJET event generator (Lokhtin and Snigirev, EPJC 45 (2006) 211). The main program is written in the object-oriented C++ language under the ROOT environment. The hard part of HYDJET++ is identical to the hard part of Fortran-written HYDJET and it is included in the generator structure as a separate directory. The soft part of HYDJET++ event is the "thermal" hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parameterization of relativistic hydrodynamics with preset freeze-out conditions. It includes the longitudinal, radial and elliptic flow effects and the decays of hadronic resonances. The corresponding fast Monte Carlo simulation procedure, C++ code FAST MC (Amelin et al., PRC 74 (2006) 064901; PRC 77 (2008) 014903) is adapted to HYDJET++. It is designed for studying the multi-particle production in a wide energy range of heavy ion experimental facilities: from FAIR and NICA to RHIC and LHC. Program summaryProgram title: HYDJET++, version 2 Catalogue identifier: AECR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 100 387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 797 019 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (however there is a Fortran-written part which is included in the generator structure as a separate directory) Computer: Hardware independent (both C++ and Fortran compilers and ROOT environment [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) should be installed) Operating system: Linux (Scientific Linux, Red Hat Enterprise, FEDORA, etc.) RAM: 50 MBytes (determined by ROOT requirements) Classification: 11.2 External routines: ROOT [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) Nature of problem: The experimental and phenomenological study of multi-particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to provide valuable information on the dynamical behavior of strongly-interacting matter in the form of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) [2-4], as predicted by lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Ongoing and future experimental studies in a wide range of heavy ion beam energies require the development of new Monte Carlo (MC) event generators and improvement of existing ones. Especially for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), implying very high parton and hadron multiplicities, one needs fast (but realistic) MC tools for heavy ion event simulations [5-7]. The main advantage of MC technique for the simulation of high-multiplicity hadroproduction is that it allows a visual comparison of theory and data, including if necessary the detailed detector acceptances, responses and resolutions. The realistic MC event generator has to include maximum possible number of observable physical effects, which are important to determine the event topology: from the bulk properties of soft hadroproduction (domain of low transverse momenta p?1 GeV/c) such as collective flows, to hard multi-parton production in hot and dense QCD-matter, which reveals itself in the spectra of high- p particles and hadronic jets. Moreover, the role of hard and semi-hard particle production at LHC can be significant even for the bulk properties of created matter, and hard probes of QGP became clearly observable in various new channels [8-11]. In the majority of the available MC heavy ion event generators, the simultaneous treatment of collective flow effects for soft hadroproduction and hard multi-parton in-medium production (medium-induced partonic rescattering and energy loss, so-called "jet quenching") is lacking. Thus, in order

Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

2009-05-01

352

Neutrino-Argon Interaction with GENIE Event Generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutrinos are very special particles, have only weak interactions, except gravity, and are produced in very different processes in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Neutrinos are, also, messengers from astrophysical objects, as well as relics from Early Universe. Therefore, its can give us information on processes happening in the Universe, during its evolution, which cannot be studied otherwise. The underground instrumentation including a variety of large and very large detectors, thanks to technical breakthroughs, have achieved new fundamental results like the solution of the solar neutrino puzzle and the evidence for Physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary interactions in the neutrino sector with non-vanishing neutrino masses and lepton flavour violation.Two of the LAGUNA(Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics) detectors, namely: GLACIER (Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment) and LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astrophysics) could be emplaced in 'Unirea' salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. A detailed analysis of the conditions and advantages is necessary. A few results have been presented previously. In the present work, we propose to generate events and compute the cross sections for interactions between neutrino and Argon-40, to estimate possible detection performances and event types. For doing this, we use the code GENIE(G lowbar enerates E lowbar vents for N lowbar eutrino I lowbar nteraction E lowbar xperiments). GENIE ar nteraction E lowbar xperiments). GENIE Code is an Object-Oriented Neutrino MC Generator supported and developed by an international collaboration of neutrino interaction experts.