WorldWideScience

Sample records for tsunami event generated

  1. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  2. Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism (e.g., earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, asteroid impact) is also specified. Observations (grain size, sedimentary structure, bed thickness, number of layers, etc.) are stored along with the conclusions drawn from the evidence by the author (wave height, flow depth, flow velocity, number of waves, etc.). Geologic time periods in the GTD_DB range from Precambrian to Quaternary, but the majority (70%) are from the Quaternary period. This period includes events such as: the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis, the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, the A.D. 79 Vesuvius tsunami, the 3500 BP Santorini caldera collapse and tsunami, and the 7000 BP Storegga landslide-generated tsunami. Prior to the Quaternary period, the majority of the paleotsunamis are due to impact events such as: the Tertiary Chesapeake Bay Bolide, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) Boundary, Cretaceous Manson, and Devonian Alamo. The tsunami deposits are integrated with the historical tsunami event database where applicable. For example, users can search for articles describing deposits related to the 1755 Lisbon tsunami and view those records, as well as link to the related historic event record. The data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and display data (selection forms, Web Map Services, and Web Feature Services).

  3. Numerical Modelling of a Landslide-generated Tsunami: The 1979 Nice Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assier-Rzadkieaicz, S.; Heinrich, P.; Sabatier, P. C.; Savoye, B.; Bourillet, J. F.

    On the 16th of October 1979, a part of the Nice new harbour extension, close to the Nice international airport (French Riviera), slumped into the Mediterranean Sea during landfilling operations. A submarine slide with initial volume close to seashore of about 10 millions m3, which could have evolved later into an avalanche, was followed by a small tsunami, noticed by several witnesses in the ``Baie des Anges.'' The maximum tsunami effects were observed 10 km from the slide location near Antibes city, which was inundated. Previous analyses used rough approximate methods and produced models which did not conveniently fit data. In this paper, both the slide and the generated water waves are numerically simulated on the basis of the shallow water approximation. The landslide is assimilated to a heavy Newtonian homogeneous fluid downslope under gravity. Water waves are generated by sea-bottom displacements induced by the landslide. Taking into account a very accurate multibeam bathymetric map, the Nice slide of 10 millions m3 is simulated by this model. The numerical results are generally consistent with the observed hydraulic local effects in front of the Nice airport, however they are not in agreement in the far field. A larger and deeper landslide 2 km off Nice airport is tested to quantitatively study the effects of the landslide volume on water waves generation.

  4. Landslide tsunami case studies using a Boussinesq model and a fully nonlinear tsunami generation model

    OpenAIRE

    P. Watts; Grilli, S.T.; Kirby, J. T.; Fryer, G. J.; Tappin, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of landslide tsunamis require integration of marine geology data and interpretations into numerical simulations of tsunami attack. Many landslide tsunami generation and propagation models have been proposed in recent time, further motivated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea event. However, few of these models have proven capable of integrating the best available marine geology data and interpretations into successful case studies that reproduce all available tsunami observation...

  5. Mass transport events and their tsunami hazard

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Tappin

    2010-01-01

    Mass transport events, such as those from submarine landslides, volcanic flank collapse at convergent margins and on oceanic islands, and subaerial failure are reviewed and found to be all potential tsunami sources. The intensity and frequency of the tsunamis resulting is dependent upon the source. Most historical records are of devastating tsunamis from volcanic collapse at convergent margins. Although the database is limited, tsunamis sourced from submarine landslides and collapse on oceani...

  6. Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems. PMID:24399356

  7. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip d...

  8. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solut...

  9. Nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of long gravitational surface water wave generation by high-frequency bottom oscillations in a water layer of constant depth is investigated analytically. The connection between the surface wave amplitude and the parameters of bottom oscillations and source length is investigated.

  10. On the modelling of tsunami generation and tsunami inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Frédéric; O'Brien, Laura; Renzi, Emiliano; Stefanakis, Themistoklis

    2012-01-01

    While the propagation of tsunamis is well understood and well simulated by numerical models, there are still a number of unanswered questions related to the generation of tsunamis or the subsequent inundation. We review some of the basic generation mechanisms as well as their simulation. In particular, we present a simple and computationally inexpensive model that describes the seabed displacement during an underwater earthquake. This model is based on the finite fault solution for the slip distribution under some assumptions on the kinematics of the rupturing process. We also consider an unusual source for tsunami generation: the sinking of a cruise ship. Then we review some aspects of tsunami run-up. In particular, we explain why the first wave of a tsunami is sometimes less devastating than the subsequent waves. A resonance effect can boost the waves that come later. We also look at a particular feature of the 11 March 2011 tsunami in Japan - the formation of macro-scale vortices - and show that these macr...

  11. Historical and paleo-tsunami deposits during the last 4000 years and their correlations with historical tsunami events in Koyadori on the Sanriku Coast, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Daisuke; Miyauchi, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    Large tsunamis occurring throughout the past several hundred years along the Sanriku Coast on the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan have been documented and observed. However, the risk of large tsunamis like the tsunami generated by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake could not be evaluated from previous studies, because these studies lacked evidence of historical and paleo-tsunami deposits on the coastline. Thus, we first identified event deposits, which are candidates for tsunami deposits, from excavating surveys conducted on the coastal marsh in Koyadori on the Sanriku Coast, northeastern Japan. Second, we determined the physicochemical sediment properties of the deposits (roundness of grains, color, wet and dry densities, and loss on ignition) and established their geochronology by radiocarbon dating and tephra analysis. Third, we identified event deposits as tsunami deposits, based on their sedimentary features and origin, sedimentary environment, paleo-shoreline, and landowner interviews. In this study, we report 11 tsunami deposits (E1-E11) during the past 4000 years, of which E1, E2, E3, and E4 were correlated with the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, the 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku tsunami, and the 869 Jogan tsunami, respectively. From age data and the number of tsunami deposits in the trench, we estimated that tsunamis larger than the 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunami occur and hit the study area on average every 290-390 years. However, historical tsunami correlations revealed variable tsunami occurrence, indicating diverse tsunami generation and/or the combination of several types of large earthquakes from different sources around the Japan Trench.

  12. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

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    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the overlying plate. The inter-plate tectonic interaction and deformation along these marginal boundaries result in moderate seismic and volcanic events that can generate tsunamis by a number of different mechanisms. The active geo-dynamic processes have created the Lesser Antilles, an arc of small islands with volcanoes characterized by both effusive and explosive activity. Eruption mechanisms of these Caribbean volcanoes are complex and often anomalous. Collapses of lava domes often precede major eruptions, which may vary in intensity from Strombolian to Plinian. Locally catastrophic, short-period tsunami-like waves can be generated directly by lateral, direct or channelized volcanic blast episodes, or in combination with collateral air pressure perturbations, nuéss ardentes, pyroclastic flows, lahars, or cascading debris avalanches. Submarine volcanic caldera collapses can also generate locally destructive tsunami waves. Volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean Region have unstable flanks. Destructive local tsunamis may be generated from aerial and submarine volcanic edifice mass edifice flank failures, which may be triggered by volcanic episodes, lava dome collapses, or simply by gravitational instabilities. The present report evaluates volcanic mechanisms, resulting flank failure processes and their potential for tsunami generation. More specifically, the report evaluates recent volcanic eruption mechanisms of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, of Mt. Pelée on Martinique, of Soufriere on St. Vincent and of the Kick’em Jenny underwater volcano near Grenada and provides an overall risk assessment of tsunami generation from volcanic sources in the Caribbean region.

  13. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting shoreline wave energy controlled primarily by distance from the landslide and elevation above the lake surface. They are further affected by shoreline gradient, orientation, and substrate. Vegetation trimlines are the most obvious evidence of landslide-generated tsunamis, but they persist only until mature forest becomes reestablished. Erosional scarps in coarse-grained unconsolidated sediments may persist longer, but after lakeshores become revegetated can be detected only with appropriately processed LiDAR data or detailed field surveys. Our observations at Chehalis Lake provide insight into landslide-generated tsunami hazards. Shoreline geomorphic evidence, in conjunction with lake-side landslide scars, facilitates identification of water bodies that have been affected by landslide-generated tsunamis in recent centuries. Geomorphic mapping such as that completed at Chehalis Lake may help identify potential landslide sources and improve understanding of nearshore tsunami hydrodynamics, thus aiding in site-specific hazard analysis. It also provides detailed data for calibrating and validating landslide-generated tsunami models.

  14. Detailed analysis of tsunami waveforms generated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Tanioka; Seno, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 1946 Aleutian earthquake was a typical tsunami earthquake which generated abnormally larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. Previously, Johnson and Satake (1997) estimated the fault model of this earthquake using the tsunami waveforms observed at tide gauges. However, they did not model the second pulse of the tsunami at Honolulu although that was much larger than the first pulse. In this paper, we numerically computed the tsunami waveforms using the linear Boussinesq...

  15. Analytical investigation on tsunamis generated by submarine slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bortolucci

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsunamis induced by landslides are a topic on which growing attention is being paid especially under the pressure of recent events in which movement of underwater masses have been recognised to be the certain or likely cause of the observed tsunami. Here analytical methods and idealised cases are used to investigate tsunami generation by submarine slides that undergo negligible deformation during their motion, such as slumps. The general solution of the 1D Cauchy linear problem for long water waves is specialised to deal with rigid bodies and is used systematically to explore the main characteristics of the generated waves. Relationships between body motion, that is prescribed in terms of the slide Froude number, and wave pattern, wave amplitude and wave energy are studied in dimensionless space. Wave generation in various flow conditions (from subcritical to supercritical is handled, though most attention is given to analysing tsunamis induced by submarine slides at subcritical speed which are by far the most common cases. From numerical experiments it is found that good estimates of the tsunami wave amplitude can be calculated by means of simple expressions based on the maximum value and on the average value of the Froude number during the main generation phase.

  16. Characteristics of tsunamis generated by 3D deformable granular landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.; McFall, B.

    2010-12-01

    Landslides can trigger tsunamis with locally high amplitudes and runup, which can cause devastating effects in the near field region. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1998 Papua New Guinea and 2006 Java tsunamis are reminders of the hazards associated with impulse waves. Tsunamis generated by granular landslides were studied in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU) based on the generalized Froude similarity. A novel pneumatic landslide generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Granular materials were used to model deformable landslides. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), multiple above and underwater video cameras, multiple acoustic transducer arrays (MTA), as well as resistance wave and runup gauges were applied. Tsunami wave generation and propagation is studied off a hill slope, in fjords and around curved headlands. The wave generation was characterized by an extremely unsteady three phase flow consisting of the slide granulate, water and air entrained into the flow. Landslide deformation is quantified and the slide kinematics with reference to slide surface velocity distribution and slide front velocity is obtained. Empirical equations for predicting the wave amplitude, period and wavelength are obtained. The generated waves depend on determined non-dimensional landslide and water body parameters such as the slide Froude number and relative slide shape at impact, among others. Attenuation functions of the leading wave crest amplitude, the lateral wave runup on the hill slope, the wave length and the time period were obtained to describe the wave behavior in the near field and to quantify the wave amplitude decay away from the landslide source. The measured wave celerity of the leading wave corresponds well to the solitary wave speed while the trailing waves are considerably slower in propagation. The individual waves in the wave train span from shallow to deep water depth regime. The energy conversion between landslide and waves is lower compared with 2D and solid block landslides due to radial spread of unidirectional landslide energy by the wave front. The slide characteristics measured in the experiment provide the landslide source for numerical landslide tsunami modeling. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve the validation and advancement of 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models. Landslide impact and tsunami generation (Photo credit: Devin K. Daniels)

  17. Tsunami Research Status in IAEA after Fukushima Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11th, 2011, a tremendous earthquake and tsunami occurred on the east coast of Japan. This 9.0 magnitude earthquake was the fifth greatest earthquake ever experienced on the planet. The most remarkable problem was that the Fukishima NPP sites. After Japan earthquake, many international researches about tsunami and earthquake event were started or revised. Especially, the most remarkable point of the great earthquake in east coast of Japan was tsunami event. Before this earthquake, the Niigata earthquake occurred in 2007 and the Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power plant had little damaged. The research about the safety of nuclear power plant against earthquake events was activated by 2007 Niigata earthquake. However, the researches about a tsunami event were very few and only tsunami simulation was only focused. After the Fukushima accident, the international society became very interested in tsunami event as a major external event. Therefore in this study, the tsunami research status in IAEA after Fukushima event and the role of Korea are introduced

  18. TSUNAMI AMPLITUDE PREDICTION DURING EVENTS: A TEST BASED ON PREVIOUS TSUNAMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paul M. Whitmore

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center’s (WC/ATWC) far-field tsunami amplitude prediction method is tested by applying the technique to nine previous, well-recorded tsunamigenic events. Predicted tsunami amplitudes outside the source area are shown to be sufficiently accurate to guide warning cancellation/restriction/expansion decisions. Average error per event ranged from 0.04m to 0.29m with error defined as the absolute value of the difference between the recorded amplitude and t...

  19. POTENTIAL DEFICIENCIES IN EDUCATION, INSTRUMENTATION, AND WARNINGS FOR LOCALLY GENERATED TSUNAMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of historical data for Hawaii reveals that significant tsunamis have been reported for only four of twenty-six potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes from 1868 through 2009 with magnitudes of 6.0 or greater. During the same time period, three significant tsunamis have been reported for substantially smaller earthquakes. This historical perspective, the fact that the last significant local tsunami occurred in 1975, and an understandable preoccupation with tsunamis generated around the margins of the Pacific, all combine to suggest apparent deficiencies in: (1 personal awareness of what to do in the event of a possible local tsunami; (2 the distribution of instrumentation capable of providing rapid confirmation that a local tsunami has been generated; and (3 the subsequent issuance of timely warnings for local tsunamis. With these deficiencies, far more lives may be lost in Hawaii due to local tsunamis than will result from tsunamis that have originated along the margins of the Pacific. Similar deficiencies may exist in other areas of the world threatened by local tsunamis.

  20. Influence of sedimentary layering on tsunami generation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys

    2008-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the influence of sediment layers on the process of tsunami generation. The main scope here is to demonstrate and especially quantify the effect of sedimentation on seabed vertical displacements due to an underwater earthquake. The fault is modelled as a Volterra-type dislocation in an elastic half-space. The elastodynamics equations are integrated with a finite element method. A comparison between two cases is performed. The first one corresponds to the classical situation of an elastic homogeneous and isotropic half-space, which is traditionally used for the generation of tsunamis. The second test case takes into account the presence of a sediment layer separating the oceanic column from the hard rock. Some important differences are revealed. The results of the present study may partially explain why the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 produced such a big tsunami. More precisely, we conjecture that the wave amplitude in the generation region may have bee...

  1. Chapter two: Phenomenology of tsunamis II: scaling, event statistics, and inter-event triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    Observations related to tsunami catalogs are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. An examination of scaling relationships between earthquake size (as expressed by scalar seismic moment and mean slip) and tsunami size (as expressed by mean and maximum local run-up and maximum far-field amplitude) indicates that scaling is significant at the 95% confidence level, although there is uncertainty in how well earthquake size can predict tsunami size (R2 ~ 0.4-0.6). In examining tsunami event statistics, current methods used to estimate the size distribution of earthquakes and landslides and the inter-event time distribution of earthquakes are first reviewed. These methods are adapted to estimate the size and inter-event distribution of tsunamis at a particular recording station. Using a modified Pareto size distribution, the best-fit power-law exponents of tsunamis recorded at nine Pacific tide-gauge stations exhibit marked variation, in contrast to the approximately constant power-law exponent for inter-plate thrust earthquakes. With regard to the inter-event time distribution, significant temporal clustering of tsunami sources is demonstrated. For tsunami sources occurring in close proximity to other sources in both space and time, a physical triggering mechanism, such as static stress transfer, is a likely cause for the anomalous clustering. Mechanisms of earthquake-to-earthquake and earthquake-to-landslide triggering are reviewed. Finally, a modification of statistical branching models developed for earthquake triggering is introduced to describe triggering among tsunami sources.

  2. Landslide generated tsunamis : numerical modeling and real-time prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Submarine landslides can generate local tsunamis posing a hazard to human lives and coastal facilities. Two major related problems are: (i) quantitative estimation of tsunami hazard and (ii) early detection of the most dangerous landslides. This thesis focuses on both those issues by providing numerical modeling of landslide-induced tsunamis and by suggesting and justifying a new method for fast detection of tsunamigenic landslides by means of tiltmeters. Due to the proximity to the Sunda sub...

  3. Contribution of nonlinearity in tsunami generated by submarine earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid co-seismic bottom displacements during strong submarine earthquake give rise to intensive low-frequency elastic oscillations of water layer. Nonlinear energy transfer from the elastic oscillations to long gravitational waves may provide an additional contribution to tsunami. The nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism is examined analytically. Finiteness of bottom elasticity is taken into account. General parameters responsible for amplitude and energy of the nonlinear contribution to tsunami wave are revealed.

  4. Characterizing Mega-Earthquake Related Tsunami on Subduction Zones without Large Historical Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Astill, S.; Farahani, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Mohammed, F.

    2014-12-01

    Due to recent large tsunami events (e.g., Chile 2010 and Japan 2011), the insurance industry is very aware of the importance of managing its exposure to tsunami risk. There are currently few tools available to help establish policies for managing and pricing tsunami risk globally. As a starting point and to help address this issue, Risk Management Solutions Inc. (RMS) is developing a global suite of tsunami inundation footprints. This dataset will include both representations of historical events as well as a series of M9 scenarios on subductions zones that have not historical generated mega earthquakes. The latter set is included to address concerns about the completeness of the historical record for mega earthquakes. This concern stems from the fact that the Tohoku Japan earthquake was considerably larger than had been observed in the historical record. Characterizing the source and rupture pattern for the subduction zones without historical events is a poorly constrained process. In many case, the subduction zones can be segmented based on changes in the characteristics of the subducting slab or major ridge systems. For this project, the unit sources from the NOAA propagation database are utilized to leverage the basin wide modeling included in this dataset. The length of the rupture is characterized based on subduction zone segmentation and the slip per unit source can be determined based on the event magnitude (i.e., M9) and moment balancing. As these events have not occurred historically, there is little to constrain the slip distribution. Sensitivity tests on the potential rupture pattern have been undertaken comparing uniform slip to higher shallow slip and tapered slip models. Subduction zones examined include the Makran Trench, the Lesser Antilles and the Hikurangi Trench. The ultimate goal is to create a series of tsunami footprints to help insurers understand their exposures at risk to tsunami inundation around the world.

  5. Generation, Propagation and Impact of Giant Tsunamis of Tectonic Origin in the Mediterranean Sea: Some Hints From Preliminary Scenario Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Zaniboni, F.

    2006-12-01

    The recent catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 raised a number of urgent issues regarding tsunamis worldwide. The event pointed out that we have very little knowledge on mega- tsunamis and on their potential impact on human habitat. The international community is starting to define a common strategy of how to deal with these mega-events, and several projects focussed on tsunamis, with emphasis on hazard and risk assessment, have recently started or are going to start soon worldwide both at national and international levels. Properly dealing with tsunami hazard and risk is of great importance also for the Mediterranean countries, that are known to have been attacked by numerous tsunamis in the past, several of which had catastrophic size and impact. Scenarios represent a very useful technique for the definition and evaluation of tsunami hazard and risk for any given region, and a basic step in the frame of tsunami mitigation and preparedness and of sustainable coastal zone development. We present some simple scenarios of earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean. Based on earthquake and tsunami catalogues as well as on basic seismotectonics, we identify four different seismogenic areas in the western, central and eastern sectors of the Mediterranean Sea. In each case, we choose a fault system capable of generating an earthquake with magnitude equal or larger than the highest magnitude registered in that region in historical times. We simulate the propagation of each scenario tsunami by means of a shallow-water finite-element numerical code, discuss the basic features of the wave propagation and roughly identify the Mediterranean coastal sectors expected to suffer the heaviest tsunami effects. One important outcome is that all the studied scenario tsunamis are able to produce relevant effects both locally and at trans-Mediterranean distances. Furthermore, the tsunami waves attack the nearest coasts within at most 15 minutes, which poses serious constraints for designing appropriate TEWS for the Mediterranean.

  6. Historical evidence in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunami generation - the example of the great tsunami of 22 June 1932, the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, N.; Ramírez Herrera, M.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude of the damage caused by tsunamis in the past decade has induced the need to expand our knowledge about tsunami dynamics and behavior, and to apply this knowledge in hazard assessment. This study proposes the application of multidisciplinary analysis, including historical and ethnographic techniques, in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunamis with no instrumental record. This study uses the case study of the 22 June 1932 tsunami, the second most destructive recorded in the Pacific Coast of Mexico, which reached wave heights of up to 12 m and devastated several coastal communities. The tsunami generation mechanisms have not yet been defined; two hypotheses about their origin are proposed: 1) seismic, and 2) by a submarine landslide. By screening historical archives, conducting interviews with local witnesses, and applying GIS mapping, we identified four key components of the tsunami dynamics that point out to tsunami generation mechanisms: time of arrival, directivity, affected area, and maximum wave heights at the coast. Based on the compiled historical data, we applied numerical models, using the GEOWAVE and FUNWAVE codes, and two possible mechanisms of tsunami generation, seismic slip and a submarine landslide. The results showed that given the location of the tsunamigenic source, the time of arrival to the coast, directivity, affected area, and maximum tsunami wave heights at the coastline, a submarine landslide best fits with the observed and documented tsunami behavior of the June 22, 1932 tsunami. We demonstrate here that the use of historical and ethnographic technics contributes and complements the modeling of events not recorded by instrumental methods, and aids in reveling their origin.

  7. Numerical modelling of the 1979 Nice landslide-generated tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Claire; Hebert, Hélène; Silva Jacinto, Ricardo; Meyniel, Pauline

    2010-05-01

    On the 16th October 1979, a part of the building site of the Nice airport extension intended to become the new Nice harbour collapsed into the Mediterranean Sea during landfilling operations. This submarine slide of initial volume of 10 millions of m3, located near the seashore, generated a turbidity current that propagated along the Var canyon. A few minutes after the landslide, a small tsunami was observed by several witnesses 60 km along the coast, called "Baie des Anges". The most destructive effect occurred near the city of Antibes, 10 km away from the source, which was inundated and where one person died. In the framework of the RATCOM (Réseau d'Alertes aux Tsunamis et COtiers en Méditerranée) project, this event is numerically simulated with the goal of establishing the appropriate monitoring network which could have detected this event by means of gauges located offshore. Two additional scenarios of hypothetical sources recently identified by IFREMER in the same area are also computed : a small volume of 0.6 millions of m3, close to the 1979 breakdown area, and a larger one of 7 millions of m3, located easterly. A very accurate bathymetric map of the area provided by IFREMER and completed by SHOM data near the coast is used. The dynamics of the slide and the water waves generated are both computed in the shallow water approximation, considering the interaction between the mass of sediments constituting the slide and the water. The landslide is modelled as a Newtonian homogeneous viscous flow sliding under gravity along the bathymetry and the tsunami model is initialized by taking into account the bottom deformation induced by the slide. Incorporation of water in the mass of sediments at the interface between landslide and water can be considered. The equations are solved by a finite difference method based on shock capturing. Numerical results of tsunami waves amplitudes generated by the landslide during the propagation and along the coast are compared to witnesses observations and available tide gauges signals. Local effects in front of the Nice airport are well reproduced with consistent wave polarity, arrival time and amplitude. However, in the far field, results are not in agreement with observations, in particular, simulated wave amplitudes are too small to inundate Antibes city. Water entrainment inside the slide increases these amplitudes. Further developments will involve better refinement around Antibes city.

  8. Hikurangi margin tsunami earthquake generated by slow seismic rupture over a subducted seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rebecca; Holden, Caroline; Power, William; Wang, Xiaoming; Downes, Gaye

    2014-07-01

    Tsunami earthquakes generate much larger tsunami than their surface wave magnitude would suggest and are a problem for tsunami warning systems. They are often not accompanied by intense or even strong ground shaking and hence do not provide a natural warning for self-evacuation. The lesser-known 1947 Offshore Poverty Bay and Tolaga Bay earthquakes along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand share many characteristics with other well-known tsunami earthquakes (including low amplitude shaking, long durations and anomalously large tsunami), however these two New Zealand events are rare in that their source area has been imaged directly by long-offset 2D seismic reflection profiles. In this contribution we propose a source model for the 1947 Offshore Poverty Bay tsunami earthquake, recognising that the hypocentre occurs in a region where seismic reflection and magnetic data support the existence of a shallow (Poverty Bay event with two potential slip scenarios: i) uniform slip of 2.6 m across the fault; or ii) variable slip with slip of up to 5-6 m in the region of a more strongly geodetically coupled subducted seamount. Both the uniform and variable slip models require an unusually low rupture velocity of 150-300 m/s in order to model regional and teleseismic seismograms. Tsunami modelling shows that tsunami run-up heights are more than doubled when low rupture speeds of 150-300 m/s are employed, rather than assuming instantaneous rupture. This study suggests that subducted topography can cause the nucleation of up to M?7 earthquakes with complex, low velocity rupture scenarios that enhance tsunami waves, and their role in seismic hazard should not be under-estimated.

  9. The 2011 Tohoku Tsunami Generated Major Environmental Changes in a Distal Canadian Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R.; Spear, D.; Rabinovich, A.; Fine, I.; Juhasz, T.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis triggered by powerful earthquakes cause extensive damage and loss of life within many regions of the World Ocean. Although coastal inundation from major tsunamis is becoming increasingly well understood, we know little about the broader aspects of such events on distal marine systems. We use time series from moored oceanic sensors to show that the March 2011 Tohoku tsunami generated days of surge-like currents and turbulent mixing in the inner basin of an anoxic fjord located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, more than 7,000 km from the seafloor rupture zone. Mixing, combined with the inflow of more oxygen-rich water from the adjoining outer basin of the fjord, led to abrupt changes in the hydrodynamics, bottom sedimentation, and zooplankton behavior in the basin. These findings help define mechanisms by which major transoceanic tsunamis can significantly alter coastal marine environments located far from the source area.

  10. Tsunami hazard in La Réunion island from numerical modeling of historical events

    OpenAIRE

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.; S. Allgeyer

    2013-01-01

    Whereas major tsunamis have recently affected the southwest Indian Ocean, tsunami hazard in this basin has never been thoroughly examined. Our study contributes to fill in this lack and focuses on La Réunion island for which tsunami hazard related to great earthquakes is evaluated by modeling the scenarios of major historical events. Then, our numerical modeling allow us to compare the tsunami impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earthq...

  11. Contribution of nonlinearity in tsunami generated by submarine earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Nosov, M. A.; Kolesov, S. V.; A. V. Denisova

    2008-01-01

    Rapid co-seismic bottom displacements during strong submarine earthquake give rise to intensive low-frequency elastic oscillations of water layer. Nonlinear energy transfer from the elastic oscillations to long gravitational waves may provide an additional contribution to tsunami. The nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism is examined analytically. Finiteness of bottom elasticity is taken into account. General parameters responsible for amplitude and energy of the nonlinear contribution to ts...

  12. Sedimentary Record and Morphological Effects of a Landslide-Generated Tsunami in a Polar Region: The 2000 AD Tsunami in Vaigat Strait, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Rosser, N. J.; Strzelecki, M. C.; Long, A. J.; Lawrence, T.; Buchwal, A.; Chague-Goff, C.; Woodroffe, S.

    2012-12-01

    To date, the effects of tsunami erosion and deposition have mainly been reported from tropical and temperate climatic zones yet tsunamis are also frequent in polar zones, particularly in fjord settings where they can be generated by landslides. Here we report the geological effects of a landslide-triggered tsunami that occurred on 21st November 2000 in Vaigat, northern Disko Bugt in west Greenland. To characterise the typical features of this tsunami we completed twelve detailed coastal transects in a range of depositional settings: cliff coasts, narrow to moderate width coastal plains, lagoons and a coastal lake. At each setting we completed a detailed map using a laser scanner and DGPS survey. The tsunami deposits were described from closely spaced trenches and, from the lake, by a series of sediment cores . At each setting we examined the sedimentological properties of the deposits, as well as their bulk geochemistry and diatom content. Selected specimens of arctic willow from inundated and non-inundated areas were collected to assess the impact of the event in their growth ring records. Samples of sediments beneath the AD 2000 deposit were studied for 137Cs to confirm the age of the tsunami and to assess the extent of erosion. Offshore sediment samples, modern beach and soils/sediments underlying the AD 2000 tsunami deposits were sampled to determine tsunami deposit sources. The observed tsunami run-up exceeded 20 m next to the tsunami trigger - a rock avalanche at Paatuut - and up to 10 m on the opposite coast of the fjord. The inland inundation distance ranged from several tens of meters to over 300 m. The wave was recorded as far as 180 km away from the source. The tsunami inundated the coast obliquely to the shoreline in all locations studied. The tsunami frequently caused erosion of existing beach ridges whilst erosional niches were formed inland. The tsunami deposits mainly comprise gravels and very coarse sand. They are over 30 cm thick close to the coast and in front of inland scarps. In the most inland parts of the inundation they are often marked only by patches of coarse sand left on the pre-tsunami soil. At several sites we observed boulder deposits, although in many cases they were likely transported as boulders in icebergs. A characteristic feature related to tsunami deposits were "mud pats" - up to 1 m in diameter and about 20 cm thick silty deposits with occasional gravels - which cover the tsunami deposit. They are interpreted as the result of melting of icebergs washed inland by the tsunami. They often occur close to the inundation limit. The mud pats are a characteristic feature for the tsunami deposits in iceberg dominated settings and are unlikely to be left by storms. The results of this study will serve as a guide for further studies of palaeotsunami in the Vaigat region and elsewhere in polar regions. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. Fieldwork was supported by the Arctic Station, Disko (Danish Polar Centre). The police at Ilulissat is acknowledged for providing photographic documentation of the tsunami taken one day after the event.

  13. Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 Sumatra event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh Sumatra Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 Sumatra event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.

  14. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh <25, to include a moving sea-bed, for the simulation of earthquake- and landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only an additional term within the kinematic bottom condition. As first test cases we simulate linear and nonlinear surface waves generated from both positive and negative impulsive bottom movements. The computed results compare well against earlier theoretical, numerical, and experimental values. Additionally, we show that the long-time (fully nonlinear) evolution of waves resulting from an upthrusted bottom can eventually result in true solitary waves, consistent with theoretical predictions. It is stressed, however, that the nonlinearity used far exceeds that typical of geophysical tsunamis in the open ocean. The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, inboth one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run-up capabilities within this approach, and as demonstrated, the model can therefore treat tsunami events from their initial generation, through their later propagation, and final run-up phases. The developed model is shown to maintain reasonable computational efficiency, and is therefore attractive for the simulation of such events, especially in cases where dispersion is important.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Six Historical Transoceanic Tsunami Events Using a Robust Finite Volume Method on GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali Farahani, R.; Li, S.; Mohammed, F.; Astill, S.; Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Srinvias, B.

    2014-12-01

    Six transoceanic historical tsunami events including Japan Tohoku tsunami (2011), Chile Maule tsunami (2010), Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), Japan Nankai tsunami (1946), Chile Valdivia tsunami (1960), and Alaska tsunami (1964) have been modeled using a 2D well-balanced shallow water numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear 2D shallow water equations using an upwind finite volume method and is shown in this study to be capable of modeling the tsunami waves and resulting inundations over complex topography and bathymetry. The finite volume method is capable of modeling the wetting and drying of the bed surface at the coastline with no numerical instabilities and the inundation is modeled by allowing the computational cells to dynamically change from dry to wet. The numerical model implements parallel computations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which enables the model to implement detailed modeling of inundation of small-scale coastal regions in a short simulation time. The slip distribution and seismic moment of the six earthquake driven tsunami events are introduced to the model as the initial condition including coastal uplift and subsidence. Both local regions and far-field regions affected by these tsunami waves are numerically studied and the resulting run-up and tsunami inundations are compared with the recorded observation data provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) including coastal tide gauges and eyewitness observation data. The GPU-based finite volume model indicates accuracy and robustness as well as short simulation time that can be used for transoceanic tsunami waves modeling including real-time numerical modeling of tsunami events and their inland inundations.

  16. PREDICTING TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY 3D GRANULAR LANDSLIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides can trigger tsunamis with locally high amplitudes and runup, which can cause devastating effects in the near field region such as at Lituya Bay (1958), Papua New Guinea (1998) and Java (2006). Tsunamis generated by granular landslides were studied in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU) based on the generalized Froude similarity. A novel pneumatic landslide generator was deployed to simulate deformable granular landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), multiple above and underwater video cameras, multiple acoustic transducer arrays (MTA), as well as resistance wave and runup gauges were applied. The wave generation was characterized by an extremely unsteady three phase flow consisting of the slide granulate, water and air entrained into the flow. The landslide deformation during the impact and the subsequent underwater motion was studied by underwater cameras while the MTA provided the shapes of the slide deposits on the basin bottom. The generated waves depend on determined non-dimensional landslide and water body parameters such as the slide Froude number and relative slide shape at impact, among others. The experimental data was used to obtain predictive equations for the wave amplitudes and time periods based on landslide characteristics at impact. The partition between wave crests and troughs departed from equipartition with wave profiles dominated either by a trough or a crest depending on the source. Attenuation functions of the leading wave crest amplitude, the lateral wave runup on the hill slope, the wave length and the time period were obtained to describe the wave behavior in the near field and to quantify the wave amplitude decay away from the landslide source. The measured wave celerity of the leading wave corresponds well to the theoretical approximation of the solitary wave speed while the trailing waves are considerably slower in propagation. Energy conversion rates between the slide motions and the generated wave trains were quantified. PIV provided instantaneous surface velocity vector fields, which gave insight into the kinematics of the landslide and wave generation process. At high impact velocities flow separation occurred on the slide shoulder resulting in a hydrodynamic impact crater. The slide characteristics measured in the experiment provide the landslide source for numerical landslide tsunami modeling. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve the validation and advancement of 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models. Granular landslide tsunami generator deployed in the 3-dimensional NEES Tsunami Wave Basin at OSU.

  17. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Hancilar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/...

  18. Widespread tsunami-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepi?, Jadranka; Vilibi?, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    A series of tsunami-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological tsunamis which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed tsunami waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced tsunami-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological tsunamis occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in tsunami warning systems.

  19. Tsunamis provoked by fast granular landslides : 3D laboratory experiments on generation and initial propagation of waves

    OpenAIRE

    Bregoli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows falling into reservoirs, natural lakes, fjords or seas can generate impulsive waves, which can be assimilated to tsunamis. This phenomenon, also known as "landslide tsunami", can be highly destructive with respect to dams, other structures and infrastructures as well as to people living along shorelines. The aftermath observation of destructive past events, such as the Vajont Dam in Italy (1963), is not enough to describe and finally to furnish sufficient inform...

  20. Application of remote sensing in coastal change detection after the tsunami event in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.; Surbakti, M. S.

    2008-10-01

    Shoreline mapping and shoreline change detection are critical in many coastal zone applications. This study focuses on applying remote sensing technology to identify and assess coastal changes in the Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Major changes to land cover were found along the coastal line. Using remote sensing data to detect coastal line change requires high spatial resolution data. In this study, two high spatial data with 30 meter resolution of Landsat TM images captured before and after the Tsunami event were acquired for this purpose. The two satellite images was overlain and compared with pre-Tsunami imagery and with after Tsunami. The two Landsat TM images also were used to generate land cover classification maps for the 24 December 2004 and 27 March 2005, before and after the Tsunami event respectively. The standard supervised classifier was performed to the satellite images such as the Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance-to-mean and Parallelepiped. High overall accuracy (>80%) and Kappa coefficient (>0.80) was achieved by the Maximum Likelihood classifier in this study. Estimation of the damage areas between the two dated was estimated from the different between the two classified land cover maps. Visible damage could be seen in either before and after image pair. The visible damage land areas were determined and draw out using the polygon tool included in the PCI Geomatica image processing software. The final set of polygons containing the major changes in the coastal line. An overview of the coastal line changes using Landsat TM images is also presented in this study. This study provided useful information that helps local decision makers make better plan and land management choices.

  1. Current issues on PRA regarding seismic and tsunami events at multiunits and sites based on lessons leaned from Tohoku earthquake/tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP (F1-NPP) were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. This paper describes the overview of F1-NPP accident and the usability of tsunami PRA at Tohoku earthquake. The paper makes reference to the following current issues: influence on seismic hazard of gigantic aftershocks and triggered earthquakes, concepts for evaluating core damage frequency considering common cause failure with correlation coefficient against seismic event at multi units and sites, and concepts of 'seismic-tsunami PSA' considering a combination of seismic motion and tsunami effects.

  2. Processing and presentation of high-resolution DART° data for recent significant tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; Stroker, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colorado, is an integral part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. One of three NOAA data centers, NGDC hosts the long-term archive and management of tsunami data for research and mitigation of tsunami hazards under collaborative development between the National Weather Service, the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, and the National Data Buoy Center. Archive responsibilities include the global historic tsunami event and run-up database, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART°) event and native bottom pressure and temperature observations, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, historic marigrams, and other hazards-related data and information. In terms of tsunami observations, NGDC currently process and archives all recovered native or 15 seconds high-resolution DART° bottom pressure observation time series. Tsunami signal-to-noise ratios in the deep-ocean are such that de-tiding based on a combination of tidal harmonic predictions and carefully constructed filters are necessary to obtain clean tsunami records. The processing includes removing tides using a customized version of the IOS tidal package of Mike Foreman. Additional processing is applied for parts of the records with registered tsunami events where the noise from the intra-gravity waves and components representing larger scale oceanic processes are removed by band-pass Kaiser-Bessel filters. The NGDC tsunami archive contains processed full record high-resolution observations for the period 2002-2010. An event-specific archive of real-time and native high-resolution observations recorded during recent significant tsunamis, including the March 2011 Japan Tohoku event are now available through new event pages that have been integrated with the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami Event Database. Event pages are developed to deliver comprehensive summaries of each tsunami event, including socio-economic impacts, tsunami travel time maps, raw observations, de-tided residuals, spectra of the tsunami signal compared to the energy of the background noise, and wavelets. These data are invaluable to tsunami researchers and educators as they are essential to providing a more thorough understanding of tsunamis and their propagation in the open ocean and subsequent inundation of coastal communities. All tsunami data are accessible at http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/recenttsunamis.shtml. Details of filtering and tide removal techniques applied during the processing of all tsunami time series are discussed and spatial distribution and density of the observations along with general statistics are presented. Results obtained from analysis of all recently recovered 15-second high-resolution DART observations for the 11 March 2011 Japan Tohoku tsunami after application of the described processing techniques are presented and show the historic nature of this event; the largest deep-ocean tsunami amplitude in recorded history.

  3. TSUNAMIS OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA A GUIDE OF HISTORIC EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin R. Jordan

    2008-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula has been affected by tsunamis in the past. The Peninsula is bounded by the Persian Gulf on its northeast side, the Red Sea on its west side, and the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Indian Ocean to its east and south. Each of these areas is very different geographically, tectonically, and bathymetrically.Only two, localized tsunamis have been recorded in the Red Sea and one, doubtful, tsunami in the Persian Gulf. Almost all of the recorded tsunamis along the Arabia...

  4. Wroclaw neutrino event generator

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the $\\Delta$ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering.

  5. Tsunamis generated by 3D granular landslides in various scenarios from fjords to conical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide generated tsunamis such as in Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of the highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

  6. GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

  7. Numerical Study on the Historic Tsunami Events in the Southwest of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Lin, T.

    2012-12-01

    After the devastating 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, people in Taiwan were in great shock because of the similarities in civilization and geographical location between both countries. Both Taiwan and Japan are located on the circum-Pacific seismic belt, and people in both countries live under the shadow of earthquake and tsunami attack. In this study, we intend to understand the potential tsunami threat to the southwest coast of Taiwan where sits two metropolises, Tainan and Kaohsiung. We wish to restate the historic tsunami events and find the tsunami sources numerically. According to the historical documents and modern literature, three tsunami events occurred in 1781 (Chen et al., 1830), 1782/1682 (Soloviev and Go, 1974) and 1894 are discussed in this paper. However, the inconsistency is found in year, location, and death toll between both the historical documents and modern literature. Hence, a field reinvestigation, focused on the oral history, temple inscription, and local historical documents, is conducted before running a numerical simulation. In the field survey, two historic tsunami events carved on the Dong-Lung Temple and Jia-Lian Temple are found. One is in the 1894; the other is in the late 1600s. According the inscription, in the case of 1894 tsunami event, numerous buildings were destroyed by the tsunami and the death toll was high. In the case of the late 1600s, a serious flood was recorded. The later might be the one same as the 1781 Pingtung tsunami or 1782/1682 Tainan tsunami. The field survey results help correct many mistakes documented in the modern literatures and will be presented in this paper. After the survey, a serious of numerical simulations will be carried out by using COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model). The nested grids with 30 m finest resolution are applied to Tainan, Kaohsiung, Tungkang, and Kenting. The result shows the wave height, inundation area, and arrival time. We also found that the southwest of Taiwan is vulnerable to the tsunami treat, originated from the north segment of Manila trench. Kenting, Tungkang, and Tainan are prone to have a larger tsunami height due to the shoaling effect.t;

  8. Monte Carlo Event Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Seymour, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo event generators are essential components of almost all experimental analyses and are also widely used by theorists and experiments to make predictions and preparations for future experiments. They are all too often used as "black boxes", without sufficient consideration of their component models or their reliability. In this set of three lectures we hope to open the box and explain the physical bases behind the models they use. We focus primarily on the general features of parton showers, hadronization and underlying event generation.

  9. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2009-01-01

    I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms), propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic) modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/ero...

  10. Two-Layer Models for Landslide-Generated Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Nicolsky, D.; Ma, G.; Shi, F.; Hsu, T. J.; Schnyder, J. S. D.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the development of a model for landslide tsunami generation based on a depth-integrated, fully deformable lower layer, and apply the resulting model to several laboratory and field cases. The approach follows on earlier studies where models for the slide layer and overlying water layer are formulated in the depth integrated, shallow water approximation, with kinematic and pressure coupling between the layers. In the present study, we use the 3D nonhydrostatic model of Ma et al (2012) to retain fully dispersive behavior in the upper fluid layer. In perfect fluid applications for shallow or intermediate depth waves, the model has been shown to predict tsunami response to solid slides (Enet and Grilli, 2007) with good accuracy using only three vertical sigma levels, making it computationally competitive with weakly dispersive Boussinesq formulations using a single depth-integrated layer. The effect of non-hydrostatic acceleration effects in the lower, depth integrated layer (resulting from steep substrate slopes) is implemented using the approach of Yamazaki et al (2009), who used a layer-averaged approximation for vertical acceleration to correct the hydrostatic pressure distribution. The two coupled models are formulated using a finite volume, TVD approach. Lateral boundaries of the slide volume may be arbitrarily approached relative to the initial still water shoreline, and thus the triggering event may be either submarine, subaerial, or a combination of the two. In our first implementation, we assume the lower layer to be a simple, viscous Newtonian fluid, following the approach of Jiang and LeBlond (1994) as corrected by Fine et al (1998). An alternate model is also constructed based on a rheology model representing a granular or debris flow supported by intergranular stresses, following Savage and Hutter (1989) and Iverson (1997). Both models amount to the addition of a single mass and horizontal momentum equation to the three-layer perfect fluid model, and hence the added complexity over the solid slide case of Ma et al (2012) is minimal. Each model is then applied to a range of cases, including laboratory measurements of a rapid subaerial slide (Mohammed and Fritz, 2012), and a potential collapse of the the southern Great Bahama Bank platform margin (Schnyder et al, 2013).

  11. OCEAN-WIDE TSUNAMIS, MAGNITUDE THRESHOLDS, AND 1946 TYPE EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of magnitudes and runups in Hawaii for more than 200 tsunamigenic earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific reveals that all of the earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.6 or greater produced significant Pacific-wide tsunamis. Such findings can be used as a basis for early warnings of significant ocean-wide tsunamis as a supplement to, or in the absence of, more comprehensive data from other sources. Additional analysis of magnitude and runup data suggests that 1946 type earthquakes and tsunamis may be more common than previously believed.

  12. Tsunamis generated by 3D deformable landslides in various scenarios: laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.; Horrillo, J. J.; Mohammed, F.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide generated tsunamis such as Lituya Bay, Alaska 1958 account for some of highest recorded tsunami runup heights. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by pneumatic pistons down slope. Two different landslide materials are used to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. Water surface elevations are recorded by an array of resistance wave gauges. The landslide deformation is measured from above and underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models. Two 3D Navier-Stokes models were tested, the commercial code FLOW-3D and the tsunami model TSUNAMI3D. The prediction of the wave fields and runups by the models were compared and analyzed to improve methodologies and key parameters for landslide rheology. Model errors with respect to the set of experiments were estimated and compared against the allowable errors indicated by the NTHMP.

  13. VOLCANIC TSUNAMI GENERATING SOURCE MECHANISMS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2004-01-01

    Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, volcanic island flank failures and underwater slides have generated numerous destructive tsunamis in the Caribbean region. Convergent, compressional and collisional tectonic activity caused primarily from the eastward movement of the Caribbean Plate in relation to the North American, Atlantic and South American Plates, is responsible for zones of subduction in the region, the formation of island arcs and the evolution of particular volcanic centers on the over...

  14. Simulation of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, A. G.; Karambas, Th. V.; Archetti, R.

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, an advanced tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation 2-DH model (i.e. 2-D Horizontal model) based on the higher-order Boussinesq equations - developed by the authors - is applied to simulate representative earthquake-induced tsunami scenarios in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two areas of interest were selected after evaluating tsunamigenic zones and possible sources in the region: one at the southwest of the island of Crete in Greece and one at the east of the island of Sicily in Italy. Model results are presented in the form of extreme water elevation maps, sequences of snapshots of water elevation during the propagation of the tsunamis, and inundation maps of the studied low-lying coastal areas. This work marks one of the first successful applications of a fully nonlinear model for the 2-DH simulation of tsunami-induced coastal inundation; acquired results are indicative of the model's capabilities, as well of how areas in the Eastern Mediterranean would be affected by eventual larger events.

  15. Physical Modeling of Landslide Generated Tsunamis in Fjords and around Conical Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most extreme events recorded in history (Lituya Bay, Alaska, 1958) and can be particularly catastrophic in the near field region. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events using generalized Froude similarity are physically modeled in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with up to 1,350 kg of naturally rounded river gravel which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down the 2H: 1V slope. The granular landslides are launched towards the water surface at velocities of up to 5 m/s resulting in corresponding landslide Froude numbers at impact in the range 1 underwater cameras, a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup and a multi-transducer acoustic array (MTA). Three-dimensional landslide surfaces are reconstructed and the instantaneous landslide surface kinematics measured using the stereo PIV setup. Above and underwater cameras measure the slide deformation at impact and underwater runout, while the slide deposit is measured with the MTA on the basin floor. Runup wave gauges along with overlapping video cameras record the onshore and offshore runup. Empirical equations for predicting wave amplitude, wave period, wave length and near-source runup are obtained. The generated waves are primarily dependent on non-dimensional landslide and water body parameters such as the impact landslide Froude number and relative landslide shape among others. Energy conversion rates between the landslide motion and the generated wave train are quantified. The lateral edge wave and offshore wave propagation velocities are compared against wave theories. Unique characteristics in the wave and runup data caused by topographic and bathymetric features are analyzed. A localized amplification of the runup was observed on the lee-side of the conical island due to the collision effects of the lateral edge waves propagating around both sides of the island. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.; Tsunami generation by landslide (Photo credit: Stephanie Lopez)

  16. Tsunami survey expedition: preliminary investigation of Maldivian coral reefs two weeks after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Piccinetti, Corrado; Zaccanti, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    On December 26th 2004, a earthquake west of Sumatra generated a devastating tsunami. Hundreds of thousands of people fell victim. Economic losses were greatest in those countries dependant on tourism. The impact in the Maldives on persons and things was modest. Immediately following the event and notwithstanding the lack of scientific data, the mass media gave catastrophic reports on the state of coral reefs in the area. This paper reports on the first survey on coral reefs in the Maldives after the Tsunami. Ocean walls, passes, inner reefs, and shoals in the North and South Malé atolls, were surveyed two weeks after the event. Significant damage was recorded in the passes in the South Malé atoll. Our observations showed that the damage was more or less extensive depending on latitude and topography. Sri Lanka may have broken the wave's rush, reducing the extent of the impact on northern atolls. The water's acceleration inside the passes was so intense as to cause reef collapses. The observed damage represents a minimum fraction of the entire coral reef system. Tourist perception of the area seems unchanged. These data may be used to disseminate correct information about the state of Maldives coral reefs, which would be useful in relaunching local economy. PMID:17180420

  17. Fossiliferous Lana'i deposits formed by multiple events rather than a single giant tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, K H; Fletcher, C H; Sherman, C

    2000-12-01

    Giant tsunamis, generated by submarine landslides in the Hawaiian Islands, have been thought to be responsible for the deposition of chaotic gravels high on the southern coastal slopes of the islands of Lana'i and Moloka'i, Hawaii. Here we investigate this hypothesis, using uranium-thorium dating of the Hulopoe gravel (on Lana'i) and a study of stratigraphic relationships, such as facies changes and hiatuses, within the deposit. The Hulopoe gravel contains corals of two age groups, representing marine isotope stages 5e and 7 (approximately 135,000 and 240,000 years ago, respectively), with significant geographical and stratigraphic ordering. We show that the Hulopoe gravel was formed by multiple depositional events, separated by considerable periods of time, thus invalidating the main premise of the 'giant wave' hypothesis. Instead, the gravels were probably deposited during interglacial periods (when sea level was relatively high) by typical Hawaiian shoreline processes such as seasonal wave patterns, storm events and possibly 'normal' tsunamis, and reached their present height by uplift of Lana'i. PMID:11130062

  18. Tsunami Generation and Propagation by 3D deformable Landslides and Application to Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse account for some of the most catastrophic natural disasters recorded and can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The bathymetric and topographic scenarios tested with the LTG are the basin-wide propagation and runup, fjord, curved headland fjord and a conical island setting representing a landslide off an island or a volcano flank collapse. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. A method to predict the maximum wave runup on an opposing headland using nondimensional landslide, water body and bathymetric parameters is derived. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

  19. Monte Carlo Event Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Michael H.; Marx, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo event generators are essential components of almost all experimental analyses and are also widely used by theorists and experiments to make predictions and preparations for future experiments. They are all too often used as "black boxes", without sufficient consideration of their component models or their reliability. In this set of three lectures we hope to open the box and explain the physical bases behind the models they use. We focus primarily on the general ...

  20. Tsunami hazard in La Réunion island from numerical modeling of historical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hébert, H.; Allgeyer, S.

    2013-05-01

    Whereas major tsunamis have recently affected the southwest Indian Ocean, tsunami hazard in this basin has never been thoroughly examined. Our study contributes to fill in this lack and focuses on La Réunion island for which tsunami hazard related to great earthquakes is evaluated by modeling the scenarios of major historical events. Then, our numerical modeling allow us to compare the tsunami impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earthquakes locations which most affect the island and describe the impact distribution along its coastline. Thirdly, detailed models are performed for selected sites based on high resolution bathymetric and topographic data; they provide estimations of the water currents, wave heights and potential inundations. When available, field measurements and tide records allow testing our models. Arrival time, amplitude of the first wave and impact on the tide gauge time series are well reproduced. Models are consistent with the observations. The west coast of La Réunion is the most affected (to 2.7 m in the harbour of Le Port Est for 2004 event) by transoceanic tsunamis. Numerical modeling has been performed at Saint-Paul for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman event and 1833 Sumatra event; the low topography of this town could make it vulnerable to tsunami waves. Harbours, particularly prone to undergo significant damages, are also examined. Outside the harbours as well as at Saint-Paul, inundations are predicted along the coastline due to important local wave heights (> 2.5 m).

  1. Tsunami wave generation by the eruption of underwater volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Egorov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eruption of volcanoes represents one of important origins of tsunami waves and is responsible for most catastrophic tsunami (Krakatau, 1883; Thira, BC. The products of volcano eruption include solids, liquids (lava and gases. The present article presents hydrodynamic model of relatively slow process of eruption, with domination of liquids. The process of underwater eruption of lava causes the disturbance of ocean free surface. The standard formulation of hydrodynamic problem for incompressible fluid in cylindrically symmetric layer of with rigid bottom and free surface with local hydrodynamic source (volcano is used. This problem is solved by constructing Green function using methodology of Sretenskij. The solution is obtained in the form of an integral and depends on the dynamics of eruption. Real data show that some volcanoes can erupt several millions of tons of lava during several dozens of seconds (Bezimjannij, Kamchatka. The long waves are more efficiently generated by larger T: these tsunamis can have smaller initial perturbations of free surface, but the waves are long and can transmit their energy over longer distances.

  2. The 30 December 2002 landslide-induced tsunamis in Stromboli: sequence of the events reconstructed from the eyewitness accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On 30 December 2002 the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli, in the Tyrrhenian sea, Italy, was attacked by two tsunamis generated by landslides that took place on the north-west flank of the volcano. The landslides and the tsunamis represented the most impressive and threatening episodes of a strong effusive eruption, started on 28 December from a new vent which opened close to the north-east crater of the volcano. In spite of the intensified monitoring carried out in response to the eruption, the landslides and the ensuing tsunamis were not foreseen, and the available instrumental data are insufficient to allow a precise reconstruction of the sequence of the events. The seismic network recorded two main landslides along the steep slope of Sciara del Fuoco, with onset around 13:15 and 13:23 local time (GMT+1. The tsunamis were the direct consequence of the mass movements. Three main post-event surveys helped make assessment on the wave impact on the coast. In this paper the attention is focussed on the accounts of the eye-witnesses, that help us clarify and understand what happened. People in the source area (Sciara del Fuoco reported a small-volume subaerial slide taking place first, then a sharp cut forming in the sea water down to the sea floor (about 10–20 m deep and propagating almost parallel to the coastline, be concomitantly associated with a sea retreat and a subsequent sea advance. It is suggested here that the cut was the effect of a large submarine landslide that detached from very close to the coast and produced the 13:15 signal in the recorded seismograms. The second, mostly subaerial, slump was observed to slide down 7–8 min later and to excite a train of waves some distance offshore. Not all the witnesses realised that two distinct tsunamis occurred. The tsunami period was probably in the order of 100 s, but shorter period crests were seen to travel on the top of the long-period waves by several persons. The duration of each tsunami was appreciated to be around 5–7 min. It is difficult to ascertain which tsunami was the largest, since there is no full agreement among the observers, but certainly by accounts both were characterised by large destructive waves.

  3. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribadi, S., E-mail: sugengpribadimsc@gmail.com [Tsunami Warning Information Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of T (Indonesia); Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar,; Ibrahim, G. [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Laksono, B. I. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No.2, Jakarta 13920 (Indonesia); Adnan, Z. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta 13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technol (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 < Mw < 7.9) and located near the trench. The others are 4 tsunamigenic earthquakes and 3 inland earthquakes with short rupture duration start from To > 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

  4. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench

  5. Energy of tsunami waves generated by bottom motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both dispersive and non-dispersive shallow-water equations with an energy equation. It is shown that dispersive effects only appear at higher order in the energy budget. Then we solve the Cauchy-Poisson probl...

  6. Advanced Geospatial Hydrodynamic Signals Analysis for Tsunami Event Detection and Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2013-04-01

    Current early tsunami warning can be issued upon the detection of a seismic event which may occur at a given location offshore. This also provides an opportunity to predict the tsunami wave propagation and run-ups at potentially affected coastal zones by selecting the best matching seismic event from a database of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. Nevertheless, it remains difficult and challenging to obtain the rupture parameters of the tsunamigenic earthquakes in real time and simulate the tsunami propagation with high accuracy. In this study, we propose a supporting approach, in which the hydrodynamic signal is systematically analysed for traces of a tsunamigenic signal. The combination of relatively low amplitudes of a tsunami signal at deep waters and the frequent occurrence of background signals and noise contributes to a generally low signal to noise ratio for the tsunami signal; which in turn makes the detection of this signal difficult. In order to improve the accuracy and confidence of detection, a re-identification framework in which a tsunamigenic signal is detected via the scan of a network of hydrodynamic stations with water level sensing is performed. The aim is to attempt the re-identification of the same signatures as the tsunami wave spatially propagates through the hydrodynamic stations sensing network. The re-identification of the tsunamigenic signal is technically possible since the tsunami signal at the open ocean itself conserves its birthmarks relating it to the source event. As well as supporting the initial detection and improving the confidence of detection, a re-identified signal is indicative of the spatial range of the signal, and thereby it can be used to facilitate the identification of certain background signals such as wind waves which do not have as large a spatial reach as tsunamis. In this paper, the proposed methodology for the automatic detection of tsunamigenic signals has been achieved using open data from NOAA with a recorded tsunami event in the Pacific Ocean. The new approach will be tested in the future on other oceanic regions including the Mediteranean Sea and North East Atlantic Ocean zones. Both authors acknowledge that the current research is currently conducted under the TRIDEC IP FP7 project[1] which involves the development of a system of systems for collaborative, complex and critical decision-support in evolving crises. [1] TRIDEC IP ICT-2009.4.3 Intelligent Information Management Project Reference: 258723. http://www.tridec-online.eu/home

  7. 3D Numerical Simulation on the Rockslide Generated Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, M.; Wu, T.; Wang, C.; Chu, C.

    2013-12-01

    The rockslide generated tsunami is one of the most devastating nature hazards. However, the involvement of the moving obstacle and dynamic free-surface movement makes the numerical simulation a difficult task. To describe both the fluid motion and solid movement at the same time, we newly developed a two-way fully-coupled moving solid algorithm with 3D LES turbulent model. The free-surface movement is tracked by volume of fluid (VOF) method. The two-step projection method is adopted to solve the Navier-Stokes type government equations. In the new moving solid algorithm, a fictitious body force is implicitly prescribed in MAC correction step to make the cell-center velocity satisfied with the obstacle velocity. We called this method the implicit velocity method (IVM). Because no extra terms are added to the pressure Poission correction, the pressure field of the fluid part is stable, which is the key of the two-way fluid-solid coupling. Because no real solid material is presented in the IVM, the time marching step is not restricted to the smallest effective grid size. Also, because the fictitious force is implicitly added to the correction step, the resulting velocity is accurate and fully coupled with the resulting pressure field. We validated the IVM by simulating a floating box moving up and down on the free-surface. We presented the time-history obstacle trajectory and compared it with the experimental data. Very accurate result can be seen in terms of the oscillating amplitude and the period (Fig. 1). We also presented the free-surface comparison with the high-speed snapshots. At the end, the IVM was used to study the rock-slide generated tsunamis (Liu et al., 2005). Good validations on the slide trajectory and the free-surface movement will be presented in the full paper. From the simulation results (Fig. 2), we observed that the rockslide generated waves are manly caused by the rebounding waves from two sides of the sliding rock after the water is dragging down by the solid downward motion. We also found that the turbulence has minor effect to the main flow field. The rock size, rock density, and the steepness of the slope were analyzed to understand their effects to the maximum runup height. The detailed algorithm of IVM, the validation, the simulation and analysis of rockslide tsunami will be presented in the full paper. Figure 1. Time-history trajectory of obstacle for the floating obstacle simulation. Figure 2. Snapshots of the free-surface elevation with streamlines for the rockslide tsunami simulation.

  8. Differences in tsunami generation between the December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005 Sumatra earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E.L.; Bilek, S.L.; Arcas, D.; Titov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Source parameters affecting tsunami generation and propagation for the Mw > 9.0 December 26, 2004 and the Mw = 8.6 March 28, 2005 earthquakes are examined to explain the dramatic difference in tsunami observations. We evaluate both scalar measures (seismic moment, maximum slip, potential energy) and finite-source repre-sentations (distributed slip and far-field beaming from finite source dimensions) of tsunami generation potential. There exists significant variability in local tsunami runup with respect to the most readily available measure, seismic moment. The local tsunami intensity for the December 2004 earthquake is similar to other tsunamigenic earthquakes of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the March 2005 local tsunami was deficient relative to its earthquake magnitude. Tsunami potential energy calculations more accurately reflect the difference in tsunami severity, although these calculations are dependent on knowledge of the slip distribution and therefore difficult to implement in a real-time system. A significant factor affecting tsunami generation unaccounted for in these scalar measures is the location of regions of seafloor displacement relative to the overlying water depth. The deficiency of the March 2005 tsunami seems to be related to concentration of slip in the down-dip part of the rupture zone and the fact that a substantial portion of the vertical displacement field occurred in shallow water or on land. The comparison of the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes presented in this study is analogous to previous studies comparing the 1952 and 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquakes and tsunamis, in terms of the effect slip distribution has on local tsunamis. Results from these studies indicate the difficulty in rapidly assessing local tsunami runup from magnitude and epicentral location information alone.

  9. The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004: the hazards, events, and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrice A; O'Rourke, Ann P; Schmidman, Dana L; Dopkin, Wendy A; Birnbaum, Marvin L

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and subsequent Asian Tsunami of 26 December 2004 affected multiple countries in the Indian Ocean and beyond, creating disasters of a scale unprecedented in recorded history. Using the Conceptual Framework and terminology described in the Disaster Health Management: Guidelines for Evaluation and Research in the Utstein Style, the hazard, events, and damage associated with the Earthquake and Tsunami are described. Many gaps in the available information regarding this event are present. Standardized indicators and reporting criteria are necessary for research on future disasters and the development of best practice standards internationally. PMID:16496614

  10. Statistical Emulation, Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification of Tsunami Models: the Example of Tsunamis Generated by Earthquakes at the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarri, A.; Guillas, S.; Day, S. J.; Dias, F.

    2014-12-01

    An extensive investigation on tsunami generation and the resulting coastal inundation due to coseismic seabed displacements has been performed for the Cascadia Subduction Zone. We have adopted a new approach to represent coseismic seabed deformation in giant earthquakes, which avoids artefacts generated at the edges of block deformations. We represent the deformation with arbitrary shaped 4-sided polygons in which subsidences and uplifts are represented as quadratic curves. The arbitrary shapes of these polygons allow the realistic representation of the deformed seabed as a continuous surface except at the trench, where the fault breaks the surface. Experimental Design is used to select combinations of three source characteristics generating different event scenarios amongst Cascadia whole-margin ruptures; further work on other event types is in progress. Following that, the numerical model VOLNA has been run for the different scenarios, obtaining the induced tsunami waves propagation and coastal inundation. Statistical emulation has been applied to the wave elevation time series evaluations for many locations. Statistical emulators approximate expensive computer models: they are powerful tools for analyses that require many model evaluations since they can give accurate and fast probabilistic predictions. Registration and Functional Principal Components techniques are applied to the emulation process leading to further improvement in predictions. Leave-one-out diagnostics are used to validate the emulator, showing excellent agreement in predictions and model evaluations. The statistical emulation is also used for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. These two analyses require a large number of evaluations and hence cannot be carried out with the expensive computer model. Our approach can be applied to provide uncertainty estimates both in operational tsunami warnings and in tsunami risk modeling, and can be used with many different numerical models.

  11. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hancilar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious, infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities. Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

  12. Identification of elements at risk for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancilar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Physical and social elements at risk are identified for a credible tsunami event for Istanbul. For this purpose, inundation maps resulting from probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 yr are utilised in combination with the geo-coded inventories of building stock, lifeline systems and demographic data. The built environment on Istanbul's shorelines that is exposed to tsunami inundation comprises residential, commercial, industrial, public (governmental/municipal, schools, hospitals, sports and religious), infrastructure (car parks, garages, fuel stations, electricity transformer buildings) and military buildings, as well as piers and ports, gas tanks and stations and other urban elements (e.g., recreational facilities). Along the Marmara Sea shore, Tuzla shipyards and important port and petrochemical facilities at Ambarl? are expected to be exposed to tsunami hazard. Significant lifeline systems of the city of Istanbul such as natural gas, electricity, telecommunication and sanitary and waste-water transmission, are also under the threat of tsunamis. In terms of social risk, it is estimated that there are about 32 000 inhabitants exposed to tsunami hazard.

  13. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were freezed to transmit any further events during this time window. This limited the maximum transmission speed. In order to improve this speed, Boahen proposed an improved 'burst mode' scheme. In this scheme after the row arbitration, a complete row of events is pipelined out of the array and arbitered out of the chip at higher speed. During this single row event arbitration, the array is free to generate new events and communicate to the row arbiter, in a pipelined mode. This scheme significantly improves maximum event transmission speed, specially for high traffic situations were speed is more critical. We have analyzed and studied this approach and have detected some shortcomings in the circuits reported by Boahen, which may render some false situations under some statistical conditions. The present paper proposes some improvements to overcome such situations. The improved "AER Generator" has been implemented in an AER transmitter system

  14. Site-specific Earthquake-generate Tsunami Hazard Assessment in U.S. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Gica, E.; Arcas, D.; Spillane, M. C.; Zhou, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of 24 December 2004 has changed the perception of a tsunami as an infrequent low-risk hazard. The devoid of subduction or convergent zones in the Atlantic Ocean makes coastal communities less aware of the potential tsunami hazard in the East Coast of US. The existing continental shelf offshore has believed to act as additional buffer that may significantly attenuate the tsunami impact to the U.S. Atlantic coast. However, the uncertainties are still substantial and need to be timely addressed: 1. the largest tsunami ever recorded in Atlantic, 1755 Lisbon, was understudied; 2. the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico-Lesser Antilles subduction zone - a Sumatra-Andaman type of trench - in the northeast of Caribbean is capable of generating catastrophic tsunami; 3. the South Sandwich Trench was mostly overlooked; and 4. most of previous studies tackling these issues did not surpass the linear tsunami propagation in the deep ocean for nonlinear tsunami inundation modeling in the coastal area. Using the established NOAA high-resolution tsunami inundation model, the present study explores above uncertainties and provides comprehensive modeling assessment of the potential earthquake-generated tsunami hazard for selected coastal communities in U.S. Atlantic coasts, with highlight on over-shelf tsunami wave dynamics. This study is an extension of the USGS evaluation of earthquake-tsunami impact in Atlantic (ten Brink et al., 2007; Barkan et al., 2009) in the light of the Nuclear Regulation Commission (NRC) efforts on tsunami risk assessment for existing and potential nuclear power plants in U. S. East Coast.

  15. Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Eric L. Geist; Patrick J. Lynett

    2014-01-01

    The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a ts...

  16. The exposure of Sydney (Australia) to earthquake-generated tsunamis, storms and sea level rise: a probabilistic multi-hazard approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, F.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Moore, C.; Summerhayes, S.; Withycombe, G.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 85% of Australia's population live along the coastal fringe, an area with high exposure to extreme inundations such as tsunamis. However, to date, no Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (PTHA) that include inundation have been published for Australia. This limits the development of appropriate risk reduction measures by decision and policy makers. We describe our PTHA undertaken for the Sydney metropolitan area. Using the NOAA NCTR model MOST (Method for Splitting Tsunamis), we simulate 36 earthquake-generated tsunamis with annual probabilities of 1:100, 1:1,000 and 1:10,000, occurring under present and future predicted sea level conditions. For each tsunami scenario we generate a high-resolution inundation map of the maximum water level and flow velocity, and we calculate the exposure of buildings and critical infrastructure. Results indicate that exposure to earthquake-generated tsunamis is relatively low for present events, but increases significantly with higher sea level conditions. The probabilistic approach allowed us to undertake a comparison with an existing storm surge hazard assessment. Interestingly, the exposure to all the simulated tsunamis is significantly lower than that for the 1:100 storm surge scenarios, under the same initial sea level conditions. The results have significant implications for multi-risk and emergency management in Sydney.

  17. Physical Modeling of Landslide Generated Tsunamis and the 50th Anniversary of the Vajont Dam Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, Brian C.; Mohammed, Fahad; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2013-04-01

    The Vajont river is an affluent of the Piave River located in the Dolomite Alps of the Veneto Region, about 100km north of Venice. A 265.5 m high double curved arch dam was built across a V-shaped gorge creating a reservoir with a maximum storage capacity of 0.169 km3. A maximum water depth of 250 m was reached by early September 1963 during the third filling attempt of the reservoir, but as creeping on the southern flank increased the third reservoir draw down was initiated. By October 9, 1963 the water depth was lowered to 240m as the southern flank of Vajont reservoir catastrophically collapsed on a length of more than 2km. Collapse occurred during reservoir drawdown in a final attempt to reduce flank creeping and the reservoir was only about two-thirds full. The partially submerged rockslide with a volume of 0.24 km3 penetrated into the reservoir at velocities up to 30 m/s. The wave runup in direct prolongation of slide axis reached the lowest houses of Casso 270m above reservoir level before impact corresponding to 245m above dam crest (Müller, 1964). The rockslide deposit came within 50m of the left abutment and towers up to 140m above the dam crest. The lateral spreading of the surge overtopped the dam crest by more than 100m. The thin arch dam withstood the overtopping and sustained no damage to the structural shell and the abutments. The flood wave dropped more than 500m down the Vajont gorge and into the Piave Valley causing utter destruction to the villages of Longarone, Pirago, Villanova, Rivalta and Fae. More than 2000 persons perished. The Vajont disaster highlights an extreme landslide tsunami event in the narrowly confined water body of a reservoir. Landslide tsunami hazards exist even in areas not exposed to tectonic tsunamis. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with up to 1,350 kg of naturally rounded river gravel which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down the 2H: 1V slope, launching the granular landslide towards the water at velocities of up to 5 m/s. Topographical and bathymetric features can greatly affect wave characteristics and runup heights. Landslide tsunamis are studied in different topographic and bathymetric configurations: far field propagation and runup, a narrow fjord and curved headland configurations, and a conical island setting representing landslides off an island or a volcanic flank collapse. Water surface elevations were measured using an array of resistance wave gauges. The granulate landslide shape and front velocity were measured using above and underwater cameras. Three-dimensional landslide surfaces with surface velocities were reconstruction using a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) setup. The speckled pattern on the surface of the granular landslide allows for cross-correlation based PIV analysis. Wave runup was measured with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models.

  18. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  19. Catalogue of reported tsunami events in the Adriatic Sea (from 58 B.C. to 1979 A.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue furnishes a collection of the reported tsunamis within the Adriatic, i.e. Italian coasts from the Strait of Otranto to the gulf of Trieste, the coasts of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania. The events are obtained by the cross-comparison between many existing catalogues, in order to extract all the available reported ones. For each tsunamigenic event, when available in a catalogue, we report: origin time, location, macroseismic intensity, magnitude and the areas (within Adriatic basin) where tsunamis have been reported. In the last column of the table, all the catalogues in which some information of the event (earthquake and tsunami) has been found, are listed; bold letters indicate the basic catalogue for that event (i.e. the catalogue where the origin time has been taken from). Since in the present catalogue more attention is paid to the tsunamis than to the seismic events, the bold reference indicates always the tsunami-catalogue, and not the seismic ones, when contemporarily available. For some events there are no records of a related tsunami (they are labelled as N.A.T.R.= not available tsunami report) but they are included since their location and magnitude suggest a tsunamigenic potential. (author)

  20. Prediction of Tsunami Waves and Runup Generated by 3d Granular Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Subaerial and submarine landslides can trigger tsunamis with locally high amplitudes and runup, which can cause devastating effects in the near field region. The 50th anniversary of the Lituya Bay 1958 landslide impact generated mega tsunami recalls the largest tsunami runup of 524m in recorded history. In contrast to earthquake generated tsunamis, landslide generated tsunami sources are not confined to active tectonic regions and therefore are of particular importance for the Atlantic Ocean. Landslide generated tsunamis were studied in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin TWB at OSU based on the generalized Froude similarity. A novel pneumatic landslide generator was deployed to control the landslide geometry and kinematics. Granular materials were used to model deformable landslides. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), multiple above and underwater video cameras, multiple acoustic transducer arrays (MTA), as well as resistance wave and runup gauges were applied. The wave generation was characterized by an extremely unsteady three phase flow consisting of the slide granulate, water and air entrained into the flow. The underwater cameras and the MTA provide data on the landslide deformation as it impacts the water surface, penetrates the water and finally deposits on the bottom of the basin. The influence of the landslide volume, shape and the impact speed on the generated tsunami wave characteristics were extensively studied. The experimental data provides prediction models for the generated tsunami wave characteristics based on the initial landslide characteristics and the final slide deposits. PIV provided instantaneous surface velocity vector fields, which gave insight into the kinematics of the landslide and wave generation process. At high impact velocities flow separation occurred on the slide shoulder resulting in a hydrodynamic impact crater. The recorded wave profiles yielded information on the wave propagation and attenuation. The measured wave speed of the leading wave corresponds well to the theoretical approximation of the solitary wave speed while the trailing waves are considerably slower in nature. Attenuation functions of the leading wave crest amplitude, the wave length and the time period were obtained to study the wave behavior in the near field and far field regions. The experimental data also provided the energy conversion rate between the landslide source and the generated tsunami waves. The slide characteristics measured in the experiment provides the landslide source for numerically modeling these landslide tsunamis. The measured wave data serves the validation and advancement of 3-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami and prediction models.

  1. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  2. New evidence for the Storegga tsunami event in lake basins systems: western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, N.; Vasskog, K.; Nesje, A.; Chapron, E.; Ariztegui, D.; Bondevik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Between 8180 and 8070 years ago, one of the largest known submarine slides occurred off the coast of mid-Norway. This event displaced about 3500 km3 of sediment, affected an area of 95,000 km2 and triggered a large tsunami that inundated coastal areas around the North Atlantic and the North Sea. In this contribution, we present first geological evidence from a high resolution geophysical survey and shallow sediment coring for the presence of a large tsunamite related to the Storegga event, in shallow lacustrine basins of Western Norway. A unique Rapidly Deposited Layer (RDL) discovered in the sedimentary infill of the lakes Nerfloen and Oppstrynsvatnet (29 m a.s.l.) is interpreted as a deposit from this tsunami. Two radiocarbon dates from within the deposit itself yield a combined age estimate of 8180-8030 cal a BP (2σ) for the RDL, which is in agreement with robust age-depth modelling of the overlying sediments and strongly supporting the correlation with the Storegga event. In the outer lake basins, where both high-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores are available, the up to 3.5 m thick RDL covers an area of ~1.1 km2 and features an estimated sediment volume of ~1.2x106 m3. More tentatively we suggest that a ~5x106 m3 semi-transparent seismic unit in the main Oppstrynsvatnet basin could also be connected to the tsunami. Tsunami deposits of this magnitude have not been documented previously in Norwegian lakes, suggesting that the physiographic setting of the study area may have significantly amplified the tsunami wave.

  3. When is a Tsunami a Mega-Tsunami?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is commonly called a mega-tsunami, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of tsunami characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a tsunami generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-tsunami but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-tsunami over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-tsunami, is proposed. Examples of these tsunamis will be provided.

  4. Assessment of the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 Tsunami Events in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Willington; Lynett, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The object of this study is to present an analysis of measurements and observations from the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 tsunamis, in order to understand the particular response of the Galápagos Islands to the occurrence of these extreme events. There was very limited data measured in the Galápagos during the tsunami events, other than a high-frequency and continuous record of each event logged at the two tidal gauge stations. With this data, a wavelet analysis is performed with the aim of discriminating different patterns in wave periods along the record of observation and to recognize the frequency response of the islands to an incoming tsunami. During both events, a clear and persistent signal is found in the period range of ten to twelve minutes for Baltra tide gauge, and in the range of seventeen to twenty minutes for Santa Cruz tide gauge. Both of these persistent signals are speculated to be a shelf resonant mode particular to the Galápagos Islands and the Galápagos Platform.

  5. FIRST EVIDENCE OF PALEO-TSUNAMI DEPOSITS OF A MAJOR HISTORIC EVENT IN ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kervin Chunga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian shoreline is considered highly susceptible by impacts of tsunamis triggered by marine quakes or submarine landslides occurring close or nearby the subduction zone between the Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates. Since 1877 one dozen known tsunamis have been witnessed along this coast, mostly related to short-distanced seismic activities (earthquakes between Mw 6.9 to 8.8. However, no evidence of these impacts has been recorded in the sedimentary stratigraphy on the Ecuadorian platform so far. Nonetheless, in the southwestern part of the Gulf of Guayaquil, due to a biological, chemical, stratigraphic and geochronologic study of a few cored samples an anomalous horizon to the other sedimentary layers has been identified and recognized as a paleo-tsunami deposit. This layer having a thickness of up to 10 cm and up to 1100 meters away from the actual shore, demonstrates various criteria which confirm its origin such as deep sea foraminifera like Pullenia bulloides, run-up and backwash features, fragments of molluscs, which are absent in other sedimentary levels, matrix of weathered chlorite potentially originated by glauconite besides other. Geocronologic evidence together with the calculated sedimentation rate, implies that a the tsunami surged the coastal lowlands around Villamil Playas about 1250 ± 50 yrs ago and must have been a major event originated from the western or northwestern direction.

  6. THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean.The best known of the historical tsunamis in the region is the one generated by the great earthquake of November 28, 1945 off Pakistan's Makran Coast (Balochistan in the Northern Arabian Sea. The destructive tsunami killed more than 4,000 people in Southern Pakistan but also caused great loss of life and devastation along the coasts of Western India, Iran, Oman and possibly elsewhere.The seismotectonics of the Makran subduction zone, historical earthquakes in the region, the recent earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Northern Pakistan, and the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005, are indicative of the active tectonic collision process that is taking place along the entire southern and southeastern boundary of the Eurasian plate as it collides with the Indian plate and adjacent microplates. Tectonic stress transference to other, stress loaded tectonic regions could trigger tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Northern Arabian Sea in the future.The northward movement and subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Iranian micro-plate at a very shallow angle and at the high rate is responsible for active orogenesis and uplift that has created a belt of highly folded and densely faulted coastal mountain ridges along the coastal region of Makran, in both the Balochistan and Sindh provinces. The same tectonic collision process has created offshore thrust faults. As in the past, large destructive tsunamigenic earthquakes can occur along major faults in the east Makran region, near Karachi, as well as along the western end of the subduction zone. In fact, recent seismic activity indicates that a large earthquake is possible in the region west of the 1945 event. Such an earthquake can be expected to generate a destructive tsunami.Additionally, the on-going subduction of the two micro-plates has dragged tertiary marine sediments into an accretionary prism - thus forming the Makran coastal region, Thick sediments, that have accumulated along the deltaic coastlines from the erosion of the Himalayas, particularly along the eastern Sindh region near the Indus River delta, have the potential to fail and cause large underwater tsunamigenic slides. Even smaller magnitude earthquakes could trigger such underwater landslides. Finally, an earthquake similar to that of 1945 in the Makran zone of subduction, has the potential of generating a bookshelf type of failure within the compacted sediments – as that associated with the “silent” and slow 1992 Nicaragua earthquake – thus contributing to a more destructive tsunami. In conclusion, the Makran subduction zone has a relatively high potential for large tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY UNDERWATER LANDSLIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langford P. Sue

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results from a set of laboratory experiments aimed at producing a high-quality dataset for modeling underwater landslide-induced tsunami are presented. A unique feature of these experiments is the use of a method to measure water surface profiles continuously in both space and time rather than at discrete points. Water levels are obtained using an optical technique based on laser induced fluorescence, which is shown to be comparable in accuracy and resolution to traditional electrical point wave gauges. The ability to capture the spatial variations of the water surface along with the temporal changes has proven to be a powerful tool with which to study the wave generation process.In the experiments, the landslide density and initial submergence are varied and information of wave heights, lengths, propagation speeds, and shore run-up is measured. The experiments highlight the non- linear interaction between slider kinematics and initial submergence, and the wave field.The ability to resolve water levels spatially and temporally allows wave potential energy time histories to be calculated. Conversion efficiencies range from 1.1%-5.9% for landslide potential energy into wave potential energy. Rates for conversion between landslide kinetic energy and wave potential energy range between 2.8% and 13.8%.The wave trough initially generated above the rear end of the landslide propagates in both upstream and downstream directions. The upstream-travelling trough creates the large initial draw-down at the shore. A wave crest generated by the landslide as it decelerates at the bottom of the slope causes the maximum wave run-up height observed at the shore.

  8. Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash flood deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuna-Schwartz, D.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.; Khokiattiwong, S.; Stattegger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami, storm and flash event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore from Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea), are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. They are characterized by (1) the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris, (2) cross lamination and (3) the appearance of rip-up clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to individual storm events by using 210Pb dating in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms and could thus be securely differentiated from tsunami deposits. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize the storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents flash floods, which is characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between the storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of rip-up clasts, mud, and terrigenous material within the storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between offshore storm and tsunami deposits.

  9. Physical Modeling of Tsunamis Generated By 3D Deformable Landslides in Various Scenarios From Fjords to Conical Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, B. C.; Fritz, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcano flank collapse can be particularly devastative in the near field region due to locally high wave amplitudes and runup. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1963 Vajont reservoir, 1980 Spirit Lake, 2002 Stromboli and 2010 Haiti demonstrate the danger of tsunamis generated by landslides or volcano flank collapses. Unfortunately critical field data from these events is lacking. Source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled using generalized Froude similarity in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University. A novel pneumatic landslide tsunami generator (LTG) was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Two different materials are used to simulate landslides to study the granulometry effects: naturally rounded river gravel and cobble mixtures. The LTG consists of a sliding box filled with 1,350 kg of landslide material which is accelerated by means of four pneumatic pistons down a 2H:1V slope. The landslide is launched from the sliding box and continues to accelerate by gravitational forces up to velocities of 5 m/s. The landslide Froude number at impact with the water is in the range 1 underwater camera recordings. The landslide deposit is measured on the basin floor with a multiple transducer acoustic array (MTA). Landslide surface reconstruction and kinematics are determined with a stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Wave runup is recorded with resistance wave gauges along the slope and verified with video image processing. The measured landslide and wave parameters are compared between the planar hill slope used in various scenarios and the convex hill slope of the conical island. The energy conversion rates from the landslide motion to the wave train is quantified for the planar and convex hill slopes. The wave runup data on the opposing headland is analyzed and evaluated with wave theories. A method to predict the maximum wave runup on an opposing headland using nondimensional landslide, water body and bathymetric parameters is derived. The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance three-dimensional numerical landslide tsunami prediction models.

  10. The VOLNA code for the numerical modelling of tsunami waves: generation, propagation and inundation

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Poncet, Raphaël; Dias, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A novel tool for tsunami wave modelling is presented. This tool has the potential of being used for operational purposes: indeed, the numerical code \\VOLNA is able to handle the complete life-cycle of a tsunami (generation, propagation and run-up along the coast). The algorithm works on unstructured triangular meshes and thus can be run in arbitrary complex domains. This paper contains the detailed description of the finite volume scheme implemented in the code. The numerica...

  11. NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY POTENTIAL EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE KOMANDORSKY SEISMIC GAP IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLAND ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kh. Mazova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Komandorsky seismic gap has distinctive boundaries and a length of 650 km. Its period of “seismic silence” comes close to the maximum recurrence interval for great earthquakes in the Aleutian Island Arc - the stress concentration here probably having reached the critical value. So, estimation of possible earthquake and tsunami characteristics within this gap becomes a significant problem. The closest analog of a similar gap is the area where the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman catastrophic event occurred. Thus, for the present study we used the same modeling scheme as we used for that event. It was assumed that a source length of 650 km, consisting of 9 blocks, and an earthquake with a moment magnitude MW=8.5. Several block motion scenarios were considered. The tsunami generation and propagation in the Pacific Ocean and the possible wave characteristics on near and far-field coasts were estimated. Modeling of such an event showed that the wave heights on different Pacific coasts will vary from 3 to 9 meters. A tsunami wave with a 9-meter height is capable in causing significant loss of human life and economic damage.

  12. Tsunami Forecasting: The 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami Demonstrates Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily; Moore, Christopher; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku

    2010-05-01

    The 10 August 2009 Andaman non-destructive tsunami in the Indian Ocean demonstrated advances in creating a tsunami-resilient global society. Following the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004, scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) developed an interface for its validated and verified tsunami numerical model Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST). MOST has been benchmarked substantially through analytical solutions, experimental results and field measurements (Synolakis et al., 2008). MOST and its interface the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) are distributed through extensive capacity-building sessions for the Indian Ocean nations using UNESCO/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), AusAID, and USAID funding. Over one hundred-sixty scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. During the 10 August 2009 Andaman tsunami event, NCTR scientists exercised the forecast system in research mode using the first generation inundation models developed during ComMIT trainings. Assimilating key data from a Kingdom of Thailand tsunameter, coastal tsunami amplitudes were predicted in Indonesia, Thailand, and India coastlines, before the first tsunami arrival, using models developed by ComMIT trainees. Since its first test in 2003, one more time, NCTR's forecasting methodology proved the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models (Wei et al., 2008 and Titov, 2009). The 2009 Andaman tsunami demonstrated that operational tsunami forecasting tools are now available and coupled with inundation mapping tools can be effective and can reduce false alarms. International collaboration is required to fully utilize this technology's potential. Enhanced educational efforts both at government and community levels are necessary to further reduce risk. References Synolakis, C.E., et al. (2008), Validation and verification of tsunami numerical models, Pure and Applied Geophysics. 165(11-12), 2197-2228. Titov, V.V. (2009), Chapter 12: Tsunami forecasting, The SEA, Tsunamis, vol. 15, Harvard University Press, p. 371-400. Wei, Y., et al. (2008), Real-time experimental forecast of the Peruvian tsunami of August 2007 for U.S. coastlines, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04609.

  13. Evaluation of tsunami risk in the Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zahibo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to give the preliminary estimates of the tsunami risks for the Lesser Antilles. We investigated the available data of the tsunamis in the French West Indies using the historical data and catalogue of the tsunamis in the Lesser Antilles. In total, twenty-four (24 tsunamis were recorded in this area for last 400 years; sixteen (16 events of the seismic origin, five (5 events of volcanic origin and three (3 events of unknown source. Most of the tsunamigenic earthquakes (13 occurred in the Caribbean, and three tsunamis were generated during far away earthquakes (near the coasts of Portugal and Costa Rica. The estimates of tsunami risk are based on a preliminary analysis of the seismicity of the Caribbean area and the historical data of tsunamis. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of historical extreme runup tsunami data on Guadeloupe, and these data are revised after a survey in Guadeloupe.

  14. Advances in Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Arenas, F.; Lillo, I.; Tamburini, L.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has records of recurring tsunamis. This is confirmed by its geological evidences, long historical records and instrumental data. However, tsunamis were always an underestimated hazard. In 2010 its coasts were affected by a large near-field tsunami and in 2011 for a far-field tsunami generated in Japan, confirming the high vulnerability of coastal communities. Both events had different magnitudes and impacts on coastal areas. The near-field tsunami was generated by an earthquake (Mw 8.8) that occurred on the 27th of February 2010, the waves arrived at the coast in a few minutes and mostly impacted small coastal communities located within the rupture area, there were 156 victims and 25 missing. While the far-field tsunami was generated by a giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan, arriving their first waves on the coast of Chile twenty one hours later, displacing thousands of people to high ground. These two recent events have resulted in advances in tsunami hazard mitigation, mainly in the localities that were affected by both events, incorporating the tsunami risk and the emergency management in territorial planning. Example of this is the consideration of risk based on worst case scenarios, design and assessment of mitigation scenarios (e.g. tsunami forest, mitigation parks, dikes and fills) using tsunami modeling and land use policies more rigorous. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  15. REASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI HAZARD IN THE CITY OF IQUIQUE, CHILE, AFTER THE PISAGUA EARTHQUAKE OF APRIL 2014 In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential tsunami impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Suarez, L.; Aránguiz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Catalan, P. A.; Dominguez, J. C.; Tomita, T.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st2014 a 8.1 Mw Earthquake occurred at 23:46:50 UTC (20:46:50 local time) with its epicenter located off the coast of Pisagua, 68 km north of the city of Iquique (An et al., 2014). The potential risk of earthquake and tsunami in this area was widely recognized by the scientific community (Chlieh et al., 2004). Nevertheless, the energy released by this earthquake and the associated slip distribution was much less than expected. In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique. For that purpose, an updated tsunami source will be derived using updated information on the seismic and co-seismic tectonic displacements that is available from historical, geological information, and the dense GPS and seismometer networks available in the North of Chile. The updated tsunami source will be used to generate initial conditions for a tsunami and analyze the following aspects: i) large scale hydrodynamics, ii) arrival times, maximum flow depths, and inundation area, iii) potential impact on the port of Iquique, and more specifically on the container's drift that the tsunami could produce. This analysis is essential to reassess tsunami hazard in Iquique, evaluate evacuation plans and mitigation options regarding the port operation. Tsunami propagation and inundation will be conducted using the STOC model (Tomita and Honda, 2010), and a high resolution Lidar topographic database. ReferencesAn, C. et al. (2014). Tsunami source and its validation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060567. Chlieh, et al. (2004). Crustal deformation and fault slip during the seismic cycle in the north Chile subduction zone, from GPS and INSAR observations, Geophys J. Int., 158(2), 695-711, 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02326.x. Tomita, T., & Honda, K. (2010). Practical model to estimate drift motion of vessels by tsunami with consideration of colliding with structures and stranding. Proceedings of the 32nd Conference on Coastal Engineering. ASCE.

  16. Development of a Tsunami Inundation Map in Detecting Tsunami Risk in Gulf of Fethiye, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya Itir; Kemec, Serkan; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Düzgün, Sebnem; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    NAMIDANCE tsunami simulation and visualization tool is used to create tsunami inundation maps showing quantitative maximum tsunami flow depths in Fethiye. The risk of an extreme, but likely earthquake-generated tsunami is estimated at Fethiye Bay for 14 probabilistic earthquake scenarios. The bay is located 36°39'5″N 29°7'23″E, southwestern Turkey, which has coastline to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The tsunami simulation and inundation assessment are performed in three stages: (1) formation of a digital elevation model of the region from the best available topography/bathymetry dataset, (2) estimation of a maximum credible tsunami scenario for the region and determination of related earthquake parameters, (3) high resolution tsunami simulation and computation of near shore and overland tsunami dynamics in the study area using tsunami simulation and visualization code NAMIDANCE, (4) determination of spatial distributions of tsunami characteristics (maximum water elevations, water velocities, flow depths) under the critical tsunami condition. The results are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami sources, topographic and bathymetric databases, and tsunami numerical models. We present an innovative study concentrating on preparation of quantitative flow depths and inundation maps with a very high-resolution bathymetry/topographic dataset in the eastern Mediterranean. Inundation maps will be used to analyze the effects of possible tsunamis. The presented research is crucial to raising the awareness of government officials, the public, and other stake holders about the high probability of a tsunami event in Turkey. Moreover, the results of this study will help to plan for evacuation routes, establish safe zones, and assist in preparation for the tsunami, creating public awareness, and planning evacuation routes before the actual tsunami event happens.

  17. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Lockridge; LowellS. Whiteside; James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunami...

  18. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated under the United Nations. This paper reviews historical tsunamis, their warning activities, and their sea level records to highlight lessons learned with the focus on how these insights have helped to drive further development of tsunami warning systems and their tsunami warning centers. While the international systems do well for teletsunamis, faster detection, more accurate evaluations, and widespread timely alerts are still the goals, and challenges still remain to achieving early warning against the more frequent and destructive local tsunamis.

  19. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2015-04-01

    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench). Acknowledgements: Support by Japan-Turkey Joint Research Project by JICA and JST on earthquakes and tsunamis in Marmara Region (SATREPS) is acknowledged.

  20. Evidence of tsunami events in the Paleolimnological record of Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Hugo, Garduño-Monroy; Diana Cinthia, Soria-Caballero; Isabel, Israde-Alcántara; Víctor Manuel, Hernández Madrigal; Alejandro, Rodríguez-Ramírez; Mikhail, Ostroumov; Miguel Ángel, Rodríguez-Pascua; Arturo, Chacon-Torres; Juan Carlos, Mora-Chaparro.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El actual lago de Pátzcuaro tiene una elevación de 2035 m sobre el nivel del mar. Históricamente, ha alcanzado una elevación de 2041 m, lo cual aislaba una porción de la isla cerca de la población de Jarácuaro en la parte sureste del lago. Dos trincheras realizadas en la antigua isla revelan secuenc [...] ias estratigráficas tripartitas similares. En una trinchera de 3.1 m de profundidad, la secuencia de la base a la cima está formada por la Unidad A que comprende arcillas y limos ricos en diatomeas plegados y fallados con capas de arena volcánica. Estos depósitos están fechados entre 24 y 10 mil años BP. Unidad B que comprende una mezcla caótica de arenas volcánicas y lapilli, con abundantes restos de peces, bivalvos, gasterópodos y ostrácodos, de 10 cm de espesor con un contacto erosivo sobre la Unidad A. Los ostrácodos incluyen valvas articuladas con una mezcla de especies pelágicas de agua profunda y especies litorales. Los fragmentos de artefactos cerámicos pertenecientes al Período Post-Clásico (900 a 1520 AD) son abundantes. La Unidad C comprende una unidad de 20 cm de espesor de limo arcilloso rico en materia orgánica con restos de gasterópodos, semillas, líticos angulares y fragmentos de piezas cerámicas del Post-Clásico. La Unidad B sugiere una resedimentación catastrófica de los depósitos del piso del lago atribuidos a un tsunami. La Unidad C es consistente con condiciones sublacustres que están históricamente documentadas de 1858 a 1947. Un tsunami en el Lago de Pátzcuaro en 1858 ha sido registrado históricamente. El tsunami pudo haber sido creado por movimientos de falla o colapso del flanco suroeste de la isla de Janitzio. La ola del tsunami pudo haber contribuido al rápido aumento del lago de Pátzcuaro después del evento sísmico de 1858. Abstract in english Modern Lake Pátzcuaro has a surface elevation of 2035 m a.s.l. Historically, it reached an elevation of 2041 m a.s.l., which isolated a portion of the island near the town of Jarácuaro in the southeastern part of the lake. Two trenches in the former island reveal similar tripartite stratigraphic seq [...] uences. In a 3.1 m deep trench, the sequence from bottom to top comprises Unit A constituted by folded and faulted diatom-rich clay and silt with beds of volcanic sand. These deposits are dated between 24 and 10 ky BP; Unit B constituted by a 10 of cm chaotic mixture of volcanic sand and lapilli with abundant remains of fish, bivalves, gastropods and ostracodes that is rests on above an erosional unconformity. The ostracodes include articulated valves with a mixture of deep-water pelagic species and attached littoral species. Highly fractured diatom shows a mixture of planktonic and benthic habitats. Fragments of ceramic artifacts dated to the Post-Classic Period (900 to 1520 AD) are abundant; Unit Cconstituted by a 20 cm thick unit of organic-rich argillaceous silt with remains of gastropods, seeds, angular lithoclasts and fragments of Post-Classic ceramic artifacts. Unit B suggests a catastrophic resedi mentation of lake floor deposits attributed to a tsunami. Unit C is consistent with sublacustrine conditions that are historically documented from 1858 to 1947. A tsunami in Lake Pátzcuaro in 1858 has been historically recorded. The tsunami was created either by fault movement or collapse of the SW flank of the island of Janitzio. The tsunami wave may have contributed to the rapid rise of Lake Pátzcuaro following the 1858 seismic event.

  1. THE MAY 17, 1992 EVENT: TSUNAMI AND COASTAL EFFECTS IN EASTERN MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda M. Besana; Masataka Ando; Ma. Hannah Mirabueno

    2004-01-01

    Tsunami invaded the eastern coastlines of Mindanao islands several minutes after the strong ground shaking of the May 17, 1992 quake. Recent field investigations showed that tsunami intensity generally decreases southwards and northwards relative to Bunga and Zaragoza areas. There was an unusually high tsunami wave height (~6m) at Bunga that was most probably due to local site effect. Tsunami waves were generally preceded by the lowering of sea water level while the tsunami arrival times have...

  2. Tsunami Squares Approach to Landslide-Generated Waves: Application to Gongjiafang Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lili; Ward, Steven N.; Wang, Jiajia

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a new method, named "Tsunami Squares", for modeling of landslides and landslide-generated waves. The approach has the advantages of the previous "Tsunami Ball" method, for example, separate, special treatment for dry and wet cells is not needed, but obviates the use of millions of individual particles. Simulations now can be expanded to spatial scales not previously possible. The new method accelerates and transports "squares" of material that are fractured into new squares in such a way as to conserve volume and linear momentum. The simulation first generates landslide motion as constrained by direct observation. It then computes induced water waves, given assumptions about energy and momentum transfer. We demonstrated and validated the Tsunami Squares method by modeling the 2008 Three Gorges Reservoir Gongjiafang landslide and river tsunami. The landslide's progressive failure, the wave generated, and its subsequent propagation and run-up are well reproduced. On a laptop computer Tsunami Square simulations flexibly handle a wide variety of waves and flows, and are excellent techniques for risk estimation.

  3. Improving Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness Using Real-Time and Post-Tsunami Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The February 27, 2010 Chile and March 11, 2011 Japan tsunamis caused dramatic loss of life and damage in the near-source region, and notable impacts in distant coastal regions like California. Comprehensive real-time and post-tsunami field surveys and the availability of hundreds of videos within harbors and marinas allow for detailed documentation of these two events by the State of California Tsunami Program, which receives funding through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Although neither event caused significant inundation of dry land in California, dozens of harbors sustained damage totaling nearly $100-million. Information gathered from these events has guided new strategies in tsunami evacuation planning and maritime preparedness. Scenario-specific, tsunami evacuation "playbook" maps and guidance are being produced detailing inundation from tsunamis of various size and source location. These products help coastal emergency managers prepare local response plans when minor distant source tsunamis or larger tsunamis from local and regional sources are generated. In maritime communities, evaluation of strong tsunami currents and damage are being used to validate/calibrate numerical tsunami model currents and produce in-harbor hazard maps and identify offshore safety zones for potential boat evacuation when a tsunami Warning is issued for a distant source event. Real-time and post-tsunami field teams have been expanded to capture additional detailed information that can be shared in a more timely manner during and after an event through a state-wide clearinghouse. These new products and related efforts will result in more accurate and efficient emergency response by coastal communities, potentially reducing the loss of lives and property during future tsunamis.

  4. The Tsunami Geology of the Bay of Bengal Shores and the Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Seshachalam, S.; Andrade, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 Aceh-Andaman earthquake exceeded the known Indian Ocean precedents by its 1,300-km long fault rupture and the height and reach of its tsunami. Literature of the ancient Chola dynasty (AD 9-11 centuries) of south India and the archeological excavations allude to a sea flood that crippled the historic port at Kaveripattinam, a trading hub for Southeast Asia. Here, we combine a variety of data from the rupture zone as well as the distant shores to build a tsunami history of the Bay of Bengal. A compelling set of geological proxies of possible tsunami inundation include boulder beds of Car Nicobar Island in the south and the East Island in the northernmost Andaman, a subsided fossil mangrove forest near Port Blair and a washover sedimentation identified in the Kaveripattinam coast of Tamil Nadu, south India. We have developed an extensive chronology for these geological proxies, and we analyze them in conjunction with the historical information culled from different sources for major sea surges along the Bay of Bengal shores. The age data and the depositional characteristics of these geological proxies suggest four major tsunamis in the last 2000 years in the Bay of Bengal, including the 1881 Car Nicobar tsunami. Among these, the evidence for the event of 800-1200 cal yr BP is fairly well represented on both sides of the Bay of Bengal shores. Thus, we surmise that the 800-1000-year old tsunami mimics the transoceanic reach of the 2004 Indian Ocean and the age constraints also agree with the sea surge during the Chola period. We also obtained clues for a possible medieval tsunami from the islands occurred probably a few hundred years after the Chola tsunami, but its size cannot constrained, nor its source. The convergence of ages and the multiplicity of sites would suggest at least one full size predecessor of the 2004 event 1000-800 years ago.

  5. Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulvrová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity. In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1 a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka, and (2 from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece. The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented example and thus serves as a case-study for validating the calculations. The numerical model reproduces realistically the tsunami runups measured onshore. Systematic numerical study of tsunamis generated by explosions of Kolumbo volcano is then conducted for a wide range of energies. Results show that in case of reawakening, Kolumbo volcano might represent a significant tsunami hazard for the northern, eastern and southern coasts of Santorini, even for small-power explosions.

  6. TSUNAMI GENERATED BY THE VOLCANO ERUPTION ON JULY 12-13, 2003 AT MONTSERRAT, LESSER ANTILLES

    OpenAIRE

    Efim Pelinovsky; Narcisse Zahibo; Peter Dunkley; Marie Edmonds; Richard Herd; Tatiana Talipova; Andrey Kozelkov; Irina Nikolkina

    2004-01-01

    A major collapse of a lava dome occurred at the Soufrière Hills Volcano (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles), culminating late in the evening (11:35 PM local time) on July 12, 2003 (03:35 GMT on 13 July). This generated a tsunami, which was recorded on Montserrat 2-4 km from the generating area and Guadeloupe, 50 km from Montserrat. Results of field surveys are presented. Tsunami wave height on Montserrat may have been about 4 m according to the location of a strandline of charred trees and other fl...

  7. Numerical simulations of tsunami generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ulvrová; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world arise the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented...

  8. Numerical simulations of tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions at Karymskoye lake (Kamchatka, Russia) and Kolumbo volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ulvrová; Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; Nomikou, P.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing human activities along the coasts of the world provoke the necessity to assess tsunami hazard from different sources (earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity). In this paper, we simulate tsunamis generated by underwater volcanic explosions from (1) a submerged vent in a shallow water lake (Karymskoye Lake, Kamchatka), and (2) from Kolumbo submarine volcano (7 km NE of Santorini, Aegean Sea, Greece). The 1996 tsunami in Karymskoye lake is a well-documented examp...

  9. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source and devastating on long stretches of Tyrrhenian coasts, but particularly in the neighbouring islands of Panarea and Salina, and along the Calabria coasts around Capo Vaticano.

  10. Warning and prevention based on estimates with large uncertainties: the case of low-frequency and large-impact events like tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2013-04-01

    Geoscientists deal often with hazardous processes like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc., and their research is aimed not only to a better understanding of the physical processes, but also to provide assessment of the space and temporal evolution of a given individual event (i.e. to provide short-term prediction) and of the expected evolution of a group of events (i.e. to provide statistical estimates referred to a given return period, and a given geographical area). One of the main issues of any scientific method is how to cope with measurement errors, a topic which in case of forecast of ongoing or of future events translates into how to deal with forecast uncertainties. In general, the more data are available and processed to make a prediction, the more accurate the prediction is expected to be if the scientific approach is sound, and the smaller the associated uncertainties are. However, there are several important cases where assessment is to be made with insufficient data or insufficient time for processing, which leads to large uncertainties. Two examples can be given taken from tsunami science, since tsunamis are rare events that may have destructive power and very large impact. One example is the case of warning for a tsunami generated by a near-coast earthquake, which is an issue at the focus of the European funded project NearToWarn. Warning has to be launched before tsunami hits the coast, that is in a few minutes after its generation. This may imply that data collected in such a short time are not yet enough for an accurate evaluation, also because the implemented monitoring system (if any) could be inadequate (f.i. one reason of inadequacy could be that implementing a dense instrumental network could be judged too expensive for rare events) The second case is the long term prevention from tsunami strikes. Tsunami infrequency may imply that the historical record for a given piece of coast is too short to capture a statistical sufficient number of large tsunamis, which entails that tsunami hazard has to be estimated by means of speculated worst-case scenarios, and their consequences are evaluated accordingly and usually result associated with large uncertainty bands. In case of large uncertainties, the main issues for geoscientists are how to communicate the information (prediction and uncertainties) to stakeholders and citizens and how to build and implement together responsive procedures that should be adequate. Usually there is a tradeoff between the cost of the countermeasure (warning and prevention) and its efficacy (i.e. its capability of minimizing the damage). The level of the acceptable tradeoff is an issue pertaining to decision makers and to local threatened communities. This paper, that represents a contribution from the European project TRIDEC on management of emergency crises, discusses the role of geoscientists in providing predictions and the related uncertainties. It is stressed that through academic education geoscientists are formed more to better their understanding of processes and the quantification of uncertainties, but are often unprepared to communicate their results in a way appropriate for society. Filling this gap is crucial for improving the way geoscience and society handle natural hazards and devise proper defense means.

  11. TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves hitting the eastern United States is very real despite a general impression to the contrary. We have cataloged 40 tsunamis and tsunami-like waves that have occurred in the eastern United States since 1600. Tsunamis were generated from such events as the 1755 Queen Anne’s earthquake, the Grand Banks event of 1929, the Charleston earthquake of 1886, and the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. The Queen Anne tsunami was observed as far away as St. Martin in the West Indies and is the only known teletsunami generated in this source region.Since subduction zones are absent around most of the Atlantic basin, tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the United States East Coast are not generated from this traditional source, but appear, in most cases to be the result of slumping or landsliding associated with local earthquakes or with wave action associated with strong storms. Other sources of tsunamis and tsunami-like waves along the eastern seaboard have recently come to light including volcanic debris falls or catastrophic failure of volcanic slopes; explosive decompression of underwater methane deposits or oceanic meteor splashdowns. These sources are considered as well.

  12. Assessment of the safety of Ulchin nuclear power plant in the event of tsunami using parametric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous evaluations of the safety of the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant in the event of a tsunami have the shortcoming of uncertainty of the tsunami sources. To address this uncertainty, maximum and minimum wave heights at the intake of Ulchin NPP have been estimated through a parametric study, and then assessment of the safety margin for the intake has been carried out. From the simulation results for the Ulchin NPP site, it can be seen that the coefficient of eddy viscosity considerably affects wave height at the inside of the breakwater. In addition, assessment of the safety margin shows that almost all of the intake water pumps have a safety margin over 2 m, and Ulchin NPP site seems to be safe in the event of a tsunami according to this parametric study, although parts of the CWPs rarely have a margin for the minimum wave height

  13. A two-layer granular landslide model for tsunami wave generation: Theory and computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Kirby, James T.; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2015-09-01

    We develop and test a new two-layer model for granular landslide motion and tsunami wave generation. The landslide is described as a saturated granular flow, accounting for intergranular stresses governed by Coulomb friction. Tsunami wave generation is simulated by the three-dimensional non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE, which is capable of capturing wave dispersion efficiently using a small number of discretized vertical levels. Depth-averaged governing equations for the granular landslide are derived in a slope-oriented coordinate system, taking into account the dynamic interaction between the lower-layer granular landslide and upper-layer water motion. The model is tested against an analytical solution for granular dam-break flow and 2D and 3D laboratory experiments on impulsive wave generation by subaerial granular landslides. Model results illustrate a complex interplay between the granular landslide and tsunami waves, and they reasonably predict not only the tsunami wave generation but also the granular landslide motion from initiation to deposition.

  14. Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.

    2011-08-01

    Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (tsunamis and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian Ocean, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either tsunamis or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between tsunami and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide tsunami which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as tsunami candidates.

  15. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of Mw 7.8 ruptured an up-dip section of the 2007 rupture, west of the South Pagai of Mentawai Islands. It shook the region only gently but woke deadly tsunami up to 14 meter heights and killed about 500 people. Despite it has been a bit quite in the past three years but the amount of strain left on the Mentawai segment, especially under Siberut, Sipora and North Pagai Islands is about Mw 8.8 still, waiting to be released sometime in the near future. Beside Mentawai, stydies on prehistorical earthquakes and mapping off strain budget and releases along the Aceh-Andaman indicates that a Mw 8 or greater earthquake is still possible to occur in the next decades. Moreover, the status and characteristics of the megathrust section south of the Mentawai, the Sunda Strait to south Java Ocean, is largely unknown so far. Nonetheless, we do know that this southernmost section has been quite for the past several hundreds years, suggesting a possible seismic gap, and it is close to dense population of industrial and urban areas. Learning from experience, we should not just prepare for the expected of well known sources but also the unexpected ones.

  16. Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Sugiura; Shengye Jin; Duminda Welikanna; Ranjith Disanayake; Abdul Bari; Chinthaka Premachandra; Masayuki Tamura; Chandana Dinesh Parape

    2013-01-01

    The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of building...

  17. Resolution analysis of the tsunami generated by the 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake using a simple slip model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J. A.; Riquelme, S.; Fuentes, M. A.; Arriola, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Schindelé, F.; Campos, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern Chile has been identified as a likely mature seismic gap that spans approximately from Mejillones peninsula to Ilo in southern Peru. The 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake broke the middle segment, and coseismic slip models show that the slipped zone occurred in the intermediate to deeper portion of the megathrust fault interface between the downgoing and overriding plate. The tsunami generated by the Pisagua earthquake caused minor impact along the Chile shore, and, for instance, at the Iquique tide gauge, the leading wave reached an elevation of about 1.8 m and a depression of ~2.5 m. In the present work, we would like to address the tsunami generation, propagation and runup associated to the 2014 Pisagua earthquake. This work aims to understand, from a numerical point of view, why this event did caused a minor tsunami, to test the feasibility to model correctly the sea water level at DART buoys and local tide gauges, and to estimate the sensitivity of the runup amplitudes to earthquake source parameters. We collect published coseismic slips for this earthquake and used a proposed coseismic slip model obtained using seismological data. Assuming an elastic halfspace and the linear superposition principle, the static displacement field from these earthquake slip models was computed using the Okada's formula for a point-source and we use the vertical displacement computed at the seafloor as initial condition to propagate the tsunami. Preliminary results shows that major differences are observed in the near-field. Obtaining the static seafloor deformation we can immediately obtain an estimation of the maximum runup by using a multisloping beach model which allow us to understand how well-conditioned is the zone for a large tsunami. In terms of earthquake source, most of slip models show a single asperity that one can model as an elliptical slip crack. To test the sensitivity of the runup and water elevation to earthquake source parameters, we use a simple earthquake model to describe the coseismic slip associated to the 2014 Pisagua earthquake. By varying the crack location and fault geometry, we are currently estimating the variability of runup distribution and seawater elevation in the near-field.

  18. Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia through numerical modeling of generic far-field events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hébert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes occurring at the Pacific Rim can trigger tsunamis that propagate across the ocean and can produce significant damages far away from the source. In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are the most exposed to the far-field tsunami hazards, since they are not protected by any outer coral reef and since submarine slopes are less steep than in other islands. Between 1994 and 1996, four tsunamis have reached the bays of the archipelago, among them, the tsunami initiated by the Chilean Mw 8.1 earthquake, produced up to 3 m high waves in Tahauku Bay. Numerical modeling of these recent events has already allowed us to validate our method of resolution of hydrodynamics laws through a finite-difference scheme that simulates the propagation of the tsunamis across the ocean and computes the inundation heights (run-up in remote bays. We present in this paper the simulations carried out to study potentially threatening areas located at the Pacific Rim, on the seismogenic Aleutian and Tonga subduction zones. We use a constant seismic moment source (that of the Mw 8.1 Chile 1995 earthquake, M0 = 1.2 1021 N.m located at several potential epicenters, with the fault strike adapted from the regional seismotectonics pattern. Our results show that the sources chosen in the Aleutian trench do not produce large inundations in the Marquesas bays, except for the easternmost source (longitude 194° E. Sources located in the Tonga trench do not produce high amplifications either, except for the northernmost one (latitude 16° S. We also discuss the behaviour of the tsunami waves within the archipelago, and evidence contrasting responses depending on the arrival azimuths. These results show that, for a given initial seismic energy, the tsunami amplification in remote bays is highly dependent on the source location and fault strike.

  19. Tsunami Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    An important issue that vexes tsunami warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a tsunami warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of tsunami oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local tsunamis (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional tsunamis (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive tsunamis such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a tsunami propagates across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can propagate great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying tsunami oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial tsunami arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has developed tools based on tsunami simulations using the RIFT tsunami forecast model. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical tsunami propagation model that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of tsunami wave propagation in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1 minute simulated time steps takes approximately 50 minutes on the same system. These animations are generated quickly enough to provide decision support for emergency managers whose coastlines may be impacted by the tsunami several hours later. Tsunami reflections can also aid in determining the source region for those tsunamis generated by non-seismic mechanisms without a clear source such as meteotsunamis, tsunamis generated by meteorological phenomena. A derecho that crossed the New Jersey coast and entered the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 1500 UTC June 13, 2013 generated a meteotsunami that struck the northeast coast of the US causing several injuries. A DART sensor off Montauk, NY, recorded tsunami waves approximately 200 minutes apart. We show how the arrival times of the tsunamis recorded by this DART can help to constrain the source region of the meteotsunami. We also examine other reflections produced by the Haida Gwaii 2012, Tohoku 2011, and other tsunamis.

  20. Contribution of foraminifera to discriminate depositional events within an apparently massive tsunami deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoska, N. M.; Fatela, F.; Costa, P. J. M.; Andrade, C.; Freitas, M. C.; Oliveira, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    A foraminiferal study was conducted with the aim of detecting contrasts within an apparently massive 20 cm thick tsunami sand layer sandwiched in estuarine mud, associated with the AD1755 event, in Alcantarilha lowland (Algarve, Portugal). The foraminiferal species were grouped in marine (infratidal/inner shelf + planktic), marginal-marine (low estuary/lagoon) and estuarine (brackish middle estuary) assemblages after Murray (2006) (Image 1). Present-day analogues were also studied. Broken (corroded included) and juvenile tests (Image 2) were counted and density (NF/cm3) (Image 3), species richness (S) (Image 4) and diversity (H(s)) (Image 5), calculated. The preliminary results indicate 3 zones: A - base of the deposit - dominance of a marine assemblage, the acme in broken tests content, highest S/H(s) and lowest NF/cm3; B - a significant rise of estuarine group, as well as a drop of broken tests and S/H(s); C - marine species and broken tests increase, estuarine group still relevant; In the overlying unit it was observed: a drop in the marine group and slight increase in estuarine species and S/H(s); sharp rise in NF/cm3, marginal marine group and juveniles; the proportion of broken tests drops to a minimum. Marginal-marine species dominate both the mud capping the deposit and the underlying unit. The vertical variation in broken tests correlates with the marine taxa (R=0.97) throughout the deposit. The zones were interpreted as the signal of multiple run-in and backwash during one event. A might represent the first incoming wave, carrying marine and diverse broken faunas eroded from the inner shelf; B might reflect tsunami reworking of the middle estuary, the backwash adding brackish species to the assemblage; C suggest another run-in episode, adding new marine species to a mixed assemblage. These preliminary results stress the potential of foraminifera as a proxy in studies of inundation vs backwash tsunami sedimentation in coastal lowlands.

  1. Modeling for the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario-generation, propagation, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAFRR Tsunami Modeling Working Group

    2013-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of tsunami modeling studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario. These modeling studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR tsunami source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The modeling studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to tsunami generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on tsunami initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture models are explored in modeling tsunami generation. These models calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Section 3 (Thio) presents a modeling study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation modeling where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), modeling of tsunami propagation and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model and NOAA’s Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) modeling tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to modeling of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the model used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the modeled tsunami for other selected locales in southern California. Importantly, section 6 provides a comparison of the effect of including horizontal displacements at the source described in section 1 and differences in bottom friction on wave heights and inundation in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Modeling described in section 7 (Lynett and Son) uses a higher order physical model to determine variations of currents during the tsunami and complex flow structures such as jets and eddies. Section 7 also uses sediment transport models to estimate scour and deposition of sediment in ports and harbors—a significant effect that was observed in southern California following the 2011 Tohoku tsunami. Together, all of the sections in this report form the basis for damage, impact, and emergency preparedness aspects of the SAFRR tsunami scenario. Three sections of this report independently calculate wave height and inundation results using the source specified by Kirby and others (2013). Refer to figure 29 in section 3, figure 52 in section 4, and figure 62 in section 6. All of these results are relative to a mean high water (MHW) vertical datum. Slight differences in the results are observed in East Basin of the Port of Los Angeles, Alamitos Bay, and the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge. However, given that these three modeling efforts involved different implementations of the source, different numerical wave propagation and runup models, and slight differences in the digital elevation models (DEMs), the similarity among the results is remarkable.

  2. Destructive tsunami-like wave generated by surf beat over a coral reef during Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Volker; Bricker, Jeremy D

    2015-01-01

    Storm surges cause coastal inundation due to setup of the water surface resulting from atmospheric pressure, surface winds and breaking waves. Here we show that during Typhoon Haiyan, the setup generated by breaking waves near the fringing-reef-protected town of Hernani, the Philippines, oscillated with the incidence of large and small wave groups, and steepened into a tsunami-like wave that caused extensive damage and casualties. Though fringing reefs usually protect coastal communities from moderate storms, they can exacerbate flooding during strong events with energetic waves. Typical for reef-type bathymetries, a very short wave-breaking zone over the steep reef face facilitates the freeing of infragravity-period fluctuations (surf beat) with little energy loss. Since coastal flood planning relies on phase-averaged wave modelling, infragravity surges are not being accounted for. This highlights the necessity for a policy change and the adoption of phase-resolving wave models for hazard assessment in regions with fringing reefs. PMID:26245839

  3. Tohoku, Japan Tsunami Sets us West Coast Into Ringing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Gica, E.; Legg, G.

    2011-12-01

    Tsunamis can last a long time compared to the geophysical events that generate them. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami of March 11, 2011 was an extreme event that continued to disturb the Pacific Ocean for many days following its initiation. Historically Japan was considered a source of low tsunami wave energy for the US West Coast. However, damage in California from the last great Japan tsunami was second to that suffered during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Computer animations of the catastrophic Japan tsunami and other recent significant tsunamis combined with seismological techniques help to identify multiple paths of tsunami waves refracted and reflected by complex bathymetry across the Pacific Ocean basin. Using recent large tsunamigenic earthquakes we demonstrate that the long duration and damage noticed during the last great Japan tsunami in the farfield is a result of several factors. Waveguides acting as tsunami lenses and mirrors, including continental margins, direct the tsunami wave energy to diverse locations around the ocean basin; directionality affected by islands and seamounts, large reflections off of South America, bathymetric features far and near the area of impact and shelf geometry may delay and further amplify the main tsunami energy. This has direct implications on the prediction of tsunami impacts since the US West Coast appears to receive maximum waves much later than first wave arrivals.

  4. e+ e- event generator EPOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo program EPOCS (Electron POsitron Collision Simulator), which generates e+e- events in high energy region that will be explored by TRISTAN project. Special emphasis is put on the effect of Z0 and possible top quark resonances. The user can control the simulation by selecting the energy and other parameters. Also he can easily incorpolate a new process and/or particles into the program. The central part of this report is a detailed description on the structure and the usage of the program. We would like to stress that the hadronization is based on a number of assumptions, which are made as clear as possible here. (author)

  5. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  6. Investigation of tsunami generated by the Mariana trench earthquake of April 6, 1990. 1990 nen 4 gatsu 6 ka Mariana kaiko jishin ni yoru tsunami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, T. (Saitama (Japan))

    1991-06-24

    There was an earthquake on April 6, 1990 whose epicenter was in the vicinity of the Mariana Trench, 170km to the east of Saipan island. The earthquake accompanied a tsunami which was observed in a wide area in Japan, and the tsunami were put on records at many tidal stations. The tidal records made by various stations were analyzed to study the scale and characteristics of the tsunami. Continuous 3 hour wave surface was observed along the island arc from the Kanto districts to the Ryukyu Islands with little difference in the propagation times. The wave was comparatively higher in the Shikoku districts with the height of 40cm, and the amplitude was larger at the point where initial wave period of 8 minutes was observed. The magnitude of the tsunami was estimated to be m=2, which is one grade higher than average for the scale of the earthquake. The reason can be considered as the concentration of energy in Japan by the effect of submarine topography and by the effect of a high-angle thrust fault. The Tsunami generated along Ogasahara and Mariana Trench has a larger scale than that of the average earthquake, and can be explained by the high-angle thrust of the plate near the trench. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Dynamic tsunami generation due to sea-bottom deformation: Analytical representation based on linear potential theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuhiko

    2013-12-01

    Recording ocean-bottom pressures in offshore regions has increased our understanding of tsunami sources and promoted the development of rapid source estimation for early tsunami warning. Analytical solutions for the water height at the surface have often played an important role as a reference model in these efforts. To understand the system better and to develop the techniques further, not only the water height but the velocity in the sea and the pressure at the sea bottom are important. The present study obtains a solution for the velocity potential for sea-bottom deformation with an arbitrary source time function, and derives analytical solutions for the velocity distributions in the sea and the pressure at the bottom. These enable us to visualize the tsunami generation process, including the velocity field. The solutions can also give a theoretical background for setting the initial conditions of height and velocity in 2-D tsunami propagation simulations. Furthermore, the solution of the ocean-bottom pressure indicates that when the sea-bottom uplifts at an increasing rate, the sea-bottom pressure increases through a dynamic effect. This dynamic contribution will not be negligible as we develop more rapid and precise source estimation techniques using ocean-bottom pressure gauges within the source region.

  8. TSUNAMI INFORMATION SOURCES - PART 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Wiegel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available I have expanded substantially my list of information sources on: tsunami generation (sources, impulsive mechanisms, propagation, effects of nearshore bathymetry, and wave run-up on shore - including physical (hydraulic modeling and numerical modeling. This expanded list includes the subjects of field investigations of tsunamis soon after an event; damage effects in harbors on boats, ships, and facilities; tsunami wave-induced forces; damage by tsunami waves to structures on shore; scour/erosion; hazard mitigation; land use planning; zoning; siting, design, construction and maintenance of structures and infrastructure; public awareness and education; distant and local sources; tsunami warning and evacuation programs; tsunami probability and risk criteria. A few references are on "sedimentary signatures" useful in the study of historic and prehistoric tsunamis (paleo-tsunamis. In addition to references specifically on tsunamis, there are references on long water wave and solitary wave theory; wave refraction, diffraction, and reflection; shelf and basin free and forced oscillations (bay and harbor response; seiches; edge waves; Mach- reflection of long water waves ("stem waves"; wave run-up on shore; energy dissipation. All are important in understanding tsunamis, and in hazard mitigation. References are given on subaerial and submarine landslide (and rockfall generated waves in reservoirs, fjords, bays, and ocean; volcano explosive eruptions/collapse; underwater and surface explosions; asteroid impact. This report is in two parts: 1 Bibliographies, books and pamphlets, catalogs, collections, journals and newsletters, maps, organizations, proceedings, videos and photos; 2 Articles, papers, reports listed alphabetically by author.Many papers on the Indian Ocean (Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004, were given at the 22nd IUGG International Tsunami Symposium, Chania, Crete, 27-29 June 2005, but had not been published at the date of this report. For the program, see http://www.gein.noa.gr/English/tsunamis.htmThis list of tsunami information sources (115 pp, about 3,300 entries is also available on a diskette, at the Water Resources Center Archives, 410 O'Brien Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1718. Most of the publications are available in the Water Resources Center Archives or the Earth Sciences Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the great help of the staff of the Water Resources Center Archives in finding some difficult to obtain publications; in particular Paul S. Atwood for his help for those on websites and other computer sources. I want to thank John M. Wiegel for his continuous help in searching for sources on websites via computer search-engines.

  9. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. PMID:26392617

  10. The Chiemgau Meteorite Impact And Tsunami Event (Southeast Germany): First Osl Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, I.; Zacharias, N.; Polymeris, G. S.; Kitis, G.; Ernstson, K.; Sudhaus, D.; Neumair, A.; Mayer, W.; Rappenglück, M. A.; Rappenglück, B.

    A more exact dating of the Chiemgau meteorite impact in Bavaria, southeast Germany, that produced a large strewn field of more than 80 craters sized between a few meters and several hundred meters, may provide the indispensable fundament for evaluating its cultural implications and thus enable an extraordinary case study. A straightforward answer has not yet been provided due to e.g. scarce existence of diagnostic material, lack of specialised micromorphologists, absence of absolute dating data etc. Here we report on a first OSL dating applied to a catastrophic impact layer that features both impact ejecta and tsunami characteristics attributed to proposed falls of projectiles into Lake Chiemsee in the impact event. The OSL dating was conducted on a quartzite cobble and four sediment samples collected from an excavated archaeological stratigraphy at Lake Chiemsee that comprised also the impact layer. In a first approach the analyses were based on the assumption of zero luminescence resetting clock from the induced impact shock for the quartzite cobble, and a solar bleaching of tsunamigenerated sediments. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) was applied using the Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol and relevant reliability criteria. For sediments the beta-TL method was also applied. Reported ages fall around the beginning of 2nd millennium BC. Special attention is given to the peculiar situation of OSL dating of material that may have been exposed to impact shock of strongly varying intensity, to excavation, ejection and ejecta emplacement, the latter overprinted by and mixed with tsunami transport processes resulting in possibly very complex bleaching scenarios largely differing from the original assumptions.

  11. 2004 Tsunami survey in Comoros and Tanzania with inferences on tsunami risk in the Western Indian Ocean during future mega-thrust events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.; Fritz, H. M.; Sladen, A.

    2008-12-01

    We present a total of 59 new data points of run-up of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Comoros and Tanzania, surveyed in 2006-2008 by International Tsunami Survey Teams. Run-up at the Northeastern tip of Grande Comore (6.8 m) is comparable to Socotra (6.1 m), and surpassed only in the Western Indian Ocean by the catastrophic values in Somalia (run-up 9 m; inundation 700 m). Run-up in Mayotte, and to a lesser extent Zanzibar, show considerable variations (from 1 to 5 m), attributed to the influence of the local structure of the reef surrounding these islands. By contrast, the unreefed islands of Anjouan and Moheli, and the mainland coast of Tanzania around Dar-es-Salaam, feature more consistent values in the 2 to 3 m range. The death toll in Tanzania is revised to at least 20. We then use the MOST code to simulate the propagation on the high seas of both the 2004 tsunami, and of potential future tsunamis under scenarios of mega earthquakes rupturing in the South Sumatra region; in particular, we consider the case of a probable event releasing the strain left over from the 1833 rupture after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake. While these studies are not carried to the full extent of run-up calculations at individual sites, they give a general estimate of expectable hazard, relative to 2004, under the relevant scenarios, at 17 offshore virtual gauges strategically located from Oman to South Africa. We confirm more quantitatively the results of Okal and Synolakis (2008), namely that the change of directivity characteristics results in an increase of tsunami amplitude (with respect to 2004) at all sites South of Kenya (including Madagascar and the Mascarenes), while amplitudes at the Horn of Africa (Socotra, Somalia) remain large, due to focusing by individual bathymetric features. In short, potential earthquake sources along the Southern coast of Sumatra could result in higher wave heights than in 2004, along most of the Eastern shores of Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarenes.

  12. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into a single system. We welcome your feedback to help Tsunami.gov become an effective public resource for tsunami information and a medium to enable better global tsunami warning coordination.

  13. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2010-05-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

  14. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PERMEABILITY OF ROCKS IN TSUNAMI GENERATION AND PROPAGATION BY SEISMIC FAULTING USING LINEARIZED SHALLOW – WATER WAVE THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    PARUL SAXENA; LOKENDRA KUMAR

    2012-01-01

    The effect of permeability of rocks inside the ocean on Tsunami generation and Propagation is investigated. We study the nature of Tsunami build up and propagation using realistic curvilinear source models. The models are used to study the effect of permeability on tsunami amplitude amplification as a function on spreading velocity and rise time. Effect of permeability on Tsunami waveforms within the frame of the linearized shallow water wave theory for constant water depth are analyzed analy...

  15. Generation of surface waves by an underwater moving bottom: Experiments and application to tsunami modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.

  16. MODELING THE ASIAN TSUNAMI EVOLUTION AND PROPAGATION WITH A NEW GENERATION MECHANISM AND A NON-LINEAR DISPERSIVE WAVE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Paul C. Rivera

    2006-01-01

    A common approach in modeling the generation and propagation of tsunami is based on the assumption of a kinematic vertical displacement of ocean water that is analogous to the ocean bottom displacement during a submarine earthquake and the use of a non-dispersive long-wave model to simulate its physical transformation as it radiates outward from the source region. In this study, a new generation mechanism and the use of a highly-dispersive wave model to simulate tsunami inception, propagation...

  17. Tsunamis - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning harbor wave. It is a water wave or a series of waves generated by an impulsive vertical displacement of the surface of the ocean...

  18. Statistical Analysis of Tsunami Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Francesca; Del Giudice, Tania; Traverso, Chiara; Valfrè, Giulio; Poggi, Pamela; Parker, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate statistical variability of seismically generated tsunami impact. The specific goal of the work was to evaluate the variability in tsunami wave run-up due to uncertainty in fault rupture parameters (source effects) and to the effects of local bathymetry at an individual location (site effects). This knowledge is critical to development of methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment. Two types of variability were considered: • Inter-event; • Intra-event. Generally, inter-event variability refers to the differences of tsunami run-up at a given location for a number of different earthquake events. The focus of the current study was to evaluate the variability of tsunami run-up at a given point for a given magnitude earthquake. In this case, the variability is expected to arise from lack of knowledge regarding the specific details of the fault rupture "source" parameters. As sufficient field observations are not available to resolve this question, numerical modelling was used to generate run-up data. A scenario magnitude 8 earthquake in the Hellenic Arc was modelled. This is similar to the event thought to have caused the infamous 1303 tsunami. The tsunami wave run-up was computed at 4020 locations along the Egyptian coast between longitudes 28.7° E and 33.8° E. Specific source parameters (e.g. fault rupture length and displacement) were varied, and the effects on wave height were determined. A Monte Carlo approach considering the statistical distribution of the underlying parameters was used to evaluate the variability in wave height at locations along the coast. The results were evaluated in terms of the coefficient of variation of the simulated wave run-up (standard deviation divided by mean value) for each location. The coefficient of variation along the coast was between 0.14 and 3.11, with an average value of 0.67. The variation was higher in areas of irregular coast. This level of variability is similar to that seen in ground motion attenuation correlations used for seismic hazard assessment. The second issue was intra-event variability. This refers to the differences in tsunami wave run-up along a section of coast during a single event. Intra-event variability investigated directly considering field observations. The tsunami events used in the statistical evaluation were selected on the basis of the completeness and reliability of the available data. Tsunami considered for the analysis included the recent and well surveyed tsunami of Boxing Day 2004 (Great Indian Ocean Tsunami), Java 2006, Okushiri 1993, Kocaeli 1999, Messina 1908 and a case study of several historic events in Hawaii. Basic statistical analysis was performed on the field observations from these tsunamis. For events with very wide survey regions, the run-up heights have been grouped in order to maintain a homogeneous distance from the source. Where more than one survey was available for a given event, the original datasets were maintained separately to avoid combination of non-homogeneous data. The observed run-up measurements were used to evaluate the minimum, maximum, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation for each data set. The minimum coefficient of variation was 0.12 measured for the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami at Nias Island (7 data) while the maximum is 0.98 for the Okushiri 1993 event (93 data). The average coefficient of variation is of the order of 0.45.

  19. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh <25, to include a moving sea-bed, for the simulation of earthquake- and landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only an additional term within the kinematic bottom condition. As first test cases we simulate linear and nonlinear surface waves generated from both positive and negative impulsive bottom movements. The computed re...

  20. Modeling propagation and inundation of the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    OpenAIRE

    Løvholt, F.; Kaiser, G; Glimsdal, S.; Scheele, L; Harbitz, C.B.; Pedersen, G.

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011 the Tohoku tsunami devastated the east coast of Japan, claiming thousands of casualties and destroying coastal settlements and infrastructure. In this paper tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation are modeled to hindcast the event. Earthquake source models with heterogeneous slips are developed in order to match tsunami observations, including a best fit initial sea surface elevation with water levels up to 8 m. Tsunami simulations were compared to buoys in the Pacifi...

  1. A Tsunami Fragility Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Tsunami events were defined as an external event in 'PRA Procedure Guide (NUREG/CR- 2300)'after 1982, a Tsunami event was not considered in a design and construction of NPP before the Sumatra earthquake in 2004. But the Madras Atomic Power Station, a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), and located near Chennai, India, was affected by the tsunami generated by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (USNRC 2008). The condenser cooling pumps of Unit 2 of the installation were affected due to flooding of the pump house and subsequent submergence of the seawater pumps by tsunami waves. The turbine was tripped and the reactor shut down. The unit was brought to a cold-shutdown state, and the shutdown-cooling systems were reported as operating safely. After this event, Tsunami hazards were considered as one of the major natural disasters which can affect the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA performed an Extrabudgetary project for Tsunami Hazard Assessment and finally an International Seismic Safety Center (ISSC) established in IAEA for protection from natural disasters like earthquake, tsunami etc. For this reason, a tsunami hazard assessment method determined in this study. At first, a procedure for tsunami hazard assessment method was established, and second target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. Finally, a sample fragility calculation was performed for one of equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

  2. Large-Scale Physical Modelling of Complex Tsunami-Generated Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Kalligeris, N.; Ayca, A.

    2014-12-01

    For tsunamis passing through sharp bathymetric variability, such as a shoal or a harbor entrance channel, z-axis vortical motions are created. These structures are often characterized by a horizontal length scale that is much greater than the local depth and are herein called shallow turbulent coherent structures (TCS). These shallow TCS can greatly increase the drag force on affected infrastructure and the ability of the flow to transport debris and floating objects. Shallow TCS typically manifest as large "whirlpools" during tsunamis, very commonly in ports and harbors. Such structures have been observed numerous times in the tsunamis over the past decade, and are postulated as the cause of large vessels parting their mooring lines due to yaw induced by the rotational eddy. Through the NSF NEES program, a laboratory study to examine a shallow TCS was performed during the summer of 2014. To generate this phenomenon, a 60 second period long wave was created and then interacted with a breakwater in the basin, forcing the generation of a large and stable TCS. The model scale is 1:30, equating to a 5.5 minute period and 0.5 m amplitude in the prototype scale. Surface tracers, dye studies, AVD's, wave gages, and bottom pressure sensors are used to characterize the flow. Complex patterns of surface convergence and divergence are easily seen in the data, indicating three-dimensional flow patterns. Dye studies show areas of relatively high and low spatial mixing. Model vessels are placed in the basin such that ship motion in the presence of these rapidly varying currents might be captured. The data obtained from this laboratory study should permit a better physical understanding of the nearshore currents that tsunamis are known to generate, as well as provide a benchmark for numerical modelers who wish to simulate currents.

  3. 3D numerical investigation on landslide generated tsunamis around a conical island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Francesca; Bellotti, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents numerical computations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and submerged landslides falling along the flank of a conical island. The study is inspired by the tsunamis that on 30th December 2002 attacked the coast of the volcanic island of Stromboli (South Tyrrhenian sea, Italy). In particular this paper analyzes the important feature of the lateral spreading of landside generated tsunamis and the associated flooding hazard. The numerical model used in this study is the full three dimensional commercial code FLOW-3D. The model has already been successfully used (Choi et al., 2007; 2008; Chopakatla et al, 2008) to study the interaction of waves and structures. In the simulations carried out in this work a particular feature of the code has been employed: the GMO (General Moving Object) algorithm. It allows to reproduce the interaction between moving objects, as a landslide, and the water. FLOW-3D has been firstly validated using available 3D experiments reproducing tsunamis generated by landslides at the flank of a conical island. The experiments have been carried out in the LIC laboratory of the Polytechnic of Bari, Italy (Di Risio et al., 2009). Numerical and experimental time series of run-up and sea level recorded at gauges located at the flanks of the island and offshore have been successfully compared. This analysis shows that the model can accurately represent the generation, the propagation and the inundation of landslide generated tsunamis and suggests the use of the numerical model as a tool for preparing inundation maps. At the conference we will present the validation of the model and parametric analyses aimed to investigate how wave properties depend on the landslide kinematic and on further parameters such as the landslide volume and shape, as well as the radius of the island. The expected final results of the research are precomputed inundation maps that depend on the characteristics of the landslide and of the island. Finally we will try to apply the code to a real life case i.e. the landslide tsunamis at the coast of the Stromboli island (Italy). SELECTED REFERENCES Choi, B.H. and D. C. Kim and E. Pelinovsky and S. B. Woo, 2007. Three dimensional simulation of tsunami run-up around conical island. Coastal Engineering 54,374 pp. 618-629. Chopakatla, S.C. and T.C. Lipmann and J.E. Richardson, 2008. Field verification of a computational fluid dynamics model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 134(2), pp. 71-80 Di Risio, M., P. De Girolamo, G. Bellotti, A. Panizzo, F. Aristodemo, M. G.Molfetta, and A. F. Petrillo (2009), Landslidegenerated tsunamis runup at the coast of a conical island: New physical model experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C01009, doi:10.1029/2008JC004858 Flow Science, Inc, 2007. FLOW-3D User's Manual.

  4. Simulation of Andaman 2004 tsunami for assessing impact on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Liu, Philip Li-Fan; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md.; Lee, Hooi Ling

    2009-09-01

    Mistakenly perceived as safe from the hazards of tsunami, Malaysia faced a rude awakening by the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami. Since the event, Malaysia has started active research on some aspects of tsunami, including numerical simulations of tsunami and the role of mangrove as a mitigation measure against tsunami hazards. An in-house tsunami numerical simulation model TUNA has been developed and applied to the 26 December 2004 Andaman tsunami to simulate the generation, propagation and inundation processes along affected beaches in Malaysia. Mildly nonlinear bottom friction term in the deeper ocean is excluded, as it is insignificant to the simulation results, consistent with theoretical expectation. On the other hand, in regions with shallow depth near the beaches, friction and nonlinearity are significant and are included in TUNA. Simulation results with TUNA indicate satisfactory performance when compared with COMCOT and on-site survey results.

  5. Evaluation of Intensity of Recent Seismogenic Tsunamis in the World Ocean from 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiakov, Viacheslav K.

    2015-05-01

    Tsunami intensity on the Suc(oloviev)-Iuc(mamura) scale is one of the most important parameters for characterizing the overall size of a tsunami generated by submarine earthquakes. Consequently, this parameter is included in both global tsunami databases maintained by the National Centers for Environmental Information/World Data Service (NCEI/WDS) and the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory of the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (NTL/ICMMG). S. Soloviev made the initial evaluation of the intensities of a large number of destructive historical tsunamis while compiling his two historical catalogs of tsunamis in the Pacific. The Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory under the Expert Tsunami Database Project made further determinations of tsunami intensity for the events after 1975. These intensities have been periodically incorporated into the NCEI/WDS tsunami database under the Global Tsunami Database Joint ICG/ITSU-IUGG/TC Project. In the on-line version of the NCEI/WDS Tsunami Database, the data on tsunami intensity are available only for the events prior to 2003. The main purpose of this paper is to extend the temporal coverage of this important parameter for characterizing tsunamigenic events to the present in order to provide researchers with more data for analyzing the temporal and spatial tsunami occurrence. However, of the 164 tsunamigenic events in the World Ocean from 2000 to the present, we could determine the intensity value for only 44 events that is less than 27 % of the total. For the rest of the events (that is, 73 %), the intensity value cannot be determined due to the lack of data on wave heights from the nearest coast. This shows that despite a great improvement in the tsunami-recording network in the Pacific and other oceanic basins during the last two decades, the data for reliable estimates of tsunami intensity are still problematic.

  6. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Description of the event and estimation of length of the tsunami source region based on data from Indian tide gauge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Neetu, S.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Sundar, D.

    of the source region of the Indian Ocean tsunami. Using backward ray tracing, we show that the tsunami travel times as recorded on the tide gauges at Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, and Chennai imply that the tsunami source region extends to ~ 11° N, implying a source...

  7. Integrated Simulation of Earthquake Generation and Ground Motion and Tsunami for Nankai Trough Megathrust Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, M.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, T.; Furumura, T.; Maeda, T.

    2014-12-01

    We have conducted an integrated simulation of earthquake generation and seismic ground motion and tsunami for realizing a realistic earthquake scenario for large earthquakes along the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan where large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred with the recurrence interval of 100-150 years. The understanding of diversity of the characteristics of the huge earthquakes and their seismic and tsunami hazards are quite important issue. Various earthquake cycle simulations have been recently performed to estimate the diversity of the patterns of the huge earthquakes in the trough and the possibility of the future earthquakes, where the fault rupture propagation process and the friction in a plate boundary are considered. Here, we integrated these two simulations by one-way weakly coupled approach; First we conduct the quasi-dynamic earthquake cycle simulation, then the resultant time-dependent heterogeneous slip histories on the plate boundary are smoothly connected to as inputs of the ground motion and tsunami simulation. As a trial of this approach, the integrated simulation was performed under the huge earthquake scenario with large fault rupture area very similar to the 1707 Hoei earthquake. The target volume of the latter simulation is 1,200 km (EW) x 1,000 km (NS) x 250 km (depth). The equations of motion for viscoelastic body were solved by finite-difference method with discretization of 0.5 km and 0.25 km in horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. For such large-scale simulation the K computer at the AICS, RIKEN was utilized with 2,400 CPUs. The computation time was approx. 1 hour for 80,000 time steps calculation. The results of the integrated simulation show that we successfully reproduced a series of phenomena from earthquake generation to seismic wave propagation, strong ground motion in land, and tsunami growth. Moreover, we confirmed seismic wave generation accompanied by the heterogeneous fault rupture propagation on the plate boundary and the features of the subsequent ground motion on earth surface. It is expected that the high-performance computing of the integrated system enables us to investigate diversity of the seismic and tsunami hazards of huge earthquakes in southwestern Japan as well as their complexity of earthquake generation itself based on physical models.

  8. Offshore Evidence for an Undocumented Tsunami Event in the ‘Low Risk’ Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat, Northern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman Tchernov, Beverly; Katz, Timor; Shaked, Yonathan; Qupty, Nairooz; Kanari, Mor; Niemi, Tina; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-01-01

    Although the Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat is located in the tectonically active northern Red Sea, it has been described as low-risk with regard to tsunami activity because there are no modern records of damaging tsunami events and only one tsunami (1068 AD) referred to in historical records. However, this assessment may be poorly informed given that the area was formed by and is located along the seismically active Dead Sea Fault, its population is known to fluctuate in size and literacy in part due to its harsh hyper-arid climate, and there is a dearth of field studies addressing the presence or absence of tsunamigenic deposits. Here we show evidence from two offshore cores for a major paleotsunami that occurred ~2300 years ago with a sedimentological footprint that far exceeds the scarce markers of the historically mentioned 1068 AD event. The interpretation is based on the presence of a laterally continuous and synchronous, anomalous sedimentological deposit that includes allochtonous inclusions and unique structural characteristics. Based on sedimentological parameters, these deposits could not be accounted for by other transport events, or other known background sedimentological processes. PMID:26815553

  9. Offshore Evidence for an Undocumented Tsunami Event in the 'Low Risk' Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat, Northern Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman Tchernov, Beverly; Katz, Timor; Shaked, Yonathan; Qupty, Nairooz; Kanari, Mor; Niemi, Tina; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-01-01

    Although the Gulf of Aqaba-Eilat is located in the tectonically active northern Red Sea, it has been described as low-risk with regard to tsunami activity because there are no modern records of damaging tsunami events and only one tsunami (1068 AD) referred to in historical records. However, this assessment may be poorly informed given that the area was formed by and is located along the seismically active Dead Sea Fault, its population is known to fluctuate in size and literacy in part due to its harsh hyper-arid climate, and there is a dearth of field studies addressing the presence or absence of tsunamigenic deposits. Here we show evidence from two offshore cores for a major paleotsunami that occurred ~2300 years ago with a sedimentological footprint that far exceeds the scarce markers of the historically mentioned 1068 AD event. The interpretation is based on the presence of a laterally continuous and synchronous, anomalous sedimentological deposit that includes allochtonous inclusions and unique structural characteristics. Based on sedimentological parameters, these deposits could not be accounted for by other transport events, or other known background sedimentological processes. PMID:26815553

  10. Simulación de tsunamis generados por deslizamientos de terreno en el talud insular de Cuba / Simulation of tsunamis on the banks of the island of Cuba, generated by landslides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Fermín, Córdova-López; Yoany, Sánchez-Cruz; Enrique, Castellano-Abella.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los tsunamis son ocasionados generalmente por terremotos. Se revela que alrededor del 30% de las máximas crestas de tsunamis es probable que haya tenido relación con masas de terreno que fallaron (Watts et al., 2005). El presente trabajo desarrolla tres casos de estudio a modo de prueba de posible d [...] eslizamiento submarino y subaéreo en diferentes lugares del talud insular de Cuba. Tomando los parámetros de estos deslizamientos se hace la generación y propagación de la ola provocada por los deslizamientos, para conocer sus efectos sobre la línea de costa. Los resultados obtenidos permiten definir la altura de ola creada, comportamiento de la misma a lo largo del perfil, trepada y efecto en el interior de una bahía, elementos necesarios para el cálculo del impacto en zonas costeras. Abstract in english While tsunamis are generally caused by earthquakes, it has been shown that around 30% of maximum tsunami crests are most likely related to land masses that have broken away (Watts et al., 2005). The present work developed three case studies to test possible submarine and subaerial landslides in diff [...] erent locations on the banks of the island of Cuba. Based on the parameters of these landslides, the resultant wave was generated and propagated to identify effects on the coastline. The results made it possible to define the height of the wave created, its behaviour throughout the profile, its rise and the effects inside a bay-necessary elements for calculating impact on coastal zones.

  11. Recent Tsunamis That Affected the Japanese Coasts and Evaluation of JMA's Tsunami Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Nishimae, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    During the last two years (Sep 2006 to Aug 2008), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued tsunami advisories or warnings for eight events. Tsunami estimations in the advisories or warnings are considered appropriate for six cases. No tsunami was confirmed for the other two cases, one of which was thought to be a quite peculiar case. The November 2006 and January 2007 Kuril earthquakes, for which tsunami warnings were issued on the Hokkaido coasts, impelled JMA to improve its methods in estimating tsunamis. The JMA magnitude (M) was larger for the 2007 earthquake than the 2006 event, but other magnitude scales as well as the observed tsunamis were smaller (Fujii and Satake, 2008, BSSA). The long duration of these Kuril tsunamis were due to reflected wave at Emperor seamount chain (Koshimura et al., 2007, GRL). These features have become to be considered in the current JMA's system. The Noto-hanto earthquake (M 6.9) on March 25 in 2007 generated a small (tsunami. Tsunami advisory (expected height ~ 0.5 m) was issued in less than 2 min of the earthquake. On April 20, tsunami advisory was issued following an earthquake near Miyakojima, but no tsunami was recorded. The JMA magnitude was 6.7, but the moment magnitude (Mw) was 6.3 (cf. Global CMT catalog). It is a difficult case to evaluate the magnitude accurately as this is islands region. On July 16, the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake (M 6.8) caused moderate tsunami without any damage; the amplitude was up to a few tens of cm at most tidal stations while one station located nearby the source region recorded 1m. JMA issued tsunami advisory within 1 min of the earthquake. On August 2, following a shallow earthquake off southern Sakhalin coast (Mw 6.2), JMA at first did not issue advisory or warning because the estimations did not exceed the criteria for advisory. But a sea level fluctuation was observed at a few tide stations on the Japanese coast, then, JMA issued tsunami advisory for the northern coast of Hokkaido. The post-event analysis showed that the sea level disturbances recorded at Rumoi does not match with the numerical simulation, hence considered as meteorological origin. On August 16, for the great earthquake (Mw 8.0) off Peru coast, JMA issued tsunami advisory, based on the tsunami numerical simulation and actual tsunami data in Hawaii. The tsunami heights recorded on tide gauges were 0.2 m or less in Japan. On May 8, 2008, an earthquake off Ibaraki (M 7.0) occurred and JMA did not issue tsunami advisory. Instead, JMA issued a tsunami forecast, which informed that the maximum tsunami height would be below 0.2m and that such tsunami would not cause damage. Some tide stations recorded very weak tsunami, around 0.1m. On July 19, an earthquake (M 6.6) off Fukushima prefecture caused tsunami up to 0.2 m. JMA issued tsunami advisory for this event.

  12. The VOLNA code for the numerical modelling of tsunami waves: generation, propagation and inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    A novel tool for tsunami wave modelling is presented. This tool has the potential of being used for operational purposes: indeed, the numerical VOLNA code is able to handle the complete life-cycle of a tsunami (generation, propagation and run-up along the coast). The algorithm works on unstructured triangular meshes and, thus, can be run in arbitrary complex domains. It is often the case since natural coasts tend to be of fractal shape [Sapoval et al, 2004]. This paper contains the detailed description of the finite volume scheme implemented in the code. We explain the numerical treatment of the wet/dry transition. This point is crucial for accurate run-up computation. Most existing tsunami codes use semi-empirical techniques at this stage, which are not always sufficient. The main reason is that people evacuation is decided on the base of inundation maps which are produced with this type of numerical tools. Finally we present several realistic test cases that partially validate our algorithm. Comparisons wit...

  13. The Propagation of Tsunami Generated Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Llewellyn Smith, S.; Rottman, J.; Broutman, D.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami-generated acoustic-gravity waves propagate in the atmosphere up to the ionosphere, where they have been observed to have an impact on the total electron content (TEC). We simulate the propagation of 2D&3D linearized acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere by Fourier transforming in the horizontal and solving the vertical structure with a tsunami-perturbed lower boundary and an upper radiation boundary conditions. Starting from the algorithm of Broutman (2013) and the atmospheric profile of the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, we add compressibility to the atmosphere and extend the calculation to three dimensions. Compressibility is an important feature of the real atmosphere, and we investigate its effect on wave propagation. We obtain the vertical wavenumber as a function of buoyancy frequency, density scale height, sound speed, and background wind velocity. Results show that wind shear and compressibility have a significant impact on wave transmission and reflection. We also investigate the 3D problem to allow variations in the bottom boundary condition and in the background wind profiles. Results are quite similar to the 2D case.

  14. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Markers - Reflections on Inter-generational Warnings in the Form of Japanese Tsunami Stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As states with nuclear power programmes are, or intend to become, engaged in planning the disposal of their high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in deep geological repositories, means to ensure that future generations will be aware of these repositories and not disturb them are being studied. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations, launched in March 2010, is the relevant initiative under the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee in this area. Its several years of work and findings are documented online at www.oecdnea. org/rwm/rkm. A strategy of communicating important information to future generations must be based on several complementary means and approaches. Markers placed in the vicinity of closed repositories represent one potential component of this strategy. The RK and M initiative's glossary defines a marker as 'a long-lasting object that indicates an area of influence, power or danger. It is placed strategically at or near the site for immediate recognition or for discovery at a later time'. Markers are meant to reach future generations in the medium (a few hundred years) to long term (hundred thousand of years) and are conceived to be immobile (that is, in permanent association with a site), robust (in order to maximize survivability on its own) and provide messages that are likely to be understandable across generations. A marking system can range from a simple stone to a contrived and monumental multi-component system. The present report seeks to develop the understanding of the potential effectiveness of makers drawing from the study of the role that stone markers played in Japan during the Tohoku tsunami event of 2011. There are hundreds such markers placed at various epochs on Japan's north-eastern coast to warn future generations about the dangers of tsunamis. The existence of markers for recurrent, destructive events may help save lives, as in the case of the villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi. However, in most other cases, the markers did not help protect the population from the March 2011 tsunami. The villages of Murohama and Aneyoshi have shown interest in passing on the messages through oral history and in school education. However, it is worth asking whether these villages would have heeded the messages of the stone markers if the rest of society had given them other forms of assurance against tsunamis besides their own vigilance, for instance, if they had a tsunami wall or a functioning modern tsunami warning systems. This historical example illustrates that, over the course of several generations, markers informing and warning about disasters are of limited effectiveness for local protection. Despite the historical record and the widespread awareness of the danger that has materialised on a recurrent basis, the local population has, by and large, taken risks with or without the presence of markers. Reliance on new technologies, deferring responsibility to the authorities, and pursuit of short-term economic interests are three potential reasons for this behaviour. On the other hand, the March 2011 tsunami was a thousand-year event; it is questionable whether the population can be asked to live in the constant fear of and preparation for such a rare event, in Japan and in similarly latently dangerous areas around the world. The Japanese tsunami stones provide a rare example of warning markers and allow a number of considerations to be made for markers in the context of repository projects: - The longevity of stone markers in Japan - up to one thousand years - illustrates the possibility of survival of markers over similar timescales, especially in regions that are not subject to devastations from natural catastrophes. - Visible markers contribute to keeping memory alive. - Memory does not guarantee safety. The current international position that a geological repository should be safe by itself is confirmed by this study. - Memory may save lives under special circumstances and it should be fostered. - More than memory, knowledge saves lives. Markers may be part of a larger strategy to foster learning and understanding and therefore knowledge. For instance, markers placed strategically near the repository site so that they are discovered in the course of time could arouse curiosity and desire the learn more

  15. Predicting natural catastrophes tsunamis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    1. Tsunamis - Introduction - Definition of phenomenon - basic properties of the waves Propagation and dispersion Interaction with coasts - Geological and societal effects Origin of tsunamis - natural sources Scientific activities in connection with tsunamis. Ideas about simulations 2. Tsunami generation - The earthquake source - conventional theory The earthquake source - normal mode theory The landslide source Near-field observation - The Plafker index Far-field observation - Directivity 3. Tsunami warning - General ideas - History of efforts Mantle magnitudes and TREMOR algorithms The challenge of "tsunami earthquakes" Energy-moment ratios and slow earthquakes Implementation and the components of warning centers 4. Tsunami surveys - Principles and methodologies Fifteen years of field surveys and related milestones. Reconstructing historical tsunamis: eyewitnesses and geological evidence 5. Lessons from the 2004 Indonesian tsunami - Lessons in seismology Lessons in Geology The new technologies Lessons in civ...

  16. Did the July 2012 solar events cause a "tsunami" throughout the heliosphere, heliosheath, and into the interstellar medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Sun, Wei; Dryer, Murray; Intriligator, James; Deehr, Charles; Detman, Thomas; Webber, William R.

    2015-10-01

    The July 2012 major solar events gave rise to manifestations observed at many longitudes/latitudes/radial locations throughout the heliosphere, heliosheath, and into the interstellar medium. For these solar events we present our initial results at 1 AU from our HAFSS (Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry Source Surface) three-dimensional time-dependent kinematic modeling. Our simulations, using Wang-Sheeley-Arge maps and solar event observations, start at 2.5 RS from the center of the Sun. We use both the quiescent background solar conditions and the solar events (e.g., coronal mass ejections (CMEs)) as inputs and propagate outward. We compare HAFSS predictions with in situ spacecraft measurements and conclude that the July 2012 solar events caused a metaphorical "tsunami" in the plasma and magnetic field throughout the heliosphere/heliosheath/interstellar medium. The simulations show evidence of shocks, interaction regions, and rarefaction regions in the inner heliosphere (1 AU) and shocks, global merged interaction regions (GMIRs) and rarefaction regions in the heliosheath. The shocks/interaction regions/GMIRs and the rarefaction regions are, respectively, analogous to the tsunami "crests" and "troughs". To provide important insights into 3-D processes, we simulated 1 AU observations (STEREO A and ACE) and observations at Voyager 2 (V2) and Voyager 1 (V1) far off the ecliptic plane: V2 at ~ 30°S, 217° longitude, and 102 AU; V1 at 34°N, 174° longitude, and 124 AU. HAFSS successfully predicted observed CME arrival times at 1 AU. Our results for this tsunami are the first simulations for these events in the distant V2/V1 radial/latitudinal/longitudinal regions based on 3-D time-dependent modeling originating at the Sun.

  17. Recent advancements towards the re-establishment of optical telecommunications sites in response to catastrophic tsunami events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, R. S.; Shiraiwa, M.; Xu, S.; Awaji, Y.; Wada, N.

    2014-12-01

    Communications support for disaster relief and reconstruction teams in the field as well as for providing information to the public through radio and television media during the immediate aftermath of catastrophic tsunami events has been a significant concern after the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. In particular, the restoration of optical fiber based telecommunications sites is crucial to re-establish the backbone of communications networks in affected areas. This work reviews a set of novel technologies and approaches that have been developed to enable fast re-establishment of optical telecommunications sites. Specifically, the development of portable battery-powered optical amplifiers, which can replace permanent infrastructure during short periods; novel ultra-sound based optical cable interconnection check-up sub-systems, to support the complex recabling of partially destroyed optical interconnect nodes; and optical networking protocols that allow establishing communications coverage over affected areas by implementing collaboration between different vendors.

  18. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed surveyed again. The run-up heights for both 1983 and 1993 Tsunami events are computed along the Eastern Coastline of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, a tsunami hazard map is generated based on the computed and observed run-up heights. Significant information such as proper evacuation routes, shelters and hot lines are included in the map. Acknowledgements The research described in this publication was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Reference No. 2010-0022337).

  19. Learning from the victims: New physical and social science information about tsunamis from victims of the September 29, 2009 event in Samoa and American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Walter C.; Whitney, Rosy; Faasisila, Jackie; Fonolua, Sharon; Jowitt, Angela; Chan-Kau, Marie

    2011-07-01

    Thirty-one video interviews were carried out on the islands of Tutuila, American Samoa and Upolu, Samoa with survivors of, and responders to, the September 29, 2009 tsunami event. Those interviewed included local residents caught by the waves while attempting to flee to higher ground, those who intentionally ran into the water to save others, individuals who recognized the potential tsunami hazard due to the severity of the earthquake and attempted to warn others, aid workers, tourism managers, and others. The frank, often emotional, responses provide unfiltered insight into their level of understanding of the tsunami phenomenon, the level of preparedness of local residents, and challenges faced by aid workers.

  20. MODELING THE ASIAN TSUNAMI EVOLUTION AND PROPAGATION WITH A NEW GENERATION MECHANISM AND A NON-LINEAR DISPERSIVE WAVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach in modeling the generation and propagation of tsunami is based on the assumption of a kinematic vertical displacement of ocean water that is analogous to the ocean bottom displacement during a submarine earthquake and the use of a non-dispersive long-wave model to simulate its physical transformation as it radiates outward from the source region. In this study, a new generation mechanism and the use of a highly-dispersive wave model to simulate tsunami inception, propagation and transformation are proposed. The new generation model assumes that transient ground motion during the earthquake can accelerate horizontal currents with opposing directions near the fault line whose successive convergence and divergence generate a series of potentially destructive oceanic waves. The new dynamic model incorporates the effects of earthquake moment magnitude, ocean compressibility through the buoyancy frequency, the effects of focal and water depths, and the orientation of ruptured fault line in the tsunami magnitude and directivity.For tsunami wave simulation, the nonlinear momentum-based wave model includes important wave propagation and transformation mechanisms such as refraction, diffraction, shoaling, partial reflection and transmission, back-scattering, frequency dispersion, and resonant wave-wave interaction. Using this model and a coarse-resolution bathymetry, the new mechanism is tested for the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. A new flooding and drying algorithm that consider waves coming from every direction is also proposed for simulation of inundation of low-lying coastal regions.It is shown in the present study that with the proposed generation model, the observed features of the Asian tsunami such as the initial drying of areas east of the source region and the initial flooding of western coasts are correctly simulated. The formation of a series of tsunami waves with periods and lengths comparable to observations are also well simulated with the new generation model. Furthermore, the shoaling behavior of the tsunami waves during flooding of dry land was also simulated by the new run-up algorithm. Finally, the new generation and propagation models can explain the combined and independent effects of various factors in tsunami generation and transformation taking into consideration the properties of the ocean and the geologic disturbance.

  1. The Generation of a Tsunami from the Impact of a Massive Comet Impact in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R.; Pritchett, L.; Masse, B.; Gisler, G.; Gittings, M.

    Calculations with the LANL multiphysics hydrocode SAGE of tsunamis produced by a massive Comet impact in the Indian Ocean is studied with 2D and 3D simulations. We examine the extent of the ejected material from the initial impact and whether that ejecta could be entrained in a distant tsunami, such as the one that left crescents on Madagascar. Current astrophysical models indicate that globally catastrophic cosmic impacts occur on the average of once per million years, and suggest that no human has been demonstrably killed by impact during recorded history. A review of data from the Quaternary period of the past 2.6 million years indicates instead that several cosmic impacts had significant consequences for ancestral human populations, including during the past 5,000 years. Regrettably, the study of recent impacts is obfuscated by questionable methodologies and poor reporting, and by neglect from archaeologists and anthropologists. One of us (BM) provides in a separate paper an anthropological and geomythology perspective by noting that mythology contains structured observations of major witnessed natural processes and events, including possible impacts, which may be amenable to detailed environmental analysis and chronometric reconstruction. According to the authors' interpretation of mythology, airbursts in South America apparently generated lethal mass fires, and details contained in worldwide "great flood" myths may relate to a catastrophic oceanic comet impact 4,813 years ago. Reasons are provided for why these modeled impact events have not been previously recognized. If these interpretations are confirmed by future archaeological and geological research, then current models of hazards and risks are based on an incomplete understanding of the cosmic impact record.

  2. Tsunamis on the Pacific Coast of Canada Recorded in 1994-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Frederick E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2009-02-01

    In the last 15 years there have been 16 tsunami events recorded at tide stations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Eleven of these events were from distant sources covering almost all regions of the Pacific, as well as the December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Three tsunamis were generated by local or regional earthquakes and two were meteorological tsunamis. The earliest four events, which occurred in the period 1994-1996, were recorded on analogue recorders; these tsunami records were recently re-examined, digitized and thoroughly analysed. The other 12 tsunami events were recorded using digital high-quality instruments, with 1-min sampling interval, installed on the coast of British Columbia (B.C.) in 1998. All 16 tsunami events were recorded at Tofino on the outer B.C. coast, and some of the tsunamis were recorded at eight or more stations. The tide station at Tofino has been in operation for 100 years and these recent observations add to the dataset of tsunami events compiled previously by S.O. W igen (1983) for the period 1906-1980. For each of the tsunami records statistical analysis was carried out to determine essential tsunami characteristics for all events (arrival times, maximum amplitudes, frequencies and wave-train structure). The analysis of the records indicated that significant background noise at Langara, a key northern B.C. Tsunami Warning station located near the northern end of the Queen Charlotte Islands, creates serious problems in detecting tsunami waves. That station has now been moved to a new location with better tsunami response. The number of tsunami events observed in the past 15 years also justified re-establishing a tide gauge at Port Alberni, where large tsunami wave amplitudes were measured in March 1964. The two meteorological events are the first ever recorded on the B.C. coast. Also, there have been landslide generated tsunami events which, although not recorded on any coastal tide gauges, demonstrate, along with the recent investigation of a historical catastrophic event, the significant risk that landslide generated tsunami pose to coastal and inland regions of B.C.

  3. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  4. NOAA/WDC Global Tsunami Deposits Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Discover where, when and how severely tsunamis affected Earth in geologic history. Information regarding Tsunami Deposits and Proxies for Tsunami Events complements...

  5. Sediment transport on the inner shelf off Khao Lak (Andaman Sea, Thailand) during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and former storm events: evidence from foraminiferal transfer functions

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Milker; Wilken, M.; Schumann, J.; Sakuna, D.; P. Feldens; Schwarzer, K.; Schmiedl, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the benthic foraminiferal fauna from sediment event layers associated with the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and former storms, that have been retrieved in short sediment cores from offshore environments of the Andaman Sea, off Khao Lak, western Thailand. Species composition and test preservation of the benthic foraminiferal faunas exhibit pronounced changes across the studied sections and provide information on the depositional history of the tsunami layer,...

  6. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  7. Landslide tsunami hazard in the Indonesian Sunda Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brune

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian archipelago is known for the occurrence of catastrophic earthquake-generated tsunamis along the Sunda Arc. The tsunami hazard associated with submarine landslides however has not been fully addressed. In this paper, we compile the known tsunamigenic events where landslide involvement is certain and summarize the properties of published landslides that were identified with geophysical methods. We depict novel mass movements, found in newly available bathymetry, and determine their key parameters. Using numerical modeling, we compute possible tsunami scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a way of identifying landslide tsunamis using an array of few buoys with bottom pressure units.

  8. Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash-flood deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuna-Schwartz, D.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.; Khokiattiwong, S.; Stattegger, K.

    2015-06-01

    Tsunami, storm and flash-flood event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea), are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. They are characterized by (1) the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris and (2) the appearance of mud and sand clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to recent storm events by using 210Pb profiles in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents reworked flash-flood deposits, which are characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of mud and sand clasts, mud content and terrigenous material within storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between storm and tsunami deposits in offshore environments.

  9. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    OpenAIRE

    E. Mas; KOSHIMURA, S.; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M; Matsuyama, M.; Yoshii, T.; Jimenez, C; F. Yamazaki; Imamura, F.

    2012-01-01

    On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate...

  10. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  11. Evaluation on coolability of the reactor core in Monju by natural circulation under earthquake and subsequent tsunami event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion: ? This study clarified that the decay heat of the core can be safely removed in Monju by the natural circulations of the coolant sodium even during an SBO event induced by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, as far as the sodium coolant flow circuits are intact and secured. ? Moreover parametric numerical simulations revealed that the natural circulations will be maintained for a sufficiently long period of time and the safety of the reactor will be ensured even under wide range of varied conditions

  12. Lake dwellers occupation gap in Lake Geneva (France-Switzerland) possibly explained by an earthquake-mass movement-tsunami event during Early Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Simpson, Guy; Dupuy, David; Yrro, Ble J. F.; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Corboud, Pierre; Bellwald, Benjamin; Wildi, Walter; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution seismic and sediment core data from the ‘Grand Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva reveal traces of repeated slope instabilities with one main slide-evolved mass-flow (minimum volume 0.13 km3) that originated from the northern lateral slope of the lake near the city of Lausanne. Radiocarbon dating of organic remains sampled from the top of the main deposit gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC. This date coincides with the age interval for a mass movement event described in the ‘Petit Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva (1872-1622 BC). Because multiple mass movements took place at the same time in different parts of the lake, we consider the most likely trigger mechanism to be a strong earthquake (Mw 6) that occurred in the period between 1872 and 1608 BC. Based on numerical simulations, we show the major deposit near Lausanne would have generated a tsunami with local wave heights of up to 6 m. The combined effects of the earthquake and the following tsunami provide a possible explanation for a gap in lake dwellers occupation along the shores of Lake Geneva revealed by dendrochronological dating of two palafitte archaeological sites.

  13. Preservation of submarine event deposits: Where is the most preferable area to reconstruct the past earthquake/tsunami events from marine sediment records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Ashi, J.; Strasser, M.; Usami, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kodaira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes and their related tsunami impact submarine geological processes that can form specific submarine event deposits. Most of widely distributed event beds are typically fine-grained turbidites. Examples from the Nankai Trough and the Beppu Bay suggest that a terminal isolated depression is area with the highest potential for the deposition of fine-grained turbidites. The 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes caused a fine-grained turbidite deposited in a small basin on the Nankai accretionary prism slope, and formed a thick acoustically transparent layer. Off Sanriku thickness of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami event beds was usually a few-several cm, but was highest in the Japan Trench with several tens cm. The Japan Trench floor is the deepest and terminal basin. The terminal basin is a potential area for marine paleoseismology. Preservation potential is a factor for usage of submarine event beds as paleoseimsological tool. Repeated sampling of surface sediments from off Sanriku after the 2011 event suggests that the preservation potential of fine-grained event bed is low in the strong benthos activity zone. Sedimentation rate is another factor on the preservation potential. Quick and high sediment accumulation after the event bed deposition diminishes the pressure for the destruction of the event beds by benthos activity. Thus, a small basin covered by the bottom water with low dissolved oxygen concentration, and occurred under the high primary productivity areas is a good example of basins with high preservation potential of event beds. High resolution seismic profiles in the central Japan Trench indicate that occurrence of the well-stratified strata filling the trench and subducting graben depressions. These strata have high potential for seismo-turbidite deposition. Thus, small basins on the mid-slope terrace and the trench floor of the central Japan Trench are most preferable and potential candidates for submarine paleoseismology.

  14. Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at five sites from South Bay to Oara, corroborates this. At four of the sites a similar greywacke pebble bearing layer was found which was not present at test sites to the North and South of the peninsula (Kiwa Rd Campsites and Claverly respectively). These deposits contain diatoms indicating marine provenance. Surveys of Kaikoura peninsula households and businesses showed low levels of preparedness for a local source event. In regards to local-source tsunamis the district council has indicated that they "are unpredictable [and] it is impractical to include rules to mitigate their effects. Instead, the Council is committed to a Civil Defence network which provides an educative role and which sets in place a process for dealing with the results of any tsunami" (Kaikoura District Plan, 2010). Plans and an education strategy need to be formulated and implemented. They need to address considerations such as the fact that about 60% of those surveyed expect some sort of siren warning and the limitations inherent in such a warning system along with signage and public tsunami hazard maps and evacuation zones.

  15. Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlazim,, E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id; Hariyono, E., E-mail: m-lazim@physics.its.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Surabaya (UNESA) , Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (T{sub dur}), dominant periods (T{sub d}) and exceeds duration (T{sub 50Ex}) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not.

  16. Joko Tingkir program for estimating tsunami potential rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to estimate P-wave rupture durations (Tdur), dominant periods (Td) and exceeds duration (T50Ex) simultaneously for local events, shallow earthquakes which occurred off the coast of Indonesia. Although the all earthquakes had parameters of magnitude more than 6,3 and depth less than 70 km, part of the earthquakes generated a tsunami while the other events (Mw=7.8) did not. Analysis using Joko Tingkir of the above stated parameters helped understand the tsunami generation of these earthquakes. Measurements from vertical component broadband P-wave quake velocity records and determination of the above stated parameters can provide a direct procedure for assessing rapidly the potential for tsunami generation. The results of the present study and the analysis of the seismic parameters helped explain why the events generated a tsunami, while the others did not

  17. The Catalog of Event Data of the Operational Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) Stations at the National Data Buoy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R.; Locke, L.; Hansen, W.; Collins, S.; McArthur, S.

    2007-12-01

    DART systems are a critical component of the tsunami warning system as they provide the only real-time, in situ, tsunami detection before landfall. DART systems consist of a surface buoy that serves as a position locater and communications transceiver and a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) on the seafloor. The BPR records temperature and pressure at 15-second intervals to a memory card for later retrieval for analysis and use by tsunami researchers, but the BPRs are normally recovered only once every two years. The DART systems also transmit subsets of the data, converted to an estimation of the sea surface height, in near real-time for use by the tsunami warning community. These data are available on NDBC's webpages, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Although not of the resolution of the data recorded to the BPR memory card, the near real-time data have proven to be of value in research applications [1]. Of particular interest are the DART data associated with geophysical events. The DART BPR continuously compares the measured sea height with a predicted sea-height and when the difference exceeds a threshold value, the BPR goes into Event Mode. Event Mode provides an extended, more frequent near real-time reporting of the sea surface heights for tsunami detection. The BPR can go into Event Mode because of geophysical triggers, such as tsunamis or seismic activity, which may or may not be tsunamigenic. The BPR can also go into Event Mode during recovery of the BPR as it leaves the seafloor, or when manually triggered by the Tsunami Warning Centers in advance of an expected tsunami. On occasion, the BPR will go into Event Mode without any associated tsunami or seismic activity or human intervention and these are considered "False'' Events. Approximately one- third of all Events can be classified as "False". NDBC is responsible for the operations, maintenance, and data management of the DART stations. Each DART station has a webpage with a drop-down list of all Events. NDBC maintains the non-geophysical Events in order to maintain the continuity of the time series records. In 2007, NDBC compiled all DART Events that occurred while under NDBC's operational control and made an assessment on their validity. The NDBC analysts performed the assessment using the characteristics of the data time series, triggering criteria, and associated seismic events. The compilation and assessments are catalogued in a NDBC technical document. The Catalog also includes a listing of the one-hour, high-resolution data, retrieved remotely from the BPRs that are not available on the web pages. The Events are classified by their triggering mechanism and listed by station location and, for those Events associated with geophysical triggers, they are listed by their associated seismic events. The Catalog provides researchers with a valuable tool in locating, assessing, and applying near real-time DART data to tsunami research and will be updated following DART Events. A link to the published Catalog can be found on the NDBC DART website, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Reference: [1] Gower, J. and F. González (2006), U.S. Warning System Detected the Sumatra Tsunami, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(10), 105-112.

  18. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  19. Systematic event generator tuning for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Hoeth, Hendrik [Lund University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Lacker, Heiko; Schulz, Holger; Seggern, Jan Eike von [Berlin Humboldt University, Physics Department, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    In this article we describe Professor, a new program for tuning model parameters of Monte Carlo event generators to experimental data by parameterising the per-bin generator response to parameter variations and numerically optimising the parameterised behaviour. Simulated experimental analysis data is obtained using the Rivet analysis toolkit. This paper presents the Professor procedure and implementation, illustrated with the application of the method to tunes of the Pythia 6 event generator to data from the LEP/SLD and Tevatron experiments. These tunes are substantial improvements on existing standard choices, and are recommended as base tunes for LHC experiments, to be themselves systematically improved upon when early LHC data is available. (orig.)

  20. Tsunami Impact Study in the U. S. Atlantic Coasts and Caribbean Shores due to the 1755 Great Lisbon Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V.; Arcas, D.; Gica, E.; Moore, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of 24 December 2004 has changed the perception of a tsunami as a low-risk hazard for coastal infrastructures. The Nuclear Regulation Commission (NRC) plans to evaluate the tsunami risk for existing and potential Nuclear Power Plants in the U. S. east coast and Gulf of Mexico posed by tsunami sources in the Atlantic and the Caribbean. A key action is the modeling assessment of the trans-Atlantic tsunami impact caused by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, one of the most hazardous, yet understudied, historical earthquake-generated tsunami events in the Atlantic. Using high-resolution inundation models, the present study focuses on assessing the distant impact of 1755 tsunami for multiple sites in the U. S. Atlantic coast and Caribbean, specifically its nearshore dynamics in the harbors, inlets and waterways. While helping to identify the tsunami source due to the Lisbon earthquake, this application emphasizes on the significance of the tsunami magnitude, source location, bathymetry and topography in understanding the progression of tsunami waves offshore and nearshore. The research also highlights the modeling investigation of tsunami wave transformation over the continental shelf from the open ocean to the coasts, which may provide useful guidance for regional and local tsunami forecast. This study sets an example of extending NOAA's existing tsunami forecast system to identify tsunami vulnerability for global coastal communities at risk.

  1. Hydromagnetic simulation of the ionospheric disturbances generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami and associated acoustic-gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherani, E. A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Paula, E. R.; Rolland, L. M.

    2013-05-01

    Owing to the natural disturbances such as Earth quake/tsunami and tropospheric convection, Acosutic gravity waves (AGWs) are excited in the troposphere. These AGWs propagates upward to the thermosphere, attain large amplitude therein and subsequently dissipate, leading to the excitation of secondary AGWs which mainly propagate horizontally. Both primary and secondary AGWs significantly modify the ionosphere, leading to the Total electron Content disturances, current and magnetic disturbances. Focus of the present work is the recent Japan tsunami that occurred on 11 March 2011 over Tohoku-Oki and caused enormous damage in terms of human life and infrastructures. Moreover, it triggered nuclear catastrophe that makes it a global disaster and much more alarming. The growing concern is towards failure of short-term forecasting of this event in spite that the Japan is densely populated with the various ground based seismic instrument as well with the GPS receivers that may detect the activities in the space related to the tsunami. However, owing to these dense networks, this event is examined much more thoroughly than other big events in the past, leading to the knowledge of various interesting aspects that may be helpful in the future for the short-term forecasting of such event. One such aspect is that the effects of the seismic activities occurring deep into the ocean, are detected much more efficiently and in varieties in space (in the overlying atmosphere and ionosphere) than over the ocean or Earth's surface. In the present work, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic simulations of the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies are performed for the Tohoku-Oki tsunami (11 March 2011). The Tsunami-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (TAI) coupling mechanism via AGWs is explored theoretically using the TAI coupled model. In this mechanism, tsunami in the ocean excites the AGWs in the atmosphere owing to the vertical uplift which subsequently interact with the ionosphere to gives rise density, electric and magnetic field disturbances or anomalies. For the modeled tsunami wave as an input, the coupled model simulates the wind, density and temperature disturbances or anomalies in the atmosphere and electron density/magnetic anomalies in the F region of the ionosphere. Also presented are the GPS-TEC and ground-based magnetometer measurements during first hour of tsunami and good agreements are found between modeled and observed anomalies. The high frequency component ˜10 minutes of the simulated wind, TEC and magnetic anomalies in the F region develops within 6-7 minutes after the initiation of the tsunami, suggesting the importance of monitoring the high-frequency atmospheric/ionospheric anomalies for the early warning. These anomalies are found to maximize across the epicenter in the direction opposite to the tsunami propagation suggesting that the large atmospheric/ionospheric disturbances are excited in the region where tsunami does not travel.

  2. Numerical simulation of a tsunami event during the 1996 volcanic eruption in Karymskoye lake, Kamchatka, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Torsvik

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karymskoye caldera lake is a nearly circular body of water with a diameter of approximately 4 km and a depth of up to 60 m. The sublacustrine, Surtseyan-type eruption in the lake on 2–3 January 1996 included a series of underwater explosions. A field survey conducted the following summer showed signs of tsunami wave runup around the entire coastline of the lake, with a maximum of 29 m runup at the north shore near the source of the eruption, and 2–5 m runup at locations on the east and south shore far away from the source.

    The tsunami has been simulated using the numerical long wave model COULWAVE, with input from reconstructed realistic pre-eruption bathymetry. The tsunami source was chosen as suggested by Le Mehaute (1971 and Mirchina and Pelinovsky (1988. The initial wave was prescribed by a parabolic shape depression with a radius of R=200 m, and a height of 23 m at the rim of the parabola. Simulations were conducted to show principle directions for wave propagation, wave speed and arrival time for the leading wave group at the shore, and the distribution of wave height throughout the lake. Estimated result for wave runup are of the same order of magnitude as field measurements, except near the source of the eruption and at a few locations where analysis show significant wave breaking.

  3. Building Damage and Business Continuity Management in the Event of Natural Hazards: Case Study of the 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Sugiura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami event on the 26 December 2004 has provided a unique and valuable opportunity to evaluate the performance of various structures, facilities and lifeline systems during the tsunami wave attacks. There are especially meaningful observations concerning the structural changes due to the tsunami forces, which open up a wide area of research to develop the mitigation procedure. The business restoration process of business companies in terms of buildings, facilities and lifelines have shown greater research interest. In this study, we investigated the restoration process of business sectors in East and South coastal region in Sri Lanka after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. A field survey was conducted in East and South coast of Sri Lanka, in order to study the affecting parameters to damage assessment in the restoration process of the business companies. The results of the questionnaire-based field survey are then compared with the statistical analysis results. Finally, the factors affecting the restoration process after the tsunami are identified. As a main conclusion, financial support could be the most important reason for delays in restoration. Moreover, it has been observed that the tsunami inundation level of higher than one meter may have had more effect concerning the damage to the structures and requires additional time for restoration than other areas.

  4. Tsunami-HySEA: A GPU based model for the Italian candidate Tsunami Service Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Vida, Jose Manuel; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel; de la Asuncion, Marc; Melini, Daniele; Romano, Fabrizio; Tonini, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Molinari, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Service Providers (TSP), providing tsunami warnings in the framework of the systems coordinated by IOC/UNESCO worldwide, and other national tsunami warning centers, are striving to complement, or replace, decision matrices and pre-calculated tsunami scenario databases with FTRT (Faster Than Real Time) tsunami simulations. The aim is to increase the accuracy of tsunami forecast by assimilating the largest possible amount of data in quasi real time, and performing simulations in a few minutes wall-clock time, possibly including the coastal inundation stage. This strategy of direct real time computation, that could seem unfeasible a decade ago, it is now foreseeable thanks to the astonishingly recent increase in the computational power and bandwidth evolution of modern GPUs. The INGV in collaboration with the EDANYA Group (University of Málaga) are developing and implementing a FTRT Tsunami Simulation approach for the Italian candidate TSP, namely the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT), which is in pre-operational stage starting from 1 October 2014, in the 24/7 seismic monitoring room at INGV. The mandate of CAT is to provide warnings for potential tsunamis within the Mediterranean basin to its subscribers, in the framework of NEAMTWS (http://www.ioc-tsunami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70:neamtws-home&catid=9&Itemid=14&lang=es). CAT also performs global monitoring, for continuous testing, training, and validation purposes. The tsunami-HySEA model, developed by EDANYA Group, implements in the same code the three phases of an earthquake generated tsunami: generation, propagation and coastal inundation. At the same time it is implemented in nested meshes with different resolution and multi-GPU environment, which allows much faster than real time simulations. The challenge set by the Italian TSP for warning in the NEAMTWS region is twofold: to be able to reasonably constrain the earthquake source in the absence of deep sea tsunami sensors, and to be able to compute the generation, propagation and a first inundation stage of a seismically generated in the Mediterranean Sea, within a few minutes after the earthquake origin time. The approach will then be extensively tested with past tsunamis worldwide, as well as with any future event in the framework of CAT global monitoring training mode.

  5. Inversion of tsunami height using ionospheric observations. The case of the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.

    2014-12-01

    Large and moderate tsunamis generate atmospheric internal gravity waves that are detectable using ionospheric monitoring. Indeed tsunamis of height 2cm and more in open ocean were detected with GPS (Rolland et al. 2010). We present a new method to retrieve the tsunami height from GPS-derived Total Electron Content observations. We present the case of the Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake that occured the 28 october 2012 offshore the Queen Charlotte island near the canadian west coast. This event created a moderate tsunami of 4cm offshore the Hawaii archipelago. Equipped with more than 50 receivers it was possible to image the tsunami-induced ionospheric perturbation. First, our forward model leading to the TEC perturbation follows three steps : (1) 3D modeling of the neutral atmosphere perturbation by summation of tsunami-induced gravity waves normal modes. (2) Coupling of the neutral atmosphere perturbation with the ionosphere to retrieve the electron density perturbation. (3) Integration of the electron density perturbation along each satellite-station ray path. Then we compare this results to the data acquired by the Hawaiian GPS network. Finally, we examine the possibility to invert the TEC data in order to retrieve the tsunami height and waveform. For this we investigate the link between the height of tsunamis and the perturbed TEC in the ionosphere.

  6. Development of an online tool for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivihok, P.; Honda, K.; Ruangrassamee, A.; Muangsin, V.; Naparat, P.; Foytong, P.; Promdumrong, N.; Aphimaeteethomrong, P.; Intavee, A.; Layug, J. E.; Kosin, T.

    2014-05-01

    The devastating impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the need for an effective end-to-end tsunami early warning system in the region that connects the scientific components of warning with preparedness of institutions and communities to respond to an emergency. Essential to preparedness planning is knowledge of tsunami risks. In this study, development of an online tool named “INSPIRE” for tsunami inundation simulation and tsunami loss estimation is presented. The tool is designed to accommodate various accuracy levels of tsunami exposure data which will support the users to undertake preliminary tsunami risk assessment from the existing data with progressive improvement with the use of more detailed and accurate datasets. Sampling survey technique is introduced to improve the local vulnerability data with lower cost and manpower. The performance of the proposed methodology and the INSPIRE tool were tested against the dataset in Kamala and Patong municipalities, Phuket province, Thailand. The estimated building type ratios from the sampling survey show the satisfactory agreement with the actual building data at the test sites. Sub-area classification by land use can improve the accuracy of the building type ratio estimation. For the resulting loss estimation, the exposure data generated from detailed field survey can provide the agreeable results when comparing to the actual building damage recorded for the Indian Ocean tsunami event in 2004. However, lower accuracy exposure data derived from sampling survey and remote sensing can still provide a comparative overview of estimated loss.

  7. A fast global tsunami modeling suite as a trans-oceanic tsunami hazard prediction and mitigation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, F.; Li, S.; Jalali Farahani, R.; Williams, C. R.; Astill, S.; Wilson, P. S.; B, S.; Lee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The past decade has been witness to two mega-tsunami events, 2004 Indian ocean tsunami and 2011 Japan tsunami and multiple major tsunami events; 2006 Java, Kuril Islands, 2007 Solomon Islands, 2009 Samoa and 2010 Chile, to name a few. These events generated both local and far field tsunami inundations with runup ranging from a few meters to around 40 m in the coastal impact regions. With a majority of the coastal population at risk, there is need for a sophisticated outlook towards catastrophe risk estimation and a quick mitigation response. At the same time tools and information are needed to aid advanced tsunami hazard prediction. There is an increased need for insurers, reinsurers and Federal hazard management agencies to quantify coastal inundations and vulnerability of coastal habitat to tsunami inundations. A novel tool is developed to model local and far-field tsunami generation, propagation and inundation to estimate tsunami hazards. The tool is a combination of the NOAA MOST propagation database and an efficient and fast GPU (Graphical Processing Unit)-based non-linear shallow water wave model solver. The tsunamigenic seismic sources are mapped on to the NOAA unit source distribution along subduction zones in the ocean basin. Slip models are defined for tsunamigenic seismic sources through a slip distribution on the unit sources while maintaining limits of fault areas. A GPU based finite volume solver is used to simulate non-linear shallow water wave propagation, inundation and runup. Deformation on the unit sources provide initial conditions for modeling local impacts, while the wave history from propagation database provides boundary conditions for far field impacts. The modeling suite provides good agreement with basins for basin wide tsunami propagation to validate local and far field tsunami inundations.

  8. Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Geist

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

  9. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly three meters. The evacuation of Hawaii's coastlines commenced at 7:31 UTC. Concurrent with this tsunami event, a widely-felt Mw 4.6 earthquake occurred beneath the island of Hawai`i at 8:58 UTC. PTWC responded within three minutes of origin time with a Tsunami Information Statement stating that the Hawaii earthquake would not generate a tsunami. After issuing 27 international tsunami bulletins to Pacific basin countries, and 16 messages to the State of Hawaii during a period of 25 hours after the event began, PTWC concluded its role during the Tohoku tsunami event with the issuance of the corresponding warning cancellation message at 6:36 UTC on 12 March 2011. During the following weeks, however, the PTWC would continue to respond to dozens of aftershocks related to the earthquake. We will present a complete timeline of PTWC's activities, both domestic and international, during the Tohoku tsunami event. We will also illustrate the immense number of website hits, phone calls, and media requests that flooded PTWC during the course of the event, as well as the growing role social media plays in communicating tsunami hazard information to the public.

  10. CEDAR: tools for event generator tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Andy

    2007-01-01

    I describe the work of the CEDAR collaboration in developing tools for tuning and validating Monte Carlo event generator programs. The core CEDAR task is to interface the Durham HepData database of experimental measurements to event generator validation tools such as the UCL JetWeb system - this has necessitated the migration of HepData to a new relational database system and a Java-based interaction model. The "number crunching" part of JetWeb is also being upgraded, from t...

  11. Tsunamigenic Ratio of the Pacific Ocean earthquakes and a proposal for a Tsunami Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Ocean is the location where two-thirds of tsunamis have occurred, resulting in a great number of casualties. Once information on an earthquake has been issued, it is important to understand if there is a tsunami generation risk in relation with a specific earthquake magnitude or focal depth. This study proposes a Tsunamigenic Ratio (TR that is defined as the ratio between the number of earthquake-generated tsunamis and the total number of earthquakes. Earthquake and tsunami data used in this study were selected from a database containing tsunamigenic earthquakes from prior 1900 to 2011. The TR is calculated from earthquake events with a magnitude greater than 5.0, a focal depth shallower than 200 km and a sea depth less than 7 km. The results suggest that a great earthquake magnitude and a shallow focal depth have a high potential to generate tsunamis with a large tsunami height. The average TR in the Pacific Ocean is 0.4, whereas the TR for specific regions of the Pacific Ocean varies from 0.3 to 0.7. The TR calculated for each region shows the relationship between three influential parameters: earthquake magnitude, focal depth and sea depth. The three parameters were combined and proposed as a dimensionless parameter called the Tsunami Index (TI. TI can express better relationship with the TR and with maximum tsunami height, while the three parameters mentioned above cannot. The results show that recent submarine earthquakes had a higher potential to generate a tsunami with a larger tsunami height than during the last century. A tsunami is definitely generated if the TI is larger than 7.0. The proposed TR and TI will help ascertain the tsunami generation risk of each earthquake event based on a statistical analysis of the historical data and could be an important decision support tool during the early tsunami warning stage.

  12. Tsunamis and meteorological tsunamis: similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Monserrat, S.

    2003-04-01

    Destructive seiche oscillations occasionally generated in certain bays and inlets are mainly associated with two natural forcing phenomena: Seismic activity (tsunamis), and atmospheric disturbances (meteotsunamis). Despite their different origin, both types are modified and amplified by topography in a similar way and produce similar catastrophic effects in coastal areas. Due to these similarities, it is often difficult to distinguish between these two phenomena without knowing the exact source characteristics. Recognition and separation of these phenomena is important for the revision/improvement of existing tsunami catalogues but also to better understand the generation mechanism and mitigate their possible catastrophic effects. To investigate this problem and to compare seismic and meteorological tsunamis, we assembled a number of cases when both phenomena had been recorded at the same place. In particular, our findings included Alicante (Mediterranean coast of Spain), Malokurilsk and Krabovaya bays (Shikotan Island, Russia), and Tofino, Winter Harbour, Bamfield, Port Hardy, and Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). We also used the results of the LAST-97 hydrophysical experiment when eight bottom pressure stations were deployed on the shelf and in the inlets of Menorca Island (Western Meditterranean, Spain) and three precise microbarographs were working on the coast. Our analysis is based on the assumption that both tsunamis and meteotsunamis are formed by the combined effects of external forcing and topography. So, for different events recorded at the same site, the similarities are related to topography and the differences to the forcing. On the contrary, for the same event recorded at different stations, similarities are mainly associated with the forcing and the differences with specific local topographic features. Analysis of the spectral distributions and comparison with background noise enabled us to reconstruct the topographic transfer functions for all stations, estimate (for certain stations) the relative influence of shelf and bay/inlets, and to determine the sources. The estimated source functions for long waves associated with seismic events were found to have typical periods of 10-40 min, while those generated by a storm had shorter periods and strong energy pumping from high-frequencies due to non-linear interaction of wind waves.

  13. EVENT GENERATOR FOR RHIC SPIN PHYSICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume archives the reports from the RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop on ''Event Generator for RHIC Spin Physics II'' held during the week March 15, 1999 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It was the second meeting on the subject following a first one in last September. This workshop has been initiated to establish a firm collaboration between theorists and experimentalists involved in RHIC spin physics with the aim of developing a reliable, high-precision event generator for RHIC spin physics. Needless to say, adequate event generators are indispensable tools for high energy physics programs in general, especially in the process of: planning the experimental programs; developing algorithms to extract the physics signals of interest; estimating the background in the extracted results, and connecting the final particle kinematics to the fundamental i.e. partonic level processes. Since RHIC is the first polarized collider, dedicated efforts are required to obtain a full-fledged event generator which describes spin dependent reactions in great detail

  14. NUMERICAL MODEL STUDY OF TSUNAMI GENERATED BY POTENTIAL EARTHQUAKE WITHIN THE KOMANDORSKY SEISMIC GAP IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLAND ARC

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kh. Mazova; B. V. Baranov; Lobkovsky, L. I.; N. A. Baranova; K. A. Dozorova; O. N. Chaykina

    2013-01-01

    The Komandorsky seismic gap has distinctive boundaries and a length of 650 km. Its period of “seismic silence” comes close to the maximum recurrence interval for great earthquakes in the Aleutian Island Arc - the stress concentration here probably having reached the critical value. So, estimation of possible earthquake and tsunami characteristics within this gap becomes a significant problem. The closest analog of a similar gap is the area where the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman catastrophic event occ...

  15. Detection of very long period seismic signals and acoustic gravity waves generated by large tsunamis

    OpenAIRE

    Raveloson, Andriamiranto

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis sind Naturereignisse, die zu den verheerendsten weltweiten Katastrophen gehören, obwohl sie relativ selten auftreten. Da Tsunamis in letzter Zeit zahlreiche Opfer und schwere Zerstörungen in grossen Küstenregionen verursacht haben, sind sie Ziel intensivierter Forschungen geworden. Die Grundlage zur Reduzierung von Tsunamiopfern ist ein kontinuierliches Monitoring der Seismizität. Da eine Erdbebenvorhersage nicht möglich ist, sind Tsunamifrühwarnungen das primäre Ziel der Forschungen...

  16. ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there are no tsunamis that are unusually large for the size of the earthquake that generated them, coastal communities remain at risk from these periodic hazards.We also use tsunami modelling and published information to estimate maximum inundation in Northern Algeria. Then, we generate a flooding map, which reveals the communities, buildings and infrastructure that are exposed to the tsunami hazard. This map shows that the majority of the people in Algiers and Oran live above 5 meters in elevation, and are hence not exposed to the hazard. Despite this, the coastline remains vulnerable to tsunami as earthquakes can damage poorly constructed buildings and other infrastructure, weakening it prior to the arrival of the tsunami. To increase resilience in the coastal zone, tsunami and earthquake awareness, education and preparedness must become a priority in the context of regional early warning programs.

  17. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that recognize these characteristics, and then immediately alerts a tsunami warning center through the communications buoy when the processor senses one of these waves. In addition to the tsunami detection buoy system, an end-to-end tsunami warning system was developed that builds upon the country's existing disaster warning infrastructure. This warning system includes 1) components that receive, process, and analyze buoy, seismic and tide gauge data; 2) predictive tools and a consequence assessment tool set to provide decision support; 3) operation center design and implementation; and 4) tsunami buoy operations and maintenance support. The first buoy was deployed Oct. 25, 2006, approximately 200 nautical miles west of San Diego in 3,800 meters of water. Just three weeks later, it was put to the test during an actual tsunami event. On Nov. 15, 2006, an 8.3 magnitude earthquake rocked the Kuril Islands, located between Japan and the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia. That quake generated a small tsunami. Waves from the tsunami propagated approximately 4,000 nautical miles across the Pacific Ocean in about nine hours-- a speed of about 445 nautical miles per hour when this commercial buoy first detected them. Throughout that event, the tsunami buoy system showed excellent correlation with data collected by a NOAA DART buoy located 28 nautical miles north of it. Subsequent analysis revealed that the STB matched DART operational capabilities and performed flawlessly. The buoy proved its capabilities again on Jan. 13, 2007, when an 8.1 magnitude earthquake occurred in the same region, and the STB detected the seismic event. As a result of the successes of this entire project, SAIC recently applied for and received a license from NOAA to build DART systems.

  18. Evaluation on coolability of the reactor core in Monju by natural circulation under earthquake and subsequent tsunami event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core cooling capability by natural circulations at a station black-out event, induced by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami attack, has been evaluated in detail, referring to the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company (F1). The plant dynamics computer code: Super-COPD has been used for the evaluation, which has been verified by the analyses of the preliminary test results on the natural circulation in Monju. As a result it was concluded that the natural circulations of the coolant sodium will enable the decay heat removal of the core as far as the sodium coolant flow circuits are intact and secured. (author)

  19. South American Tsunamis in Lyttelton Harbor, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.

    2015-03-01

    At 2347 UTC on April 1, 2014 (12:47 pm April 2, 2014 NZDT) an earthquake with a moment magnitude of 8.2 occurred offshore of Iquique in northern Chile. The temblor generated a tsunami that was observed locally and recorded on tide gauges and deep ocean tsunameters close to the source region. While real time modeling based on inverted tsunameter data and finite fault solutions of the earthquake rupture suggested that a damaging far-field tsunami was not expected (and later confirmed), this event nevertheless reminded us of the threat posed to New Zealand by tsunami generated along the west coast of South America and from the Peru/Chile border region in particular. In this paper we quantitatively assess the tsunami hazard at Lyttelton Harbor from South American tsunamis through a review of historical accounts, numerical modeling of past events and analysis of water level records. A sensitivity study for tsunamis generated along the length of the South American Subduction Zone is used to illustrate which section of the subduction zone would generate the strongest response at Lyttelton while deterministic scenario modeling of significant historical South American tsunamis (i.e. 1868, 1877 and 1960) provide a quantitative estimate of the expected effects from possible future great earthquakes along the coast of South America.

  20. Improving Tsunami Resilience in Europe - ASTARTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Yalciner, Ahmet; Canals, Miquel; Behrens, Joern; Fuhrman, David; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Harbitz, Carl; Kanoglu, Utku; Karanci, Nurai; Lavigne, Franck; Lorito, Stefano; Meghraoui, Mustafa; Melis, Nikolaos S.; Necmioglu, Ocal; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Rudloff, Alexander; Schindele, François; Terrinha, Pedro; Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adjacent Seas (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO) is known to be exposed to tsunamis and, like other regions of the world, faces increasing levels of risk due to i) the continuous development of coastal areas with critical infrastructures and accumulated values, and ii) the year-round presence of millions of tourists. In recent years, European researchers have greatly advanced knowledge of tsunami hazards and implementation of operational infrastructures, such as the creation of a regional system of candidate tsunami watch providers (CTWP) and national tsunami warning centers (NTWC). However, significant gaps remain and intensified efforts are needed. The ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe) is a three-year long EU-funded project, started in November 2013, that aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in the NEAM region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all NEAM CTWPs and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) the basic knowledge on tsunami generation and recurrence with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas within NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation focusing on real-time codes, novel statistical emulation approaches, and experiments on damage analysis, and iii) methods for the assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better forecasting and warning tools for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase the sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning,forecast, and resilience, with specific implementation in 9 tsunami test sites. Overall, this will lead to the goal of the European/NEAM Horizon 2020 strategy: to foster tsunami resilient communities. www.astarte-project.eu This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  1. New developments in event generator tuning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Andy; Lacker, Heiko; Schulz, Holger; von Seggern, Jan Eike

    2010-01-01

    Data analyses in hadron collider physics depend on background simulations performed by Monte Carlo (MC) event generators. However, calculational limitations and non-perturbative effects require approximate models with adjustable parameters. In fact, we need to simultaneously tune many phenomenological parameters in a high-dimensional parameter-space in order to make the MC generator predictions fit the data. It is desirable to achieve this goal without spending too much time or computing resources iterating parameter settings and comparing the same set of plots over and over again. We present extensions and improvements to the MC tuning system, Professor, which addresses the aforementioned problems by constructing a fast analytic model of a MC generator which can then be easily fitted to data. Using this procedure it is for the first time possible to get a robust estimate of the uncertainty of generator tunings. Furthermore, we can use these uncertainty estimates to study the effect of new (pseudo-) data on t...

  2. THE FRENCH TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NORTHEAST ATLANTIC: CENALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hébert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CENALT (CENtre d’ALerte aux Tsunamis is responsible for the French National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC. The CENALT is established in the framework of the Unesco/IOC/ICG/NEAMTWS. Its objective is to transmit a warning message in less than fifteen minutes for any events that could trigger a tsunami in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the North- Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The data collected from French installations and from institutions of European and North African countries is processed with software that permits early epicenter location of seismic events and measurements of expected tsunami impacts on the shore. On-duty analysts revise interactively all the generated information and use references of historical tsunami and earthquake databases - as well as computed tsunami scenarios – in order to disseminate the more comprehensive message possible.

  3. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  4. Generation and Propagation of Tsunami by a Moving Realistic Curvilinear Slide Shape with Variable Velocities in Linearized Shallow-Water Wave Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwat Nageeb Hanna; Khaled Tawfik Ramadan; Hossam Shawky Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The process of tsunami evolution during its generation under the effect of the variable velocities of realistic submarine landslides based on a two-dimensional curvilinear slide model is investigated. Tsunami generation from submarine gravity mass flows is described in three stages. The first stage represented by a rapid curvilinear down and uplift faulting with rise time. The second stage represented by a unilaterally propagation in the positive x direction to a significant length to produce...

  5. On the moroccan tsunami catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kaabouben

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary tool for regional tsunami hazard assessment is a reliable historical and instrumental catalogue of events. Morocco by its geographical situation, with two marine sides, stretching along the Atlantic coast to the west and along the Mediterranean coast to the north, is the country of Western Africa most exposed to the risk of tsunamis. Previous information on tsunami events affecting Morocco are included in the Iberian and/or the Mediterranean lists of tsunami events, as it is the case of the European GITEC Tsunami Catalogue, but there is a need to organize this information in a dataset and to assess the likelihood of claimed historical tsunamis in Morocco. Due to the fact that Moroccan sources are scarce, this compilation rely on historical documentation from neighbouring countries (Portugal and Spain and so the compatibility between the new tsunami catalogue presented here and those that correspond to the same source areas is also discussed.

  6. Evaluating Tsunami Hazard and Vulnerability Along the Gulf of Cadiz, North East Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Viana-Baptista, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Catita, C.; Toto, E.

    2009-12-01

    Tsunamis are considered a major risk in the Gulf of Cadiz. This region has been the place of several tsunamis, like the well-know event of 1st November 1755. Thus, mapping tsunami hazard and vulnerability is crucial to effective mitigation and better understanding of the tsunami threat in the surrounding countries of Portugal, Spain and Morocco. In this study, we evaluate the tsunami hazard and vulnerability along the Gulf of Cadiz coats. A deterministic approach based on particular source scenarios and modeling inundation is adopted for the tsunami hazard assessment. The tsunamigenic potential of the Gulf of Cadiz region has been revised in order to define the most credible earthquake scenarios able to generate large tsunamis. Inundation and current velocity were calculated in site-specific of major tsunami impact via numerical simulations. The vulnerability is assessed using a combination of inundation and current velocity modeling and field survey. Hazard results are presented in terms of maximum water depth, inundation limit and current velocity maps in various sites along the Gulf of Cadiz. Vulnerability study is focused in Casablanca-Morocco, and a building tsunami vulnerability map is presented. Results show the dramatic impact of the different tsunamigenic scenarios along the study area. These results are useful for local authorities, emergency and decision planners to define the priority zones where tsunami mitigation measures must be implemented and to develop tsunami resilient communities.. This work was funded by TRANSFER and NEAREST 6FP-European Union projects.

  7. Evidence for a Tsunami Event and Coastal Reorganization in the New York Metropolitan Region ~2300 yr BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, S.; Goodbred, S.; Nitsche, F.; McHugh, C.; Carbotte, S.; Slagle, A.; Klein, E.

    2008-12-01

    It is widely recognized that major events such as tsunamis have significant effects on coastal systems over short timescales. While many of these systems show a recovery to the pre-event dynamic equilibrium, it is less well known how often such a recovery does not occur. Recent studies document a widespread reorganization occurring in the New York and New Jersey coastal region between 2100-2400 yr BP that has persisted to the present. Sediment cores and shallow-seismic surveys also reveal a high energy, potentially tsunamigenic event occurring at the same time, possibly as the source of this reorganization. In Great South Bay backbarrier lagoon, a prominent event layer of gravel-based sands and reworked shell deposits sits at the transition between between highly vegetated fresh/brackish marsh deposits and the current open estuarine conditions. The facies is well constrained by radiocarbon dates to 2200-2400 yr BP and is consistent with grain size and distribution of tsunamigenic emplacement. In the nearby Hudson River estuary an erosional unconformity, dated between 2000-2400 yr BP, is observed in the seismic and core data. Also in this portion of the Hudson is a series of distinct woody debris layers, dated between 2200-2400 yr BP. Further south, off Sandy Hook, is another prominent Holocene unconformity as well as a chaotic mass- wasting deposit containing terrigenous clay clasts mixed with marine sediments and mollusks. On the New Jersey shelf, a 20cm thick sandy mass-flow recovered at 600 m of water depth and dated at 2170 is also documented. Geologic evidence seems to show that the ~2300 yr BP event had a considerable and enduring impact on the coastal system. As the NY-NJ coast is one of significant population, understanding the recurrence and impact of such an event is critical.

  8. Modeling the transport and accumulation floating debris generated by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Laurent C-M; Borrero, Jose C

    2013-01-15

    A global ocean circulation model is coupled to a particle-tracking model to simulate the transport of floating debris washed into the North Pacific Ocean by the Tohoku tsunami. A release scenario for the tsunami debris is based on coastal population and measured tsunami runup. Archived 2011/2012 hindcast current data is used to model the transport of debris since the tsunami, while data from 2008 to 2012 is used to investigate the distribution of debris on timescales up to 4years. The vast amount of debris pushed into ocean likely represents thousands of years worth of 'normal' litter flux from Japan's urbanized coastline. This is important since a significant fraction of the debris will be comprised of plastics, some of which will degrade into tiny particles and be consumed by marine organisms, thereby allowing adsorbed organic pollutants to enter our food supply in quantities much higher than present. PMID:23219397

  9. New developments in event generator tuning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Holger; Lacker, Heiko; Seggern, Jan Eike von [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Buckley, Andy [University Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hoeth, Hendrik [IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Data analyses in hadron collider physics depend on background simulations performed by Monte Carlo (MC) event generators. However, calculational limitations and non-perturbative effects in strong interactions require approximate models with adjustable parameters. In fact, we need to simultaneously adjust (''tune'') many phenomenological parameters in a high-dimensional parameter-space in order to make the MC generator predictions fit the data. I will present extensions and improvements of the systematic approach to MC tuning, called PROFESSOR (PROcedure For Estimating SyStematic errORs), whose key idea is to construct a fast analytic model of a MC generator response under parameter variations which can then be easily fitted to data. Among the improvements are a robust estimate of tuning uncertainties as well as a graphical user interface that allows for interactive exploration of the behaviour of observables under shifts in parameter space.

  10. Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Glimsdal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect, and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse. Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

  11. A mathematical model for Tsunami generation using a conservative velocity-pressure hyperbolic system

    CERN Document Server

    Roux, Alain-Yves Le

    2009-01-01

    By using the Hugoniot curve in detonics as a Riemann invariant of a velocity-pressure model, we get a conservative hyperbolic system similar to the Euler equations. The only differences are the larger value of the adiabatic constant (= 8.678 instead of 1.4 for gas dynamics) and the mass density replaced by a strain density depending on the pressure. The model is not homogeneous since it involves a gravity and a friction term. After the seismic wave reaches up the bottom of the ocean, one gets a pressure wave propagating toward the surface, which is made of a frontal shock wave followed by a regular decreasing profile. Since this regular profile propagates faster than the frontal shock waves, the amplitude of the pressure wave is strongly reduced when reaching the surface. Only in the case of a strong earth tremor the residual pressure wave is still sufficient to generate a water elevation with a sufficient wavelengths enable to propagate as a SaintVenant water wave and to become a tsunami when reaching the sh...

  12. Tsunami Characteristics along The Coast of Biak Island based on the 1996 Biak Tsunami Traces

    OpenAIRE

    Yudhicara Yudhicara

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i1.135Identification on tsunami traces had been conducted along the coast of Biak Island, Papua, to recognize the character of tsunami potential in this region, referring to the 1996 tsunami event. This study is to observe the influence of tsunami to the environment and tsunami character itself which can be learned from tsunami deposit. According to the 1996 Biak tsunami run up distributions, it can be observed that the maximum tsunami run up was found at the coast which ...

  13. Interdisciplinary approach for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Algeria (West Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, L. A.; Cisternas, A.; Vigneresse, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tsunamis occurred in the West Mediterranean with magnitudes ranging from m=-1 to m=2 (Imamura-Iida scale). In Algeria, tsunamis are reported from the 14th century to 2003. Northern Algeria is located at the border between the African and the Eurasian plate. Destructive earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.7 occurred 3 times in the last century. The North Algeria western region is characterized by the Murdjadjo anticline. A destructive earthquake hit Oran city on October 1790 (Intensity: X, West of Algeria). A tsunami was triggered in the Alboran sea. The Spanish and North Africa coasts were flooded. Run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents (Lopez Marinas and Salord, 1990). Here, the 1790 Alboran tsunami is studied from a modelling approach. The tsunami source is determined from the Okada equations and the tsunami propagation is estimated from the SWAN code (Mader, 2004). Results show that active thrust faulting related to the Murdjadjo structure is responsible for the tsunami. In the central part of Algeria, the Algiers city (capital of Algeria) was the location of destructive earthquakes (Intensity: X) that were followed by tsunamis in 1365 and in 1773. Flooding and run-up’s of 2 meters in height are reported in historical documents for the 1365 event. The central part of Algeria is the site of the Sahel anticline. A tsunami modelling is also performed considering the Sahel fault system as a potential tsunami source. Results show that it takes less than 15 minutes for the tsunami waves to reach the Spanish coast. Run-up’s are estimated lower than 2 meters in height. Discrepancies are attributed to the resolution of the bathymetry and the limits of the modelling. In the eastern region, historical reports also reveal run-up’s up to 5 meters in height after a tsunami triggered by a destructive earthquake in 1856 in Jijel city (intensity: VIII). From tsunami catalogs, seismic and tsunami data are plotted using a tsunami vulnerability parameter. The vulnerability index is estimated from the tsunami intensity and the seismic intensity using the Papadopoulos and the EMS scale. Results show that in Algeria, tsunami damages are minor relative to seismic damages. Since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami, intergovernmental coordinated groups are working on an Indian and a Mediterranean tsunami alert system. To reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, it is very important to implement an efficiency warning system and a communication policy for fast urbanized coastal cities. In that context, lessons from the pacific case study are of major interest. Chile is marked by a very high seismic and tsunami hazard. The Iquique area is a threaten zone for a potential earthquake of magnitude greater than 8 and a local tsunami that could generate run-up’s up to 20 meters in height. In addition to the Pacific Tsunami Warning centre based in Hawaii, the Chile has elaborated a local tsunami warning centre. The Chilean case study is presented in discussion to highlight some lessons that may serve as an example for fast urbanized coastal cities that have to face local tsunamis.

  14. Tsunamis from nature to physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunamis are gravity waves that propagate near the ocean surface. They belong to the same family as common sea waves that we enjoy at the beach; however, tsunamis are distinct in their mode of generation and in their characteristic period, wavelength, and velocity. The type of tsunamis that induce widespread damage number about one or two per decade. Thus 'killer tsunamis' although fearful, are a relatively rare phenomenon

  15. Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard?

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition techniques to identify a potential seismic source located inland very near Venice, and then we evaluate how a tsunami wave generated from this source can affect the MoSE gates if they are standing up (closed) during the tsunami event. From our simulation we get both peaks and troughs as first arrivals: the behavior of the barriers in these two situations could be a very important design matter.

  16. Tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides of variable volume: analytical solutions for a basin of variable depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Didenkulova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami wave generation by submarine landslides of a variable volume in a basin of variable depth is studied within the shallow-water theory. The problem of landslide induced tsunami wave generation and propagation is studied analytically for two specific convex bottom profiles (h ~ x4/3 and h ~ x4. In these cases the basic equations can be reduced to the constant-coefficient wave equation with the forcing determined by the landslide motion. For certain conditions on the landslide characteristics (speed and volume per unit cross-section the wave field can be described explicitly. It is represented by one forced wave propagating with the speed of the landslide and following its offshore direction, and two free waves propagating in opposite directions with the wave celerity. For the case of a near-resonant motion of the landslide along the power bottom profile h ~ xγ the dynamics of the waves propagating offshore is studied using the asymptotic approach. If the landslide is moving in the fully resonant regime the explicit formula for the amplitude of the wave can be derived. It is demonstrated that generally tsunami wave amplitude varies non-monotonically with distance.

  17. Performance of coastal sea-defense infrastructure at El Jadida (Morocco against tsunami threat: lessons learned from the Japanese 11 March 2011 tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the effectiveness of sea-defense structures in preventing/reducing the tsunami overtopping as well as evaluating the resulting tsunami impact at El Jadida, Morocco. Different tsunami wave conditions are generated by considering various earthquake scenarios of magnitudes ranging from Mw = 8.0 to Mw = 8.6. These scenarios represent the main active earthquake faults in the SW Iberia margin and are consistent with two past events that generated tsunamis along the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The behaviour of incident tsunami waves when interacting with coastal infrastructures is analysed on the basis of numerical simulations of near-shore tsunami waves' propagation. Tsunami impact at the affected site is assessed through computing inundation and current velocity using a high-resolution digital terrain model that incorporates bathymetric, topographic and coastal structures data. Results, in terms of near-shore tsunami propagation snapshots, waves' interaction with coastal barriers, and spatial distributions of flow depths and speeds, are presented and discussed in light of what was observed during the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. Predicted results show different levels of impact that different tsunami wave conditions could generate in the region. Existing coastal barriers around the El Jadida harbour succeeded in reflecting relatively small waves generated by some scenarios, but failed in preventing the overtopping caused by waves from others. Considering the scenario highly impacting the El Jadida coast, significant inundations are computed at the sandy beach and unprotected areas. The modelled dramatic tsunami impact in the region shows the need for additional tsunami standards not only for sea-defense structures but also for the coastal dwellings and houses to provide potential in-place evacuation.

  18. SOME OPPORTUNITITES OF THE LANDSLIDE TSUNAMI HYPOTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watts

    2001-01-01

    Tsunami sources are intimately linked to geological events. Earthquakes and landslides are shown to be part of a continuum of complicated geological phenomena. Advances in landslide tsunami research will remain coupled with marine geology research. The landslide tsunami hypothesis is shown to have originated in the scientific literature in the early 1900s. Tsunami science has been slow to embrace the hypothesis in part because of the tremendous uncertainity that it introduces into tsunami gne...

  19. Event generation with SHERPA 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, T.; Hoche, Stefan.; Krauss, F.; Schoenherr, M.; Schumann, S.; Siegert, F.; Winter, J.

    2008-12-18

    In this paper the current release of the Monte Carlo event generator Sherpa, version 1.1, is presented. Sherpa is a general-purpose tool for the simulation of particle collisions at high-energy colliders. It contains a very flexible tree-level matrix-element generator for the calculation of hard scattering processes within the Standard Model and various new physics models. The emission of additional QCD partons off the initial and final states is described through a parton-shower model. To consistently combine multi-parton matrix elements with the QCD parton cascades the approach of Catani, Krauss, Kuhn and Webber is employed. A simple model of multiple interactions is used to account for underlying events in hadron-hadron collisions. The fragmentation of partons into primary hadrons is described using a phenomenological cluster-hadronization model. A comprehensive library for simulating tau-lepton and hadron decays is provided. Where available form-factor models and matrix elements are used, allowing for the inclusion of spin correlations; effects of virtual and real QED corrections are included using the approach of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura.

  20. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  1. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami

  2. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my [Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Post Graduate Studies, UCSI University, Jalan Menara Gading, 56000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che [Malaysian Meteorological Department, MOSTI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  3. VALIDATION OF THE JRC TSUNAMI PROPAGATION AND INUNDATION CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zamora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years several numerical codes have been developed to analyse tsunami waves. Most of these codes use a finite difference numerical approach giving good results for tsunami wave propagation, but with limitations in modelling inundation processes. The HyFlux2 model has been developed to simulate inundation scenario due to dam break, flash flood and tsunami-wave run-up. The model solves the conservative form of the two-dimensional shallow water equations using a finite volume method. The implementation of a shoreline-tracking method provides reliable results. HyFlux2 robustness has been tested using several tsunami events. The main aim of this study is code validation by means of comparing different code results with available measurements. Another objective of the study is to evaluate how the different fault models could generate different results that should be considered for coastal planning. Several simulations have been performed to compare HyFlux2 code with SWAN-JRC code and the TUNAMI-N2. HyFlux2 has been validated taking advantage of the extensive seismic, geodetic measurements and post-tsunami field surveys performed after the Nias March 28th tsunami. Although more detailed shallow bathymetry is needed to assess the inundation, diverse results in the wave heights have been revealed when comparing the different fault mechanism. Many challenges still exist for tsunami researchers especially when concern to early warning systems as shown in this Nias March 28th tsunami.

  4. Combined effects of tectonic and landslide-generated Tsunami Runup at Seward, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.J.; Haeussler, P.J.; Hansen, R.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a recently developed and validated numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup to study the inundation of Resurrection Bay and the town of Seward by the 1964 Alaska tsunami. Seward was hit by both tectonic and landslide-generated tsunami waves during the Mw 9.2 1964 mega thrust earthquake. The earthquake triggered a series of submarine mass failures around the fjord, which resulted in land sliding of part of the coastline into the water, along with the loss of the port facilities. These submarine mass failures generated local waves in the bay within 5 min of the beginning of strong ground motion. Recent studies estimate the total volume of underwater slide material that moved in Resurrection Bay to be about 211 million m3 (Haeussler et al. in Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 269-278, 2007). The first tectonic tsunami wave arrived in Resurrection Bay about 30 min after the main shock and was about the same height as the local landslide-generated waves. Our previous numerical study, which focused only on the local land slide generated waves in Resurrection Bay, demonstrated that they were produced by a number of different slope failures, and estimated relative contributions of different submarine slide complexes into tsunami amplitudes (Suleimani et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 166:131-152, 2009). This work extends the previous study by calculating tsunami inundation in Resurrection Bay caused by the combined impact of landslide-generated waves and the tectonic tsunami, and comparing the composite inundation area with observations. To simulate landslide tsunami runup in Seward, we use a viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (J Phys Oceanogr 24(3):559-572, 1994) coupled with nonlinear shallow water equations. The input data set includes a high resolution multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR topography grid of Resurrection Bay, and an initial thickness of slide material based on pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry difference maps. For simulation of tectonic tsunami runup, we derive the 1964 coseismic deformations from detailed slip distribution in the rupture area, and use them as an initial condition for propagation of the tectonic tsunami. The numerical model employs nonlinear shallow water equations formulated for depth-averaged water fluxes, and calculates a temporal position of the shoreline using a free-surface moving boundary algorithm. We find that the calculated tsunami runup in Seward caused first by local submarine landslide-generated waves, and later by a tectonic tsunami, is in good agreement with observations of the inundation zone. The analysis of inundation caused by two different tsunami sources improves our understanding of their relative contributions, and supports tsunami risk mitigation in south-central Alaska. The record of the 1964 earthquake, tsunami, and submarine landslides, combined with the high-resolution topography and bathymetry of Resurrection Bay make it an ideal location for studying tectonic tsunamis in coastal regions susceptible to underwater landslides. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  5. New Activities of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is comprised of representatives from coastal states and federal agencies who, under the guidance of NOAA, work together to develop protocols and products to help communities prepare for and mitigate tsunami hazards. Within the NTHMP are several subcommittees responsible for complimentary aspects of tsunami assessment, mitigation, education, warning, and response. The Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS) is comprised of state and federal scientists who specialize in tsunami source characterization, numerical tsunami modeling, inundation map production, and warning forecasting. Until September 2012, much of the work of the MMS was authorized through the Tsunami Warning and Education Act, an Act that has since expired but the spirit of which is being adhered to in parallel with reauthorization efforts. Over the past several years, the MMS has developed guidance and best practices for states and territories to produce accurate and consistent tsunami inundation maps for community level evacuation planning, and has conducted benchmarking of numerical inundation models. Recent tsunami events have highlighted the need for other types of tsunami hazard analyses and products for improving evacuation planning, vertical evacuation, maritime planning, land-use planning, building construction, and warning forecasts. As the program responsible for producing accurate and consistent tsunami products nationally, the NTHMP-MMS is initiating a multi-year plan to accomplish the following: 1) Create and build on existing demonstration projects that explore new tsunami hazard analysis techniques and products, such as maps identifying areas of strong currents and potential damage within harbors as well as probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for land-use planning. 2) Develop benchmarks for validating new numerical modeling techniques related to current velocities and landslide sources. 3) Generate guidance and protocols for the production and use of new tsunami hazard analysis products. 4) Identify multistate collaborations and funding partners interested in these new products. Application of these new products will improve the overall safety and resilience of coastal communities exposed to tsunami hazards.

  6. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Koshimura, S.; Suppasri, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Matsuyama, M.; Yoshii, T.; Jimenez, C.; Yamazaki, F.; Imamura, F.

    2012-08-01

    On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged - with a 68% probability - already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

  7. Developing Tsunami fragility curves using remote sensing and survey data of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Dichato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On 27 February 2010, a megathrust earthquake of Mw = 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in Chile. It struck not only Chilean coast but propagated all the way to Japan. After the event occurred, the post-tsunami survey team was assembled, funded by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST, to survey the area severely affected by the tsunami. The tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous houses, especially in the town of Dichato. In order to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazard in this area, tsunami fragility curves were developed. Surveyed data of inundation depth and visual inspection of satellite images of Dichato were used to classify the damage to housing. A practical method suitable when there are limitations on available data for numerical simulation or damage evaluation from surveys is presented here. This study is the first application of tsunami fragility curves on the South American Pacific coast and it might be of practical use for communities with similar characteristics along the west Pacific coast. The proposed curve suggests that structures in Dichato will be severely damaged – with a 68% probability – already at 2 m tsunami inundation depth.

  8. Field survey of the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Fritz, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    On 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile less than 100 km NW of Iquique within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims, while a handful of fatalities were associated to the earthquake and the tsunami evacuation. The local scientist deployed in the morning hours to start the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked in the vicinity of Iquique exceeding 4 m in tsunami height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Given the magnitude of the 1 April 2014 earthquake the tsunami could have been significantly larger. However the absence of a massive tsunami may mislead residents in the future to believe another minor tsunami may be generated after an earthquake of similar magnitude. Hence the April fool's day event poses significant challenges to community-based education. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

  9. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wegscheider, S.; POST, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; A. Muhari; Anwar, H.Z.

    2011-01-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of t...

  10. The meteorite impact-induced tsunami hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R

    2015-10-28

    When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an ocean. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the ocean, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large tsunami-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an oceanic impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, oceanic impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent propagation, whether the wave characteristic differs from tsunamis generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an oceanic impact. Finally, the impact-induced tsunami hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event. PMID:26392614

  11. One year after the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami field survey along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    One year ago on the evening of 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile off the coast of Pisagua within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The Arica native local scientist deployed overnight and started the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11, 2014. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Camarones exceeding 5 m in tsunami runup height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Comparing to other similar magnitude events such as the 2007 Pisco tsunami in Peru the 1 April 2014 tsunami could have been significantly larger. The absence of a massive tsunami may mislead residents to believe another similarly minor tsunami may be generated after a potential future earthquake of similar magnitude. This April fool's day event poses significant challenges to community-based education raising tsunami awareness. The team educated residents about tsunami hazards since awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from near-field tsunamis.

  12. Local Bathymetry and Shelf Resonance Effects Observed for the Near-field Tsunami Generated by the 2010, Mw 8.8, Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Paredes, J. A.; Fuentes, M.; Riquelme, S.; Contreras Reyes, E.; Ruiz, S.; Maksymowicz, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean coast has been hit by several far- and near-field tsunamis, for instance the last recent destructive tsunami devastating the Chilean shore was caused by the 2010 Mw 8.8, Maule earthquake. Several long-period waves were recorded away by DART buoys and local eyewitness and field surveys also confirm that incoming waves have hit the shore several hours after the leading wave arrival time. In addition, few published numerical modeling of the Maule near-field tsunami show trapping waves and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf. To better understand the origin of the tsunami wave trains and the continental shelf features as a potential responsible of resonance, we perform tsunami modeling by improving the earthquake source parameters modeling. We generate realistic 3D static displacement of the seafloor to be used as input for tsunami passive generation, propagation and runup estimates along the shore. We meshed the seismogenic contact zone between the Nazca and Sudamerica plates along the Maule region, through a 3D surface. The co-seismic slip distribution solution published for the Maule earthquake were used to model the runup, and trapped waves were observed on the numerical simulations. To further study the hypothesis of that a large magnitude earthquake may generate same kind of hydrodynamic effect, such as, successive tsunami wave trains, we modeled several hypothetical physical-based slip distributions for a Mw 8.8 earthquake rupture. At every subfault we used the Okada's point-source formula to compute the co-seismic static 3D displacement field. Preliminary results, show that a complex geometry of the slab have important effects on the vertical static displacements. We are currently evaluating the tsunami propagation for these hypothetical earthquakes, the study include understanding specific aspects related to local bathymetry, and hydrodynamic effects, among which, flow direction, directivity, reflection, diffraction, focusing/defocussing of water waves, and local shelf resonance.

  13. Update of the U.S. States and Territories National Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Historical Record and Sources for Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA-National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated to conduct the first qualitative United States tsunami hazard assessment, published in 2008 by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Since that time, significant events such as the 2009 Samoa and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis have affected the U.S. and reinforced the importance of considering all of the evidence when conducting an assessment. In addition, there has been progress in tsunami research that reduces some of the earlier uncertainties. In 2011, the National Academies released their assessment of the U.S. Tsunami Program recommending that NOAA and its NTHMP partners, in collaboration with researchers in social and physical sciences, should complete an initial national assessment of tsunami risk and should institute a periodic assessment of the sources of tsunamis that threaten the United States. Therefore, the NTHMP is updating the national tsunami hazard assessment. Although the second assessment will not be a national probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment, areas where there is progress in this methodology will be presented. As a result, a national tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment is not possible at this time, but examples of ongoing work will be presented. This paper looks at the data sources in the first report, including an examination of the NGDC historical tsunami database that resulted in a qualitative assessment based on the distribution of runup heights and the frequency of tsunami runups. Although tsunami deaths are a measure of risk rather than hazard, the known tsunami deaths were compared with the qualitative assessments based on frequency and amplitude. The 2009 American Samoa tsunami resulted in a change for the U.S. Pacific island territories qualitative tsunami hazard assessment from 'Moderate' to 'High'. The NGDC tsunami database contains reported tsunamis and is therefore limited to written records existing for an area. Some of the uncertainty in the completeness of the written record has been reduced by investigating the history of tide gauges in the different regions. The first tsunami hazard assessment also used the USGS National Seismic Hazard Map (NSHM) databases to partially extend the time interval. These databases are primarily meant to assess earthquakes affecting U.S. possessions and do not include all possible seismogenic tsunami sources in the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. However, the databases make it possible to estimate the rate of occurrence of larger magnitude earthquakes that could generate a tsunami. The USGS NSHM databases are based on tectonic models, and paleoseismic and paleotsunami data. These databases are periodically updated with new research. Inclusion of updated information can reduce uncertainties in tsunami sources such as the Cascadia subduction zone and others.

  14. Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh <25, to include a moving sea-bed, for the simulation of earthquake- and landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only an...... show that the long-time (fully nonlinear) evolution of waves resulting from an upthrusted bottom can eventually result in true solitary waves, consistent with theoretical predictions. It is stressed, however, that the nonlinearity used far exceeds that typical of geophysical tsunamis in the open ocean...

  15. Modern particle physics event generation with WHIZARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Bach, F.; Chokoufe, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Kilian, W.; Sekulla, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ohl, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Weiss, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    2014-10-16

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis is given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development are discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  16. Modern Particle Physics Event Generation with WHIZARD

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J; Nejad, B Chokoufe; Kilian, W; Ohl, T; Sekulla, M; Weiss, C

    2014-01-01

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis will be given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development will be discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  17. Modern particle physics event generation with WHIZARD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the multi-purpose Monte-Carlo event generator WHIZARD for the simulation of high-energy particle physics experiments. Besides the presentation of the general features of the program like SM physics, BSM physics, and QCD effects, special emphasis is given to the support of the most accurate simulation of the collider environments at hadron colliders and especially at future linear lepton colliders. On the more technical side, the very recent code refactoring towards a completely object-oriented software package to improve maintainability, flexibility and code development are discussed. Finally, we present ongoing work and future plans regarding higher-order corrections, more general model support including the setup to search for new physics in vector boson scattering at the LHC, as well as several lines of performance improvements.

  18. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  19. Elegent—An elastic event generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašpar, J.

    2014-03-01

    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD cannot be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy ?{s}. These distributions at ISR, Spp¯S, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework. Catalogue identifier: AERT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10551 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126316 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any in principle, tested on x86-64 architecture. Operating system: Any in principle, tested on GNU/Linux. RAM: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 20MB Classification: 11.6. External routines: ROOT, HepMC Nature of problem: Monte-Carlo simulation of elastic nucleon-nucleon collisions Solution method: Implementation of some of the most prominent phenomenological/theoretical models providing cumulative distribution function that is used for random event generation. Running time: Strongly depends on the task, but typically below 1 h.

  20. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  1. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-06-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  2. Magnitude and impact from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in the coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Haro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan generated a tsunami that propagated around the Pacific Ocean. The first waves arrived to the Chilean coast twenty one hours later. The Japanese tsunami was recorded instrumentally in Chile by means of the network of sea level stations and Chile DART buoy, nevertheless its real magnitude and impact was empirical observed on numerous coastal settlements where inundation and minor damage were reported. We began a post tsunami survey a week after the event, visiting the main affected areas. For two months we traveled approximately 2700 km along the coast, between Arica (18.4° S) and Chiloe (41.9° S). Using surveying equipment such as total stations, geodesic GPS and laser rangefinders, we measured the height of the tsunami wave along the coast. Using the testimony of people, videos, and marks left by the main tsunami flow on harbors, piers, houses and buildings as indicators of water level, evidence of the effect of the tsunami on the coastline was exhaustively recorded. The maximum tsunami heights were recorded in Dichato (36.5° S) reaching almost 5 meters. Complementing the field data, we characterized the tide gauge records and compared the heights of 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Chile, with the behavior of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean tsunamis. This allows us to discriminate the local influences of coastal morphology independently of the tsunami origin. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  3. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante / Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, González González; Modesto, Ortiz Figueroa; José Miguel, Montoya Rodríguez.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de o [...] ndas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México. Abstract in english We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which p [...] rovides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  4. Tsunami: Un problema matemáticamente interesante Tsunami: An interesting mathematical problema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo González González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales respecto a la matemática y la herramienta computacional que apoyan la compleja descripción del proceso físico tsunami desde dos enfoques específicos. En particular, se aborda analíticamente un modelo hidroelástico simple para el problema de generación de ondas tsunami, el cual permite obtener resultados en el área de ruptura. Por otra parte, el proceso de propagación de las ondas tsunami en el océano y el impacto a lo largo de la línea costera se analiza numéricamente utilizando el enfoque hidrodinámico, presentando en particular una aplicación directa sobre la predicción de tsunamis en México producidos por sismos potenciales en la trinchera Mesoamericana mediante el diseño de un “Módulo Sintetizador de Tsunamis” para simular tsunamis originados por sismos ocurridos en la zona de subducción de la costa occidental de México.We present some key aspects regarding the mathematics and the computational tool that support the complex description of the physical process tsunami from two specific approaches. In particular, it addresses analytically a simple hydroelastic model for the problem of tsunami wave generation, which provides results in the rupture area. Moreover, the propagation of tsunami waves in the ocean and the impact along the coastline is analyzed numerically using the hydrodynamic approach, presenting in particular a direct application to the prediction of tsunamis in Mexico caused by potential earthquakes in the Mesoamerican trench through the design of a “Tsunami Toolbox” to simulate tsunamis caused by earthquakes in the subduction zone on the western coast of Mexico.

  5. NOAA's Integrated Tsunami Database: Data for improved forecasts, warnings, research, and risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, Kelly; Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; McCullough, Heather; Carignan, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility in the United States for tsunami forecast, warning, research, and supports community resiliency. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics provide a unique collection of data enabling communities to ensure preparedness and resilience to tsunami hazards. Immediately following a damaging or fatal tsunami event there is a need for authoritative data and information. The NGDC Global Historical Tsunami Database (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/) includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. The long-term data from these events, including photographs of damage, provide clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC catalogs the information on global historical tsunamis and uses these data to produce qualitative tsunami hazard assessments at regional levels. In addition to the socioeconomic effects of a tsunami, NGDC also obtains water level data from the coasts and the deep-ocean at stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and produces research-quality data to isolate seismic waves (in the case of the deep-ocean sites) and the tsunami signal. These water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC is also building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support real-time forecasts, implemented at 75 US coastal communities. After a damaging or fatal event NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include our NOAA partners, the U.S. Geological Survey, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and International Tsunami Information Center, Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program, news organizations, etc. NGDC assesses the data and then works to promptly distribute the data and information. For example, when a major tsunami occurs, all of the related tsunami data are combined into one timely resource, posted in an online report, which includes: 1) event summary; 2) eyewitness and instrumental recordings from preliminary field surveys; 3) regional historical observations including similar past events and effects; 4) observed water heights and calculated tsunami travel times; and 5) near-field effects. This report is regularly updated to incorporate the most recent data and observations. Providing timely access to authoritative data and information ultimately benefits researchers, state officials, the media and the public. This paper will demonstrate the extensive collection of data and how it is used.

  6. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than scenarios in the historical record, and should properly be based on the underlying seismicity of subduction zones. Therefore, Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) consistent with source seismicity must be performed in addition to consideration of historical event scenarios. A method of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis has been established that is generally consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in the treatment of uncertainty. These new tsunami design zone maps will define the coastal zones where structures of greater importance would be designed for tsunami resistance and community resilience. Structural member acceptability criteria will be based on performance objectives for a 2,500-year Maximum Considered Tsunami. The approach developed by the ASCE Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE 7 Standard would result in the first national unification of tsunami hazard criteria for design codes reflecting the modern approach of Performance-Based Engineering.

  7. Sandy signs of a tsunami's onshore depth and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, K.; Bourgeois, J.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Lynett, P.; Jaffe, B.; Yeh, H.; Weiss, R.

    2007-01-01

    Tsunamis rank among the most devastating and unpredictable natural hazards to affect coastal areas. Just 3 years ago, in December 2004, the Indian Ocean tsunami caused more than 225,000 deaths. Like many extreme events, however, destructive tsunamis strike rarely enough that written records span too little time to quantify tsunami hazard and risk. Tsunami deposits preserved in the geologic record have been used to extend the record of tsunami occurrence but not the magnitude of past events. To quantify tsunami hazard further, we asked the following question: Can ancient deposits also provide guidance on the expectable water depths and speeds for future tsunamis?

  8. Firewaves: introducing a platform for modelling volcanic tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël; Ulvrova, Martina; Kelfoun, Karim; Giachetti, Thomas; Switzer, Adam

    2014-05-01

    When embracing all tsunamis generated by eruptive processes, rapid ground deformation and slope instability at volcanoes, "volcanic tsunamis" represent around 5 % of all tsunamis listed for the last four centuries (>130 events since 1600 AD). About 20-25 % of all fatalities directly attributable to volcanoes during the last 250 years have been caused by volcanic tsunamis (e.g. Krakatau 1883, Mayuyama 1792). Up to eight mechanisms are implied in the generation of volcanic tsunamis: underwater explosions, pyroclastic flows and lahars entering the water, earthquake preceding or during a volcanic eruption, and flank failure, collapse of coastal lava bench, caldera collapse, and shock wave produced by large explosion. It is unlikely that shock waves, lahars and collapses of lava bench can give birth to tsunamis with wave heights of more than 3 m. Pyroclastic flows, flank failures and caldera subsidence are the only source mechanisms likely to imply volumes larger than 1 km³. Volcanic tsunamis are characterised by short-period waves and greater dispersion compared to earthquake-generated tsunamis. With the exceptions of the 1888 Ritter Island and 1883 Krakatau tsunamis, 100 % of the victims of volcanic tsunamis in Southeast Asia were less than 20 km from the volcano. Travel time of the waves from the volcano to a distance of 20 km is typically less than 15 minutes (Paris et al. 2014). In this setting, priority are (1) to improve population's preparedness around highlighted volcanoes, (2) to monitor sea / lake around volcanoes, (3) and to build a database of numerical simulations based on different eruptive scenarios. The Firewaves platform, hosted at Magmas & Volcans laboratory in Clermont-Ferrand (FRance) is a numerical solution for modelling volcanic tsunamis of different sources. Tsunamis generated by volcanic mass flows (including pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches etc.) are simulated using VolcFlow code (Kelfoun et al. 2010), and underwater explosions and caldera subsidence using COMCOT (Liu et al. 1998). Three kinds of simulations are runned: (1) case-studies for calibrating the simulations (e.g. Stromboli 2002, Karymsky 1996, Mayuyama 1792), (2) comparisons of different scenarios for reconstructing past tsunamis (e.g. Kolumbo 1650), and (3) prospective scenarios from future eruptions at target volcanoes.

  9. Searching for Tsunami deposits along the Lebanese Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A. R.; Tapponnier, P.; Switzer, A. D.; Jessika, N.

    2012-12-01

    Lebanon has a long coastline making it prone to tsunami waves generated from many distant or nearby sources within the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Important Tsunamigenic sources are frequent in the Hellenic Trench, but the Levantine Basin also has a number of important active submarine faults such as the Cypriot subduction zone or the offshore faults associated with the Levant Fault System: the Mount-Lebanon Thrust system or the offshore Carmel Fault, all potential tsunami-sources. A relatively small number of historical earthquakes associated with these faults resulted in tsunami events mentioned in the historical record of the region. The best known and most destructive of all these is the AD 551 earthquake on the offshore Mount-Lebanon Thrust. It resulted in a well-described historical tsunami event that affected many localities over the Lebanese coast. Submarine landslides and/or marine volcanic eruptions in the Mediterranean also may have resulted in similar events. In order to better understand the tsunami hazard in the eastern Mediterranean in general and over the Lebanese coast in particular, and to establish a geology-based catalog of tsunami events in the area we surveyed the shoreline of Lebanon searching for indicators of potential tsunami deposits or morphological signatures. This task is challenged by the extensive urban development of the Lebanese coast that left very few unmodified coastal areas. Many interesting sites wit potential tsunami traces were identified. Dislocated large boulders are frequently observed over the Lebanese coastline. A number of these can be the remnants of old tsunami events. Few sites with abundant marine shells and pumice were identified that can also be related to tsunami events. In the beach deposits of the Damour area, south of Beirut we excavated one first 15m long, 7m wide and 4 to 5m deep trench. The trench shows a beachface setting with different sedimentary units. Preliminary results from on-going sedimentological and mineraological analysis enable the sub-division of the sections into three different units. A sedimentary unit made of fine layers of dark, heavy-mineral-laden sand show intense convolutions and deformation structures and is associated with randomly distributed pebbles and pumice material. A very similar sedimentary unit was also found in other sections along the Lebanese coast and can thus be characteristic of the same natural event. Sampled charcoal material is also being dated. We highly suspect the presence of at least one tsunami deposit in the Damour section. The presence of liquefaction structures suggests earthquake related deformations.

  10. O'Mega & WHIZARD: Monte Carlo Event Generator Generation For Future Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Thorsten

    2000-01-01

    I describe the optimizing matrix element generator O'Mega and Wolfgang Kilian's event generator generator WHIZARD. These tools cooperate in the automated production of efficient unweighted event generators for linear collider physics.

  11. Revision of the Portuguese catalog of tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic tsunamis are described in historical sources for all regions around the Gulf of Cadiz, at least since 60 BC. Most of the known events are associated with moderate to large earthquakes and among them the better studied is 1 November 1755. We present here a review of the events which effects, on the coasts of the Portuguese mainland and Madeira Island, are well described in historical documents or have been measured by tide gauges since the installation of these instruments. For a few we include new relevant information for the assessment of the tsunami generation or effects, and we discard events that are included in existing compilations but are not supported by quality historical sources or instrumental records. We quote the most relevant quantitative descriptions of tsunami effects on the Portuguese coast, including in all pertinent cases a critical review of the coeval sources, to establish a homogenous event list. When available, instrumental information is presented. We complement all this information with a summary of the conclusions established by paleo-tsunami research.

  12. Integrated warning system for tsunami and storm surges in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunami and storm surges result in unusual oscillation of seal level, flooding the coastal zones and constitute the major marine disasters in China. Damage by storm surges occurs frequently. According to statistics there are 14 storm surge events exceeding 1 every year on the average. Six of them are typhoon surges and the other eight are extra-tropical surges. In general, in China, there is one severe disaster of storm surge every two years. Monitoring, forecasting and warning for storm surges, including the drop of water level, are the major part of the operational oceanographic services in China. Such a warning system has been set up and is operated by the State Oceanic Administration since 1974. The results of the historical study of tsunami in the last few years pointed out that the anomaly of sea level generated by tele-tsunamis originating in the Pacific Ocean Basin is less than 30 cm on the mainland coast, but local tsunami in the China Seas can be very dangerous. For example, more than 50,000 people were killed by a tsunami in Taiwan and in Taiwan Strait in 1781. It resulted in more deaths than any other tsunami in recorded history. However, the frequency of tsunami disaster is very low for the coast of China, averaging only one every 100 years. It is impossible to set up an independent tsunami warning system in China. It is more practical to set up an integrated warning system on tsunami and on storm surges consisting of: A sea level observing network with real time sea level data acquisition capability; A monitoring system of weather causing the storm surges and of seismic stations monitoring tsunamigenic earthquakes; A tidal prediction scheme for operational use; A forecasting scheme for storm surges and tsunami analysis; The means for warning dissemination. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Automated Testing with Targeted Event Sequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning; Prasad, Mukul R.; Møller, Anders

    individual event handlers of the application. The second phase builds event sequences backward from the target, using the summaries together with a UI model of the application. Our experiments on a collection of open source Android applications show that this technique can successfully produce event...

  14. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Azores archipelago: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Nuno; Ferreira, Teresa; Queiroz, Maria Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    The Azores islands due to its complex geographical and geodynamic setting are exposed to tsunamigenic events associated to different triggering mechanisms, local or distant. Since the settlement of the Azores, in the fifteenth century, there are several documents that relate coastal areas flooding episodes with unusually high waves which caused death and destruction. This work had as main objective the characterization of the different events that can be associated with tsunamigenic phenomena, registered in the archipelago. With this aim, it was collected diverse documentation like chronics, manuscripts, newspaper articles and magazines, scientific publications, and international databases available online. From all the studied tsunami events it was identified the occurrence of some teletsunamis, among which the most relevant was triggered by the 1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake, with an epicenter SW of Portugal, which killed 6 people in Terceira island. It is also noted the teletsunami generated by the 1761 earthquake, located in the same region as the latest, and the one generated in 1929 by an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. From the local events, originated in the Azores, the most significant were the tsunamis triggered by 1757 and 1980 earthquakes, both associated with the Terceira Rift dynamics. In the first case the waves may also be due to earthquake-triggered. With respect to tsunamis triggered by sea cliffs landslides it is important to mention the 1847 Quebrada Nova and the 1980 Rocha Alta events, both located in the Flores Island. The 1847 event is the deadliest tsunami recorded in Azores since 10 people died in Flores and Corvo islands in result of the propagated wave. The developed studies improve knowledge of the tsunami sources that affected the Azores during its history, also revealing the importance of awareness about this natural phenomenon. The obtained results showed that the tsunami hazard in the Azores is mostly driven from the events triggered by distant earthquakes and local earthquakes and landslides. In this context, were identified 12 tsunami events. In another context, it were identified 6 events associated with coastal areas flooding due to floods and/or extreme weather phenomena, hypothetically identified as meteotsunamis. It should be stressed that, despite the differences associated with their triggering mechanisms, both the tsunamis generated by geological factors and those related to atmospheric phenomena may have similar impact. Although the absence of reports identifying tsunamis associated with volcanic activity, the eruptive history of the Azores active volcanoes shows high magnitude eruptions with considerable tsunamigenic potential.

  15. Evidence for a tsunami generated by the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake, Southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, D.; McHugh, C. M.; Mondal, D. R.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Akhter, S. H.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The devastating 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami brought to the world's attention the possibility of large megathrust ruptures occurring along the heavily populated coast of Bangladesh. The Sunda-Andaman subduction arc continues into Bangladesh where oblique convergence of the Indian plate with the Burma segment of the arc was measured at GPS rates of 14 mm/yr. A long section of the megathurst ruptured during the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake along the Myanmar coast. A 1762 tsunami was reported from historic accounts and predicted from modelling, but geologic evidence for it was not previously reported. St Martin's Island and the Teknaf peninsula in SE Bangladesh are expressions of anticlines in the outer part of the accretionary prism of the Arakan subduction boundary. Our lithology, biostratigraphy and C-14 ages in this region provide evidence for a possible tsunami associated with the 1762 earthquake and validate the continuity of the rupture zone for as much as 700 km, from the Myanmar coast, Bay of Bengal shelf to the Sitakund anticline inland. In St. Martin's, ?70 km north of the shelf break, U-Th ages from ~2 m uplifted dead corals provide evidence for the 1762 rupture. The associated tsunami was dated from benthic foraminifers and marine molluscs obtained from a shell bed in a trench, and from the top of marine terraces possibly uplifted during 1762 or prior earthquakes. In Teknaf a chaotic bed containing benthic foraminifers, marine shells and cobble size rocks, extends for 100's of meters on top of the 2 m uplifted terrace. The marine molluscs were dated at 1695-1791 AD. The large ?2m uplift found in the region is likely to be deformation associated with the 1762 rupture and could also be partly related to anelastic growth of the accretion wedge and anticlines. It is likely now slowly subsiding due to continuing elastic loading of the megathrust. To produce that large coastal, presumably coseismic, uplift, the megathrust rupture must have reached at least that far updip (west). That uplift can be achieved by a large displacement on the megathrust below that coastline and/or by displacement along the steeper imbricate thrust faults responsible for the anticlines. Because the thrust front lies in shallow water a large tsunami would not be expected consistent with geological observations that point to low height tsunami waves.

  16. Modelling of Tsunami Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeeruddin Yaacob; Norhafizah Md Sarif; Zainal Abdul Aziz

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear dispersive model based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation (fKdV) is developed from the approximation of Boussinesq shallow water type model. This provides the possibility of observing, in particular, the process of tsunami generation by atmospheric disturbances. The fKdV is then solved numerically via an explicit finite difference method. From the simulations, the roles of nonlinearity, dispersion and forcing terms in the process of tsunami generation are shown explicitly.

  17. Modelling of Tsunami Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeeruddin Yaacob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dispersive model based on the forced Korteweg-de Vries equation (fKdV is developed from the approximation of Boussinesq shallow water type model. This provides the possibility of observing, in particular, the process of tsunami generation by atmospheric disturbances. The fKdV is then solved numerically via an explicit finite difference method. From the simulations, the roles of nonlinearity, dispersion and forcing terms in the process of tsunami generation are shown explicitly.

  18. Field survey of the March 28, 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J.C.; McAdoo, B.; Jaffe, B.; Dengler, L.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Higman, B.; Hidayat, R.; Moore, A.; Kongko, W.; Lukijanto; Peters, R.; Prasetya, G.; Titov, V.; Yulianto, E.

    2011-01-01

    On the evening of March 28, 2005 at 11:09 p.m. local time (16:09 UTC), a large earthquake occurred offshore of West Sumatra, Indonesia. With a moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.6, the event caused substantial shaking damage and land level changes between Simeulue Island in the north and the Batu Islands in the south. The earthquake also generated a tsunami, which was observed throughout the source region as well as on distant tide gauges. While the tsunami was not as extreme as the tsunami of December 26th, 2004, it did cause significant flooding and damage at some locations. The spatial and temporal proximity of the two events led to a unique set of observational data from the earthquake and tsunami as well as insights relevant to tsunami hazard planning and education efforts. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  19. Modelling landslide-generated tsunami: from landslide propagation to downstream flood in dam context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Martin; Podladchikov, Yury; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Alpine regions have a high density of dammed lakes, either natural or anthropogenic. Those are frequently surrounded by steep slopes and thus, are potentially affected by mass wasting processes. The penetration of landsliding material in the water body may lead to impulse waves that could overtop the dam and, in the worst case scenario, breach or break the latter. The possible resulting outburst flood is a serious threat for populated places, commonly concentrated downstream in the valleys. In order to assess the risk resulting from the succession of all phenomenon, a numerical model able to handle all of them is required. Although specific models of flooding simulation or wave propagation are efficient, there is currently no fully achieved model capable to integrate all the above-mentioned processes at the same time. In order to address this, we propose a new model capable to handle these difficult combinations and which is suitable for risk assessment in dam contexts. Our model is based on both the shallow water equations and viscous flow equations. The first ones are stabilised by the Lax-Friedrichs scheme and compute the wave propagation and the downstream flow, i.e. the wet state. The viscous flow equations are used for the dry state and to propagate the landslide body. The transition from one state to the other is ruled by a threshold based on the Reynolds number. First, in order to test the capacity of our model to endure critical situations, we conducted numerical sandbox tests such as Riemann problems, dam break, and landslide tsunami-related ones in 2 dimensions. In a second time, the model is applied on a real case study: the Oeschinen Lake (Switzerland). This naturally dammed lake is specifically selected since it is potentially affected by all above-mentioned phenomenon, including landsliding, wave generation, wave propagation in the water body and on the shore as well as the downstream flooding. Results show that the municipality of Kandersteg, located 3 km downstream the dam, is subject to catastrophic consequences in case of slope failure of large rock compartments from the slopes above the lake.

  20. New computational methods in tsunami science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, J; Dias, F

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are rare events with severe consequences. This generates a high demand on accurate simulation results for planning and risk assessment purposes because of the low availability of actual data from historic events. On the other hand, validation of simulation tools becomes very difficult with such a low amount of real-world data. Tsunami phenomena involve a large span of spatial and temporal scales-from ocean basin scales of [Formula: see text] to local coastal wave interactions of [Formula: see text] or even [Formula: see text], or from resonating wave phenomena with durations of [Formula: see text] to rupture with time periods of [Formula: see text]. The scale gap of five orders of magnitude in each dimension makes accurate modelling very demanding, with a number of approaches being taken to work around the impossibility of direct numerical simulations. Along with the mentioned multi-scale characteristic, the tsunami wave has a multitude of different phases, corresponding to different wave regimes and associated equation sets. While in the deep ocean, wave propagation can be approximated relatively accurately by linear shallow-water theory, the transition to a bore or solitary wave train in shelf areas and then into a breaking wave in coastal regions demands appropriate mathematical and numerical treatments. The short duration and unpredictability of tsunami events pose another challenging requirement to tsunami simulation approaches. An accurate forecast is sought within seconds with very limited data available. Thus, efficiency in numerical solution processes and at the same time the consideration of uncertainty play a big role in tsunami modelling applied for forecasting purposes. PMID:26392612

  1. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  2. A review of tsunami simulation activities for NPPs safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunamigenic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on finite difference numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The present paper evaluate the results of various simulation i.e. Single fault Sumatra model, four and five fault Sumatra Model, Nias insignificant tsunami and also some parametric studies results for tsunami waring system scenario generation. A study is carried for the tsunami due to Sumatra earthquake in 2004 with TUNAMI-N2 software. Bathymetry data available from the National Geophysical Data Center was used for this study. The single fault and detailed four and five fault data were used to calculate sea surface deformations which were subsequently used as initial conditions for Sumatra 2004 tsunami propagation simulation. The paper also presents a hypothetical study by assuming the earthquake rupture on northern fault only as compared to complete (northern and southern) rupture segment and the resulting tsunami propagation scenario. All of the studies provide the results in terms of wave heights and compare them with the reported simulation, satellite observation and field observed reported data. The paper includes the parametric studies on the possible fault line for Sumatra fault line for support for early tsunami warning. The various other events i.e Java, Nias, Makaran, Andaman etc are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right) tsunami induced currents and surface agitation. The small jetty indicated with the arrow is overtopped in the second image (indicated by the oval)

  4. Automated Testing with Targeted Event Sequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Svenning; Prasad, Mukul R.

    2013-01-01

    Automated software testing aims to detect errors by producing test inputs that cover as much of the application source code as possible. Applications for mobile devices are typically event-driven, which raises the challenge of automatically producing event sequences that result in high coverage. Some existing approaches use random or model-based testing that largely treats the application as a black box. Other approaches use symbolic execution, either starting from the entry points of the applications or on specific event sequences. A common limitation of the existing approaches is that they often fail to reach the parts of the application code that require more complex event sequences. We propose a two-phase technique for automatically finding event sequences that reach a given target line in the application code. The first phase performs concolic execution to build summaries of the individual event handlers of the application. The second phase builds event sequences backward from the target, using the summaries together with a UI model of the application. Our experiments on a collection of open source Android applications show that this technique can successfully produce event sequences that reach challenging targets.

  5. Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

    2013-12-01

    Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to tsunami warning operations, such as those about earthquake magnitudes, how earthquakes are located, where and how often earthquakes occur, and fault rupture length. The second group uses the PTWC-developed tsunami forecast model, RIFT (Wang et al., 2012), to show how various historic tsunamis propagated through the world's oceans. These animations illustrate important concepts about tsunami behavior such as their speed, how they bend around and bounce off of seafloor features, how their wave heights vary from place to place and in time, and how their behavior is strongly influenced by the type of earthquake that generated them. PTWC's YouTube channel also includes an animation that simulates both seismic and tsunami phenomena together as they occurred for the 2011 Japan tsunami including actual sea-level measurements and proper timing for tsunami alert status, thus serving as a video 'time line' for that event and showing the time scales involved in tsunami warning operations. Finally, PTWC's scientists can use their YouTube channel to communicate with their colleagues in the research community by supplementing their peer-reviewed papers with video 'figures' (e.g., Wang et al., 2012).

  6. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran region with focus on maximum magnitude assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoechner, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.; Zamora, N.

    2015-09-01

    Despite having been rather seismically quiescent for the last decades, the Makran subduction zone is capable of hosting destructive earthquakes and tsunami. In particular, the well-known thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Furthermore, some recent publications discuss rare but significantly larger events at the Makran subduction zone as possible scenarios. We analyze the instrumental and historical seismicity at the subduction plate interface and generate various synthetic earthquake catalogs spanning 300 000 years with varying magnitude-frequency relations. For every event in the catalogs we compute estimated tsunami heights and present the resulting tsunami hazard along the coasts of Pakistan, Iran and Oman in the form of probabilistic tsunami hazard curves. We show how the hazard results depend on variation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters and especially maximum magnitude assumption.

  7. Inversion of tsunami waveforms and tsunami warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chao

    Ever since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the technique of inversion of tsunami data and the importance of tsunami warning have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, since tsunamis are rare and extreme events, developed inverse techniques lack validation, and open questions rise when they are applied to a real event. In this study, several of those open questions are investigated, i.e., the wave dispersion, bathymetry grid size and subfault division. First, tsunami records from three large tsunami events -- 2010 Maule, 2011 Tohoku and 2012 Haida Gwaii -- are analyzed to extract the main characteristics of the leading tsunami waves. Using the tool of wavelet transforming, the instant wave period can be obtained and thus the dispersive parameter mu2 can be calculated. mu2 is found to be smaller than 0.02 for all records, indicating that the wave dispersion is minor for the propagation of tsunami leading waves. Second, inversions of tsunami data are carried out for three tsunami events -- 2011 Tohoku, 2012 Haida Gwaii and 2014 Iquique. By varying the subfault size and the bathymetry grid size in the inversions, general rules are established for choosing those two parameters. It is found that the choice of bathymetry grid size depends on various parameters, such as the subfault size and the depth of subfaults. The global bathymetry data GEBCO with spatial resolution of 30 arcsec is generally good if the subfault size is larger than 40 km x 40 km; otherwise, bathymetry data with finer resolution is desirable. Detailed instructions of choosing the bathymetry size can be found in Chapter 2. By contrast, the choice of subfault size has much more freedom; our study shows that the subfault size can be very large without significant influence on the predicted tsunami waves. For earthquakes with magnitude of 8.0 ˜ 9.0, the subfault size can be 60 km ˜ 100 km. In our study, the maximum subfault size results in 9 ˜ 16 subfault patches on the ruptured fault surface, so we infer that the maximum size of the subfault can be 1/4 to 1/3 of the scale of the faulting area. In Chapter 2, we also developed a method using the inverse residual to evaluate the effectiveness of tsunami buoys of different number and locations in the inversion. Results show that 2 ˜ 4 tsunami buoys are sufficient to constrain the source parameters quite well if they are optimally located. Adding data from more tsunami buoys into the inversion does not significantly improve the results. In addition, near-field stations in the source region do not have advantage against far-field stations in constraining the earthquake source parameters. Conversely, if the near-field data have short but large-amplitude waves and only such data are used in the inversion, it can result in very large but unreal slip near the seabed. The optimal locations for tsunami buoys of different number can also be obtained from this method. Inversions of tele-seismic data show that the inverse results do not necessarily predict the tsunami waves, unless iterative forward modeling techniques are applied to adjust the inverse parameters. Thus, from the standpoint of tsunami warning, tele-seismic data are not able to precisely predict the tsunami wave height or an accurate inundation map, although the estimation of earthquake magnitude and depth might be enough to issue a crude warning. In addition, numerical experiments are conducted and measurements of the computational time show that the calculation of tsunami Green's functions for an area of ˜ 30° only takes several minutes using 256 computational cores. Thus, it is possible to calculate the Green's functions in real time for a tsunami warning system. Finally, a case study is conducted for the South China Sea using the method of inverse residual, leading to recommendations of number and location of tsunami buoys required for a warning system near the Manila trench.

  8. The 16 September 2015 Chile Tsunami from the Post-Tsunami Survey and Numerical Modeling Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Gabriel; González, Juan; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Yagi, Yuji; Okuwaki, Ryo; Urra, Luisa; Contreras, Karla; Del Rio, Ian; Rojas, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    On September 16, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake took place off the coast of the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Three tsunami survey teams covered approximately 700 km of the Pacific coast. The teams surveyed the area, recording 83 tsunami flow depth and runup measurements. The maximum runup was found to be 10.8 m at only one small bay, in front of the inferred tsunami source area. However, it was observed that runup in other locations rarely exceed 6 m. Tsunami runup was larger than those of the 2014 Pisagua event, despite the similar earthquake magnitude. Moreover, tsunami arrival times were found to be shorter than those of previous tsunamis along the Chilean subduction zone. Numerical simulations of the tsunami event showed a good agreement with field data, highlighting that tsunami arrival time and the spatial variation of the tsunami amplitudes were strongly influenced by the bathymetry, coastal morphology and the slip distribution of the causative earthquake.

  9. Sensitivity of tsunami wave profiles and inundation simulations to earthquake slip and fault geometry for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we develop stochastic random-field slip models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and conduct a rigorous sensitivity analysis of tsunami hazards with respect to the uncertainty of earthquake slip and fault geometry. Synthetic earthquake slip distributions generated from the modified Mai-Beroza method captured key features of inversion-based source representations of the mega-thrust event, which were calibrated against rich geophysical observations of this event. Using original and synthesised earthquake source models (varied for strike, dip, and slip distributions), tsunami simulations were carried out and the resulting variability in tsunami hazard estimates was investigated. The results highlight significant sensitivity of the tsunami wave profiles and inundation heights to the coastal location and the slip characteristics, and indicate that earthquake slip characteristics are a major source of uncertainty in predicting tsunami risks due to future mega-thrust events.

  10. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist concerns about tsunami hazard signs. Over the seventeen-year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 84 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased from 51 to 89 percent and knowing what the Cascadia subduction zone is from 16 to 57 percent. In 2009, the RCTWG was recognized by the Western States Seismic Policy Council (WSSPC) with an award for innovation and in 2010, the RCTWG-sponsored class "Living on Shaky Ground" was awarded WSSPC's overall Award in Excellence. The RCTWG works closely with CGS and Cal EMA on a number of projects including tsunami mapping, evacuation zone planning, siren policy, tsunami safety for boaters, and public education messaging. Current projects include working with CGS to develop a "playbook" tsunami mapping product to illustrate the expected effects from a range of tsunami source events and assist local governments in focusing future response actions to reflect the range expected impacts from distant source events. Preparedness efforts paid off on March 11, 2011 when a tsunami warning was issued for the region and significant damage occurred in harbor regions of Del Norte County and Mendocino County. Full-scale evacuations were carried out in a coordinated manner and the majority of the commercial fishing fleet in Crescent City was able to exit the harbor before the tsunami arrived.

  11. Hydro-acoustic and tsunami waves generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake: Modeling and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolali, Ali; Cecioni, Claudia; Bellotti, Giorgio; Kirby, James T.

    2015-02-01

    Detection of low-frequency hydro-acoustic waves as precursor components of destructive tsunamis can enhance the promptness and the accuracy of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). We reconstruct the hydro-acoustic wave field generated by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamigenic earthquake using a 2-D horizontal numerical model based on the integration over the depth of the compressible fluid wave equation and considering a mild sloped rigid seabed. Spectral analysis of the wave field obtained at different water depths and distances from the source revealed the frequency range of low-frequency elastic oscillations of sea water. The resulting 2-D numerical model gave us the opportunity to study the hydro-acoustic wave propagation in a large-scale domain with available computers and to support the idea of deep-sea observatory and data interpretation. The model provides satisfactory results, compared with in situ measurements, in the reproduction of the long-gravitational waves. Differences between numerical results and field data are probably due to the lack of exact knowledge of sea bottom motion and to the rigid seabed approximation, indicating the need for further study of poro-elastic bottom effects.

  12. Tsunamis in Cuba?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  13. Capabilities of operational Boussinesq for simulating the run-up of impact generated tsunamis in fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, F.; Pedersen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis induced by rock slides plunging into fjords constitute a severe hazard towards local coastal communities. The rock slide impact may give rise to highly non-linear waves in the near field. Moreover, waves are relatively short crested and frequency dispersion comes to play. The fjord system constitutes a rugged terrain with steep slopes. Including the non-linear and dispersive nature of waves propagating and at the same time inundating the steep fjord coastlines poses a major challenge to tsunami modellers. This calls for primitive or Boussinesq type models including dry-land inundation. We have analyzed and run a variety of depth averaged operational models of Boussinesq-TVD type both for inundation on steep slopes and for propagation over steep shelves. In addition, a set of academic Boussinesq type models as well as one full potential solver have been applied as reference models. Demanding test cases for solitary like waves with amplitude-to-depth-ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 and slopes were ranging from 10 to 50 degrees, were applied. The test cases revealed that some models were prone to instabilities for large non-linearities and fine resolution. For the operational models, some of the instabilities were related false breaking during the first positive inundation, which was not observed for the academic models. None of the models were able to handle the bore forming during drawdown. The instabilities were linked to short crested undulations on the grid scale, and appeared on fine resolution both during inundation, and for the propagation of highly non-linear waves. Hence, convergence was not always obtained. This may put limitations on the accuracy of current operational Boussinesq solvers applied for tsunami simulations in fjords.

  14. Dynamics of tsunami waves

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Frédéric; Dutykh, Denys

    2006-01-01

    The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoo...

  15. Tsunami Hazard Awareness from past Experience and the Differing Vulnerability of Indigenous and Immigrant Coastal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    The high mortality rates (10 percent to over 90 percent) amongst tourist and immigrant populations caught in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami contrast both with the lower mortality where local warnings were effective, and with historically low mortality rates in several major tsunamis in Papua New Guinea and the South West Pacific. These include early 20th Century events in which responses to the tsunamis were based upon oral traditions that existed amongst indigenous populations. Eyewitness accounts of one of these events, the 1930 Ninigo Islands tsunami in Papua New Guinea, indicate that people in coastal villages recognized warning signs such as initial drawdown of the sea, and evacuated inland before the tsunami struck with intensities comparable to the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. Maximum runups exceeded 15 meters on Karkar Island and were 5 to 10 meters around much of the Bismarck Sea. Although many villages were severely damaged, only 12 people were killed. The mortality rate was less than 1 percent and perhaps as little as 0.1 percent of the population in the inundation zones. Interviews with populations who have lived on coasts for many generations indicate a high level of tsunami awareness including oral traditions of earlier historical events and traditional beliefs regarding tsunamis and earthquakes. The generally low mortality rates in these events indicate that self - warning and voluntary evacuation constitutes a highly effective tsunami mitigation measure amongst indigenous peoples. The challenge today is to develop similar behaviors amongst immigrant and transient populations in tsunami prone areas through Education for Self - Warning and Voluntary Evacuation (ESWAVE): the efforts of volcanologists after the 1985 Armero lahar disaster provide pointers as to how this can be done.

  16. The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

  17. EEWW and WWF: Two W event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two generators are presented to study W pair production in e+e-collisions. EEWW generates onshell W's including all one-loop and leading log photonic two-loop contributions; it has full polarization and anomalous couplings. WWF is part of the effort towards a full offshell W generator; it describes the hard bremsstrahlung process e+e-?4fermions+? through off-shell W pairs. ((orig.))

  18. EEWW and WWF: Two W event generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    1994-11-01

    Two generators are presented to study W pair production in e +e - collisions. EEWW generates onshell W's including all one-loop and leading log photonic two-loop contributions; it has full polarization and anomalous couplings. WWF is part of the effort towards a full offshell W generator; it describes the hard bremsstrahlung process e+e- ? 4 fermions + ? through off-shell W pairs.

  19. Tsunamis of the northeast Indian Ocean with a particular focus on the Bay of Bengal region—A synthesis and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Edris; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James

    2012-08-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (2004 IOT) challenged assumptions about the level of regional hazard. Significantly, there has been some debate about the hypothesis that the northern Bay of Bengal may be capable of generating large tsunamis similar to the 2004 IOT. To test this hypothesis, we documented historical and palaeotsunamis in the northeast Indian Ocean. Using multiple sources, we identified 135 purported tsunamis. After completing a process of validity assessment, we categorised 31 definite tsunamis, 27 probable tsunamis, 51 doubtful tsunamis and 20 events that only caused a seiche or disturbance in an inland river. Six of the purported events were identified as either cyclones or earthquakes without any associated tsunamis. Using the reported list of 135 events, we identified different tsunamigenic regions and explored the temporal distribution of past events, with the oldest event dated to around 38,000BC (although the dated material is most likely reworked and this was probably a Holocene event). The second oldest event dated to 3000-2000BC. Historical records indicate that only one definite tsunami, occurring in AD1762, was generated in the northern Bay of Bengal. We encountered a number of significant challenges in reviewing and analysing data contained within the documents and sources we consulted. Statistical analysis of tsunami data from AD1710 to AD2010 suggests that the occurrence of a tsunami affecting the coasts of Bangladesh and Myanmar is 0.99% in any given year, and 63% in a century. We recognise that this incomplete tsunami dataset limits the capacity to fully quantify the hazard. As such, we recommend further 'deep' archival research coupled with regional palaeotsunami studies to gain a more sophisticated understanding of the hazard.

  20. A case study of sanitary survey on community drinking water supplies after a severe (post-Tsunami) flooding event / Caso studio di sorveglianza sanitaria in una comunità per l'approvvigionamento di acque potabili dopo un maremoto post-Tsunami

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emanuele, Ferretti; Lucia, Bonadonna; Luca, Lucentini; Simonetta, Della Libera; Maurizio, Semproni; Massimo, Ottaviani.

    Full Text Available This report presents a case study of a comprehensive sanitary survey on ca. 160 community drinking water supplies after a severe (post-Tsunami) flooding event in Sri Lanka. Sanitary inspection and microbiological and chemical water quality analyses were performed according to specifically-designed p [...] rocedures established on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Significant hazards and critical points were identified in almost all the investigated water supplies. The overall results showed a significant level of microbiological and chemical risk associated with drinking water consumption within the investigated areas. The criteria and methods practised in this study are proposed as a model to assure an effective and reliable monitoring in post-emergencies involving possible deterioration of water quality and to identify health priorities related to water consumption.

  1. Tsunami Hazard Assessment along the Coast of Oman from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussain, Issa; Baptista, Maria; Omira, Rachid; Al-Rawas, Ghazi; Deif, Ahmed; Al-Habsi, Zaid; Al-Jabri, Khalifa

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas of Oman are exposed to tsunami threat associated with earthquakes generated in two major subduction zones, namely Makran and Sumatra. Both zones were responsible of triggering tsunamis that reached/impacted Oman coast. The Mw8.1 earthquake event of 1945, occurred in Makran zone, has caused a tsunami that was reported to affect the coast of Oman. The Mw9.2 Indian Ocean event of 2004 triggered a tsunami that was recorded in various tide-gauges stations of Oman with wave amplitude reaching ~1.7m in the port of Salalah. This work aims to assess tsunami hazard along the Oman coast considering both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Deterministic approach uses particular source scenarios (most credible and/or worst case) from Makran and Sumatra subduction zones and computes the tsunami coastal impact through numerical modeling of expected waveforms, maximum wave heights distribution, and site-specific inundations. While, probabilistic approach includes the contribution of small and large sources and employs the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment together with the numerical modeling to evaluate the likelihood that a certain level of tsunami threat is exceeded at a certain location of Oman coast within a certain period of time. We present deterministic results in terms of regional scale distribution of maximum wave heights, tsunami waveforms computation, and inundation maps for a selected coastal area. For probabilistic assessment, we derive 250- and 500-years probability hazard exceedance maps and hazard curves for the Oman coast. The hazard maps consist of computing the likelihood that tsunami waves exceed a specific amplitude for the entire coast of Oman, and the hazard curves describe the variation of cumulative probabilities as function of wave amplitudes at some critical coastal points. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of obtained results for tsunami mitigation in Oman. Keywords: Tsunami, Oman, Deterministic approach, Probabilistic approach.

  2. CAPTURING THE NEXT GENERATION OF CULTURAL MEMORIES – THE PROCESS OF VIDEO INTERVIEWING TSUNAMI SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional story telling is rare in many cultures these days and yet stories are an effective way of educating people of all ages. The technology of modern media is increasingly accessing all corners of the world and if used wisely can help capture and communicate messages of disaster preparedness. Planned video interviewing of tsunami survivors began around 1998 and an extensive archive has been assembled at the Pacific Tsunami Museum. Video interviewing is an effective way to collect data that are both educational and scientific. The technique however, is not simple and a protocol has been developed to achieve the best results. We explain the protocol in detail using examples where appropriate, and discuss a wide range of applications that have been developed using interview materials. Recent advances in analytical techniques mean that the previously difficult to access qualitative data of these interviews are now available for more robust scientific analysis. The database continues to grow each year. It seems likely that this publicly- available database will now be available for a whole suite of new applications that can be developed.

  3. The Importance of the Initial Rise and Fall of the Shoreline in Preparing People to Respond to Earthquake-Generated Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Huffman, J.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena associated with tsunamis is shoreline recession preceding arrival of the tsunami wave crest. Whether the shoreline will initially rise or fall in a tsunami is an important factor to consider when anticipating the warning time available before the first wave crest arrives on shore. Where the shoreline first recedes, people may have from a few minutes to 15 minutes of time to respond. This environmental cue is not available when the shoreline initially rises as a tsunami wave crest, and there is significantly less warning time in these instances. The rise and fall of the shoreline around the Indian Ocean following the generation of the initial tsunami from the December 26, 2004 earthquake was examined by reviewing published tide-gauge data. Findings confirm the predictability of the shoreline change. Indian-Ocean-wide, coastal areas west of the trench (i.e., toward the subducted plate side of the trench, e.g., Sri Lanka) experienced an initial rise in sea level as the first tsunami wave crest arrived on shore, as occurred in Samoa in 2009. In contrast, coastlines east of the trench (i.e., toward the overthrust plate side of the trench, e.g., Thailand) initially experience a fall in sea level as the tsunami wave trough arrived on shore. An exception was on the overthrust plate proximal to the earthquake epicenter (e.g., Sumatra). There, subsidence of the coastline caused an initial rise in sea level and corresponding flooding before the shoreline receded. This recession was then followed by a greater rise in the shoreline as the first wave crest arrived onshore. Human behavior in response to environmental cues and official and informal warnings of tsunamis is complex. Little is known about the timing in which people make decisions when exposed to different sources of information. That is, why some people evacuate immediately versus delaying, or how the order of specific cues or warnings influences timely and effective response. Disaster studies have demonstrated the important role that environmental cues play in risk communications, in addition to informal and official warnings. An important step in preparing vulnerable populations for tsunamis, especially those near their source, is understanding the probability that a shoreline will first rise or fall. Risk communications should be developed that effectively translate the probabilities to useful information for vulnerable people. A realistic and accurate understanding of the order, timing and limitations of environmental cues and warnings should reduce the time people waste seeking information during the warning confirmation or information seeking process.

  4. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and ...

  5. NEAR AND FAR-FIELD EFFECTS OF TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY THE PAROXYSMAL ERUPTIONS, EXPLOSIONS, CALDERA COLLAPSES AND MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF THE KRAKATAU VOLCANO IN INDONESIA ON AUGUST 26-27, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paroxysmal phases of Krakatau's volcanic activity on August 26-27, 1883, included numerous submarine Surtsean (phreatomagmatic eruptions, three sub air Plinian eruptions from the three main craters of Krakatau on Rakata island, followed by a fourth gigantic, sub air, Ultra-Plinian explosion. Landslides, flank failures, subsidences and a multiphase massive caldera collapse of the volcano - beginning near the Perbowetan crater on the northern portion of Rakata and followed by a collapse of the Danan crater - occurred over a period of at least 10 hours. The first of the three violent explosions occurred at 17: 07 Greenwich time (GMT on August 26.The second and third eruptions occurred at 05:30 GMT and at 06:44 GMT on August 27. Each of these events, as well as expanding gases from the submarine phreatomagmatic eruptions, lifted the water surrounding the island into domes or truncated cones that must have been about 100 meters or more in height. The height of the resulting waves attenuated rapidly away from the source because of their short periods and wavelengths. It was the fourth colossal explosion (VEI=6 and the subsequent massive f lank failure and caldera collapse of two thirds of Rakata Island, at 10:02 a.m., on August 27 that generated the most formidable of the destructive tsunami waves. A smaller fifth explosion, which occurred at 10:52 a.m., must have generated another large water cone and sizable waves. The final collapse of a still standing wall of Krakatau - which occurred several hours later at 16:38, generated additional waves.The near field effects of the main tsunami along the Sunda Strait in Western Java and Southern Sumatra, were devastating. Within an hour after the fourth explosion/caldera collapse, waves reaching heights of up to 37 m (120 feet destroyed 295 towns and villages and drowned a total of 36,417 people. Because of their short period and wavelength, the wave heights attenuated rapidly with distance away from the source region. It took approximately 2.5 hours for the tsunami waves to refract around Java and reach Batavia (Jakarta where the only operating tide gauge existed. Wavesof 2.4 meters in height were recorded - but with an unusually long period of 122 minutes. The long period is attributed to modification due to resonance effects and did not reflect source characteristics. The tsunami travel time to Surabaya at the eastern part of Java was 11.9 hours. The reported wave was only 0.2 meters.The far field effects of the tsunami were noticeable around the world, but insignificant. Small sea level oscillations were recorded by tide gauges at Port Blair in the Andaman Sea, at Port Elizabeth in South Africa, and as far away as Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Hawaii, Alaska, the North-American West Coast, South America, and even as far away as the English Channel. It took 12 hours for the tsunami to reach Aden on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, about 3800 nautical miles away. The wave reported at Aden, at Port Blair and at Port Elizabeth, represents the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. There were no land boundaries on the Indian Ocean side of Krakatau to prevent the tsunami energy from spreading in that direction. The tsunami travel time of a little over 300 nautical miles per hour to Aden appears reasonable. However, it is doubtful that the waves, which were reported at distant locations in the Pacific or in the Atlantic Ocean, represented the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. Very little, if any at all, of the tsunami energy could have escaped the surrounding inland seas to the east of the Sunda Strait. Most probably, the small waves that were observed in the Pacific as well as in the Atlantic were generated by the atmospheric pressure wave of the major Krakatoa explosion, and not from the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. The unusual flooding, which occurred at the Bay of Cardiff, in the U.K., was caused by atmospheric coupling of the pressure wave from the major Krakatau eruption.

  6. Modelling of tsunami generated by the giant Late Bronze Age eruption of Thera, South Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, T.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; McCoy, F. W.

    2011-08-01

    Tsunami generated by the Late Bronze Age (LBA) eruption of Thera were simulated using synthetic tide records produced for selected nearshore (˜20 m depths) sites of northern Crete, the Cyclades Islands, SW Turkey and Sicily. Inundation distances inland were also calculated along northern Crete. Modelling was performed by incorporating fully non-linear Boussinesq wave theory with two tsunamigenic mechanisms. The first involved the entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea, assuming a thick (55 m; 30 km3) flow entering the sea along the south coast of Thera in three different directions all directed towards northern Crete, then a thin pyroclastic flow (1 m; 1.2 km3) entering the sea along the north coast of Thera directed towards the Cyclades Islands. Flows were modelled as a solid block that slowly decelerates along a horizontal surface. The second mechanism assumed caldera collapse, of 19 km3 and 34 km3 modelled as a dynamic landslide producing rapid vertical displacements. Calculated nearshore wave amplitudes varied from a few metres to 28 m along northern Crete from pyroclastic flows, and up to 19 m from caldera collapse (34 km3 volume). Inundation distances on Crete were 250-450 m. Waves produced by pyroclastic flows were highly focused, however, as a function of sea entry direction. Smaller volume pyroclastic flows produced nearshore wave amplitudes up to 4 m in the Cyclades islands north of Thera. Wave amplitudes in the Cyclades from smaller volume caldera collapse (19 km3) were up to 24 m, whereas in SW Turkey were as low as 2.1 and 0.8 m (Didim and Fethye where LBA tsunami deposits have been found). Wave amplitudes for the larger volume caldera collapse (34 km3) were generally 2.5-3 times larger than those generated by the smaller volume collapse (19 km3). These results provide estimates for understanding possible consequences of tsunami impact in LBA coastal zones, thus providing criteria at archaeological sites for detecting inundation damage, as well as for contemporary hazard assessment; they also provide additional criteria for deciphering homogenite layers in the abyssal stratigraphy of the Ionian and eastern Mediterranean Seas.

  7. TSUNAMI CATALOG AND VULNERABILITY OF MARTINIQUE (LESSER ANTILLES, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to meteorological hazards (hurricanes, heavy rainfalls, long-period swells, etc., the Caribbean Islands are vulnerable to geological hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions caused by the complex tectonic activity and interactions in the region. Such events have generated frequently local or regional tsunamis, which often have affected the island of Martinique in the French West Indies. Over the past centuries, the island has been struck by destructive waves associated with local or regional events - such as those associated with the eruption of the Saint-Vincent volcano in 1902 and by tsunamis of distant origin as that generated by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.The present study includes a classification of tsunamis that have affected Martinique since its discovery in 1502. It is based on international tsunami catalogs, historical accounts, and previous scientific studies and identifies tsunamigenic areas that could potentially generate destructive waves that could impact specific coastal areas of Martinique Island. The potential threat from tsunamis has been greatly increasing because of rapid urban expansion of coastal areas and development of tourism on the island.

  8. Tsunami effects at Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites by Plate Boundary Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Gun Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2015-04-01

    Great earthquakes have occurred at the Nankai Trough due to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Honshu, Japan. The 1707 Hoei tsunami associated with the Mw 8.7 earthquake, in particular, was the largest event generated in this area. The Nankai Trough is one of the most earthquake-prone area near Japan. And the tsunami affected to Korea according to a Korean historic literature. In this study, new hypothetical plate boundary earthquakes (Mw 9.6) ruptured simultaneously from the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench (NTRT) are proposed and applied to evaluate the tsunami effects at the Nuclear Power Plant Sites in Korea. In order to make reasonable tsunami sources the asperity model is adapted. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is employed to simulate the propagation of tsunami generated at NTRT. This numerical model considering the dispersion effect and inundation of tsunami is then employed to estimate the maximum tsunami heights. Predicted results will be used to make the measures against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  9. A detail modeling of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean tsunami over French Polynesia: consequencies and improvements of the tsunami warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    We present here a detail study of the last two major tsunami events of Chile that were observed significantly in Tahiti : the tsunami on May 22, 1960 of Valdivia generated by the strongest earthquake ever recorded (Mw=9.5) and the tsunami of the February 27, 2010 of Maule (Mw=8.8). In a first step, using numerical modeling, we will tune the seismic sources parameters to reproduce the tsunami heights given by the field-survey observations , testimonies and tide gages measurements made in Tahiti and Marquesas islands with the cartography of that time. Then from that validation, we are able to study these tsunamis more precisely to evaluate their coastal impacts on the actual shore of 2015 using recent tsunami inundation elevation models. We also study the sensibility of the tsunami height over the Polynesian coasts by modeling the impact of the tide (about 0.6 m in Tahiti and 1.30 m in Marquesas islands) but also punctual rises of the sea level induced by extreme meteorological phenomena like cyclonic waves, tropical storm or tropical rains that can each increase drastically the sea level of the lagoon around Tahiti by one meter or more. As a practical consequence of this study, the French Polynesia tsunami warning system could plan to take into account the tide in the warning context for a more accurate inundation forecast. Moreover, we can consider that a better understanding of catastrophic events that would combine a tsunami with an extreme meteorological phenomena will contribute to update the tsunami hazard knowledge of Tahiti.

  10. Tsunami Impacts in River Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Tanaka, H.; Roh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami events demonstrated the tsunami's ability to penetrate much farther along rivers than the ground inundation. At the same time, while tsunami impacts to the coastal areas have been subject to countless studies, little is known about tsunami propagation in rivers. Here we examine the field data and conduct numerical simulations to gain better understanding of the tsunami impacts in rivers.The evidence which motivated our study is comprised of water level measurements of the aforementioned tsunamis in multiple rivers in Japan, and the 2011 Tohoku and some other tsunamis in the Columbia River in the US. When the available tsunami observations in these very different rivers are brought together, they display remarkably similar patterns not observed on the open coast. Two phenomena were discovered in the field data. First, the phase of the river tide determines the tsunami penetration distance in a very specific way common to all rivers. Tsunami wave progressively disappears on receding tide, whereas high tide greatly facilitates the tsunami intrusion, as seen in the Figure. Second, a strong near-field tsunami causes substantial and prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. As the 2011 tsunami intruded rivers in Japan, the water level along rivers rose 1-2 m and stayed high for many hours, with the maximum rise occurring several km from the river mouth. The rise in the water level at some upstream gaging stations even exceeded the tsunami amplitude there.Using the numerical experiments, we attempt to identify the physics behind these effects. We will demonstrate that the nonlinear interactions among the flow components (tsunami, tide, and riverine flow) are an essential condition governing wave dynamics in tidal rivers. Understanding these interactions might explain some previous surprising observations of waves in river environments. Figure: Measurements of the 2010/02/27 tsunami along Naruse and Yoshida rivers, Japan, showing progressive development of the tsunami wave modulation by tide. The two rivers flow together the first 0.9 km from Sendai Bay. The distance from the river mouth (rkm) is shown in the plots. Blue dots - original data sampled at 10 min; cyan - deduced tide; red - de-tided surface elevation.

  11. Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures on inundation and outflow flow velocities. Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events. On July 10, 1958, an earthquake Mw 8.3 along the Fairweather fault triggered a major subaerial landslide into Gilbert Inlet at the head of Lituya Bay on the south coast of Alaska. The landslide impacted the water at high speed generating a giant tsunami and the highest wave runup in recorded history. This event was observed by eyewitnesses on board the sole surviving fishing boat, which managed to ride the tsunami. The mega-tsunami runup to an elevation of 524 m caused total forest destruction and erosion down to bedrock on a spur ridge in direct prolongation of the slide axis. A cross-section of Gilbert Inlet was rebuilt in a two dimensional physical laboratory model. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) provided instantaneous velocity vector fields of decisive initial phase with landslide impact and wave generation as well as the runup on the headland. Three dimensional source and runup scenarios based on real world events are physically modeled in the NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU). The measured landslide and tsunami data serve to validate and advance numerical landslide tsunami models. This lecture encompasses multi-hazard aspects and implications of recent tsunami and cyclonic events around the world such as the November 2013 Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in the Philippines.

  12. ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis are low frequency but high impact natural disasters. In 2004, the Boxing Day tsunami killed hundreds of thousands of people from many nations along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean. Tsunami run-up exceeded 35 m. Seven years later, and in spite of some of the best warning technologies and levels of preparedness in the world, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami in Japan dramatically showed the limitations of scientific knowledge on tsunami sources, coastal impacts and mitigation measures. The experience from Japan raised serious questions on how to improve the resilience of coastal communities, to upgrade the performance of coastal defenses, to adopt a better risk management, and also on the strategies and priorities for the reconstruction of damaged coastal areas. Societal resilience requires the reinforcement of capabilities to manage and reduce risk at national and local scales.ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for Tsunami in Europe), a 36-month FP7 project, aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate tsunami impact in this region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all CTWPs of NEAM and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) basic knowledge of tsunami generation and recurrence going beyond simple catalogues, with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas of NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for tsunami simulation, with focus on real-time codes and novel statistical emulation approaches, and iii) methods for assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for tsunami Eurocodes, ii) better tools for forecast and warning for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)

  13. Tsunami Forecast: Connecting Science with Warning Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami modeling capability had been rapidly developing even before the watershed event of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami. During 1990-2000, the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, the tsunami scientific community took on the difficult task of developing the modeling capability that would provide accuracy needed for long-term tsunami forecast — tsunami hazard maps. After exhaustive field, laboratory and modeling efforts by the international scientific community, the modeling capability has been achieved with accuracy deemed sufficient for operational use. Several real-time model forecast tools started to be used at TWCs in the US and Japan. In parallel, the observational component of tsunami warning systems had been improving, including updated existing seismic and coastal sea-level stations array. New early detection and measurement system (DART) has been developed specifically for tsunami forecast applications. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami has triggered the efforts of intensive implementation of science results into operational tsunami warning capabilities. At present, several tsunami forecast systems, based on various modeling and detection capabilities, are operational. Since 2004, over 40 tsunamis, including the 2011 Japanese tsunami, provided real-time tests for the tsunami forecast system capabilities. Preliminary assessment of tsunami forecast performance will be presented based on the analysis of the U.S. operational tsunami inundation forecast. Assessing forecast performance is important to evaluate the needs for improvement and further research. Baseline of the tsunami forecast skills has now been established and will be presented based on the data from the tsunamis during the decade. Future improvements and future challenges will also be discussed.

  14. Tsunami deposits in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) and implications for hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphael; Wassmer, Patrick; Roger, Jean; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Significant earthquakes occur along the north Algerian and Carboneras faults (e.g. Djijelli 1865, Zemmouri 2003) and they may generate tsunamis in the western Mediterranean Basin and Alboran Sea, where tsunami hazard are poorly documented. The coast of southern Spain and Balearic Islands are densely populated, with touristic areas and important harbors. The 2003 event generated a small tsunami in the Balearic Islands (ships were moved by oscillations during more than 2 hours in some harbors). Reicherter et al. (2009) found evidences of two past tsunamis in lagoon of the Cabo de Gata (near Almeria), which they ascribed to the 1522 earthquake and an earlier event (Menorca islands revealed few evidences of past tsunamis. Thin sandy layers with marine bioclasts, possibly deposited by tsunamis, were found in three areas at altitudes always lower than 2m. Boulder clusters were found along the southern coast of Mallorca, but they could have been deposited by storms as well. These investigations are realized in the framework of the MAREMOTI project, funded by the French ANR and leaded by the CEA - DASE. Reicherter, K., Becker-Heidmann, P., 2009. Tsunami deposits in the western Mediterranean: remains of the 1522 Almeria earthquake? Geological Society Special Publications, London, 316, 217-235.

  15. Numerical modeling of the 1964 Alaska tsunami in western Passage Canal and Whittier, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Nicolsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Passage Canal, Alaska during the Mw 9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, several types of waves were identified at the city of Whittier, located at the head of Passage Canal. The first wave is thought to have been a seiche, while the other two waves were probably triggered by submarine landslides. We model the seiche wave, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami in Passage Canal and compute inundation by each type of wave during the 1964 event. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed inundation line. Results of the numerical experiments let us identify where the submarine landslides might have occurred during the 1964 event. We identify regions at the head and along the northern shore of Passage Canal, where landslides triggered a wave that caused most of the damage in Whittier. An explanation of the fact that the 1964 tectonic tsunami in Whittier was unnoticed is presented as well. The simulated inundation by the seiche, landslide-generated tsunami, and tectonic tsunami can help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare Whittier for a potential tsunami.

  16. Hydrodynamics of impact-induced tsunami over the Martian ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yasutaka; Goto, Kazuhisa; Minoura, Koji; Komatsu, Goro; Imamura, Fumihiko

    2014-05-01

    Large bodies of liquid water ranging from lakes to oceans have been hypothesized to have occupied the surface of ancient Mars episodically. Such inferences have been founded largely on geomorphological observations of putative shoreline features during the period ranging from the 1980s to the early 2000s. High-resolution satellite images obtained during various Mars missions conducted since the early 2000s have enabled detailed sedimentological studies. One phenomenon that might leave sedimentological traces of the purported Martian paleo-oceans is a bolide impact and consequent generation of large tsunami waves. Numerical modeling of impact-induced tsunami waves on a hypothesized northern plains paleo-ocean was performed to elucidate their potential propagation characteristics on Mars, including the ranges of wave height and velocity. When considering a tsunami triggered by a 50 km-diameter impact cratering event, the offshore and shore-zone wave heights respectively reached 40-50 m and 120 m. In the same test scenario, the tsunami wave velocity reached 20 m/s near the crater and 16 m/s at the shore zone. The wave height and velocity in highly cratered regions, such as Arabia Terra, tend to be relatively low because tsunami inundation is diffused by impact crater rims existing along the tsunami passage.

  17. THE TSUNAMI ASSESSMENT MODELLING SYSTEM BY THE JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Annunziato

    2007-01-01

    The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System was developed by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, in order to serve Tsunami early warning systems such as the Global Disaster Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in the evaluation of possible consequences by a Tsunami of seismic nature. The Tsunami Assessment Modeling System is currently operational and is calculating in real time all the events occurring in the world, calculating the expected Tsunami wave height and identifying the loc...

  18. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-09-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The eastern coast had been attacked by 1983 and 1993 tsunami events. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage against unexpected tsunami attacks along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. The system is made based on numerical and physical modelings of 3 historical and 11 virtual tsunamis events, field surveys, and extensive interviews with related people.

  19. Identification of Forerunners and Transmission of Energy to Tsunami Waves Generated by Instanteneous Ground Motion on a Non-Uniformly Sloping Beach

    OpenAIRE

    Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The problem of generation and propagation of tsunami waves is mainly focused on plane beach, there are very few analytical works where wave generation is considered on non-uniformly sloping beach and as a result those works might have failed to capture important facts which are influenced by bottom-slope of the beach. Some researchers provided solution to the forced long linear waves but on a beach with uniform slope while the importance of including variable bottom topography is mentioned b...

  20. A Dozen Tsunamis from 2004 to 2014: Lessons and Revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed two truly catastrophic tsunamis (2004 and2011), but also a dozen other ones, some significantlydamaging. Among the scientific lessons learnt from the Sumatra event, the mostimportant is the failure of the concept of maximum earthquake predictablefrom simple tectonic parameters, resulting in the precautionary suggestion thatall subduction zones may conceivably support a mega earthquake, as strikinglyillustrated by the 2011 Tohoku event. A critical analysis of tsunami warningstrategies and population response in the past decade revealsconsiderable progress in the far field (with only two or threepast-Sumatra casualties), but a relatively random record in the near field,where successes (Solomon Islands 2007; Bengkulu 2007) are overshadowed byoutright failures, notably during the 2010 Mentawai "tsunami earthquake".We review remaining challenges and progress towards their resolution, bothscientific (such as the real-time identification of "tsunami earthquakes" andthe understanding of wave sequencing in the far field), and societal (includinga post-mortem of the 2011 Fukushima disaster).The exceptional size of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake (and to someextent of following ones) has allowed the coupling of their tsunamis toboth the solid Earth and the atmosphere in non-traditional ways, offering thepossibility of detection by a remarkable variety of "incompetent" instrumentsranging from hydrophones to magnetometers and ionospheric probes. Beyondthe mere intellectual interest of these observations, they open the doorto possible applications towards a range of complementary methods of tsunamiwarning.Finally, the deep 2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake has generated asmall but recordable tsunami, whose millimetric amplitude is correctlypredicted by a number of methodologies, suggesting that deep events maycontribute to tsunami hazard, if even larger-sized deep earthquakes couldoccur.

  1. Tsunami hazard assessment along the U. S. East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajalli Bakhsh, T.; Grilli, S. T.; Harris, J. C.; Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Tehranirad, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) was tasked by Congress to develop tsunami inundation maps for the entire US coastline. This work provides an overview of the modeling work related to the development inundation maps along the US east coast. In this region the paucity of historical tsunami records and lack of paleotsunami observations yields a large uncertainty on the source and magnitude of potential extreme tsunami events, and their related coastal hazard. In the Atlantic Ocean basin significant tsunami hazard may result from far-field earthquakes, such as a repeat of the M8.9 Lisbon 1755 event in the Azores convergence zone, or a hypothetical extreme M9 earthquake in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). Additionally, it is believed that a repeat of one of the large historical collapses, identified at the toe of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma (Canary Islands; i.e., with a maximum volume of 450 km3), could pose a major tsunami hazard to the entire US east coast. Finally, in the near-field, large submarine mass failure (SMF) scars have been mapped by USGS, particularly North of the Carolinas (e.g., Currituck), which are believed to have caused past tsunamis. Large SMFs can be triggered by moderate seismicity (M7 or so), such as can occur on the east coast. In fact, one of the few historical tsunamis that significantly affected this region was caused by the 1929 Grand Bank underwater slide, which was triggered by a M7.2 earthquake. In this work we identify and parameterize all potential tsunami sources affecting the US east coast, and perform simulations of tsunami generation, propagation, and coastal impact in a series of increasingly resolved nested grids. Following this methodology, tsunami inundation maps are currently being developed for a few of the most affected areas. In simulations, we use a robust and well-validated Fully Nonlinear Boussinesq long-wave model (FUNWAVE-TVD), on Cartesian or spherical grids. Coseismic tsunami sources are modeled using the standard Okada method. For landslide tsunamis, we first generate tsunami sources using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes model (THETIS or NHWAVE). These models feature all relevant physical processes, such as frequency dispersion (very important for landslide sources), nonlinear wave effects during shoaling, and dissipation by bottom friction and wave breaking (via a shock-capturing TVD algorithm). In modeling coastal hazard from various sources, we find that tsunamigenic SMFs, which are the nearest tsunami sources and can potentially cause highly focused coastal runup, may control tsunami hazard for many east coast communities north of the Carolinas. In many cases, however, we find that a wide shallow continental shelf may cause significant dissipation of the shorter waves caused by SMFs and hence offer some protection. The accurate modeling of the delicate balance between nonlinear and dissipative processes governing such situations is currently being researched and will be the object of a separate presentation. Additionally, considerable efforts are being devoted to properly parameterizing extreme SMFs, which are also the object of collaborative work with geologists and marine geotechnical experts (reported independently).

  2. Demo: Automatically generating interesting events with LifeJoin

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin K.; Thiagarajan, Arvind; Madden, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This demo will showcase LifeJoin, a system that collects raw sensor data from phones and laptop computers to generate interesting events. Given the raw sensor data, LifeJoin implements a number of activity recognition algorithms to generate higher-level events. Furthermore, it uses supervised learning techniques to learn from users' feedback to generate only events of interest. In this demo, the audience will get to interact with the LifeJoin system and be able to examine the internals of Lif...

  3. New Measurements and Modeling Capability to Improve Real-time Forecast of Cascadia Tsunamis along U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Bernard, E. N.; Spillane, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis, especially in the near field. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Existing observational instruments along the Cascadia Subduction Zone are capable of providing tsunami data within minutes of tsunami generation. However, this strategy requires separation of the tsunami signals from the overwhelming high-frequency seismic waves produced during a strong earthquake- a real technical challenge for existing operational tsunami observational network. A new-generation of nano-resolution pressure sensors can provide high temporal resolution of the earthquake and tsunami signals without loosing precision. The nano-resolution pressure sensor offers a state-of the-science ability to separate earthquake vibrations and other oceanic noise from tsunami waveforms, paving the way for accurate, early warnings of local tsunamis. This breakthrough underwater technology has been tested and verified for a couple of micro-tsunami events (Paros et al., 2011). Real-time forecast of Cascadia tsunamis is becoming a possibility with the development of nano-tsunameter technology. The present study provides an investigation on optimizing the placement of these new sensors so that the forecast time can be shortened.. The presentation will cover the optimization of an observational array to quickly detect and forecast a tsunami generated by a strong Cascadia earthquake, including short and long rupture scenarios. Lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami will be examined to demonstrate how we can improve the local forecast using the new technology We expect this study to provide useful guideline for future siting and deployment of the new-generation tsunameters. Driven by the new technology, we demonstrate scenarios of real-time forecast of Cascadia tsunami impact along the Pacific Northwest, as well as in the Puget Sound.

  4. National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    After a major event such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami or the 2008 Chengdu earthquake, there is interest in knowing if similar events have occurred in the area in the past and how often they have occurred. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) historical natural hazard event databases can provide answers to these types of questions. For example, a search of the tsunami database reveals that over 100 tsunamis have occurred in the Indian Ocean since 416 A.D. Further analysis shows that there has never been such a deadly tsunami anywhere in the world. In fact, the 2004 event accounts for almost half of all the deaths caused by tsunamis in the database. A search of the earthquake database shows that since 193 B.C., China has experienced over 500 significant earthquakes that have caused over 2 million deaths and innumerable dollars in damages. The NGDC global historical tsunami, significant earthquake, and significant volcanic eruption databases include events that range in date from 4350 B.C. to the present. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of magnitude or intensity; and all earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that either caused deaths, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Earthquakes are also included that were assigned either a magnitude >= 7.5 or Modified Mercalli Intensity >= X. The basic data in the historical event databases include the date, time, location of the event, magnitude of the phenomenon (tsunami or earthquake magnitude and/or intensity, or volcanic explosivity index), and socio-economic information such as the total number of deaths, injuries, houses damaged, and dollar damage. The tsunami database includes an additional table with information on the runups (locations where tsunami waves were observed by eyewitnesses, tide gauges, or deep ocean sensors). The volcanic eruptions database includes information on the volcano elevation and type. There are currently over 2000 tsunami source events, 12500 tsunami runup locations, 5700 earthquakes, and 460 volcanic eruptions in the databases. The natural hazard event databases are stored in a relational database management system (RDBMS) which facilitates the integration and access to these related databases. For example, users can search for destructive earthquakes that preceded a volcanic eruption that then generated a damaging tsunami. The databases are accessible over the Web as tables, reports, and interactive maps. The maps provide integrated web-based GIS access to individual GIS layers including the natural hazard events and various spatial reference layers such as topography, population density, and political boundaries.

  5. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  6. Development of tsunami hazard maps for the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, using heterogeneous slip models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J.; Pranantyo, I. R.; Kongko, W.; Haunan, A.; Horspool, N.; Maemunah, I.; Natawidjaja, D.; Latief, H.; Cummins, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of slip during megathrust earthquakes has been shown to significantly affect the spatial distribution of tsunami height in both numerical studies and field observations. This means that tsunami hazard maps generated using uniform slip distributions in their tsunami source models may underestimate tsunami inundation in some locations compared with real events of the same magnitude in the same location. In order to more completely define areas that may be inundated during a tsunami it is important to consider how different possible distributions of slip will impact different parts of the coastline. We generate tsunami inundation maps for the Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra, Indonesia, from a composite suite of possible source models that are consistent with current knowledge of the source region. First, a suite of earthquake source models with randomly distributed slip along the Mentawai Segment of the Sunda Subduction Zone are generated. From this suite we select source models that generate vertical deformation consistent with that observed in coral palaeogeodetic records of previous ruptures of the Mentawai Segment. Tsunami inundation is modelled using high resolution elevation data for selected source models and the results compiled to generate a maximum tsunami inundation zone. This allows us to constrain the slip distribution beneath the Mentawai Islands, where coral palaeogeodetic data is available, while allowing greater variation in the slip distribution away from the islands, in particular near the trench where large slip events can generate large tsunami. This method also allows us to consider high slip events on deeper portions of the megathrust between the Mentawai Islands and the Sumatran Mainland, which give greater tsunami inundation on the eastern part of the Mentawai Islands and the west coast of Sumatra compared with near-trench events. By accounting for uncertainty in slip distribution, the resulting hazard maps give a more complete picture of the areas that may be inundated compared with hazard maps derived from a single ';worst case' source model. These maps allow for more robust tsunami evacuation plans to be developed to support immediate community evacuation in response to strong or long-lasting earthquake ground shaking.

  7. Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.

    2015-03-01

    Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  8. Deep-Ocean Measurements of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Eblé, Marie C.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-ocean tsunami measurements play a major role in understanding the physics of tsunami wave generation and propagation, and in improving the effectiveness of tsunami warning systems. This paper provides an overview of the history of tsunami recording in the open ocean from the earliest days, approximately 50 years ago, to the present day. Modern tsunami monitoring systems such as the self-contained Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis and innovative cabled sensing networks, including, but not limited to, the Japanese bottom cable projects and the NEPTUNE-Canada geophysical bottom observatory, are highlighted. The specific peculiarities of seafloor longwave observations in the deep ocean are discussed and compared with observations recorded in coastal regions. Tsunami detection in bottom pressure observations is exemplified through analysis of distant (22,000 km from the source) records of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the northeastern Pacific.

  9. SAFRR tsunami scenario: impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research. Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive. Preparedness is key to enhancing resilience to ecological impacts.

  10. Extreme events, intrinsic landforms and humankind: Post-tsunami scenario along Nagore–Velankanni coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    is the kilometre - long stretch off the Velankanni shrine, a tourist coast that consisted of a wide, flat beach occupied by thatched, make - shift resta u rants, shops and shacks up to the water line (Figure 3 c ), making this sector a d e graded one... cut - off by the new lagoon. Invasion of saline water on antecedent lowlands was frequently reported follo w ing storm surges in India 4 ? 6,17 , and after major storms in the US 16 . Roads, creeks, dune breaches as tsunami pat h w ays: Roads...

  11. The UBO-TSUFD tsunami inundation model: validation and application to a tsunami case study focused on the city of Catania, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays numerical models are a powerful tool in tsunami research since they can be used (i) to reconstruct modern and historical events, (ii) to cast new light on tsunami sources by inverting tsunami data and observations, (iii) to build scenarios in the frame of tsunami mitigation plans, and (iv) to produce forecasts of tsunami impact and inundation in systems of early warning. In parallel with the general recognition of the importance of numerical tsunami simulations, the...

  12. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  13. Development of tsunami-seismic PSA software for nuclear power plants in multi-unit site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large tsunami induced by the Great East Japan earthquakes on March 11, 2011 triggered the accidents at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The earthquake caused loss of off-site power and the tsunami failed most of the ultimate heat sink of the seawater pumps and on-site diesel generators and eventually DC batteries, resulting in station blackout (SBO), loss of core cooling and loss of reactor control. Because of insufficient preparedness against such severe accidents, three reactor cores damaged and large amount of radioactivity released to the environment. The primary lessons learned are enhancement of protective measures against severe accidents by external events, especially tsunami-seismic events. This paper describes development of tsunami-seismic PSA methods and sample analysis to gain some of risk insights and directions of PSA technology improvement. (author)

  14. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and “soft” countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5–6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

  15. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a "tsunami earthquake". In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 "hard" and "soft" countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5-6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

  16. The quest for wisdom: lessons from 17 tsunamis, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Emile A

    2015-10-28

    Since the catastrophic Sumatra-Andaman tsunami took place in 2004, 16 other tsunamis have resulted in significant damage and 14 in casualties. We review the fundamental changes that have affected our command of tsunami issues as scientists, engineers and decision-makers, in the quest for improved wisdom in this respect. While several scientific paradigms have had to be altered or abandoned, new algorithms, e.g. the W seismic phase and real-time processing of fast-arriving seismic P waves, give us more powerful tools to estimate in real time the tsunamigenic character of an earthquake. We assign to each event a 'wisdom index' based on the warning issued (or not) during the event, and on the response of the population. While this approach is admittedly subjective, it clearly shows several robust trends: (i) we have made significant progress in our command of far-field warning, with only three casualties in the past 10 years; (ii) self-evacuation by educated populations in the near field is a key element of successful tsunami mitigation; (iii) there remains a significant cacophony between the scientific community and decision-makers in industry and government as documented during the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku events; and (iv) the so-called 'tsunami earthquakes' generating larger tsunamis than expected from the size of their seismic source persist as a fundamental challenge, despite scientific progress towards characterizing these events in real time. PMID:26392621

  17. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  18. Evaluation of tsunami potential based on conditional probability for specific zones of the Pacific tsunamigenic rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravos, George Ch.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Tsapanos, Theodoros M.

    2015-09-01

    The Pacific tsunamigenic rim is one of the most tsunamigenic regions of the world which has experienced large catastrophic tsunamis in the past, resulting in huge loss of lives and properties. In this study, probabilities of occurrences of large tsunamis with tsunami intensity (Soloviev-Imamura intensity scale) I ? 1.5, I ? 2.0, I ? 2.5, I ? 3.0, I ? 3.5 and I ? 4.0 have been calculated over the next 100 years in ten main tsunamigenic zones of the Pacific rim area using a homogeneous and complete tsunami catalogue covering the time periods from 684 to 2011. In order to evaluate tsunami potential, we applied the conditional probability method in each zone by considering the inter-occurrence times between the successive tsunamis generated in the past that follow the lognormal distribution. Thus, we assessed the probability of the next generation of large tsunamis in each zone by considering the time of the last tsunami occurrence. The a-posteriori occurrence of the last large tsunami has been also assessed, assuming that the time of the last occurrence coincides with the time of the event prior to the last one. The estimated a-posteriori probabilities exhibit satisfactory results in most of the zones, revealing a promising technique and confirming the reliability of the tsunami data used. Furthermore, the tsunami potential in different tsunamigenic zones is also expressed in terms of spatial maps of conditional probabilities for two levels of tsunami intensities I ? 1.5 and I ? 2.5 during next 10, 20, 50 and 100 years. Estimated results reveal that the conditional probabilities in the South America and Alaska-Aleutian zones for larger tsunami intensity I ? 2.5 are in the range of 92-93%, much larger than the Japan (69%), for a time period of 100 years, suggesting that those are the most vulnerable tsunamigenic zones. The spatial maps provide brief atlas of tsunami potential in the Pacific rim area.

  19. Earthquake and Tsunami Potential of the Hikurangi Subduction Thrust, New Zealand: Insights from Paleoseismology, GPS, and Tsunami Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hikurangi subduction margin, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the North Island of New Zealand, poses a major seismic and tsunami hazard to the New Zealand region, but its seismic and tsunami potential is largely unknown because of New Zealand's short (< 170 years historical record of seismicity. This article discusses the implications of results from GPS, paleoseismology, and tsunami modeling studies for understanding Hikurangi subduction earthquake and tsunami potential. Paleoseismic and geodetic data indicate that earthquakes of MW 8.0 and larger are certainly plausible at the Hikurangi margin. Paleoseismic evidence for large megathrust earthquakes beneath Hawke Bay in central Hikurangi demonstrates that large seismic slip may occur within an area that currently slips in episodic slow slip events. This result has important implications for seismic hazards at subduction margins elsewhere. Strong similarities between the subduction zones of the Hikurangi margin and the Japan Trench suggest that a giant MW 9.0 earthquake similar to the 2011 T?hoku-Oki earthquake may be possible for the Hikurangi margin. Such an event would generate a large tsunami that would inundate much of the east coast of the North Island. Understanding of the earthquake potential of the Hikurangi megathrust is only in its infancy, and we recommend a number of studies to increase knowledge.

  20. Tsunami Source Specification for Southeast Alaska with Focus on Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment in Sitka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E. N.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska. This activity provides local emergency officials with tsunami hazard assessment and mitigation tools. At-risk communities are spread along several segments of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, with each segment having a unique seismic history and potential tsunami hazard. As a result, almost every community has a distinct set of potential tsunami sources that need to be considered in order to make a tsunami inundation map. Therefore, an important component of the inundation mapping effort is identification and specification of potential tsunami sources. We are creating tsunami inundation maps for Sitka, Alaska, in the scope of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. Tsunami potential from tectonic and submarine landslide sources must be evaluated in this case for comprehensive mapping of areas at risk for inundation. The community of Sitka, the former capital of Russian Alaska, is located in Southeast Alaska, on the west coast of Baranof Island, facing the Pacific Ocean. In this area of southern Alaska, the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North America plate becomes a transform boundary that continues down the coast as the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte (FW-QC) transform fault system. The Sitka segment of the FW-QC fault system ruptured in large strike-slip earthquakes in 1927 (Ms7.1) and in 1972 (Ms7.6). We numerically model the extent of inundation in Sitka due to tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake, repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami waves generated by a hypothetically extended 1964 rupture, a hypothetical Cascadia megathrust earthquake, and hypothetical earthquakes in the FW-QC fault system. Underwater landslide events off the continental shelf along the FW-QC fault zone are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the scenarios using AEIC's numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup, which was validated through a set of analytical benchmarks and tested against laboratory and field data. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations in the region will be delivered to local emergency management to be used in local tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning and public education.

  1. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wegscheider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1 identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2 bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3 can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk.

    Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  2. Puerto Rico Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program-LANTEX 09 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, W.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.

    2009-12-01

    Tsunami warning, assessment, education, mitigation and preparedness efforts seek to reduce losses related to tsunamis in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR Seismic Network (PRSN) works with governmental agencies and local communities to implement these tsunami hazard risk reduction programs. The Caribbean has a a history of destructive tsunamis such as Virgin Islands (1867), PR (1918) and Dominican Republic (1946). Tsunamis originating near PR are a near-field hazard for as they can reach coastal areas within minutes of a generating event. Sources for regional and tele tsunamis have been identified. To mitigate these risks to communities, the PR Tsunami Warning and Mitigation Program (PRTWMP) was established in 2000 with funding from FEMA, the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) and the PR State Emergency Management Agency (PRSEMA). With the support of NTHMP and TsunamiReady (TR), PR continues to seek to mitigate possible tsunami damages and increase community resilience by helping communities meet the TR guidelines by providing them inundation maps, helping them develop evacuation maps and emergency plans, assisting them with community outreach efforts and conducting evacuation drills. Currently 6 of 44 tsunami threatened communities in PR have been recognized as TsunamiReady. As part of this process, the PRSN, PRSEMA and various communities participated in the LANTEX 2009 tsunami exercise. This exercise took place on April 2, 2009 and was based on a scenario in which an earthquake northeast of PR generates a major tsunami which impacts PR and the USVI and threatens the states along the continental US eastern coast. The municipality of Mayagüez, a TsunamiReady community since 2006, participated in the exercise by activating its Emergency Operations Center , conducting evacuation drills in schools located within its tsunami exposed area, and activating its warning siren. This presentation highlights findings of UPRM social scientists collaborating with the PRTWMP who conducted a sample survey of residents of the Mayagüez tsunami evacuation area to serve as an assessment of the effectiveness of TsunamiReady outreach efforts and of the drill's warning efforts. 166 20-30 minute interviews were conducted during the month of April. Questions explored residents' perceptions of coastal hazards they may face; knowledge about tsunamis and how to react to them; use of mass media to obtain information about potential hazards; tsunami preparation efforts, including knowledge of the existence and location of assembly areas; and whether and how they received and understood the drill's warning messages. The sample's answers to the risk perception questions is compared to those obtained for the same questions from a sample of residents of storm surge areas in 8 municipalities along PR's west coast. This allows comparing tsunami hazard awareness among individuals exposed to the Tsunami Ready program efforts with that of residents of municipalities that are not part of it. This effort serves as an example of the multidisciplinary collaboration between physical and social scientists needed to increase the effectiveness and value of scientific knowledge as a tool to mitigate damages from natural hazards.

  3. Random Focusing of Tsunami Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueldre, Henri-Philippe; Metzger, Jakob J.; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo

    2015-03-01

    When waves propagate through a weakly scattering, correlated random medium, the consecutive effects of small focusing events give rise to the phenomenon called branched flow, producing patterns of high intensity fluctuations. As tsunamis are deflected by underwater structures in the depth profile of the ocean floor, we investigate how it affects tsunami propagation and derive the typical length scale on which the highest waves are to be expected. We show that as a consequence of this effect the inaccuracies in the current knowledge of the ocean floor topography can prevent reliable tsunami forecasts on medium to large length scales.

  4. TSUNAMI HAZARD AND TOTAL RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    X. William Proenza; George A. Maul

    2010-01-01

    Deadly western North Atlantic Ocean tsunami events in the last centuries have occurred along the east coast of Canada, the United States, most Caribbean islands, and the North Atlantic Coast of South America. The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 reminded natural hazards managers that tsunami risk is endemic to all oceans. Total Risk is defined as hazard (frequency of tsunami events) times measures of elements at risk (human exposure) times measures of vulnerability (preparedness) in ...

  5. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and Tsunami Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2015-08-01

    On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced tsunami flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this tsunami) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the tsunami. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the tsunami are obtained with the MOST model (Tuc(itov) and Suc(ynolakis), J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; Tuc(itov) and Guc(onzalez,) NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational tsunami forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean tsunami data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for Tsunamis) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the tsunami event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event (r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run-up is underestimated by more than 10 %; in only 5 was run-up overestimated by more than 10 %), and (2) the locations where the model underestimates run-up also tend to have experienced heavy or very heavy coral damage (8 of the 15 villages), whereas well-estimated run-up locations characteristically experience low or very low damage (7 of 11 villages). These findings imply that a numerical model may overestimate the energy loss of the tsunami waves during their interaction with the coral reef. We plan future studies to quantify this energy loss and to explore what improvements can be made in simulations of tsunami run-up when simulating coastal environments with fringing coral reefs.

  6. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and Tsunami Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.

    2015-12-01

    On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced tsunami flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this tsunami) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the tsunami. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the tsunami are obtained with the MOST model (T itov and S ynolakis, J. Waterway Port Coast Ocean Eng: pp 171, 1998; T itov and G onzalez, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational tsunami forecast tool used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-ocean tsunami data from three DART® (Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting for Tsunamis) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the tsunami event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event ( r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run-up is underestimated by more than 10 %; in only 5 was run-up overestimated by more than 10 %), and (2) the locations where the model underestimates run-up also tend to have experienced heavy or very heavy coral damage (8 of the 15 villages), whereas well-estimated run-up locations characteristically experience low or very low damage (7 of 11 villages). These findings imply that a numerical model may overestimate the energy loss of the tsunami waves during their interaction with the coral reef. We plan future studies to quantify this energy loss and to explore what improvements can be made in simulations of tsunami run-up when simulating coastal environments with fringing coral reefs.

  7. Dynamics of tsunami waves

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, F; Dias, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Dutykh, Denys

    2006-01-01

    The life of a tsunami is usually divided into three phases: the generation (tsunami source), the propagation and the inundation. Each phase is complex and often described separately. A brief description of each phase is given. Model problems are identified. Their formulation is given. While some of these problems can be solved analytically, most require numerical techniques. The inundation phase is less documented than the other phases. It is shown that methods based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) are particularly well-suited for the inundation phase. Directions for future research are outlined.

  8. Modelling tsunamis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We doubt the relevance of soliton theory to the modelling of tsunamis, and present a case in support of an alternative view. Although the shallow-water equations do provide, we believe, an appropriate basis for this phenomenon, an asymptotic analysis of the solution for realistic variable depths, and for suitable background flows, is essential for a complete understanding of this phenomenon. In particular we explain how a number of tsunami waves can arrive at a shoreline. (letter to the editor)

  9. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  10. Observations of the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami on the Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) of 11 March 2011 generated highly catastrophic tsunami waves that reached runup heights of up to 40 m along the coast of Japan and were recorded by numerous coastal tide gauges and bottom pressure stations throughout the Pacific Ocean. Near the coast of British Columbia (BC), the tsunami was measured by 15 permanent tide gauges, including gauges located well inside the Strait of Georgia and at Patricia Bay in Saanich Inlet (the site of the Institute of Ocean Sciences, IOS). Tsunami waves were also recorded by 5 temporary tide gauges within Victoria Harbour waterways (Gorge and Portage inlets), by 4 NEPTUNE-Canada bottom cable observatories on the Vancouver Island shelf and by 3 VENUS bottom pressure recorders within Saanich Inlet. Maximum tsunami wave heights observed on the outer BC coast were 1.0-1.5 m, while those within the sheltered basins of the inner coast were about ten times lower. The tsunami wave signal was also observed in the temperature, salinity and current velocity records of CTDs and an ADCP installed in an anoxic Canadian fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island. The collected data enabled us to examine the statistical and spectral properties of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami on the coast of British Columbia and to estimate the relative tsunami risk for this coast from distant earthquakes. The tsunami record from the deepest NEPTUNE (CORK) station was used as the input function for the IOS regional tsunami forecast model. The computed and observed tsunami wave forms for this event were in good agreement.

  11. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  12. Developing tsunami fragility curves based on the satellite remote sensing and the numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suppasri, A.; S. Koshimura; F. Imamura

    2011-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami damaged and destroyed numerous buildings and houses in Thailand. Estimation of tsunami impact to buildings from this event and evaluation of the potential risks are important but still in progress. The tsunami fragility curve is a function used to estimate the structural fragility against tsunami hazards. This study was undertaken to develop fragility curves using visual inspection of high-resolution satellite images (IKONOS) taken before and after tsunami events...

  13. A Tsunami PSA for Nuclear Power Plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied in this study. At first, an empirical tsunami hazard analysis performed for an evaluation of tsunami return period. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. Finally, a system analysis performed in the case of tsunami event for an evaluation of a CDF of Ulchin 56 NPP site. For the evaluation of safety of NPP caused by Tsunami event, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method was applied. A procedure for tsunami fragility methodology was established, and target equipment and structures for investigation of Tsunami Hazard assessment were selected. A several fragility calculations were performed for equipment in Nuclear Power Plant and finally accident scenario of tsunami event in NPP was presented. As a result, in the case of tsunami event, functional failure is mostly governed total failure probability of facilities in NPP site

  14. Laboratory investigations of the effects of geologic heterogeneity on groundwater salinization and flush-out times from a tsunami-like event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K. H.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Obeysekera, J.

    2012-08-01

    This intermediate scale laboratory experimental study was designed to improve the conceptual understanding of aquifer flushing time associated with diffuse saltwater contamination of coastal aquifers due to a tsunami-like event. The motivation comes from field observations made after the tsunami in December, 2004 in South Asia. The focus is on the role and effects of heterogeneity on flushing effectiveness. A scheme that combines experimentation in a 4.8 m long laboratory tank and numerical modeling was used. To demonstrate the effects of geologic heterogeneity, plume migration and flushing times were analyzed in both homogeneous and layered media and under different boundary conditions (ambient flow, saltwater infiltration rate, freshwater recharge). Saltwater and freshwater infiltrations imitate the results of the groundwater salinization from the tsunami and freshening from the monsoon rainfall. The saltwater plume behavior was monitored both through visual observations (digital photography) of the dyed salt water and using measurements taken from several electrical conductivity sensors installed through the tank walls. The variable-density, three dimensional code HST3D was used to simulate the tank experiments and understand the fate and movement of the saltwater plume under field conditions. The results from the tank experiments and modeling demonstrated that macro-scale heterogeneity significantly influenced the migration patterns and flushing times of diffuse saltwater contamination. Ambient flow had a direct influence on total flush-out time, and heterogeneity impacted flush-out times for the top part of the tank and total flush-out times. The presence of a continuous low-permeability layer caused a 40% increase in complete flush-out time due to the slower flow of salt water in the low-permeability layer. When a relatively small opening was introduced in the low-permeability layer, salt water migrated quickly into a higher-permeable layer below causing a reduction in flush-out time. Freshwater recharge caused an early dilution of salt water in the top part of the tank in the case of a layered media, but also pushed the saltwater plume into the low-permeability layer which led to increased total flush-out times.

  15. State-of-the-Art in Tsunami Risk Modelling for a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Tsunamis can be considered as the natural hazard with the largest global spread in terms of hazard distribution due to a single event with the exception of global extinction level events (volcanoes, meteor impacts). Multiple extreme events have occurred during the last decade, including the devastating 2004 Sumatra tsunami and the events in Japan and Chile in 2011. In general, the hazard and risk of tsunamis is investigated in regional or inter-regional projects like in Japan, Indonesia or New Zealand following different methodologies and investigating various source mechanisms. Thus, in this study, a review of the state-of-the-art in global tsunami risk modelling has been undertaken. The most recent and up-to-date methodologies and projects from all over the world have been assembled for a direct comparison to provide a global perspective into a hazard scenario that affects multiple countries at once to extreme magnitudes. The assemblage of these models provides an insight into the temporal and spatial development of tsunami risk research and how it was adopted by research institutes and combined into official hazard modelling. A global map is assembled, indicating local and international case studies and projects with respect to their source model and date of development. In addition, the study also covers the development of software packages used to set up hazard and risk models and it investigates the different source processes of tsunami generation and propagation. A comparison is made using a multicriteria approach to examine the physical models and capabilities of software packages as well as the source identification procedure in different hazard models. A complete and up-to-date overview of tsunami risk and hazard modelling is presented, compared and classified which has far-reaching uses for the preparation of a tsunami risk assessment at any point on the earth.

  16. Overview of the BlockNormal event trigger generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the search for unmodelled gravitational wave bursts, there are a variety of methods that have been proposed to generate candidate events from time series data. BlockNormal is a method of identifying candidate events by searching for places in the data stream where the characteristic statistics of the data change. These change points divide the data into blocks in which the characteristics of the block are stationary. Blocks in which these characteristics are inconsistent with the long term characteristic statistics are marked as event triggers, which can then be investigated by a more computationally demanding multi-detector analysis

  17. Overview of the BlockNormal Event Trigger Generator

    CERN Document Server

    McNabb, J W C; Finn, L S; Rotthoff, E; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sutton, P; Tibbits, M; Thorne, K; Zaleski, K D

    2004-01-01

    In the search for unmodeled gravitational wave bursts, there are a variety of methods that have been proposed to generate candidate events from time series data. Block Normal is a method of identifying candidate events by searching for places in the data stream where the characteristic statistics of the data change. These change-points divide the data into blocks in which the characteristics of the block are stationary. Blocks in which these characteristics are inconsistent with the long term characteristic statistics are marked as Event-Triggers which can then be investigated by a more computationally demanding multi-detector analysis.

  18. PROFESSOR: Systematic tuning of Monte Carlo event generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Holger; Lacker, Heiko [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Buckley, Andy [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University (United Kingdom); Hoeth, Hendrik [Lund University (Sweden); Seggern, Jan Eike von [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The non-perturbative part of an event in a Monte Carlo event generator is described by certain models that are approximations to the actually happening physics processes. These models comprise a large number of partly strongly correlated and relatively free parameters. In addition, the machinery of attaching perturbative and non-perturbative regimes together is steered by parameters that have no physical meaning. The quality of the model description can be tested by comparing experimental data with the observables derived from the generated events. So far, the tuning of Monte Carlo event generators was attempted by means of trial and error or enormous computing time. In this talk the software PROFESSOR (PROcedure For Estimating SyStematic errORs) is presented which represents a systematic approach to find optimal parameter values by fitting a parameterisation of the generator's description of observables to high-precision data. Examples of the application to models of fragmentation and the underlying event are being presented.

  19. Tsunami Research and Monitoring Enabled through Ocean Network Canada's NEPTUNE Cabled Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Insua, T. L.; Mihaly, S. F.; Thomson, R.; Rabinovich, A.; Fine, I.; Scherwath, M.; Moran, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC; http://www.oceannetworks.ca/) operates the multidisciplinary NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of Canada and an increasing number of miniature ocean observatories, such as in the Canadian Arctic. All data collected by these observatories are archived and publicly available through ONC's Oceans 2.0 data portal. Much of the data are related to marine geohazards, such as earthquakes, submarine landslides, and tsunamis and are delivered in real-time to various agencies, including early warning centers. The NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories consist of over 850 km of cable deployed inshore and offshore off Vancouver Island and covers the coastal zones, the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, Cascadia Basin, and the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geological evidence suggests that there is a 25-40% probability of a magnitude 8 or greater megathrust earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone in the next 50 years and that the most recent great earthquake (estimated magnitude ~9.0) that occurred in 1700 caused widespread tsunami damage. However, most of the tsunamis that arrive in the area originate from distant sources around the Pacific. Over the last 100 years, numerous major tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, killing many tens of thousands of people. The NEPTUNE observatory includes high-precision bottom pressure recorders (BPRs) at each major nodes and a tsunami meter consisting of three BPRs arranged on a ~20 km radius circle around the flat Cascadia Basin site. On September 30, 2009, just days after the first NEPTUNE instruments were installed, the first tsunami waves of 2.5-6.0 cm amplitude generated by the Mw 8.1 Samoa earthquake were recorded by six BPRs. The Samoan tsunami was followed by several other events recorded by the network, including the 2010 Chilean tsunami, the 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami, and the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami. These open-ocean observations were uncontaminated by coastal effects, demonstrating that NEPTUNE records from future tsunami events can be effectively used as real-time input to regional numerical tsunami forecast models. In fact, real-time data from NEPTUNE seismometers and BPRs already feed into the NOAA operated tsunami early warning systems.

  20. Tsunami waveform inversion for sea surface displacement following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: Importance of dispersion and source kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Dettmer, Jan; Baba, Toshitaka

    2015-09-01

    This paper considers the importance of model parameterization, including dispersion, source kinematics, and source discretization, in tsunami source inversion. We implement single and multiple time window methods for dispersive and nondispersive wave propagation to estimate source models for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Our source model is described by sea surface displacement instead of fault slip, since sea surface displacement accounts for various tsunami generation mechanisms in addition to fault slip. The results show that tsunami source models can strongly depend on such model choices, particularly when high-quality, open-ocean tsunami waveform data are available. We carry out several synthetic inversion tests to validate the method and assess the impact of parameterization including dispersion and variable rupture velocity in data predictions on the inversion results. Although each of these effects has been considered separately in previous studies, we show that it is important to consider them together in order to obtain more meaningful inversion results. Our results suggest that the discretization of the source, the use of dispersive waves, and accounting for source kinematics are all important factors in tsunami source inversion of large events such as the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, particularly when an extensive set of high-quality tsunami waveform recordings are available. For the Tohoku event, a dispersive model with variable rupture velocity results in a profound improvement in waveform fits that justify the higher source complexity and provide a more realistic source model.

  1. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  2. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; /Edinburgh U.; Butterworth, Jonathan; /University Coll. London; Gieseke, Stefan; /Karlsruhe U., ITP; Grellscheid, David; /Durham U., IPPP; Hoche, Stefan; /SLAC; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys. /CERN; Nurse, Emily; /University Coll. London; Richardson, Peter; /Durham U., IPPP; Schumann, Steffen; /Heidelberg U.; Seymour, Michael H.; /Manchester U.; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Skands, Peter; /CERN; Webber, Bryan; /Cambridge U.

    2011-03-03

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard-scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond-Standard-Model processes. We describe the principal features of the Ariadne, Herwig++, Pythia 8 and Sherpa generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists wanting a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  3. General-purpose event generators for LHC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy [PPE Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH25 9PN (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gieseke, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Grellscheid, David [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Loennblad, Leif [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nurse, Emily [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Richardson, Peter [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schumann, Steffen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Seymour, Michael H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sjoestrand, Torbjoern [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University (Sweden); Skands, Peter [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Webber, Bryan, E-mail: webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    We review the physics basis, main features and use of general-purpose Monte Carlo event generators for the simulation of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics included are: the generation of hard scattering matrix elements for processes of interest, at both leading and next-to-leading QCD perturbative order; their matching to approximate treatments of higher orders based on the showering approximation; the parton and dipole shower formulations; parton distribution functions for event generators; non-perturbative aspects such as soft QCD collisions, the underlying event and diffractive processes; the string and cluster models for hadron formation; the treatment of hadron and tau decays; the inclusion of QED radiation and beyond Standard Model processes. We describe the principal features of the ARIADNE, Herwig++, PYTHIA 8 and SHERPA generators, together with the Rivet and Professor validation and tuning tools, and discuss the physics philosophy behind the proper use of these generators and tools. This review is aimed at phenomenologists wishing to understand better how parton-level predictions are translated into hadron-level events as well as experimentalists seeking a deeper insight into the tools available for signal and background simulation at the LHC.

  4. A tsunami PSA methodology and application for NPP site in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. ? Tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. ? Procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. ? A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. ? Accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. - Abstract: A methodology of tsunami PSA was developed in this study. A tsunami PSA consists of tsunami hazard analysis, tsunami fragility analysis and system analysis. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, evaluation of tsunami return period is a major task. For the evaluation of tsunami return period, numerical analysis and empirical method can be applied. In this study, tsunami return period was evaluated by empirical method using historical tsunami record and tidal gauge record. For the performing a tsunami fragility analysis, procedure of tsunami fragility analysis was established and target equipments and structures for investigation of tsunami fragility assessment were selected. A sample fragility calculation was performed for the equipment in Nuclear Power Plant. In the case of system analysis, accident sequence of tsunami event is developed by according to the tsunami run-up and draw down, and tsunami induced core damage frequency (CDF) is determined. For the application to the real Nuclear Power Plant, the Ulchin 56 NPP which located in east coast of Korean peninsula was selected. Through this study, whole tsunami PSA working procedure was established and example calculation was performed for one of real Nuclear Power Plant in Korea. But for more accurate tsunami PSA result, there are many researches needed for evaluation of hydrodynamic force, effect of debris, structural failure probability of break water structure and intake structure, functional failure criteria for offsite power.

  5. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; Sardiña, Victor; Hsu, Vindell; Hirshorn, Barry F.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Duputel, Zacharie; Rivera, Luis; Kanamori, Hiroo; Koyanagi, Kanoa K.; Shiro, Brian

    2012-10-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  6. Re-estimated fault model of the 17th century great earthquake off Hokkaido using tsunami deposit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioki, Kei; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Paleotsunami researches revealed that a great earthquake occurred off eastern Hokkaido, Japan and generated a large tsunami in the 17th century. Tsunami deposits from this event have been found at far inland from the Pacific coast in eastern Hokkaido. Previous study estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake by comparing locations of lowland tsunami deposits and computed tsunami inundation areas. Tsunami deposits were also traced at high cliff near the coast as high as 18 m above the sea level. Recent paleotsunami study also traced tsunami deposits at other high cliffs along the Pacific coast. The fault model estimated from previous study cannot explain the tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. In this study, we estimated the fault model of the 17th century great earthquake to explain both lowland widespread tsunami deposit areas and tsunami deposit data at high cliffs near the coast. We found that distributions of lowland tsunami deposits were mainly explained by wide rupture area at the plate interface in Tokachi-Oki segment and Nemuro-Oki segment. Tsunami deposits at high cliff near the coast were mainly explained by very large slip of 25 m at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench in those segments. The total seismic moment of the 17th century great earthquake was calculated to be 1.7 ×1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The 2011 great Tohoku earthquake ruptured large area off Tohoku and very large slip amount was found at the shallow part of the plate interface near the trench. The 17th century great earthquake had the same characteristics as the 2011 great Tohoku earthquake.

  7. Near-field tsunami edge waves and complex earthquake rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

  8. Sensor-Generated Time Series Events: A Definition Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pazos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are now a great many domains where information is recorded by sensors over a limited time period or on a permanent basis. This data flow leads to sequences of data known as time series. In many domains, like seismography or medicine, time series analysis focuses on particular regions of interest, known as events, whereas the remainder of the time series contains hardly any useful information. In these domains, there is a need for mechanisms to identify and locate such events. In this paper, we propose an events definition language that is general enough to be used to easily and naturally define events in time series recorded by sensors in any domain. The proposed language has been applied to the definition of time series events generated within the branch of medicine dealing with balance-related functions in human beings. A device, called posturograph, is used to study balance-related functions. The platform has four sensors that record the pressure intensity being exerted on the platform, generating four interrelated time series. As opposed to the existing ad hoc proposals, the results confirm that the proposed language is valid, that is generally applicable and accurate, for identifying the events contained in the time series.

  9. NLO event generation for chargino production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte-Carlo event generator for simulating chargino pair-production at the International Linear Collider (ILC) at next-to-leading order in the electroweak couplings. By properly resumming photons in the soft and collinear regions, we avoid negative event weights, so the program can simulate physical (unweighted) event samples. Photons are explicitly generated throughout the range where they can be experimentally resolved. Inspecting the dependence on the cutoffs separating the soft and collinear regions, we evaluate the systematic errors due to soft and collinear approximations. In the resummation approach, the residual uncertainty can be brought down to the per-mil level, coinciding with the expected statistical uncertainty at the ILC. (Orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, I.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Protopopescu, S.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A brief review of Monte Carlo event generators for simulating hadron-hadron collisions is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on comparisons of the approaches used to describe physics elements and identifying their relative merits and weaknesses. This review summarizes a more detailed report.

  11. Recent developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Schönherr, Marek

    2015-01-01

    With Run II of the LHC having started, the need for high precision theory predictions whose uncertainty matches that of the data to be taken necessitated a range of new developments in Monte-Carlo Event Generators. This talk will give an overview of the progress in recent years in the field and what can and cannot be expected from these newly written tools.

  12. Physical Modelling of Granular Landslide-Generated Tsunamis with Large Relative Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G.; Mulligan, R. P.; Take, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding gravity driven landslides and the properties of the resulting landslide-generated waves is of increasing importance with the continued development in mountainous coastal areas that have a high landslide risk. Previous studies have focused on landslides with small relative mass and large relative thickness acting as a solid block, however very large and extremely rapid landslides typically behave like a flow of granular material. In the present study, we observe the properties of landslides and landslide-generated waves in a 2m wide laboratory landslide flume. The test landslide consists of 3 mm spherical ceramic beads that are released down an 8 m long slope inclined at an angle of 30°. Using high-speed digital cameras and capacitance wave gauges, we measure the wave generation and propagation along the 36 m wave flume and run-up on an angled ramp for a range of landslide volumes and water depths. Using particle image velocimetry, we analyze the landslide properties at impact (velocity, thickness, shear) and correlate the these with the wave properties (height, celerity, spectra) in the generation region. In particular we investigate the influence of large landslide mass relative to the water depth on the wave behaviour. Characterizing the behaviour and interaction of massive and rapid granular landslide flows into water is crucial for the accurately assessing the risk to the design of coastal infrastructure including hydroelectric operations.

  13. Grey-box GUI Testing: Efficient Generation of Event Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Arlt, Stephan; Bertolini, Cristiano; Memon, Atif M; Schäf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs), due to their event driven nature, present a potentially unbounded space of all possible ways to interact with software. During testing it becomes necessary to effectively sample this space. In this paper we develop algorithms that sample the GUI's input space by only generating sequences that (1) are allowed by the GUI's structure, and (2) chain together only those events that have data dependencies between their event handlers. We create a new abstraction, called an event-dependency graph (EDG) of the GUI, that captures data dependencies between event handler code. We develop a mapping between EDGs and an existing black-box user-level model of the GUI's workflow, called an event-flow graph (EFG). We have implemented automated EDG construction in a tool that analyzes the bytecode of each event handler. We evaluate our "grey-box" approach using four open-source applications and compare it with the current state-of-the-art EFG approach. Our results show that using the EDG reduc...

  14. The events associated with the great tsunami of 26 December, 2004 sea level variation and impact on coastal region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    stream_size 9945 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Brain_Storming_Sess_Great_Tsunami_2004_57.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Brain_Storming_Sess_Great_Tsunami_2004_57.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  15. Presumption of accident progression of Fukushima Dai-ichi and comparison of event sequences among NPSs affected by Tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to contribute to an improvement of accident managements and station blackout countermeasures for NPSs in Japan after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Stations (NPSs), Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has analyzed the progress of the accident scenarios and situation of reactor of the unit 1, 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS based on the information such as fragmentary plant chronologies, parameters and information disclosed by TEPCO and tried to figure out the rational explanation of behavior of each plant. In addition, JNES has compared and categorized the event sequences by using event tree method based on the event progression of Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, Tokai Dai-ni and Onagawa NPSs in order to extract important events and key factors from the viewpoint of prevention of core damage events and impact to event progression. (author)

  16. Tsunami Risk Management in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs): Some Issues, Challenges and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Goff, James

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific is well known for producing tsunamis, and events such as the 2011 T?hoku-oki, Japan disaster demonstrate the vulnerability of coastal communities. We review what is known about the current state of tsunami risk management for Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs), identify the issues and challenges associated with affecting meaningful tsunami disaster risk reduction (DRR) efforts and outline strategies and possible ways forward. Small island states are scattered across the vast Pacific region and these states have to varying degrees been affected by not only large tsunamis originating in circum-Pacific subduction zones, but also more regionally devastating events. Having outlined and described what is meant by the risk management process, the various problems associated with our current understanding of this process are examined. The poorly understood hazard related to local, regional and distant sources is investigated and the dominant focus on seismic events at the expense of other tsunami source types is noted. We reflect on the challenges of undertaking numerical modelling from generation to inundation and specifically detail the problems as they relate to PICTs. This is followed by an exploration of the challenges associated with mapping exposure and estimating vulnerability in low-lying coastal areas. The latter part of the paper is devoted to exploring what mitigation of the tsunami risk can look like and draw upon good practice cases as exemplars of the actions that can be taken from the local to regional level. Importantly, given the diversity of PICTs, no one approach will suit all places. The paper closes by making a series of recommendations to assist PICTs and the wider tsunami research community in thinking through improvements to their tsunami risk management processes and the research that can underpin these efforts.

  17. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and Tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ulutas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related tsunami, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The tsunami simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the tsunami hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the tsunami heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three propagation models based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1 pre-calculated simulations by using the tsunami scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2 near-real-time simulated tsunami forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3 post-event tsunami calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30–40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m tsunami run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died. The post-event calculations indicated medium-high humanitarian impacts.

  18. Source location impact on relative tsunami strength along the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. Tsunami spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of tsunamis from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and tsunamis in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming tsunami energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.

  19. Tsunami generated by a granular collapse down a rough inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Viroulet, Sylvain; Kimmoun, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the collapse of initially dry granular media into water and the subsequent impulse waves. We systematically characterize the influence of the slope angle and the granular material on the initial amplitude of the generated leading wave and the evolution of its amplitude during the propagation. The experiments show that whereas the evolution of the leading wave during the propagation is well predicted by a solution of the linearized Korteweg-de Vries equation, the generation of the wave is more complicated to describe. Our results suggest that the internal properties of the granular media and the interplay with the surrounding fluid are important parameters for the generation of waves at low velocity impacts. Moreover, the amplitude of the leading wave reaches a maximum value at large slope angle. The runout distance of the collapse is also shown to be smaller in the presence of water than under totally dry conditions. This study provides a first insight into tsunam...

  20. NLO event generation for chargino production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the chargino and neutralino sector of the MSSM, the electroweak SUSY parameters can be determined by a small number of measurements of masses and cross sections. At the ILC, these parameters can be determined with an experimental accuracy matching the precision of NLO and higher-order theoretical predictions. The higher order contributions therefore need to be included in the analysis of the parameters of the SUSY sector. We present a NLO Monte-Carlo event generator for simulating chargino pair-production at the ILC. We consider two approaches of including photon radiation. A strict fixed-order approach allows for comparison and consistency checks with published semi analytic results in the literature, but suffers from negative weights in certain points of phase space. A version with soft- and hard-collinear resummation of photon radiation, which combines photon resummation with the inclusion of the NLO matrix element for the production process,avoids negative event weights, so the program can simulate physical (unweighted) event samples. Photons are explicitly generated throughout the range where they can be experimentally resolved. We evaluate the systematic errors due to soft and collinear approximations. In the resummation approach, the residual uncertainty can be brought down to the per-mil level, coinciding with the expected statistical uncertainty at the ILC. We show results for cross sections and event generation for both approaches. (author)

  1. Tsunamis of volcanic origin: Summary of causes, with particular reference to Krakatoa, 1883

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    Known tsunamis of volcanic origin are reviewed and classified according to their causes. Earthquakes accompanying eruptions (excluding tectonic events which apparently triggered eruptions), pyroclastic flows, and submarine explosions have each accounted for about 20% of cases. Ten causes of volcanic tsunamis are discussed. From the risk point of view, those due to landslides are particularly dangerous. Eruptions at calderas are more likely to generate tsunamis than eruptions elsewhere. Of those killed directly by volcanic eruptions, nearly a quarter have died as a result of tsunamis. By transfer of energy to sea waves, a violent eruption, which would be comparatively harmless on land, extends greatly the radius over which destruction occurs. Krakatoa, 1883, is the only eruption sequence for which sufficient data exist for a detailed study of tsunamis. The times at which air and water waves generated by this sequence were recorded have been reread, and new origin times have been calculated and compared with observations made at the time. Origin times of successive pairs of air and water waves agree closely, except in some cases in which the tsunami arrived up to 15 minutes early, thus giving an apparent origin time 15 minutes before that of the corresponding air wave. This is explained by postulating that these tsunamis did not originate at the focus of the explosions, but at distances along the path towards the tide gauge, equivalent to those which would be covered by a tsunami in the time interval observed. The calculated point at which the largest recorded tsunami originated coincides with the outer edge of a bank of volcanic debris laid down during the eruption. This is interpreted as part of an unwelded ignimbrite deposit, the violent emplacement of which, within a minute or so of the explosion, generated the tsunami. A satisfactory correlation is established between explosions and deposits laid down by the eruptions, as described from a geological section close to the source vent. An outline is given of a proposed numerical index to define tsunamigenic potential at a given volcano. Such an index could be used to calculate the expected amplitudes of tsunamis at particular places in the vicinity, and hence could serve as a basis for tsunami risk contingency planning.

  2. Tsunami modeling Scenarios for the Western Black Sea, Shabla seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partheniu, Raluca; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ioane, Dumitru; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Although a rare natural phenomenon, tsunami type events in the Black Sea had been generated, past studies showing more than twenty events (Altinok Y., 1999). The western Black Sea could mostly be affected by earthquakes generated in Shabla area, the most known event being generated on 31st of March 1901, when an earthquake with Mw = 7.2 triggered tsunami waves up to 5 m height (Papadopoulos et al., 2011). In order to generate a tsunami in the Black Sea area, earthquakes should mainly follow some conditions: a) to have a magnitude Mw > 6.5; b) to have a focal depth h Bulgaria). The maximum wave heights and some of the affected locations for this scenario show that at Costinesti, Mangalia, Techirghiol cities the waves will reach 0.6 m height and respectively 0.5 m at Constanta city. According to these scenarios, the tsunami generated waves can vary as follows: increasing the depth from 5 to 10 and 30 km will lead to lower heights or no waves generation. Also a magnitude increase from 7 to 7.5 and then to 8 will lead to maximum waves generation.

  3. Insights on the 2009 South Pacific tsunami in Samoa and Tonga from field surveys and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.; Synolakis, Costas E.; Okal, Emile A.; Weiss, Robert; Titov, Vasily V.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Foteinis, Spyros; Lynett, Patrick J.; Chan, I.-Chi; Liu, Philip L.-F.

    2011-07-01

    An M w ≈ 8.1 earthquake south of the Samoan Islands on 29 September 2009 generated a tsunami that killed 189 people. From 4 to 11 October, an International Tsunami Survey Team surveyed the seven major islands of the Samoan archipelago. The team measured locally focused runup heights of 17 m at Poloa and inundation of more than 500 m at Pago Pago. A follow-up expedition from 23 to 28 November surveying the three main islands of Tonga's northernmost Niua group revealed surprising 22 m runup and 1 km inundation. We analyze the extreme tsunami runup and complex impact distribution based on physical and societal observations combined with numerical modeling. That an outer rise/outer trench slope (OR/OTS) event is responsible for a tsunami disaster in the Pacific calls for care in identifying and defining tsunami hazards. Evacuation exercises conducted in Samoa in the preceding year may have limited the human toll; however, cars were identified as potential death traps during tsunami evacuations. This event highlights the extreme hazards from near source tsunamis when the earthquake's shaking constitutes the de facto warning, and further underscores the importance of community based education and awareness programs as essential in saving lives.

  4. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, I P; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Arsene, I; Tywoniuk, K

    2008-01-01

    HYDJET++ is a Monte-Carlo event generator for the simulation of relativistic heavy ion AA collisions considered as a superposition of the soft, hydro-type state and the hard, multi-parton state. This model is the development and continuation of HYDJET event generator (Lokhtin & Snigirev, 2006, EPJC, 45, 211). The main program is written in the object-oriented C++ language under the ROOT environment. The hard part of HYDJET++ is identical to the hard part of Fortran-written HYDJET and is included in the generator structure as a separate directory. The soft part of HYDJET++ event is the "thermal" hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces represented by the parameterization of relativistic hydrodynamics with preset freeze-out conditions. It includes longitudinal, radial and elliptic flow effects and decays of hadronic resonances. The corresponding fast Monte-Carlo simulation procedure, C++ code FAST MC (Amelin et al., 2006, PRC, 74, 064901; 2008, PRC, 77, 014903) is adapte...

  5. Evaluation of Indian nuclear coastal sites for tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of tsunami wave modelling based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. The results of in-house finite element code Tsunami Solution(TSUSOL) is highlighted through numerical simulation of Sumatra-2004 and Makran-1945 tsunami events. The TSUSOL code is shown to have special capability of coupled tsunami and acoustic wave simulation, which is an important feature for the early warning system

  6. UNDERSTANDING TSUNAMI RISK TO STRUCTURES: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    D. Palermo; Nistor, I

    2008-01-01

    The potential catastrophic effects of tsunami-induced loading on built infrastructure in the vicinity of shorelines have been brought to the fore by recent global events. However, state- of-the-art building codes remain silent or provide conflicting guidance on designing near- shoreline structures in tsunami-prone areas. This paper focuses on tsunami-induced loading and its effect on structures within the Canadian context. The mechanics of tsunami-induced loading is described based on knowled...

  7. MAIZEGDB.ORG, the Maize Genetics Cooperation and the 2500 MB B73 Genome-Generated Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in sequencing technology have made it possible to sequence the 2500 MB B73 maize genome, both cheaply and in a relatively short time. Nearly simultaneously, other sequencing-based data are on the leading edge of a data tsunami: sequenced differences (currently >300,000 SNP for >1000 inbre...

  8. A protocol for coordinating post-tsunami field reconnaissance efforts in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick I.; Wood, Nathan J.; Kong, Laura; Shulters, Michael V.; Richards, Kevin D.; Dunbar, Paula; Tamura, Gen; Young, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of a catastrophic tsunami, much is to be learned about tsunami generation and propagation, landscape and ecological changes, and the response and recovery of those affected by the disaster. Knowledge of the impacted area directly helps response and relief personnel in their efforts to reach and care for survivors and for re-establishing community services. First-hand accounts of tsunami-related impacts and consequences also help researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in other parts of the world that lack recent events to better understand and manage their own societal risks posed by tsunami threats. Conducting post-tsunami surveys and disseminating useful results to decision makers in an effective, efficient, and timely manner is difficult given the logistical issues and competing demands in a post-disaster environment. To facilitate better coordination of field-data collection and dissemination of results, a protocol for coordinating post-tsunami science surveys was developed by a multi-disciplinary group of representatives from state and federal agencies in the USA. This protocol is being incorporated into local, state, and federal post-tsunami response planning through the efforts of the Pacific Risk Management ‘Ohana, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, and the U.S. National Plan for Disaster Impact Assessments. Although the protocol was designed to support a coordinated US post-tsunami response, we believe it could help inform post-disaster science surveys conducted elsewhere and further the discussion on how hazard researchers can most effectively operate in disaster environments.

  9. Extreme wave deposits on the Pacific coast of Mexico: Tsunamis or storms? — A multi-proxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa; Lagos, Marcelo; Hutchinson, Ian; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Machain, Maria Luisa; Caballero, Margarita; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Aguilar, Bertha; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Ortiz, Modesto; Nava, Hector; Bautista, Francisco; Lopez, Gloria I.; Quintana, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold — a) to determine whether storm and tsunami deposits could be distinguished, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted to be the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating, and numerical modeling) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 21st September 1985 Mexico and possibly the 14th March 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  10. Extreme Wave Deposits On The Pacific Coast Of Mexico: Tsunamis Or Storms? - A Multi-Proxy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Chague-Goff, C.; Kostoglodov, V.; Goff, J. R.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Urquijo, P.; Laboratorio Universitario de Geofísica Ambiental (Luga)

    2011-12-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish storm from tsunami deposits, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted as the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 1985 Mexico and possibly the 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  11. MODELING THE 1958 LITUYA BAY MEGA-TSUNAMI, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Mader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lituya Bay, Alaska is a T-Shaped bay, 7 miles long and up to 2 miles wide. The two arms at the head of the bay, Gilbert and Crillon Inlets, are part of a trench along the Fairweather Fault. On July 8, 1958, an 7.5 Magnitude earthquake occurred along the Fairweather fault with an epicenter near Lituya Bay.A mega-tsunami wave was generated that washed out trees to a maximum altitude of 520 meters at the entrance of Gilbert Inlet. Much of the rest of the shoreline of the Bay was denuded by the tsunami from 30 to 200 meters altitude.In the previous study it was determined that if the 520 meter high run-up was 50 to 100 meters thick, the observed inundation in the rest of Lituya Bay could be numerically reproduced. It was also concluded that further studies would require full Navier-Stokes modeling similar to those required for asteroid generated tsunami waves.During the Summer of 2000, Hermann Fritz conducted experiments that reproduced the Lituya Bay 1958 event. The laboratory experiments indicated that the 1958 Lituya Bay 524 meter run-up on the spur ridge of Gilbert Inlet could be caused by a landslide impact.The Lituya Bay impact landslide generated tsunami was modeled with the full Navier- Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE with includes the effect of gravity.

  12. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami como una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú.The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warning system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA. This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  13. ZONAS OSCURAS EN EL SISTEMA DE ALARMA DE ADVERTENCIA DE TSUNAMI EN CHILE / DARK ZONES IN ALARM SYSTEM OF TSUNAMI OF WARNING OF TSUNAMI IN CHILE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Alvarez; Jorge, Ramirez; Lorena, Paredes; Miguel, Canales.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El territorio chileno cuenta con alrededor de 80.000 km de costa considerando el territorio insular, un dato relevante al momento de considerar la ocurrencia de un tsunami. Las autoridades chilenas, conscientes de este extenso territorio marítimo, han desarrollado un sistema de alerta de tsunami com [...] o una responsabilidad estatal y han depositado su control a la oficina nacional de emergencia – ministerio del interior (ONEMI) y en el servicio hidrográfico y oceanográfico de la armada de Chile (SHOA). En este artículo hemos realizado experiencias con el objetivo de activar los sistemas de advertencias generando eventos telúricos ficticios y/o eventos telúricos históricos capaces de desatar eventos de tsunami. También se ha propuesto una hipótesis de trabajo que permita, a través de los procedimientos establecidos por ley de la República de Chile, monitorear los tiempos de respuestas de los organismos estatales. Nuestro trabajo de investigación entrega resultados que nos permiten afirmar que existen zonas para eventos hipotéticos que podrían generar tsunamis a los cuales el sistema de alerta no sería eficiente en reaccionar. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación hemos utilizado un software llamado SLAT, basado en ecuaciones simplificadas de propagación de una onda de tsunami que nos permite obtener resultados rápidos y además hemos sometido a prueba el sistema con datos oficiales en los cuales se ha demostrado que el sistema de alerta no fue capaz de reaccionar al evento Atico 8,4 M. ocurrido en Perú. Abstract in english The Chilean territory has an extensive coastline -about 80.000 km of coast including the territory of its islands – which is an important fact to consider in the event of the occurrence of a tsunami. The Chilean authorities, fully aware of the vast maritime territory, have developed a tsunami warnin [...] g system. This system constitutes a state responsibility, and its control has been entrusted to the national emergency office - ministry of interior (ONEMI) and hydrographic and oceanographic service of Chilean navy (SHOA). This article deals with experiences carried out in order to activate the warning systems, generating fictional telluric events and / or historical telluric events capable of triggering tsunami occurrences. It also proposes a working hypothesis that will allow monitoring the response of the state agencies, through the procedures established by law in the Republic of Chile. Our research delivers results that allow us to affirm that there are areas for hypothetical events that could generate tsunamis in which the To carry out this research we have used a software called STLAT based on simplified equations of the propagation of a tsunami wave, which has allowed us to get quick results. We have also carried out tests with official data which have shown that the alarm system was not able to respond appropriately to the 8.4 M Atico event that occurred in Peru in 2001.

  14. New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

    2012-12-01

    Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective methods were: (1) door-to-door (person-to-person) education, (2) evacuation drills, (3) outreach to K-12 schools, (4) media events, and (5) workshops targeted to key audiences (lodging facilities, teachers, and local officials). Community organizers were hired to apply these five methods to clusters of small communities, measuring performance by before and after polling. Organizers were encouraged to approach the top priority, person-to-person education, by developing Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) or CERT-like organizations in each community, thereby leaving behind a functioning volunteer-based group that will continue the outreach program and build long term resiliency. One of the most effective person-to-person educational tools was the Map Your Neighborhood program that brings people together so they can sketch the basic layout of their neighborhoods to depict key earthquake and tsunami hazards and mitigation solutions. The various person-to-person volunteer efforts and supporting outreach activities are knitting communities together and creating a permanent culture of tsunami and earthquake preparedness. All major Oregon coastal population centers will have been covered by this intensive outreach program by ~2014.

  15. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojumuddin, Nur Syereena; Yusof, Fadhilah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Yusop, Zulkifli [Institute of Environmental and Water Resources Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor.

  16. Stochastic generation of hourly rainstorm events in Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers and researchers in water-related studies are often faced with the problem of having insufficient and long rainfall record. Practical and effective methods must be developed to generate unavailable data from limited available data. Therefore, this paper presents a Monte-Carlo based stochastic hourly rainfall generation model to complement the unavailable data. The Monte Carlo simulation used in this study is based on the best fit of storm characteristics. Hence, by using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and Anderson Darling goodness-of-fit test, lognormal appeared to be the best rainfall distribution. Therefore, the Monte Carlo simulation based on lognormal distribution was used in the study. The proposed model was verified by comparing the statistical moments of rainstorm characteristics from the combination of the observed rainstorm events under 10 years and simulated rainstorm events under 30 years of rainfall records with those under the entire 40 years of observed rainfall data based on the hourly rainfall data at the station J1 in Johor over the period of 1972–2011. The absolute percentage error of the duration-depth, duration-inter-event time and depth-inter-event time will be used as the accuracy test. The results showed the first four product-moments of the observed rainstorm characteristics were close with the simulated rainstorm characteristics. The proposed model can be used as a basis to derive rainfall intensity-duration frequency in Johor

  17. A new version of the event generator Sibyll

    OpenAIRE

    Riehn, Felix; Engel, Ralph; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Stanev, Todor

    2015-01-01

    The event generator Sibyll can be used for the simulation of hadronic multiparticle production up to the highest cosmic ray energies. It is optimized for providing an economic description of those aspects of the expected hadronic final states that are needed for the calculation of air showers and atmospheric lepton fluxes. New measurements from fixed target and collider experiments, in particular those at LHC, allow us to test the predictive power of the model version 2.1, w...

  18. NiMax system for hadronic event generators in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have suggested a new approach to the development and use of Monte Carlo event generators in high-energy physics (HEP). It is a component approach, when a complex numerical model is composed of standard components. Our approach opens a way to organize a library of HEP model components and provides a great flexibility for the construction of very powerful and realistic numerical models. To support this approach we have designed the NiMax software system (framework) written in C++

  19. The 1992 Flores Earthquake Revisited: From Earthquake Source to Tsunami Inundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, H.; Cummins, P. R.; Griffin, J.; Hossen, J.; Horspool, N.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Kongko, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 1992 Flores earthquake (Mw=7.8) occurred on a back arc thrust near the island of Flores, Indonesia, causing widespread coastal uplift and subsidence, and generating a local tsunami with maximum runup height of over 25 meters that killed over 2,000 people. The event has been the subject of numerous publications on its various aspects, including the earthquake source mechanism determined from seismic data, and modelling of inundaiotn and tide gauge study data to study generation of the tsunami. To date, however, no studies have quantitatively assessed the constraints placed on the source mechanism by all the different types of data - seismic, geodetic and tsunami tide gauge waveforms and inundation. The opportunity to greatly improve the latter has presented itself recently through the availability of a high-resolution LiDAR data set for the topography along coastal strip near the earthquake. In this study we have undertaken a joint inversion of seismic and geodetic data available from this earthquake, and compared the results obtained to tsunami inundation and tide gauge data. We will present an assessment of what constraints the different data types place on the source mechanism, and how well these are compatible with the observed tsunami inundation results. Preliminary results suggest that the roughly 2 m inundation near Maumere is well explained, but the extreme tsunami run-up at Riang Kroko is not

  20. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  1. Assessing the source of the 2010 Chilean tsunami using DART data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Sen, C.; Aydin, B.; Tang, L.; Titov, V. V.; Kanoglu, U.

    2010-12-01

    There has been substantial interest in developing tsunami resilient communities for tsunami-prone regions worldwide following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004. In the United States, NOAA has accelerated its effort in developing a tsunami forecasting system. NOAA’s forecasting methodology is based on the concept of a pre-computed tsunami scenario database which includes tsunami evolution from 100km x 50km earthquakes called tsunami source functions. These source functions have a slip value of 1m, and are placed along the subduction zones of the world oceans in several rows. Linearity of the tsunami propagation in the open ocean allows scaling and/or combination of the pre-computed propagation database source functions. The offshore scenario is obtained through scaling and/or combination of tsunami source functions constrained with Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART™) buoy measurements. Once the offshore scenario is constructed, this provides initial and boundary conditions for the high-resolution, site-specific, nonlinear local forecast products. The determination of the offshore scenario requires inversion of DART™ buoy measurements. We determine the event scenario using different minimization techniques, including least-square minimization and genetic algorithm search. Specifically, we tested different minimization functions, i.e., the sum of the squared residuals, the sum of the magnitudes of the residuals, the largest magnitude of the residuals, the sum of the squared residuals at the model peak and trough. In addition, we implemented earthquake magnitude for one of the minimization functions as a constraint. We used the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami generated by a Mw 8.8 earthquake as a test case. In approximately three hours after its generation, the Chilean tsunami was first recorded at DART™ buoy 32412 then at the other DARTs in the region. We used one and/or several DART measurement(s) to test different minimization functions and constraints. We discuss minimization functions and constraints which might lead to better estimates at coastal tide gages using local forecast models.

  2. How study of hurricane swell can help to provide a better prediction of the tsunami wave propagation on Caribbean coasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Dondin, Frédéric; Cécé, Raphael; Bernard, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Prediction of tsunami wave propagation on a complex bathymetry can be fatal. Do a mistake on the location of the tsunami wave impact on the coast is highly dangerous. The destruction due to mechanical impact or submersion of the large area of the coast zone can be avoid with a good estimation (i.e.; height, location, duration) of the hazard. Features of the propagation are important in term of values but also in term of dynamic, an evacuation plan is directly base on the prediction of the sequence of events. The frequency of large tsunami is low, but the study of real case may help to have a complete comprehension of the process. We would be better prepare for a tsunami if we had more tsunami. Caribbean arc was generated by an intense tectonic motion and volcanic activity. The risk of tsunami is high in the area both generated by tectonic motion and volcanic landslide. The quality of a numerical propagation of tsunami is highly dependent of the quality of the DEM Caribbean coast are impact by large Hurricane wave. The study of those can be helpful in the tsunami study, particularly for the bathymetry effect on large wave. The shape of the both types of wave are not the same, we do not try to do a direct comparison, but used the information of the dispersion of large swell wave to applied it to the tsunami dispersion and fill the lack of information of the bathymetry. We focus on the comparative study of the propagation of tsunami wave generated by submarine volcano land slide and hurricane wave on a small scale bathymetry (10 m, Lito 3d). The case of Guadeloupe and Martinique island are detailed in this study, due to the available dataset. We used those two territories as reference area. The numerical propagation of the waves is done with FUNWAVE on two different bathymetry (10 m & 50 m). The tsunami wave was generated by VolcFlow in case of submarine volcano collapse and the swell determine by coupling of WaveWatchIII and SWAN in case of past Hurricane. The information gathered by the propagation of a past study will help to correct the bathymetry and have a best prediction of the propagation of a tsunami wave. The result is applied on other Caribbean islands to improve the prediction method of tsunami wave propagation.

  3. e+e- event generator EPOCS user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPOCS(Electron POsitron Collision Simulator) is a Monte-Carlo event generator for high energy e+e- annihilation. This program generates events based on the standard model, i.e., quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and electro-weak theory. It works at the center-of-mass energy below W+W- production, i.e., in the energy region of TRISTAN, SLC and LEP. For these high energy machines one of the important subjects is the exploration for the top quark. The production and hadronization of the top quark is included in EPOCS. Besides the top quark, we expect 'new' physics in this high energy region. EPOCS has enough flexibility for users to cope with a new idea. Users can register a new particle, modify the built-in particle data, define new primary interactions and so on. The event generator has a number of parameters, both physical parameters and control parameters. Users can control most of these parameters in EPOCS at will. (author)

  4. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60?000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  5. Assessment of Landslide-Tsunami Hazard for the Gulf of Mexico Using a Probabilistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampell, A.; Horrillo, J. J.; Parambath, L.; Shigihara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The devastating consequences of recent tsunami events in Indonesia (2004) and Japan (2011) have prompted a scientific response in assessing tsunami hazard even in regions where an apparent low risk or/and lack of complete historical tsunami record exists. Although a great uncertainty exists regarding the recurrence rate of large-scale tsunami events in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) due to sparsity of data, geological and historical evidences indicate that the most likely tsunami hazard could come from a submarine landslide triggered by a moderate earthquake. Under these circumstances, the assessment of the tsunami hazard in the region could be better accomplished by means of a probabilistic approach to identify tsunami sources. This study aims to customize for the GOM a probabilistic hazard assessment based on recurrence rates of tsunamigenic submarine mass failures (SMFs). The Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is employed utilizing matrix correlations for landslide parameters to incorporate the uncertainty related to location/water-depth and landslide dimension based on lognormal/normal distributions obtained from observed data. Along fixed transects over the continental slope of the GOM, slide angle of failure, sediment properties and seismic peak horizontal accelerations (PHA) are determined by publicly available data. These parameter values are used to perform slope stability analyses in randomly generated translational SMFs obtained from the MCS technique. Once the SMF is identified as tsunamigenic for a given PHA recurrence rate, a preliminary tsunami amplitude can be estimated using empirical formulations. Thus, the annual probability of a tsunamigenic SMF is determined by the joint probability of failure with the annual PHA. By using the probabilistic approach, we identified tsunami sources with recurrence rates from few thousands to 10,000 years which produce extreme wave amplitudes for each transect. The most likely extreme tsunamigenic SMF events for a given transect are then modeled to determine hazard to specific coastal locations, including maximum runup heights, inundation depth/extent, and strong currents affecting communities and infrastructure, thus mitigating the impact of tsunamis according to the guidelines of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  6. Tsunami Science for Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  7. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  8. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  9. Response of Coastal Structures against Earthquake Forces Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Tsunami Run-Up Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.P.Kodanda Ramarao,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic tsunamis generated by the great Indonesia earthquake triggered on December 26th, 2004, warned the coastal community on preparedness and constructing safe structures to resist against such events. Earthquake occurs suddenly without warning and bulk of destruction takes place within a short period of time. Similarly, when tsunami strikes, there will be a tremendous loss and damage in coastal regions. Apart from having a sound warning system in case of tsunamis, it is necessary to build Earthquake–Tsunami Resistant (ETR shelters, where residents living in coastal plain regions cannot move to farther distances before tsunami arrives the coast. Hence it is necessary to establish analytical methods for obtaining the response of coastal structures subjected to earthquake forces considering soil-structure interaction and also against tsunami run-up forces. A three storied shelter building with four different cases of structural configurations and another typical structure, an elevated water tank of 6 lakh liters capacity are chosen for the analysis. A comparative study is made on the response of these structures against earthquake forces, when they rest on different soil/rock media. In the analysis, IS 1893-2002 seismic code for determining the base shear values against earthquake loads and FEMA 55 to calculate hydrodynamic and impact forces against tsunami impact are used. From the results, it is observed that the refuge shelters that are chosen are more vulnerable to high tide tsunami loads compared to earthquake loads. In general, it is noticed that Base shears and Displacements increase with the decreases in stiffness of the soil and this increase attributes more due to rocking effect of the soil. Buildings with open storey at bottom and upper stories with heavy mass give significant rise to time period of these structures causing early failures during an earthquake before tsunami arrives. In this study, a useful guideline is evaluated demarcating the heights below which earthquake forces and above which tsunami forces are predominant in the structure.

  10. The 1945 Balochistan earthquake and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Makran subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchner, Andreas; Babeyko, Andrey; Zamora, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Iran and Pakistan are countries quite frequently affected by destructive earthquakes. For instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30'000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, but a tsunami caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Additionally, some recent publications raise the question of the possiblity of rare but huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We first model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights, and then generate various synthetic earthquake and tsunami catalogs including the possibility of large events in order to asses the tsunami hazard at the affected coastal regions. Finally, we show how an effective tsunami early warning could be achieved by the use of an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast.

  11. MARINE CONGLOMERATE AND REEF MEGACLASTS AT MAURITUS ISLAND: Evidences of a tsunami generated by a flank collapse of the PITON DE LA Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island?

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, R.; Kelfoun, K.; T. Giachetti

    2014-01-01

    Tsunamis related to volcano flank collapse are typically a high-magnitude, low frequency hazard for which evaluation and mitigation are difficult to address. In this short communication, we present field evidences of a large tsunami along the southern coast of Mauritius Island ca. 4400 years ago. Tsunami deposits described include both marine conglomerates and coral boulders up to 90 m3 (> 100 tons). The most probable origin of the tsunami is a flank collapse of Piton de la Fournaise volcano,...

  12. Global Quick Scan of the Vulnerability of Groundwater systems to Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert; Faneca Sànchez, Marta; Zamrsky, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Fresh groundwater resources in deltaic areas are used for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. These resources in the coastal zone are threatened by salinization of the aquifers due to global change (increase of groundwater extraction due to population growth), climate change (including sea level rise), as well as natural disasters such as floods and tsunamis. Studies of how the coastal fresh groundwater resources are affected by the latter phenomena are often done a posteriori, especially the studies related to tsunami effects (e.g. the 2003 Sumatra Tsunami). Then it is often too late to take appropriated measures to counteract the negative effects (e.g. on drinking water supply). These complex studies are time consuming, and need data which might not be available at the time of the disaster when a fast reaction of the water authorities is needed, e.g. to facilitate a quick and easy to access fresh water supply system. In our study we present a Global Quick Scan of the vulnerability of the deltaic fresh groundwater resources to tsunamis. We created a global database including the data needed to generate fast and simple models on the salinization of groundwater systems in the coastal zone. These quantifications give water manager a first approximation of the effects that a tsunami would have on the salinization of the fresh groundwater. The data collected in this database has been used to generate a map showing the areas with coastal groundwater systems vulnerable to tsunami effects, as well as a dataset of 500 2D models representing the physical characteristics of the most frequent coastal groundwater systems in tsunami vulnerable areas. These 2D models simulate the loss in fresh groundwater volume of the system and the characteristic time of a system before it recovers 90% of the fresh groundwater that was available previous to the tsunami event. A similar approach could be adopted for assessing the effect of sea level rise and future increased groundwater extractions on vulnerable coastal groundwater systems worldwide.

  13. Development of Parallel Code for the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, B.; Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and other means in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. At the U.S. National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC), the model is mainly used in a pre-computed fashion. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during tsunamis to immediately produce forecasts. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves get closer to coastal waters. Even with the pre-computation the task becomes non-trivial as sub-grid resolution gets finer. Currently, the finest resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) used by ATFM are 1/3 arc-seconds. With a serial code, large or multiple areas of very high resolution can produce run-times that are unrealistic even in a pre-computed approach. One way to increase the model performance is code parallelization used in conjunction with a multi-processor computing environment. NTWC developers have undertaken an ATFM code-parallelization effort to streamline the creation of the pre-computed database of results with the long term aim of tsunami forecasts from source to high resolution shoreline grids in real time. Parallelization will also permit timely regeneration of the forecast model database with new DEMs; and, will make possible future inclusion of new physics such as the non-hydrostatic treatment of tsunami propagation. The purpose of our presentation is to elaborate on the parallelization approach and to show the compute speed increase on various multi-processor systems.

  14. Measuring Possible Tsunami Currents from the April 1, 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile Earthquake in Crescent City, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, A. R.; Crawford, G. B.; Dengler, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Crescent City, California has a long history of damaging tsunamis. Thirty-nine tsunamis have been recorded since 1933, including five that caused damage. Crescent City's harbor and small boat basin are particularly vulnerable to strong currents. Humboldt State University has installed Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADPs) in order to directly measure water pressure fluctuations and currents caused by tsunamis. An instrument in Humboldt Bay, ~100 km south of Crescent City, recorded tsunamis generated by the 2010 Mw 8.7 Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Japan earthquakes and demonstrated the usefulness of ADPs in measuring tsunami currents. In 2013, an ADP was deployed in Crescent City's harbor adjacent to the NOAA tide gauge. On April 1, 2014, a Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred in northern Chile, producing a modest Pacific-wide tsunami and a 16 cm peak amplitude on the Crescent City tide gauge. We analyze the ADP data before and during the expected arrival of the April 2 tsunami to see if a tsunami signal is present. Tidal currents are generally small (5 cm/s or less). For two months before the tsunami, intermittent, high-frequency variability is present in velocity and pressure at periods on the order of 20, 9 and 5 min, which compare favorably to modal periods predicted using some simplified models of open-ended basins. For several hours after the tsunami arrival on April 2, spectral power levels in velocity and pressure around the 20 min period are notably enhanced. These results suggest that: (1) the observed periods of enhanced variability represent the first three modes (n=0, 1 and 2) of free oscillations in the harbor, (2) the dominant period of (non-tidal) oscillations observed during the April 2, 2014 tsunami (~20 min) and during previous tsunamis (e.g., the water level record for the March 11, 2011 tsunami; also ~20 min) represents harbor resonance corresponding to the lowest order mode, and (3) this event is very near the ADP limit of detectability with peak tsunami currents of 5-10 cm/s and higher frequency variability and instrument noise root-mean-squared amplitude of 4-5 cm/s.

  15. Events analysis of the main generator using reliability block diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generator failure events at overseas and Japanese nuclear power plants were analyzed in detail through a reliability block diagram. This analysis not only took note of the total number of component failure and part failures but also focused on age-related degradation phenomena. Components or parts that were found to have failed most frequently included stator cooling system pipes, stator cooling system valves, automatic voltage regulators, and alternating-current exciters. Event reports on these components or parts were reexamined one by one. Because these components or parts have been adequately inspected, it was confirmed that there are no additional maintenance measures that should be reflected in Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. A comparison of the frequency of failures between Japanese and American power plants revealed that Japanese power plants suffered approximately one-tenth of the frequency of failures experienced in American plants, suggesting that higher levels of maintenance work are achieved at Japanese plants. (author)

  16. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

    2010-08-01

    The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

  17. Effects of tsunami magnitude and terrestrial topography on sedimentary processes and distribution of tsunami deposits in flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naofumi; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    To identify and interpret tsunami deposits correctly, a better understanding of the effects of both tsunami magnitude and topographic setting are required. In the present study, laboratory experiments were performed to model these effects on sedimentary processes and the distribution of tsunami deposits on coastal lowlands. The experiments directed tsunamis of eight different magnitudes on to three different models of terrestrial topography: one with flat topography, one with a shallow water-filled pool, and one with a deep water-filled pool. The results suggested a relationship between the distribution of tsunami deposits and the hydraulic condition of the tsunami flow onto the terrestrial topography. In particular, the tsunami deposits in the pools were spatially more variable than those on land because of the variation in flow intensity associated with transformation of the flow from supercritical to subcritical with a hydraulic jump. We observed a gap between the landward extent of deposits and the tsunami inundation distance, particularly in the experiments with a pool. The total amount of sediment in tsunami deposits on the terrestrial area was found to depend on the magnitude of the tsunami, but the thickness of the deposits at any one given spot did not always depend on the tsunami magnitude, even in the same topographic. These results show that terrestrial topography has significant effects on the spatial distribution of tsunami deposits that must be taken into consideration when interpreting the history and magnitude of paleotsunami events from tsunami deposits.

  18. Deflation and Deformation of the Askja Caldera Complex, Iceland, Since 1983: Strain and Stress Development on Caldera Boundaries Prior to Tsunami Generating Rockslide in 2014 at Lake Öskjuvatn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Drouin, V.; Parks, M.; Dumont, S.; Heimisson, E. R.; Hjartardottir, A. R.; Einarsson, P.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Saemundsson, T.; Johannesson, T.; Helgason, J. K.; Sturkell, E. C.; Pedersen, R.; Hooper, A. J.; Spaans, K.; Minet, C.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    The relation between ground deformation and caldera development can be studied at the Askja caldera complex at the divergent plate boundary in Iceland. The Lake Öskjuvatn caldera, 4-5 km wide and about 250 m deep, began forming shortly prior to a major explosive eruption in 1875 and continued to grow rapidly for over 2 decades. The boundaries of the caldera collapse remain unstable. A large rockslide on 21 July 2014 of the order of 30-100 million cubicmeters generated a lake tsunami with run up heights of over 30 m. Geodetic measurements at the volcano since 1983 suggest that instability of the basal plane of failure of the rockslide may have steadily increased as the volcano deflated throughout this period. Deformation (subsidence and horizontal contraction) has been mapped by levelling, distance measurements, GPS and satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) using the ERS, Envisat, Radarsat, TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites. An intermediate digital elevation model has been delivered by the TanDEM-X mission. Initial subsidence rate was up to 7 cm/yr, decaying to 2-3 cm in recent years. A large part of the signal can be reproduced by a model with pressure decrease in a spherical source at 3 km depth, interpreted as a pressure drop in a magma chamber, or subsidence may occur over a structurally weak region in relation to plate spreading. The 2014 rockslide has a basal plane of failure passing through intact rock. A section of the basal plane is exhumed by the slide, revealing impressive striations and slip marks. A simple model, assuming uniform elastic halfspace with a rectangular failure plane extending to the surface, indicates that Coulomb stress on the failure plane or a deeper weakness zone under the rockslide, increased by over 2 MPa since 1983 due to the deflation, exceeding the change often associated with stress triggering of earthquakes. Furthermore, the slide occurred in an area of persistent geothermal and seismic activity. Although gravity, geothermal alteration, topography and climate factors are likely to dictate mostly the 21 July 2014 rockslide, our observations and modelling indicate the rockslide is an integral event in the development of the Öskjuvatn caldera, with deflation of the volcano in recent decades contributing to instability of the caldera boundary and failure on the basal plane of the rockslide.

  19. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    OpenAIRE

    Schöne, T.; W. Pandoe; I. Mudita; Roemer, S.; J. Illigner; Zech, C.; R. Galas

    2011-01-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The s...

  20. Evidence for erosion and deposition by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the nearshore shelf of Sendai Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuro; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sakamoto, Izumi; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fujimaki, Mikio; Imura, Riichirou; Nemoto, Kenji; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2015-08-01

    Ongoing geological research into processes operating on the nearshore continental shelf and beyond is vital to our understanding of modern tsunami-generated sediment transport and deposition. This paper investigates the southern part of Sendai Bay, Japan, by means of high-resolution seismic surveys, vibracoring, bathymetric data assimilation, and radioisotope analysis of a core. For the first time, it was possible to identify an erosional surface in the shallow subsurface, formed by both seafloor erosion and associated offshore-directed sediment transport caused by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. The area of erosion and deposition extends at least 1,100 m offshore from the shoreline down to water depths of 16.7 m. The tsunami-generated sedimentological signature reaches up to 1.2 m below the present seafloor, whereas bathymetric changes due to storm-related reworking over a period of 3 years following the tsunami event have been limited to the upper ~0.3 m, despite the fact that the study area is located on an open shelf facing the Pacific Ocean. Tsunami-generated erosion surfaces may thus be preserved for extended periods of time, and may even enter the rock record, because the depth of tsunami erosion can exceed the depth of storm erosion. This finding is also important for interpretation of modern submarine strata, since erosion surfaces in shallow (depths less than ~1 m) seismic records from open coast shelves have generally been interpreted as storm-generated surfaces or transgressive ravinement surfaces.

  1. COMMENT ON: TSUNAMIS AND TSUNAMI-LIKE WAVES OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES BY PATRICIA A. LOCKRIDGE, LOWELL S. WHITESIDE AND JAMES F. LANDER WITH RESPECT TO THE NOVEMBER 18, 1929 EARTHQUAKE AND ITS TSUNAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Ruffman

    2005-01-01

    This most valuable compilation by Patricia Lockridge et al. (2002) covers a wide range of tsunamis and tsunami-like events ranging from marine tectonic, volcanic, and landslide tsunamis to possible meteorologic tsunami-like events. Lockridge et al.'s (2002) massive text table (pp. 124-141) entitled "Description of Events" covers events from 1668 to 1992. The 2002 paper in Science of Tsunami Hazards was clearly intended to be an update of, an extension to, and a sequel to, the first east coast...

  2. Simulation of space-borne tsunami detection using GNSS-Reflectometry applied to tsunamis in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Stosius

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009, a feasibility study on a future tsunami detection system from space has been carried out. The Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R is an innovative way of using reflected GNSS signals for remote sensing, e.g. sea surface altimetry. In contrast to conventional satellite radar altimetry, multiple height measurements within a wide field of view can be made simultaneously. With a dedicated Low Earth Orbit (LEO constellation of satellites equipped with GNSS-R, densely spaced sea surface height measurements could be established to detect tsunamis. This simulation study compares the Walker and the meshed comb constellation with respect to their global reflection point distribution. The detection performance of various LEO constellation scenarios with GPS, GLONASS and Galileo as signal sources is investigated. The study concentrates on the detection performance for six historic tsunami events in the Indian Ocean generated by earthquakes of different magnitudes, as well as on different constellation types and orbit parameters. The GNSS-R carrier phase is compared with the PARIS or code altimetry approach. The study shows that Walker constellations have a much better reflection point distribution compared to the meshed comb constellation. Considering simulation assumptions and assuming technical feasibility it can be demonstrated that strong tsunamis with magnitudes (M ?8.5 can be detected with certainty from any orbit altitude within 15–25 min by a 48/8 or 81/9 Walker constellation if tsunami waves of 20 cm or higher can be detected by space-borne GNSS-R. The carrier phase approach outperforms the PARIS altimetry approach especially at low orbit altitudes and for a low number of LEO satellites.

  3. ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    ALGERIA’S VULNERABILITY TO TSUNAMIS FROM NEAR-FIELD SEISMIC SOURCES; A. Cisternas; J. -L. Vigneresse; W. Dudley; B. Mc Adoo

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of tsunami damage relative to earthquake damage may help to identify critical coastal zone structures and exposed populations for near field tsunami risk. In this work, we propose to define the ratio between tsunami intensity and earthquake intensity as a measure of near field tsunami vulnerability for coastal communities. This parameter is estimated for 13 tsunami events reported in North Algeria from the 14th century to present. Although the results show that there...

  4. EL TERREMOTO Y POSTERIOR TSUNAMI DEL 26 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2004 EN INDONESIA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BEATRIZ ELENA, ESTRADA ROLDÁN; JOSEF, FARBIARZ FARBIARZ.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A short compilation of the cause, characteristics and effects of the tsunami generated on the 26 of December of 2004 in Indonesia is presented here. The general context of generation of this phenomena is illustrated together with the tectonic environment in which this tsunami in particular was produ [...] ced. Finally, a brief introduction to tsunamis in Colombia including tsunami cases and areas of higher tsunami hazard is considered.

  5. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground-motion measurements were available. Development of a global tsunami-warning system utilizing an expanded network of coastal GPS stations was under consideration at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  6. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Preparedness and Resilience for California's ecosystems, natural resources, and the communities that depend on them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario models a plausible 9.1MP earthquake occuring off the Alaskan coast, that generates a tsunami forecast to strike California between 4-6 hour after the event. California's diverse ecosystems, natural resources, and sensitive species will be significantly affected. Although often overlooked in disaster risk reduction, damage to ecosystems and natural resources during hazards including tsunamis, has often resulted in serious impacts to natural systems and on humans who depend on them. SAFRR tsunami scenario forecasts of wave amplitude, water velocity and inundation and overlain on GIS maps were analyzed to identify plausible impacts on California's ecosystems including beaches, marshes, nearshore subtidal habitats, as well as parks and reserves. The effect on natural resources including fisheries was evaluated. Recovery times and consequences were analyzed. The results illustrate the value and vulnerability of these resources and guidelines for preparation and mitigation are discussed.

  7. Allens Temporal Algebra Used Between Login –Logout Event Generation Probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Murugan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In any system like small or large that normal processes consists of login and logout as a main process .In between that two main process lot of sub process like system wise and user wise will be generated according to user to user or os to os .Let we find the probability of usage with unknown attack solutions. As usual system process are called Internal and induce or connected processes are external.By using allen algebra we can analysis the temporal event. Auditing provides a way for an administrator to detect an attack that has already occurred or is in progress. In addition, auditing can help a developer to debug security-related problems. For example, if an error in the configuration of the authorization or checking policy accidentally denies access to an authorized user, a developer can quickly discover and isolate the cause of this error by examining the event log. Good system and network security starts with a good understanding of an organization’s operating environment. Organizations that have a good understanding of their operating environment and that environment’s limitations and vulnerabilities – should be able to secure their system relatively easily. Maintaining a high level of system security, however, is an on-going process that requires continued vigilance and solid organizational policies and procedures. Pro-active system administrators not only keep their systems patched, but also continuously monitor system and network logs and system resource usage reports for interesting events.

  8. Modern Hardware Architectures for Tsunami Wave Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentiev, M., Jr.; Romanenko, A.; Titov, V.; Vazhenin, A.

    2009-04-01

    Strongest earthquake of December 26, 2004 generated catastrophic tsunami in Indian Ocean. This shows that, in spite of recent technology progress, population at coastal zone is not protected against tsunami hazard. Here, we address the problem of tsunami risks mitigation. Note that prediction of tsunami wave parameters at certain locations should be made as early as possible to provide enough time for evacuation. Therefore, fast tsunami propagation code that can calculate tsunami evolution from estimated model source becomes critical for timely evacuation decision for many coastal communities in case of a strong tsunami. Numerical simulation of tsunami wave is very important task for risk evaluation, assessment and mitigation. Here we discuss a part of MOST [1] (Method of Splitting Tsunami) software package, which has been accepted by the USA National Ocean and Atmosphere Administration as the basic tool to calculate tsunami wave propagation and evaluation of inundation parameters. Our main objectives are speed up the sequential program, and adaptation of this program for shared memory systems (OpenMP) and CELL architecture. For caring out this research we use SMP server and a system build on IBM CELL BE CPU. We perform optimization of the existing parallel and sequential code for the task of tsunami wave propagation modeling as well as an adaptation of this code for systems based on CELL BE processors. We achieve 10 times performance gain for SMP system using OpenMP technology compared to sequential application and about 50 times performance gain for single CELL BE CPU. Thus, we show that significant acceleration for this program is possible. The results also show that non-standard equipment for HPC like Sony PlayStation3 could be used for solving this kind of problems. 1. Chawla, A., J. Borrero and V. Titov, (2008), Evaluating wave propagation and inundation characteristics of the MOST tsunami model over a complex 3D beach, Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering, v. 10, 261-267 (in press).

  9. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-05-01

    HYDJET++ is a Monte Carlo event generator for simulation of relativistic heavy ion AA collisions considered as a superposition of the soft, hydro-type state and the hard state resulting from multi-parton fragmentation. This model is the development and continuation of HYDJET event generator (Lokhtin and Snigirev, EPJC 45 (2006) 211). The main program is written in the object-oriented C++ language under the ROOT environment. The hard part of HYDJET++ is identical to the hard part of Fortran-written HYDJET and it is included in the generator structure as a separate directory. The soft part of HYDJET++ event is the "thermal" hadronic state generated on the chemical and thermal freeze-out hypersurfaces obtained from the parameterization of relativistic hydrodynamics with preset freeze-out conditions. It includes the longitudinal, radial and elliptic flow effects and the decays of hadronic resonances. The corresponding fast Monte Carlo simulation procedure, C++ code FAST MC (Amelin et al., PRC 74 (2006) 064901; PRC 77 (2008) 014903) is adapted to HYDJET++. It is designed for studying the multi-particle production in a wide energy range of heavy ion experimental facilities: from FAIR and NICA to RHIC and LHC. Program summaryProgram title: HYDJET++, version 2 Catalogue identifier: AECR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 100 387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 797 019 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (however there is a Fortran-written part which is included in the generator structure as a separate directory) Computer: Hardware independent (both C++ and Fortran compilers and ROOT environment [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) should be installed) Operating system: Linux (Scientific Linux, Red Hat Enterprise, FEDORA, etc.) RAM: 50 MBytes (determined by ROOT requirements) Classification: 11.2 External routines: ROOT [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) Nature of problem: The experimental and phenomenological study of multi-particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to provide valuable information on the dynamical behavior of strongly-interacting matter in the form of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) [2-4], as predicted by lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Ongoing and future experimental studies in a wide range of heavy ion beam energies require the development of new Monte Carlo (MC) event generators and improvement of existing ones. Especially for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), implying very high parton and hadron multiplicities, one needs fast (but realistic) MC tools for heavy ion event simulations [5-7]. The main advantage of MC technique for the simulation of high-multiplicity hadroproduction is that it allows a visual comparison of theory and data, including if necessary the detailed detector acceptances, responses and resolutions. The realistic MC event generator has to include maximum possible number of observable physical effects, which are important to determine the event topology: from the bulk properties of soft hadroproduction (domain of low transverse momenta p?1 GeV/c) such as collective flows, to hard multi-parton production in hot and dense QCD-matter, which reveals itself in the spectra of high- p particles and hadronic jets. Moreover, the role of hard and semi-hard particle production at LHC can be significant even for the bulk properties of created matter, and hard probes of QGP became clearly observable in various new channels [8-11]. In the majority of the available MC heavy ion event generators, the simultaneous treatment of collective flow effects for soft hadroproduction and hard multi-parton in-medium production (medium-induced partonic rescattering and energy loss, so-called "jet quenching") is lacking. Thus, in order

  10. Event generator comparison for SUSY discovery potential at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start its operation this fall, opening the path to new physics at an initial centre-of-mass energy of 10 TeV. Supersymmetry is a theory which proposes new heavy particles, the bosonic superpartners of the standard model fermions and fermionic superpartners of the standard model bosons. The search for such new particles is a major goal of the LHC. SUSY theories, however, have large parameter spaces, making it difficult to prepare for specific scenarios. While a generic minimal supersymmetric standard model consists of 105 free parameters, constrained model still have 5 free parameters. We must therefore scan these parameter spaces and generate Monte Carlo simulations for many choices thereof. This is done using a generator program, which in the case of ATLAS is Herwig(Isawig) for SUSY studies. In this talk, a comparison of particle-spectra stemming from supersymmetric events generated using Herwig(Isawig) and Pythia will be presented. It will be shown that the cross-sections need not be the same a priori for different generators, and its impact on the SUSY discovery potential with ATLAS will be highlighted. (author)

  11. Numerical modeling of tsunami waves generated by the flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands): Tsunami source and near field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, S. M.; Harris, J. C.; Grilli, S. T.; Fabre, R.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we study waves generated by the potential collapse of the west flank of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV; La Palma, Canary Island, Spain) through numerical simulations performed in two stages: (i) the initial slide motion and resulting free surface elevation are first calculated using a 3D Navier-Stokes model; (ii) generated waves are then input into a 2D (horizontal) Boussinesq model to further simulate propagation to the nearby islands. Unlike in earlier work on CVV, besides a similar extreme slide volume scenario of 450 km3, in our simulations: (i) we consider several slide scenarios featuring different volumes (i.e., 20, 40, 80 km3), which partly result from a geotechnical slope stability analysis; (ii) we use a more accurate bathymetry; and (iii) an incompressible version of a multiple-fluid/material Navier-Stokes model. We find wave trains for each scenario share common features in terms of wave directivity, frequency, and time evolution, but maximum elevations near CVV significantly differ, ranging from 600 to 1200 m (for increasing slide volume). Additionally, our computations show that significant energy transfer from slide to waves only lasts for a short duration (order 200 s), which justifies concentrating our best modeling efforts on the early slide motion phase. The anticipated consequences of such wave trains on La Palma and other Canary Islands are assessed in detail in the paper.

  12. Assessing historical rate changes in global tsunami occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2011-10-01

    The global catalogue of tsunami events is examined to determine if transient variations in tsunami rates are consistent with a Poisson process commonly assumed for tsunami hazard assessments. The primary data analyzed are tsunamis with maximum sizes >1 m. The record of these tsunamis appears to be complete since approximately 1890. A secondary data set of tsunamis >0.1 m is also analyzed that appears to be complete since approximately 1960. Various kernel density estimates used to determine the rate distribution with time indicate a prominent rate change in global tsunamis during the mid-1990s. Less prominent rate changes occur in the early- and mid-20th century. To determine whether these rate fluctuations are anomalous, the distribution of annual event numbers for the tsunami catalogue is compared to Poisson and negative binomial distributions, the latter of which includes the effects of temporal clustering. Compared to a Poisson distribution, the negative binomial distribution model provides a consistent fit to tsunami event numbers for the >1 m data set, but the Poisson null hypothesis cannot be falsified for the shorter duration >0.1 m data set. Temporal clustering of tsunami sources is also indicated by the distribution of interevent times for both data sets. Tsunami event clusters consist only of two to four events, in contrast to protracted sequences of earthquakes that make up foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequences. From past studies of seismicity, it is likely that there is a physical triggering mechanism responsible for events within the tsunami source 'mini-clusters'. In conclusion, prominent transient rate increases in the occurrence of global tsunamis appear to be caused by temporal grouping of geographically distinct mini-clusters, in addition to the random preferential location of global M >7 earthquakes along offshore fault zones.

  13. A revision of the 1783–1784 Calabrian (southern Italy tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graziani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is one of the most tsunamigenic areas in the Mediterranean basin, having experienced during centuries a large number of tsunamis, some of which very destructive. In particular, the most exposed zone here is the Messina Straits separating the coasts of Calabria and Sicily that was the theatre of the strongest Italian events. In 1783–1785 Calabria was shaken by the most violent and persistent seismic crisis occurred in the last 2000 years. Five very strong earthquakes, followed by tsunamis, occurred in a short interval of time (February–March 1783, causing destruction and a lot of victims in a vast region embracing the whole southern Calabria and the Messina area, Sicily. In this study we re-examined these events by taking into account all available historical sources. In particular, we focussed on the 5 and 6 February 1783 tsunamis, that were the most destructive. As regards the 5 February event, we found that it was underestimated and erroneously considered a minor event. On the contrary, the analysis of the sources revealed that in some localities the tsunami effects were quite strong. The 6 February tsunami, the strongest one of the sequence, was due to a huge earthquake-induced rockfall and killed more than 1500 people in the Calabrian village of Scilla. For this event the inundated area and the runup values distribution were estimated. Further, the analysis of the historical sources allowed us to find three new tsunamis that passed previously unnoticed and that occurred during this seismic period. The first one occurred a few hours before the large earthquake of 5 February 1783. The second was generated by a rockfall on 24 March 1783. Finally, the third occurred on 9 January 1784, probably due to a submarine earthquake.

  14. Foam: A general-purpose cellular Monte Carlo event generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadach, S.

    2003-04-01

    A general-purpose, self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) event generator (simulator) Foam is described. The high efficiency of the MC, that is small maximum weight or variance of the MC weight is achieved by means of dividing the integration domain into small cells. The cells can be n-dimensional simplices, hyperrectangles or a Cartesian product of them. The grid of cells, called "foam", is produced in the process of the binary split of the cells. The choice of the next cell to be divided and the position/direction of the division hyperplane is driven by the algorithm which optimizes the ratio of the maximum weight to the average weight or (optionally) the total variance. The algorithm is able to deal, in principle, with an arbitrary pattern of the singularities in the distribution. As any MC generator, Foam can also be used for the MC integration. With the typical personal computer CPU, the program is able to perform adaptive integration/simulation of a relatively small number of dimensions (?16). With the continuing progress in CPU power, this limit will inevitably get shifted to ever higher dimensions. Foam program is aimed (and already tested) as a component of the MC event generators for the high energy physics experiments. A few simple examples of the related applications are presented. Foam code is written in fully object-oriented style, in the C++ language. Two other versions with a slightly limited functionality, are available in the Fortran77 language. The source codes are available from http://jadach.home.cern.ch/jadach/.

  15. Introduction to "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World: Volume II. Tsunamis from 1755 to 2010"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Borrero, José C.

    2013-09-01

    Eighteen papers on past and recent destructive tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Historical and Recent Catastrophic Tsunamis in the World." Three papers discuss deep-sea (DART) and coastal tsunami observations, warning systems and risk management in the Pacific Ocean. Four papers examine the 1755 Lisbon, 1964 Alaska, 2003 Algeria, and 2011 Haiti tsunamis. Four more papers, as well as some papers in Volume I, report on various aspects of the 2010 Chile tsunami. Two papers present some results of field survey and modelling investigation of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia, tsunami. Three papers report on modelling efforts of tsunami generation by earthquake and landslide, and of tsunami propagation. Finally, two papers discuss hazard assessment using a probabilistic approach.

  16. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Colombian Caribbean Coast with a deterministic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero Diaz, L.; Correa, R.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Restrepo L, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    For the Caribbean Sea, we propose six potential tectonic sources of tsunami, defining for each source the worst credible earthquake from the analysis of historical seismicity, tectonics, pasts tsunami, and review of IRIS, PDE, NOAA, and CMT catalogs. The generation and propagation of tsunami waves in the selected sources were simulated with COMCOT 1.7, which is a numerical model that solves the linear and nonlinear long wave equations in finite differences in both Cartesian, and spherical coordinates. The results of the modeling are presented in maps of maximum displacement of the free surface for the Colombian Caribbean coast and the island areas, and they show that the event would produce greater impact is generated in the source of North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), where the first wave train reaches the central Colombian coast in 40 minutes, generating wave heights up to 3.7 m. In San Andrés and Providencia island, tsunami waves reach more than 4.5 m due effects of edge waves caused by interactions between waves and a barrier coral reef around of each island. The results obtained in this work are useful for planning systems and future regional and local warning systems and to identify priority areas to conduct detailed research to the tsunami threat.

  17. TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Kowalik; Tatiana Proshutinsky; Andrey Proshutinsky

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean...

  18. Event generator tunes obtained from underlying event and multiparton scattering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; Mahrous, Ayman; Mohammed, Yasser; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; D